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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia by Edited by Rev. James Wood

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RED SEA, an arm of the Arabian Sea, and stretching in a NW.
direction between the desolate sandy shores of Turkey in Asia and Africa;
is connected with the Gulf of Aden in the SE. by the Strait of
Bab-el-Mandeb, and in the NW. divides into the Gulfs of Suez and Akaba,
between which lies the Sinai Peninsula; the SUEZ CANAL (q. v.)
joins it to the Mediterranean; is 1200 m. long, and averages 180 in
breadth; has a mean depth of 375 fathoms (greatest 1200); receives no
rivers, and owing to the great evaporation its water is very saline; long
coral reefs skirt its shores, and of many islands Jebel Zugur, in the
Farisan Archipelago, and Dahlak are the largest; the dangerous Daedalus
Reef is marked by a lighthouse; as a seaway between Europe and the East
its importance was greatly diminished by the discovery of the Cape route,
but since the opening of the Suez Canal it has much more than regained
its old position; owes its name probably to the deep red tint of the
water often seen among the reefs, due to the presence of microscopic

REDAN, a rampart shaped like the letter V, with its apex toward the

REDDITCH (11), a flourishing town of Worcester, on the Warwick
border, 13 m. SW. of Birmingham, busy with the manufacture of needles,
pins, fish-hooks, &c.

REDEMPTIONISTS, better known as TRINITARIANS (q. v.), a
name bestowed on an order of monks consecrated to the work of redeeming
Christian captives from slavery.

REDESDALE, in Northumberland, the valley of the river Reed, which
rises in the Cheviots and flows SE. through pastoral and in part dreary
moorland till it joins the North Tyne; at the S. end is the field of
OTTERBURN (q. v.).

REDESWIRE, RAID OF THE, a famous Border fight took place in July
1575 at the Cheviot pass which enters Redesdale; through the timely
arrival of the men of Jedburgh the Scots proved victorious; is the
subject of a Border ballad.

REDGAUNTLET, an enthusiastic Jacobite character in Sir Walter
Scott's novel of the name, distinguished by a "horse-shoe vein on his
brow, which would swell up black when he was in anger."

REDGRAVE, RICHARD, painter, born at Pimlico, in London; studied at
the Royal Academy, won his first success in "Gulliver on the Farmer's
Table," became noted for his _genre_ and landscape paintings, held
Government appointments, and published among other works "Reminiscences"
and "A Century of English Painters" (1804-1888).

REDING, ALOYS VON, a Swiss patriot, born in Schwyz; was the bold
defender of Swiss independence against the French, in which he was in the
end defeated (1755-1818).

REDOUBT KALI, a Russian fort on the E. coast of the Black Sea, 10 m.
N. of Poti, the chief place for shipping Circassian girls to Turkey;
captured by the British in 1854.

REDRUTH (10), a town of Cornwall, on a hilly site nearly 10 m. SW.
of Truro, in the midst of a tin and copper mining district.

RED-TAPE, name given to official formality, from the red-tape
employed in tying official documents, whence "red-tapism."

REES, ABRAHAM, compiler of "Rees' Cyclopedia" (45 vols.), born in
Montgomeryshire; became a tutor at Hoxton Academy, and subsequently
ministered in the Unitarian Chapel at Old Jewry for some 40 years

REEVE, name given to magistrates of various classes in early English
times, the most important of whom was the SHIRE-REEVE or sheriff,
who represented the king in his shire; others were BOROUGH-REEVES,

REEVE, CLARA, an English novelist, born, the daughter of a rector,
at Ipswich; the best known of her novels is "The Champion of Virtue,"
afterwards called "The Old English Baron," a work of the school of Mrs.
Radcliffe and of Walpole (1725-1803).

REEVES, JOHN SIMS, distinguished singer, born at Shooter's Hill,
Kent; made his first appearance at the age of 18 as a baritone at
Newcastle, and then as a tenor, and the foremost in England at the time;
performed first in opera and then as a ballad singer at concerts, and
took his farewell of the public on May 11, 1891, though he has frequently
appeared since; _b_. 1822.

REFERENDUM, a practice which prevails in Switzerland of referring
every new legislative measure to the electorate in the several electoral
bodies for their approval before it can become law.

REFORM, the name given in England to successive attempts and
measures towards the due extension of the franchise in the election of
the members of the House of Commons.

REFORMATION, the great event in the history of Europe in the 16th
century, characterised as a revolt of light against darkness, on the
acceptance or the rejection of which has since depended the destiny for
good or evil of the several States composing it, the challenge to each of
them being the crucial one, whether they deserved and were fated to
continue or perish, and the crucial character of which is visible to-day
in the actual conditions of the nations as they said "nay" to it or
"yea," the challenge to each at bottom being, is there any truth in you
or is there none? Austria, according to Carlyle, henceforth "preferring
steady darkness to uncertain new light"; Spain, "people stumbling in
steep places in the darkness of midnight"; Italy, "shrugging its
shoulders and preferring going into Dilettantism and the Fine Arts"; and
France, "with accounts run up on compound interest," had to answer the
"writ of summons" with an all too indiscriminate "Protestantism" of its


REFORMATORIES, schools for the education and reformation of
convicted juvenile criminals (under 16). Under an order of court
offenders may be placed in one of these institutions for from 2 to 5
years after serving a short period of imprisonment. They are supported by
the State, the local authorities, and by private subscriptions and sums
exacted from parents and guardians. Rules and regulations are supervised
by the State. The first one was established in 1838. There are now 62 in
Great Britain and Ireland; but the numbers admitted are diminishing at a
remarkable rate.

REFORMED CHURCH, the Churches in Switzerland, Holland, Scotland, and
elsewhere under Calvin or Zwingle, or both, separated from the Lutheran
on matter of both doctrine and policy, and especially in regard to the
doctrine of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

REFRACTION. Light travels in straight lines; but when a ray
travelling through one medium passes obliquely into another of either
greater or less density it is bent at the point of incidence. This
bending or breaking is called refraction. The apparent bend in a stick
set sloping in a sheet of water is due to this phenomenon, as are also
many mirages and other optical illusions.

REGALIA, the symbols of royalty, and more particularly those used at
a coronation. The English regalia include the crown, the sceptre with the
cross, the verge or rod with the dove, St. Edward's staff (in reality
dating from Charles II.'s coronation), the orbs of king and queen, the
sword of mercy called Curtana, the two swords of spiritual and temporal
justice, the ring of alliance with the nation, bracelets, spurs,
vestments, &c. These are to be seen in the Tower of London, and are
valued at L3,000,000. The regalia of Scotland consist of the crown, the
sceptre, and sword of State, and are on exhibition in the Crown-room in
Edinburgh Castle.

REGENERATION, THE, "new or second birth" required of Christ before
any one can become a member of His kingdom, and which, when achieved, is
a resolute and irreversible No to the spirit of the world, and a no less
resolute and irreversible Yea to the spirit of Christ, the No being as
essential to it as the Yea. For as in the philosophy of Hegel, so in the
religion of Christ, the negative principle is the creative or the
determinative principle. Christianity begins in No, subsists in No, and
survives in No to the spirit of the world; this it at first peremptorily
spurns, and then disregards as of no account, what things were _gain_ in
it becoming _loss_. A stern requirement, but, as Carlyle says, and knew,
one is not born the second time any more than the first without sore

REGENERATION, BAPTISMAL, the doctrine that the power of spiritual
life, forfeited by the Fall, is restored to the soul in the sacrament of
baptism duly administered.


REGGIO (24), an Italian seaport; capital of a province of the same
name; occupies a charming site on the Strait of Messina; built on the
ruins of ancient Rhegium; is the seat of an archbishop; manufactures
silks, gloves, hose, &c.

REGICIDES, murderers of a king, but specially applied to the 67
members of the court who tried and condemned Charles I. of England,
amongst whom were Cromwell, Bradshaw, Ireton, and others, of whom 10
living at the time of the Restoration were executed, and 25 others
imprisoned for life.

REGILLUS, LAKE, celebrated in ancient Roman history as the scene of
a great Roman victory over the Latins in 496 B.C.; site probably near
the modern town of Frascati.

REGINA, ST., a virgin martyr of the 3rd century, usually depicted as
undergoing the torments of martyrdom, or receiving spiritual consolation
in prison by a beautiful vision of a dove on a luminous cross.

REGIOMONTANUS, name adopted by Johann Mueller, a celebrated German
astronomer and mathematician, born at Koenigsberg, in Franconia; appointed
professor of Astronomy in Vienna (1461); sojourned in Italy; settled in
Nueremberg, where much of his best work was done; assisted Pope Sixtus IV.
in reforming the Calendar; was made Bishop of Ratisbon; died at Rome; was
regarded as the most learned astronomer of the time in Europe, and his
works were of great value to Columbus and other early navigators

REGISTRAR-GENERAL, an official appointed to superintend
registration, specially of births, deaths, and marriages.

REGIUM DONUM, an annual grant formerly voted by Parliament to
augment the stipends of the Presbyterian clergy in Ireland, discontinued
from 1869.

REGNARD, JEAN FRANCOIS, comic dramatist, born in Paris; inherited a
fortune, which he increased by gambling; took to travelling, and was at
22 captured by an Algerine pirate, and when ransomed continued to travel;
on his return to Paris wrote comedies, twenty-three in number, the best
of them being "Le Joueur" and "Le Legataire," following closely in the
steps of Moliere; he was admired by Boileau (1656-1710).

REGNAULT, HENRI, French painter, born in Paris; son of following; a
genius of great power and promise, of which several remarkable works by
him are proof; volunteered in the Franco-German War, and fell at Buzenval

REGNAULT, HENRI VICTOR, a noted French physicist, born at
Aix-la-Chapelle; from being a Paris shopman he rose to a professorship in
Lyons; important discoveries in organic chemistry won him election to the
Academy of Sciences in 1840; lectured in the "College de France and the
Ecole Polytechnique;" became director of the imperial porcelain
manufactory of Sevres; did notable work in physics and chemistry, and was
awarded medals by the Royal Society of London (1810-1878).

REGNIER, MATHURIN, French poet, born at Chartres; led when young a
life of dissipation; ranks high as a poet, but is most distinguished in
satire, which is instinct with verve and vigour (1572-1613).

REGULARS, in the Romish Church a member of any religious order who
has taken the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

REGULUS, a Roman of the Romans; was twice over Consul, in 267 and
256 B.C.; defeated the Carthaginians, both by sea and land, but was at
last taken prisoner; being sent, after five years' captivity, on parole
to Rome with proposals of peace, dissuaded the Senate from accepting the
terms, and despite the entreaties of his wife and children and friends
returned to Carthage according to his promise, where he was subjected to
the most excruciating tortures.

REGULUS, ST., or ST. RULE, a monk of the East who, in the 4th
century, it is said, came to Scotland with the bones of St. Andrew, and
deposited them at St. Andrews.

REHAN, ADA, actress, born in Limerick; made her _debut_ at 16 in
Albany, New York; came to London in 1884, and again in 1893; plays
Rosalind in "As You Like It," Lady Teazle in "School for Scandal," and
Maid Marian in the "Foresters," and numerous other parts; _b_. 1859.

REHOBOAM, the king of the Jews on whose accession at the death of
Solomon, in 976 B.C., the ten tribes of Israel seceded from the kingdom
of Judah.

REICH, THE, the old German Empire.

REICHENBACH, KARL, BARON VON, expert in the industrial arts,
particularly in chemical manufacture; he was a zealous student of animal
magnetism, and the discoverer of Od (1788-1869).

REICHENBERG (31), a town in North Bohemia, on the Neisse, 86 m. NE.
of Prague; chief seat of the Bohemian cloth manufacture.

REICHENHALL (4), a popular German health resort, in South-East
Bavaria, 10 m. SW. of Salzburg; is charmingly situated amidst Alpine
scenery, and has a number of mineral springs; is the centre of the great
Bavarian salt-works.

REICHSRATH, the Parliament of the Austrian Empire.

REICHSTADT, DUKE OF, the son and successor of Napoleon as Napoleon
II.; died at Vienna in 1832.

REICHSTAG, the German Imperial Legislature, representative of the
German nation, and which consists of 397 members, elected by universal
suffrage and ballot for a term of five years.

REID, SIR GEORGE, a distinguished portrait-painter, born in
Aberdeen; his portraits are true to the life, and are not surpassed by
those of any other living artist; _b_. 1841.

REID, RIGHT HON. G. H., Premier of Australia, born at Johnstone,
Renfrewshire; emigrated with his parents in 1852; adopted law as his
profession; became Minister of Education in 1883; became Premier of
N.S.W. in 1894; is a great Free Trader, and visited England for the Jubilee
in 1897; Prime Minister of the Australian Commonwealth, 1904; _b_. 1845.

REID, CAPTAIN MAYNE, novelist, born in Co. Down; led a life of
adventure in America, and served in the Mexican War, but settled
afterwards in England to literary work, and wrote a succession of tales
of adventure (1819-1883).

REID, THOMAS, Scottish philosopher, and chief of the Scottish
school, born in Kincardineshire, and bred for the Scotch Church, in which
he held office as a clergyman for a time; was roused to philosophical
speculation by the appearance in 1730 of David Hume's "Treatise on Human
Nature," and became professor of Philosophy in Aberdeen in 1752, and in
Glasgow in 1763, where the year after he published his "Inquiry into the
Human Mind," which was followed in course of time by his "Philosophy of
the Intellectual and Active Powers"; his philosophy was a protest against
the scepticism of Hume, founded on the idealism of Berkeley, by appeal to
the "common-sense" of mankind, which admits of nothing intermediate
between the perceptions of the mind and the reality of things

REID, SIR WEMYSS, journalist and man of letters, born in
Newcastle-on-Tyne; editor of the _Leeds Mercury_ (1870-86), and of the
_Speaker_ since 1890; has written novels and biographies; is President of
the Institute of Journalists, and was knighted in 1894; _b_. 1842.

REID, SIR WILLIAM, soldier and scientist; served in the Royal
Engineers with distinction under Wellington; became Governor successively
of Bermudas, Barbadoes, and Malta, and was the author of a scientific
work on "The Law of Storms" (1791-1858).

REIGATE (23), a flourishing market-town in Surrey, 21 m. S. of
London; is a busy railway centre; has interesting historic ruins; an old
church, among others containing the grave of Lord Howard of Effingham.

REIGN OF A HUNDRED DAYS, the period during which Napoleon reigned in
Paris from his return from Elba in the beginning of March till he left on
the 12th June 1815 to meet the Allies in the Netherlands.

REIGN OF TERROR, the name given to the bloody consummation of the
fiery French Revolution, including a period which lasted 420 days, from
the fall of the Girondists on the 31st May 1793 to the overthrow of
Robespierre and his accomplices on 27th July 1794, the actors in which at
length, seeing nothing but "Terror" ahead, had in their despair said to
themselves, "Be it so. _Que la Terreur soit a l'ordre du jour_ (having
sown the wind, come let us reap the whirlwind). One of the frightfulest
things ever born of Time. So many as four thousand guillotined,
fusilladed, noyaded, done to dire death, of whom nine hundred were

REIMARUS, a philosopher of the _AUFKLAeRUNG_ (q. v.), born
at Hamburg; author of the "Wolfenbuettel Fragments," published by Lessing
in 1777, and written to disprove the arguments for the historical truth
of the Bible, and in the interest of pure deism and natural religion

REIS EFFENDI, one of the chief Ministers of State in Turkey, who is
Lord Chancellor, and holds the bureau of foreign affairs.

REITERS, the cavalry of the German Empire in the 14th and 15th

RELATIVITY OF KNOWLEDGE, the doctrine that all knowledge is of
things as they appear to us and not of things as they are in themselves,
is subjective and not objective, is phenomenal and not noumenal.

RELIEF, prominence of a sculpture from a plain surface; works in
relief are of three kinds: _alto-relievo_, high relief; _mezzo-relievo_,
medium relief; _basso-relievo_, low relief.

RELIGIO MEDICI, a celebrated work of Sir Thomas Browne's,
characterised as a "confession of intelligent, orthodox, and logical
supernaturalism couched in some of the most exquisite English ever

RELIGION, a sense, affecting the whole character and life, of
dependence on, reverence for, and responsibility to a Higher Power; or a
mode of thinking, feeling, and acting which respects, trusts in, and
strives after God, and determines a man's duty and destiny in this
universe, or "the manner in which a man feels himself to be spiritually
related to the unseen world."

RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY, society founded in 1799 for the circulation
of religious works in home and foreign parts, has published in 220
languages, and is conducted by an annually elected body, consisting of
four ministers and eight laymen in London.

RELIQUARY, name given to a portable shrine or case for relics of
saints or martyrs; they assumed many forms, and were often rich in
material and of exquisite design.

REMBRANDT or VAN REJN, a celebrated Dutch historical and
portrait painter as well as etcher, born at Leyden, where he began to
practise as an etcher; removed in 1630 to Amsterdam, where he spent the
rest of his life and acquired a large fortune, but lost it in 1656 after
the death of his first wife, and sank into poverty and obscurity; he was
a master of all that pertains to colouring and the distribution of light
and shade (1608-1669).

REMIGIUS, ST., bishop and confessor of the 6th century, represented
as carrying or receiving a vessel of holy oil, or as anointing Clovis,
who kneels before him.

REMINGTON, PHILO, inventor of the Remington breech-loading rifle,
born at Litchfield, in New York State; 25 years manager of the mechanical
department in his father's small-arms factory; Remington type-writer also
the outcome of his inventive skill; retired in 1886; _b_. 1816.

REMONSTRANCE, THE, the name given to a list of abuses of royal power
laid to the charge of Charles I. and drawn up by the House of Commons in
1641, and which with the petition that accompanied it contributed to
bring matters to a crisis.

REMONSTRANTS, a name given to the Dutch Arminians who presented to
the States-General of Holland a protest against the Calvinist doctrine
propounded by the Synod of Dort in 1610.

REMUS, the twin-brother of Romulus, and who was slain by him because
he showed his scorn of the city his brother was founding by leaping over
the wall.

REMUSAT, ABEL, Orientalist, born in Paris; studied and qualified in
medicine, but early devoted himself to the study of Chinese literature
and in 1814 became professor of Chinese in the College of France; wrote
on the language, the topography, and history of China, and founded the
Asiastic Society of Paris (1788-1832).

REMUSAT, CHARLES, COMTE DE, French politician and man of letters,
born in Paris; was a Liberal in politics; drew up a protest against the
ordinances of Polignac, which precipitated the revolution of July; was
Minister of the Interior under Thiers, was exiled after the _coup
d'etat_, and gave himself mainly to philosophical studies thereafter

RENAISSANCE, the name given to the revolution in literature and art
in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, caused by the revival of
the study of ancient models in the literature and art of Greece and Rome,
especially the former, and to the awakening in the cultured classes of
the free and broad humanity that inspired them, an epoch which marks the
transition from the rigid formality of mediaeval to the enlightened
freedom of modern times.

RENAIX (17), a busy manufacturing town in East Flanders, Belgium, 22
m. SW. of Ghent; has large cotton and linen factories, breweries, and

RENAN, ERNEST, Orientalist and Biblical scholar, born in Brittany,
son of a sailor, who, dying, left him to the care of his mother and
sister, to both of whom he was warmly attached; destined for the Church,
he entered the seminary of St. Sulpice, where his studies threw him out
of the relation with the Church and obliged him to abandon all thoughts
of the clerical profession; accomplished in Hebrew, he was appointed
professor of that language in the College of France in 1861, though not
installed till 1870, and made a member of the French Academy in 1878;
having distinguished himself by his studies in the Semitic languages, and
in a succession of essays on various subjects of high literary merit, he
in 1863 achieved a European reputation by the publication of his "Vie de
Jesus," the first of a series bearing upon the origin of Christianity and
the agencies that contributed to its rise and development; he wrote other
works bearing more immediately on modern life and its destiny, but it is
in connection with his views of Christ and Christianity that his name
will be remembered; he entertained at last an overweening faith in
science and scientific experts, and looked to the latter as the elect of
the earth for the redemption of humanity (1823-1893).

RENDSBURG (12), a fortified town in Schleswig-Holstein, on the North
Sea and Baltic Canal, 19 m. W. of Kiel; manufactures cotton, chemicals,
brandy &c.

RENE I., titular king of Naples, born at Angers, son of Louis II.,
Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence; on the death of his father-in-law,
Duke of Lorraine, he in 1431 claimed the dukedom; was defeated and
imprisoned; bought his liberty and the dukedom in 1437, in which year he
also made an ineffectual attempt to make good his claim to the throne of
Naples and Sicily; settled down in Provence and devoted himself to
literature and art and to developing the country (1409-1480).

RENFREW (7), a royal burgh and county-town of Renfrewshire, situated
on the Clyde, 6 m. below Glasgow; dates back to the 12th century as a
burgh; industries include thread, cotton cloths, shawl factories, and

RENFREWSHIRE (291), a south-western county of Scotland; faces the
Firth of Clyde on the W., between Ayr on the S. and SW., and the river
Clyde on the N.; bordered on the E. by Lanark; hilly on the W. and S.,
flat on the E.; is watered by the Gryfe, the Black Cart, and the White
Cart; dairy-farming is carried on in extensive scale, stimulated by the
proximity of Glasgow; nearly two-thirds of the county is under
cultivation; coal and iron are mined, and in various parts the
manufacture of thread, cotton, chemicals, shipbuilding, &c., is actively
engaged in.

RENNELL, JAMES, geographer, born near Chudleigh, Devonshire; passed
from the navy to the military service of the East India Company; became
surveyor-general of Bengal; retired in 1782; author of many works on the
topography of India, hydrography, &c.; the "Geographical System of
Herodotus Examined and Explained" is his most noted work (1742-1830).

RENNES (65), a prosperous town in Brittany, capital of the
department of Ille-et-Vilaine, situated at the junction of the Ille and
the Vilaine; consists of a high and low town, separated by the river
Vilaine, mostly rebuilt since the disastrous fire in 1720; has handsome
buildings, a cathedral, &c.; is the seat of an archbishop, a military
centre, and manufactures sail-cloth, linen, shoes, hats, &c.; where the
court-martial was held which condemned Captain Dreyfus on a second trial
in 1899.

RENNIE, JOHN, civil engineer, born in East Linton, East Lothian;
employed by the firm of Messrs. Boulton & Watt at Soho, Birmingham, and
entrusted by them to direct in the construction of the Albion Mills,
London, he became at once famous for his engineering ability, and was in
general request for other works, such as the construction of docks,
canals, and bridges, distinguishing himself most in connection with the
latter, of which Waterloo, Southwark, and London over the Thames, are
perhaps the finest (1761-1821).

RENTE, name given to the French funds, or income derivable from

RENTON (5), a town in Dumbartonshire, on the Leven, 2 m. N. of
Dumbarton; engaged in calico-printing, dyeing, &c.; has a monument in
memory of Tobias Smollett, who was born in the neighbourhood.

RENWICK, JAMES, Scottish martyr, born at Moniaive, Dumfriesshire;
educated at Edinburgh University, but was refused his degree for
declining to take the oath of allegiance; completed his studies in
Holland, and in 1683 was ordained at Groeningen; came to Scotland; was
outlawed in 1684 for his "Apologetic Declaration"; refused to recognise
James II. as king; was captured after many escapes, and executed at
Edinburgh, the last of the martyrs of the Covenant (1662-1688).

REPEALER, an advocate of the repeal of the Union of Great Britain
and Ireland.

REPLICA, is properly the copy of an original picture done by the
hand of the same master.

REPOUSSE, a name applied to a style of raised ornamentation in metal
obtained by beating out from behind a convex design, which is then chased
in front; was known to the Greeks, and carried to a high pitch of
perfection by Benvenuto Cellini in the 16th century; has been
successfully revived, especially in France, in this century.

REPTON (2), a village of Derbyshire, 61/2 m. SW. of Derby, dates back
to the 7th century, and is associated with the establishment of
Christianity in England; has a fine Public school, founded in 1556.

REPUBLIC, the name given to a State in which the sovereign power is
vested in one or more elected by the community, and held answerable to it
though in point of fact, both in Rome and the Republic of Venice the
community was not free to elect any one outside of a privileged order.

REPUBLICANS, THE, the name given latterly in the United States to
the party opposed to the Democrats (q. v.) and in favour of federalism.

REQUIEM, a mass set to music, sung for the repose of the soul of a
dead person.

REREDOS, the name given to the decorated portion of the wall or
screen behind and rising above a church altar; as a rule it is richly
ornamented with niches and figures, and stands out from the east wall of
the church, but not unfrequently it is joined to the wall; splendid
examples exist at All Souls' College, Oxford, Durham Cathedral, St.
Albans, &c.

RESINA (14), a town of South Italy, looks out upon the sea from the
base of Vesuvius, 4 m. SE. of Naples, built on the site of ancient
Herculaneum; manufactures wine and silk.

RESPONSIONS, the first of the three examinations for a degree at
Oxford University, or the Little Go.

RESSAIDAR, in India, a native cavalry officer in command of a
Ressalah, or a squadron of native cavalry.

RESTORATION, THE, the name given in English history to the
re-establishment of monarchy and the return of Charles II. to the throne,
29th May 1660, after the fall of the Commonwealth.

RESTORATIONISTS, name of a sect in America holding the belief that
man will finally recover his original state of purity.

RESURRECTIONIST, one who stealthily exhumed bodies from the grave
and sold them for anatomical purposes.

RETFORD, EAST (11), market-town of Nottinghamshire, on the Idle, 24
m. E. by S. of Sheffield; has foundries, paper and flour mills, &c.

RETINA, a retiform expansion of the sensatory nerves, which receives
the impression that gives rise to vision, or visual perception.

RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE, justice which rewards good deeds, and inflicts
punishment on offenders.

RETZ, CARDINAL DE, born at Montmirail, of Italian descent, and much
given to intrigue, obtained the coadjutorship of the archbishopric of
Paris, plotted against Mazarin, played an important part in the troubles
of the Fronde, and was in 1652 thrown into prison, from which he escaped;
he left "Memoirs" which are valuable as a record of the times, though the
readers are puzzled to construe from them the character of the author

RETZ, GILLES DE, marshal of France, born in Brittany; distinguished
himself under Charles VII. against the English; was condemned to be
burned alive at Nantes in 1440 for his unnatural crimes and his

RETZCH, MORITZ, painter and engraver, born at Dresden, where he
became a professor of Painting; is famous for his etchings illustrative
of Goethe's "Faust," of certain of Shakespeare's plays, as well as of
Fouque's "Tales"; the "Chess-Players" and "Man _versus_ Satan," which is
considered his masterpiece (1779-1857).

REUCHLIN, JOHANN, a learned German humanist, born in the Black
Forest, devoted himself to the study of Greek and Hebrew, and did much to
promote the study of both in Germany, and wrote "Rudiments of the Hebrew
Language"; though he did not attach himself to the Reformers, he
contributed by his works and labours to advance the cause of the
Reformation; his special enemies were the Dominicans, but he was backed
up against them by all the scholars of Germany (1455-1522).

REUNION (formerly Ile de Bourbon) (166), mostly Creoles, a French
island in the Indian Ocean, 358 m. E. of Madagascar, 38 m. by 28; a
volcanic range intersects the island; the scenery is fine; streams
plentiful, but small; one-third of the land is uncultivated, and grows
fruits, sugar (chief export), coffee, spices, &c. St. Denis (33), on the
N. coast, is the capital; has been a French possession since 1649.

REUSS, name of two German principalities stretching between Bavaria
on the S. and Prussia on the N.; they belong to the elder and younger
branches of the Reuss family. The former is called Reuss-Greiz (63), the
latter Reuss-Schleiz-Gera (120); both are hilly, well wooded, and well
watered; farming and textile manufacturing are carried on. Both are
represented in the Reichstag; the executive is in the hands of the
hereditary princes, and the legislative powers are vested in popularly
elected assemblies.

REUTER, FRITZ, a German humourist, born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin;
when a student at Jena took part in a movement among the students in
behalf of German unity; was arrested and condemned, after commutation of
sentence of death, to thirty years' imprisonment, but was released, after
seven of them, in broken health; and after eleven more took to writing a
succession of humorous poems in Low German, which placed him in the front
rank of the humourists of Germany (1810-1874).

REUTER, BARON PAUL JULIUS, the organiser of the conveyance of news
by telegraph, born at Cassel; commenced with Berlin for centre in 1851;
transferred his head-quarters to London, and now the "system," which is
in the hands of a limited liability company, has connections with even
the remotest corner of the globe; _b_. 1818.

REUTLINGEN (19), a picturesque old town in Wuertemberg, on the
Echatz, 20 m. S. of Stuttgart; formerly one of the free imperial cities
of the Swabian League; has a splendid Gothic church; manufactures cloth,
cutlery, leather, woollen and cotton yarns, &c.

REVEL or REVAL (52), capital of the government of Esthonia, in
Russia, is a flourishing seaport on the S. side of the Gulf of Finland,
232 m. W. of St. Petersburg; has a castle, fortifications, cathedral,
mediaeval antiquities, &c.; chiefly engaged in commerce; exports largely
oats and other cereals, spirits, flax, &c.

REVELATION, name properly applicable to the knowledge of God, or of
divine things, imparted to the mind of man, by the operation of the
Divine Spirit in the human soul, and as apprehended by it.

REVELATION, BOOK OF, or THE APOCALYPSE, the book that winds up
the accepted canon of Holy Scripture, of the fulfilment of the prophecies
of which there are three systems of interpretation: the Praeteritist,
which regards them all as fulfilled; the Historical, which regards them
as all along fulfilling; and the Futurist, which regards them as still
all to be fulfilled. The first is the one which finds favour among modern
critics, and which regards it as a forecast of the struggle then
impending between the Church under the headship of Christ and the civil
power under the emperor of Rome, though this view need not be accepted as
excluding the second theory, which regards it as a forecast of the
struggle of the Church with the world till the cup of the world's
iniquity is full and the day of its doom is come. The book appears to
have been written on the occurrence of some fierce persecution at the
hands of the civil power, and its object to confirm and strengthen the
Church in her faith and patience by a series of visions, culminating in
one of the Lamb seated on the throne of the universe as a pledge that all
His slain ones would one day share in His glory.

REVELS, MASTER OF THE, also called LORD OF MISRULE, in olden
times an official attached to royal and noble households to superintend
the amusements, especially at Christmas time; he was a permanent officer
at the English court from Henry VIII.'s reign till George III.'s, but
during the 18th century the office was a merely nominal one.

REVERBERATORY FURNACE, a furnace with a domed roof, from which the
flames of the fire are reflected upon the vessel placed within.

REVERE, PAUL, American patriot, born in Boston, U.S., bred a
goldsmith; conspicuous for his zeal against the mother-country, and one
of the first actors in the revolt (1735-1818).

REVEREND, a title of respect given to the clergy, Very Reverend to
deans, Right Reverend to bishops, and Most Reverend to archbishops.

REVILLE, ALBERT, a distinguished French Protestant theologian, born
at Dieppe; was from 1851 to 1872 pastor at Rotterdam, in 1880 became
professor of the History of Religions in the College of France, and six
years later was made President of the Section des Etudes Religieuses at
the Sorbonne, Paris; has been a prolific writer on such subjects as "The
Native Religions of Mexico and Peru" (Hibbert Lectures for 1884),
"Religions of Non-civilised Peoples," "The Chinese Religion," &c.; _b_.

REVIVAL OF LETTERS, revival in Europe in the 15th century of the
study of classical, especially Greek, literature, chiefly by the arrival
in Italy of certain learned Greeks, fugitives from Constantinople on its
capture by the Turks in 1453, and promoted, by the invention of printing,
to the gradual extinction of the dry, barren scholasticism previously in

REVIVAL OF RELIGION, a reawakening of the religious consciousness
after a period of spiritual dormancy, ascribed by many to a special
outpouring of the Spirit in answer to prayer, and in connection with
evangelical preaching.

REVOLUTION, a sudden change for most part in the constitution of a
country in consequence of internal revolt, particularly when a monarchy
is superseded by a republic, as in France in 1789, in 1848, and 1870,
that in 1830 being merely from one branch of the Bourbon family to
another, such as that also in England in 1658. The French Revolution of
1798 is the revolution by pre-eminence, and the years 1848-49 were years
of revolutions in Europe.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES, a celebrated French review, devoted to
literature, science, art, politics, &c., established in 1829, and
conducted afterwards by Buloz.

REYBAUD, MARIE ROCH LOUIS, a versatile litterateur and politician,
born at Marseilles; travelled in India, established himself as a Radical
journalist in Paris in 1829, and edited important works of travel, wrote
popular novels, published important studies in social science; elected a
member of the Academy of Moral Sciences (1850); was an active politcian,
investigated for government the agricultural colonies in Algeria; author
of "Scenes in Modern Life," "Industry in Europe," &c. (1799-1879).

REYKJAVIK (i. e. reeky town), (3), capital of Iceland, situated in
a barren misty region on the SW. coast, practically a village of some 100
wooden houses; has a brick cathedral, and is the see of a bishop.

REYNARD THE FOX, an epic of the Middle Ages, in which animals
represent men, "full of broad rustic mirth, inexhaustible in comic
devices, a world Saturnalia, where wolves tonsured into monks and nigh
starved by short commons, foxes pilgrimaging to Rome for absolution,
cocks pleading at the judgment-bar, make strange mummery." The principal
characters are Isengrim the wolf and Reynard the fox, the former
representing strength incarnated in the baron and the latter representing
cunning incarnated in the Church, and the strife for ascendency between
the two one in which, though frequently hard pressed, the latter gets the
advantage in the end.

REYNOLDS, JOHN FULTON, an American general, born at Lancaster,
Pennsylvania; graduated at 21 at West Point, entered the army,
distinguished himself during the Civil War, especially at the second
battle of Bull Run; was killed at the battle of Gettysburg (1820-1863).

REYNOLDS, SIR JOSHUA, the chief of English portrait-painters, born
near Plymouth; went to London in 1740 to study art, and remained three
years; visited Italy and the great centres of art there, when he lost his
hearing, and settled in London in 1752, where he began to paint
portraits, and had as the subjects of his art the most distinguished
people, "filled England with the ghosts of her noble squires and dames";
numbered among his friends all the literary notabilities of the day; he
was the first President of the Royal Academy, and though it was no part
of his duty, delivered a succession of discourses to the students on the
principles and practice of painting, 15 of which have been published, and
are still held in high esteem (1723-1792).

RHABDOMANCY, a species of divination by means of a hazel rod to
trace the presence of minerals or metals under ground.

RHADAMANTHUS, in the Greek mythology a son of Zeus and Europa, and a
brother of MINOS (q. v.), was distinguished among men for his
strict justice, and was after his death appointed one of the Judges of
the dead in the nether world along with AEacus and Minos.

RHAPSODISTS, a class of minstrels who in early times wandered over
the Greek cities reciting the poems of Homer, and through whom they
became widely known, and came to be translated with such completeness to

RHEA, in the Greek mythology a goddess, the daughter of Uranus and
Gaia, the wife of Kronos, and mother of the chief Olympian deities, Zeus,
Pluto, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia, and identified by the Greeks
of Asia Minor with the great earth goddess Cybele, and whose worship as
such, like that of all the other earth deities, was accompanied with wild

RHEA SILVIA, a vestal virgin, the mother of Romulus and Remus,
twins, whom she bore to Mars, the god of war, who had violated her.

RHEIMS (104), an important French city in the department of Marne,
on the Vesle, 100 m. NE. of Paris; as the former ecclesiastical
metropolis of France it has historical associations of peculiar interest;
the French monarchs were crowned in the cathedral (a Gothic structure of
unique beauty) from 1179 to 1825; has a beautiful 12th-century Romanesque
church, an archiepiscopal palace, a Roman triumphal arch, a Lycee,
statues, &c.; situated in a rich wine district, it is one of the chief
champagne entrepots, and is also one of the main centres of French
textiles, especially woollen goods; is strongly fortified.

RHEINGAU, a fruitful wine district in the Rhine Valley, stretching
along the right bank of the river in Hesse-Nassau; has a sunny, sheltered
situation, and its wines are famed for their quality.

RHENISH PRUSSIA (4,710), the most westerly and most densely
populated of the Prussian provinces, lies within the valleys of the Rhine
and the Lower Moselle, and borders on Belgium and the Netherlands; is
mountainous and forest-clad, except in the fertile plains of the N. and
in the rich river valleys, where vines, cereals, and vegetables are
extensively cultivated; large quantities of coal, iron, zinc, and lead
are mined; as an industrial and manufacturing province it ranks first in
Germany. Coblenz (capital), Aix-la-Chapelle, Bonn, and Cologne are among
its chief towns; was formed in 1815 out of several smaller duchies.

RHEOCHORD, a wire to measure the resistance or variability of an
electric current.

RHEOMETRY, measurement of the force or the velocity of an electric

RHESUS, a monkey held sacred in several parts of India.

RHETORIC, the science or art of persuasive or effective speech,
written as well as spoken, and that both in theory and practice was
cultivated to great perfection among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and
to some extent in the Middle Ages and later, but is much less cultivated
either as a science or an art to-day.

RHINE, one of the chief rivers of Europe; of several small Alpine
head-streams, the Nearer and the Farther Rhine are the two principal,
issuing from the eastern flanks of Mount St Gothard; a junction is formed
at Reichenau, whence the united stream--the Upper Rhine--flows N. to Lake
Constance, and issuing from the NW. corner curves westward to Basel,
forming the boundary between Switzerland and Germany. From Basel, as the
Middle Rhine, it pursues a northerly course to Mainz, turns sharply to
the W. as far as Bingen, and again resumes its northward course. The
Rhine-Highland between Bingen and Bonn is the most romantic and
picturesque part of its course. As the Lower Rhine it flows in a
sluggish, winding stream through the Rhenish Lowlands, enters Holland
near Cleves, at Nimeguen bends to the W., and flowing through Holland
some 100 m. reaches the German Ocean, splitting in its lowest part into
several streams which form a rich delta, one-third of Holland. It is 800
m. in length; receives numerous affluents, _e. g_. Neckar, Main, Moselle,
Lippe; is navigable for ships to Mannheim.

RHINOPLASTIC OPERATION, an operation of repairing destroyed portions
of the nose by skin from adjoining parts.

RHODE ISLAND (346), the smallest but most densely populated of the
United States, and one of the original 13; faces the Atlantic between
Connecticut (W.) and Massachusetts (N. and E.); is split into two
portions by Narragansett Bay (30 m. long); hilly in the N., but elsewhere
level; enjoys a mild and equable climate, and is greatly resorted to by
invalids from the S.; the soil is rather poor, and manufactures form the
staple industry; coal, iron, and limestone are found. Providence,
Pawtucket, and Newport are the chief towns.

RHODES (10), a Turkish island in the Mediterranean, 12 m. distant
from the SW, coast of Asia Minor, area 49 m. by 21 m.; mountainous and
woody; has a fine climate and a fertile soil, which produces fruit in
abundance, also some grain; it is ill developed, and has a retrogressive
population, most of whom are Greeks; sponges, chief export; figures
considerably in ancient classic history; was occupied by the Knights
Hospitallers of St. John for more than two centuries, and was taken from
them by the Turks in 1523.

RHODES, CECIL, statesman, born in Hertfordshire, son of a vicar;
went to South Africa; became director of the diamond mines at Kimberley,
and amassed a large fortune; entered the Cape Parliament, and became
Prime Minister in 1890; he has been active and successful to extend the
British territories in South Africa, aiming at destroying the race
prejudices that prevail in it, and at establishing among the different
colonies a federated union; _b_. 1853.

RHODESIA, the territory in South Africa occupied and administered by the
British South Africa Company, under the leadership of Mr. Cecil Rhodes,
and founded by royal charter in 1889, hence the name it goes under, is
bounded on the E. by Portuguese East Africa, on the N. by German East
Africa and the Congo Free State, on the W. by Angola and German
South-West Africa, and on the S. by Bechuanaland and the Transvaal; is
traversed by the Zambesi, which divides it into Northern and Southern
Rhodesia; the Northern has been little prospected, though the land is
being cultivated, crops raised, and cattle-breeding commenced, besides a
new industry started in fibre; the Southern is divided into two
provinces, MASHONALAND (q. v.) and MATABELELAND (q. v.); in Rhodesia
public roads have been made to the extent of 2230 miles, and telegraph
lines to the extent of 1856 miles of line and 2583 of wire; it is
favourable to the breeding of stock, though the rinderpest raged in it
disastrously for a time; the climate is suitable for the cultivation of
cereals of all kinds, and vegetables, tobacco, india-rubber, and indigo
are indigenous, and well repay cultivation; there are forests of timber,
and gold, silver, copper, coal, tin, &c., have been discovered; it is,
roughly speaking, as large as the German Empire, and in consequence of
the Jameson raid the control of the military forces, formerly under the
control of the Company, is now in the hands of the Imperial Government.

RHONE, one of the four great rivers of France, rises on Mount St.
Gothard, in the Swiss Alps; passes through the Lake of Geneva, and
flowing in a south-westerly course to Lyons, is there joined by its chief
affluent, the Saone, hence it flows due S.; at Arles it divides into two
streams, which form a rich delta before entering the Gulf of Lyons, in
the Mediterranean; length, 504 m.; navigable to Lyons, but the rapid
current and shifting sandbanks greatly impede traffic.

RHONE (807), a department of France lying wholly within the western
side of the Saone and Rhone basin, hilly and fruitful; wine is produced
in large quantities; has an active industrial population; capital, Lyons.

RHUMB LINE, a circle on the earth's surface making a given angle
with the meridian; applied to the course of a ship in navigation.

RHYL (6), a popular watering-place of Flintshire, North Wales,
situated on the coast at the mouth of the Clwyd, 16 m. E. of Conway; has
a fine promenade pier, esplanade, gardens, &c.

RHYMER, THOMAS THE, or TRUE THOMAS, Thomas of Ercildoune, or
Earlston, a Berwickshire notability of the 13th century, famous for his
rhyming prophecies, who was said, in return for his prophetic gift, to
have sold himself to the fairies.

RHYS, JOHN, Celtic scholar, born in Wales; professor of Celtic at
Oxford; has written on subjects related to that of the chair; _b_. 1840.

RIBBONISM, the principles of secret associations among the lower
Irish Catholics, organised in opposition to Orangeism, the name being
derived from a green ribbon worn as a badge in a button-hole by the
members; they were most active between 1835 and 1855.

RIBERA, JUSEPE, a Spanish painter, born near Valencia; indulged in a
realism of a gruesome type; had Salvator Rosa and Giordano for pupils

RICARDO, DAVID, political economist, born in London, of Jewish
parentage; realised a large fortune as a member of the Stock Exchange;
wrote on political economy on abstract lines, and from a purely
mercantile and materialistic standpoint (1772-1823).

RICASOLI, BARON, Italian statesman, born at Florence; devoted to the
cultivation of the vine, the olive, and the mulberry; was drawn into
political life in 1847 in the interest of Italian unity, succeeded Cavour
as Prime Minister, but retired from political life in 1866; his "Letters
and Papers," in 5 vols., were published posthumously (1806-1880).

RICCI, LORENZO, last general of the Jesuits, born in Florence;
entered the order when 15; became general in 1736; on the suppression of
the order retired to the castle of St. Angelo, where he died 1775.

RICCI, MATTEO, founder of the Jesuit mission in China, born in
Macerato, Italy; accommodated himself to the manners of the Chinese, and
won their confidence (1552-1610).


RICE, JAMES, novelist, born at Northampton, educated at Cambridge;
designed for the law, but took to literature; owned and edited _Once a
Week_; best known as the successful _collaborateur_ of WALTER
BESANT (q. v.) in such popular novels as "The Golden Butterfly,"
"Ready-Money Mortiboy," &c. (1844-1882).


RICHARD I., (surnamed Coeur de Lion), king of England from 1189 to
1199, third son and successor of Henry II.; his early years were spent in
Poitou and Aquitaine, where he engaged in quarrels with his father; after
his accession to the throne he flung himself with characteristic ardour
into the Crusade movement; in 1190 joined his forces with Philip Augustus
of France in the third crusade; upheld the claims of Tancred in Sicily;
captured Cyprus, and won great renown in the Holy Land, particularly by
his defeat of Saladin; was captured after shipwreck on the coast on his
way home by the Archduke of Austria, and handed over to the Emperor Henry
VI. (1193); was ransomed at a heavy price by his subjects, and landed in
England in 1194; his later years were spent in his French possessions
warring against Philip, and he died of an arrow wound at the siege of
Chalus; not more than a year of his life was spent in England, and his
reign is barren of constitutional change (1157-1199).

RICHARD II., king of England from 1377 to 1399, son of the Black
Prince, born at Bordeaux; succeeded his grandfather, Edward III.; during
his minority till 1389 the kingdom was administered by a council; in 1381
the Peasants' Revolt broke out, headed by Wat Tyler, as a result of the
discontent occasioned by the Statutes of Labour passed in the previous
reign, and more immediately by the heavy taxation made necessary by the
expense of the Hundred Years' War still going on with France; a corrupt
Church called forth the energetic protests of Wycliffe, which started the
LOLLARD (q. v.) movement; an invasion of Scotland (1385),
resulting in the capture of Edinburgh, was headed by the young king;
coming under French influence, and adopting despotic measures in the
later years of his reign, Richard estranged all sections of his people; a
rising headed by Henry of Lancaster forced his abdication, and by a
decree of Parliament he was imprisoned for life in Pontefract Castle,
where he died (probably murdered) soon after (1367-1400).

RICHARD III., king of England from 1483 to 1486, youngest brother of
Edward IV., and last of the Plantagenets, born at Fotheringhay Castle; in
1461 was created Duke of Gloucester by his brother for assisting him to
win the crown; faithfully supported Edward against Lancastrian attacks;
married (1473) Anne, daughter of Warwick, the King-Maker; early in 1483
was appointed Protector of the kingdom and guardian of his young nephew,
Edward V.; put to death nobles who stood in the way of his ambitious
schemes for the throne; doubts were cast upon the legitimacy of the young
king, and Richard's right to the throne was asserted; in July 1483 he
assumed the kingly office; almost certainly instigated the murder of
Edward and his little brother in the Tower; ruled firmly and well, but
without the confidence of the nation; in 1488 Henry, Earl of Richmond,
head of the House of Lancaster, invaded England, and at the battle of
Bosworth Richard was defeated and slain (1452-1485).

RICHARD OF CIRENCESTER, an English chronicler, born at Cirencester;
flourished in the 14th century; was a monk in the Benedictine monastery
of St. Peter, Westminster; wrote a History of England from 447 to 1066;
for long the reputed author of a remarkable work on Roman Britain, now
proved to be a forgery; _d_. 1401.

RICHARDS, ALFRED BATE, journalist and author; turned from law to
literature; author of a number of popular dramas, volumes of poems,
essays, &c.; was the first editor of the _Daily Telegraph_, and
afterwards of the _Morning Advertiser_; took an active interest in the
volunteer movement (1820-1876).

RICHARDSON, SIR BENJAMIN WARD, a distinguished physician and author,
born at Somerby, Leicestershire; took the diploma of the Royal College of
Physicians in 1850, and graduated in medicine at St. Andrews four years
later; founded the _Journal of Public Health_ in 1855, and _The
Asclepiad_ in 1861, and the _Social Science Review_ in 1862; won the
Fothergilian gold medal and the Astley-Cooper prize of 300 guineas; made
many valuable medical inventions, and was an active lecturer on sanitary
science, &c.; was knighted in 1893 (1828-1896).

RICHARDSON, CHARLES, lexicographer; was trained for the bar, but
took to literature and education; pensioned in 1852; his chief works are
"Illustrations of English Philology" and the "New Dictionary of the
English Language" (1837), according to Trench the best dictionary of his
day (1775-1865).

RICHARDSON, SIR JOHN, M.D., naturalist and Arctic explorer, born at
Dumfries; graduated at Edinburgh; for some time a navy surgeon;
accompanied Franklin on the expeditions in 1819-22 and 1825-27, and later
commanded one of the Franklin search expeditions (1848); held government
appointments, and was knighted in 1846 (1787-1865).

RICHARDSON, SAMUEL, novelist, born in Derbyshire, the son of a
joiner; was apprenticed to a printer in London, whose daughter he
married; set up in the business for himself, and from his success in it
became Master of the Stationers Company in 1754, and King's Printer in
1761; was 50 before he came out as a novelist; published his "Pamela" in
1740, his masterpiece "Clarissa," written in the form of letters, in
1748, and "Sir Charles Grandison" in 1753; they are all three novels of
sentiment, are instinct with a spirit of moral purity, and are more
praised than read (1689-1761).

noble family; was minister of Louis XIII., and one of the greatest
statesmen France ever had; from his installation as Prime Minister in
1624 he set himself to the achievement of a threefold purpose, and rested
not till he accomplished it--the ruin of the Protestants as a political
party, the curtailment of the power of the nobles, and the humiliation of
the House of Austria in the councils of Europe; his administration was
signalised by reforms in finance, in the army, and in legislation; as the
historian Thierry has said of him, "He left nothing undone that could be
done by statesmanship for the social amelioration of the country; he had
a mind of the most comprehensive grasp, and a genius for the minutest
details of administration"; he was a patron of letters, and the founder
of the French Academy (1585-1642).

RICHMOND, 1, an interesting old borough (4) in Yorkshire, on the
Swale, 49 m. N.W. of York; has a fine 11th-century castle, now partly
utilised as barracks, remains of a Franciscan friary, a racecourse, &c.
2, A town (23) in Surrey, 9 m. W. of London; picturesquely situated on
the summit and slope of Richmond Hill, and the right bank of the Thames;
has remains of the royal palace of Sheen, a magnificent deer park, a
handsome river bridge, &c.; supplies London with fruit and vegetables;
has many literary and historical associations. 3, Capital (85) of
Virginia, U.S.; has a hilly and picturesque site on the James River, 116
m. S. of Washington; possesses large docks, and is a busy port, a
manufacturing town (tobacco, iron-works, flour and paper mills), and a
railway centre; as the Confederate capital it was the scene of a
memorable, year-long siege during the Civil War, ultimately falling into
the hands of Grant and Sheridan in 1865.

RICHMOND, LEGH, an evangelical clergyman of the Church of England,
born in Liverpool, famed for a tract "The Dairyman's Daughter"

RICHTER, JEAN PAUL FRIEDRICH, usually called Jean Paul simply, the
greatest of German humourists, born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, in
Bavaria, the son of a poor German pastor; had a scanty education, but his
fine faculties and unwearied diligence supplied every defect; was an
insatiable and universal reader; meant for the Church, took to poetry and
philosophy, became an author, putting forth the strangest books with the
strangest titles; considered for a time a strange, crack-brained mixture
of enthusiast and buffoon; was recognised at last as a man of infinite
humour, sensibility, force, and penetration; his writings procured him
friends and fame, and at length a wife and a settled pension; settled in
Baireuth, where he lived thenceforth diligent and celebrated in many
departments of literature, and where he died, loved as well as admired by
all his countrymen, and more by those who had known him most
intimately ... his works are numerous, and the chief are novels,
"'Hesperus' and 'Titan' being the longest and the best, the former of
which first (in 1795) introduced him into decisive and universal
estimation with his countrymen, and the latter of which he himself,
as well as the most judicious of his critics, regarded as his
masterpiece" (1763-1825).

RICHTHOFEN, BARON VON, traveller and geographer, born in Carlsruhe,
Silesia; accompanied in 1861 the Prussian expedition to Eastern Asia,
travelled in 1862-68 in California, and in 1869-72 in China; has since
been professor of Geography successively at Bonn, Leipzig, and Berlin;
has written a great work on China; _b_. 1833.

RICORD, PHILIPPE, a famous French physician, born at Baltimore,
U.S.; came to Paris, was a specialist in a department of surgery, and
surgeon-in-chief to the hospital for venereal diseases (1800-1889).

RIDLEY, NICOLAS, martyred bishop, born in Northumberland, Fellow and
ultimately Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge; on a three years' visit
to the Continent fell in with certain of the Reformers and returned
convinced of and confirmed in the Protestant faith; became king's
chaplain, bishop of Rochester, and finally of London; favoured the cause
of Lady Jane Grey against Mary, who committed him to the Tower, and being
condemned as a heretic was at Oxford burnt at the stake along with
Latimer (1500-1555).

RIEHM, EDWARD, Protestant theologian, born at Diersburg, Baden, was
professor at Halle; wrote many theological works, among them
"Handwoerterbuch des biblischen Alterthums" (1830-1888).

RIENZI, COLA DI, Roman tribune, born at Rome, of humble origin; gave
himself to the study of the ancient history of the city, became inspired
with a noble ambition to restore its ancient glory, and being endowed
with an eloquent tongue, persuaded, with sanction of Pope Clement VI.,
who was then at Avignon, his fellow-citizens to rise against the tyranny
to which they were subjected at the hands of the nobles, in which he at
length was successful; but his own rule became intolerable, and he was
assassinated in an _emeute_ just seven years after the commencement of
his political career (1313-1354).

RIESENGEBIRGE (i. e. Giant Mountains), a range dividing Bohemia
from Silesia; Schneekoppe (5260 ft.) is the highest peak; is a famous
summer resort for Germans.

RIFACIMENTO, a literary work recast to adapt it to a change in the
circumstances of the time.

RIFF, the name given to the N. coast-lands of Morocco from Tangiers
to Algeria; is a mountainous and woody region, with a rugged foreshore,
inhabited by lawless Berbers.

RIGA (182), the third seaport of Russia and capital of Livonia, on
the Dwina, 7 m. from its entrance into the Gulf of Riga (a spacious inlet
on the E. side of the Baltic); has some fine mediaeval buildings; is the
seat of an archbishop, and is a busy and growing commercial and
manufacturing town, exporting grain, timber, flax, linseed, wool, &c.

RIGDUM FUNNIDOS, Scott's nickname for JOHN BALLANTYNE (q. v.).

RIGHTS, DECLARATION OF, a declaration of the fundamental principles
of the constitution drawn up by the Parliament of England and submitted
to William and Mary on their being called to the throne, and afterwards
enacted in Parliament when they became king and queen. It secures to the
people their rights as free-born citizens and to the Commons as their
representatives, while it binds the sovereign to respect these rights as

RIGI, an isolated mountain, 5900 ft. high, in the Swiss canton of
Schwyz, with a superb view from the summit, on which hotels have been
built for the convenience of the many who visit it; is reached by two
toothed railways with a gradient of 1 ft. in 4.

RIGVEDA, the first of the four sections into which the VEDAS
(q. v.) are divided, and which includes the body of the hymns or verses
of invocation and praises; believed to have issued from a narrow circle
of priests, and subsequently recast many of them.

RIMINI (11, with suburbs 20), a walled city of N. Italy, of much
historic interest both in ancient and mediaeval times, on the small river
Marecchia, spanned by a fine Roman bridge close to its entrance into the
Adriatic, 69 m. SE. of Bologna; has a 15th-century Renaissance cathedral,
an ancient castle, and other mediaeval buildings, a Roman triumphal arch,
&c.; manufactures silks and sail-cloth.

RIMMON, name of a Syrian god who had a temple at Damascus called the
house of Rimmon, a symbol of the sun, or of the fertilising power of

RINALDO, one of Charlemagne's paladins, of a violent, headstrong,
and unscrupulous character, who fell into disgrace, but after adventures
in the Holy Land was reconciled to the Emperor; Angelica, an infidel
princess, fell violently in love with him, but he turned a deaf ear to
her addresses, while others would have given kingdoms for her hand.

RINDERPEST or CATTLE PLAGUE, a fever of a malignant and
contagious type; the occurrence of it in Britain is due to the
importation of infected cattle from the Asiatic steppes.

RING AND THE BOOK, a poem by Browning of 20,000 lines, giving
different versions of a story agreeably to and as an exhibition of the
personalities of the different narrators.

RIO DE JANEIRO (423), capital and chief seaport of Brazil,
charmingly situated on the E. coast of Brazil, on the W. shore of a
spacious and beautiful bay, 15 m. long, which forms one of the finest
natural harbours in the world; stretches some 10 m. along the seaside,
and is hemmed in by richly clad hills; streets are narrow and ill kept;
possesses a large hospital, public library (180,000 vols.), botanical
gardens, arsenal, school of medicine, electric tramways, &c.; has
extensive docks, and transacts half the commerce of Brazil; coffee is the
chief export; manufactures cotton, jute, silk, tobacco, &c. Great heat
prevails in the summer, and yellow fever is common.

RIO GRANDE (known also as Rio Bravo del Norte), an important river
of North America, rises in the San Juan Mountains in Colorado; flows SE.,
dividing Texas from Mexico, and enters the Gulf of Mexico after a course
of 1800 m.; is navigable for steamboats some 500 m.; chief tributary, Rio
Pecos; also the name given to the head-stream of the river Parana in
Brazil and Argentina.

RIO GRANDE DO NORTE (310), a maritime State in the NE. corner of
Brazil, called after the Rio Grande, which flows NE. and enters the
Atlantic at Natal, the capital of the State.

RIO GRANDE DO SUL (645), the southmost state in Brazil, lies N. of
Uruguay, fronting the Atlantic; capital, Rio Grande (18).

RIO NEGRO, 1, One of the larger tributaries of the Amazon, rises as
the Guainia in SE. Columbia; crosses Venezuela and Brazil in a more or
less SE. direction, and joins the Amazon (the Maranon here) near Manaos
after a course of 1350 m.; some of its tributaries connect the Orinoco
with the Amazon. 2, Has its source in a small lake in the Chilian Andes,
flows NE. and E. to the Atlantic, is some 500 m. long, and easily

RIOJA (80), a province of W. Argentina, embraces some of the most
fruitful valleys of the Andes which grow cereals, vines, cotton, &c.;
some mining in copper, silver, and gold is done. The capital, Rioja (6),
is prettily planted in a vine and orange district at the base of the
Sierra Velasco 350 m. NW. of Cordoba.

RIOM (10), a pretty little French town in the dep. of Puy-de-Dome,
noted for its many quaint old houses of the Renaissance period; does a
good trade in tobacco, linen, &c.

RIP VAN WINKLE, a Dutch colonist of New York who, driven from home
by a termagant wife strolls into a ravine of the Katskill Mountains,
falls in with a strange man whom he assists in carrying a keg, and comes
upon a company of odd-looking creatures playing at ninepins, but never
uttering a word, when, seizing an opportunity that offered, he took up
one of the kegs he had carried, fell into a stupor, and slept 20 years,
to find his beard and all the world about him quite changed.

RIPLEY, 1, a manufacturing town (7) of Derbyshire, situated 10 m.
NE. of Derby, in a busy coal and iron district; manufactures silk lace.
2. A Yorkshire village on the Nidd, 31/2 m. NW. of Harrowgate; has an
interesting castle, old church, &c.

RIPLEY, GEORGE, American transcendentalist, born in Massachusetts; a
friend of Emerson's and founder of BROOK FARM (q. v.); took to
Carlyle as Carlyle to him, though he was "grieved to see him" taken up
with the "Progress of Species" set, and "confusing himself" thereby

RIPON, FREDERICK JOHN ROBINSON, EARL OF, statesman, younger son of
Lord Grantham, entered Parliament in 1806 as a Tory; rose to be
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and was for a few months in 1827 Prime
Minister; was subsequently in different Cabinets Colonial Secretary, Lord
Privy Seal, and President of the Board of Trade; created an Earl In 1833

in London, son of preceding; entered House of Commons in 1852 as a
Liberal; became Secretary for War (1863), and three years later for
India; was President of the Council in 1868, a popular Viceroy of India
(1880-84), First Lord of the Admiralty in 1886, and Colonial Secretary in
1892-95; was created Marquis in 1871; went over to the Catholic Church in
1874, resigning in consequence the Grand-Mastership of the Freemasons;
_b_. 1827.

RISHANGER, WILLIAM ("Chronigraphus"), an annalist and monk of St.
Albans; wrote what is in effect a continuation of MATTHEW PARIS'S
(q. v.) "Chronicle," and practically a history of his own times from
1259 to 1307, which is both a spirited and trustworthy account, albeit in
parts not original; _b_. 1250.

RISHIS (i. e. seers), a name given by the Hindus to seven wise men
whose eyes had been opened by the study of the sacred texts of their
religion, the souls of whom are fabled to be incarnated in the seven
stars of the Great Bear.

RISTORI, ADELAIDE, distinguished Italian tragedienne; was one of a
family of strolling players; her career on the stage was a continuous
triumph; the role in which she specially shone was that of Lady Macbeth;
she was married in 1847 to the Marquis del Grillo, and is known as
Marquise; _b_. 1821.

RITSCHL, ALBRECHT, Protestant theologian, born at Berlin; studied at
Rome, where in 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology, and
in 1860 ordinary professor; after which he was in 1864 transferred to
Goettingen, where he spent the rest of his life, gathering year after year
around him a large circle of students, and enriching theological
literature by his writings; the work which defines his position as a
German theologian is entitled "The Christian Doctrine of Justification
and Reconciliation," in which he seeks to draw the line between
Christianity as exhibited respectively in the theology of the Reformation
and that of modern Pietism; by his lectures and his writings he became
the founder of what is called the Goettingen School of Theology, and
exercised an influence on the religious philosophy of the time, such as
has not been witnessed in Germany since the days of Schleiermacher; his
teaching is distinguished by the prominence it gives to the ethical side
of Christianity, and that it is only as exhibited on the ethical side
that it becomes the exponent and medium of God's grace to mankind

RITSCHL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, German philologist, born near Erfurt;
became professor of Philology successively at Breslau, Bonn, and Leipzig;
his influence on philological study was great, and his greatest work was
an edition of Plautus (1806-1876).

RITSON, JOSEPH, a whimsical and crabbed antiquary; his industry was
great, his works numerous, among them one entitled "Ancient English
Metrical Romances," containing a long and still valuable dissertation

RITTER, HEINRICH, German philosopher, born in Anhalt; professor
successively at Berlin, Kiel, and Goettingen; is distinguished as the
author of an able "History of Philosophy" (1791-1860).

RITTER, KARL, celebrated geographer, born at Quedlinburg; the
founder of comparative geography; professor of geography at Berlin; his
chief works "Geography in its Relation to Nature," and the "History of
Man" (1779-1859).

RITUALISM, respect for forms in the conduct of religious worship,
particularly in connection with the administration of the sacraments of
the Church, under the impression or on the plea that they minister, as
they were ordained in certain cases to minister, to the quickening and
maintenance of the religious life.

RIVAROL, a French writer, born at Bagnols, in the department of Var;
famed for his caustic wit; was a Royalist emigrant at the time of the
Revolution, and aided the cause by his pamphlets; he was styled by Burke
"The Tacitus of the Revolution" (1753-1801).

RIVE-DE-GIER (13), a flourishing town in the department of Loire,
France, on the Gier, 13 m. NE. of St. Etienne; is favourably situated in
the heart of a rich coal district; has manufactures of silk, glass,
machinery, steel, &c.

RIVERS, RICHARD WOODVILLE, EARL, a prominent figure in the reigns of
Henry VI. and Edward IV.; was knighted in 1425; espoused the cause of the
Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses, but changed sides on the marriage
of his daughter with Edward IV., who created him an earl in 1460; fell
out of jealousy into disfavour with the nobility, and was beheaded in
1469; his son ANTHONY, who succeeded to the title, after acting on
the Council of Regency during Edward V.'s reign, was put to death by
Richard (III.), Duke of Gloucester, in 1483.

RIVIERA, an Italian term for coast-land flanked by mountains,
especially applied to the strip of land lying around the Gulf of Genoa
from Nice to Leghorn, which is divided by Genoa into the Western and
Eastern Riviera, the former the more popular as a health resort; but the
whole coast enjoys an exceptionally mild climate, and is replete with
beautiful scenery. Nice, Monaco, Mentone, and San Remo are among its
most popular towns.

RIVIERE, BRITON, celebrated painter of animals, born in London;
among his pictures, which are numerous, are "Daniel in the Lions' Den,"
"Ruins of Persepolis," "Giants at Play," and "Vae Victis"; _b_. 1840.

RIVOLI, 1, town (5) in North Italy, 8 m. W. of Turin; has two royal
castles, and manufactures silks, woollens, &c. 2, An Italian village, 12
m. NW. of Verona; scene of Napoleon's crushing victory over the Austrians
in 1797.

RIXDOLLAR, a silver coin current on the Continent, of varying value.

RIZZIO, DAVID, favourite of Mary, Queen of Scots, born in Turin; the
son of a dancing-master; was employed by the queen as her secretary, and
being offensive to the nobles, was by a body of them dragged from the
queen's presence and stabbed to death, 9th March 1566.

ROANNE (31), an old French town in the department of Loire, on the
river Loire, 49 m. NW of St. Etienne; has interesting ruins, a college
flourishing cotton and hat factories, dye-works, tanneries, &c.

ROANOKE (16), a flourishing city of Virginia, U.S., on the Roanoke
River; has rapidly sprung into a busy centre of steel, iron, machinery,
tobacco, and other factories.

ROARING FORTIES, a sailor's term for the Atlantic lying between 40 deg.
and 50 deg.N. latitude, so called from the storms often encountered there.

ROB ROY, a Highland freebooter, second son of Macgregor of Glengyle;
assumed the name of Campbell on account of the outlawry of the Macgregor
clan; traded in cattle, took part in the rebellion of 1715, had his
estates confiscated, and indemnified himself by raiding (1671-1734).

ROBBEN ISLAND, a small island at the entrance of Table Bay, 10 m.
NW. of Cape Town; has a lunatic asylum and a leper colony.

ROBBIA, LUCA DELIA, Italian sculptor, born in Florence, where he
lived and worked all his days; executed a series of bas-reliefs for the
cathedral, but is known chiefly for his works in enamelled terra-cotta,
the like of which is named after him, "Robbia-ware" (1400-1482).


ROBERT II., king of Scotland from 1371 to 1390, son of Walter
Stewart and Marjory, only daughter of Robert the Bruce; succeeded David
II., and became the founder of the Stuart dynasty; was a peaceable man,
but his nobles were turbulent, and provoked invasions on the part of
England by their forays on the Borders (1316-1390).

ROBERT III., king of Scotland from 1390 to 1406, son of Robert II.;
was a quite incompetent ruler, and during his reign the barons acquired
an ascendency and displayed a disloyalty which greatly diminished the
power of the Crown both in his and succeeding reigns; the government fell
largely into the hands of the king's brother, the turbulent and ambitious
Robert, Duke of Albany; an invasion (1400) by Henry IV. of England and a
retaliatory expedition under Archibald Douglas, which ended in the
crushing defeat of Homildon Hill (1402), are the chief events of the
reign (1340-1406).

ROBERT THE DEVIL, the hero of an old French romance identified with
Robert, first Duke of Normandy, who, after a career of cruelty and crime,
repented and became a Christian, but had to expiate his guilt by
wandering as a ghost over the earth till the day of judgment; he is the
subject of an opera composed by Meyerbeer.

ROBERTS, DAVID, painter, born in Edinburgh; began as a
house-painter; became a scene-painter; studied artistic drawing, and
devoted himself to architectural painting, his first pictures being of
Rouen and Amiens cathedrals; visiting Spain he published a collection of
Spanish sketches, and after a tour in the East published in 1842 a
magnificently-illustrated volume entitled the "Holy Land, Syria, Idumaea,
Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia;" a great number of his pictures are
ecclesiastical interiors (1796-1864).

ROBERTS, LORD, born at Cawnpore, educated in England; entered the
Bengal Artillery in 1851; served throughout the Indian Mutiny, commanded
in the Afghan War, and achieved a brilliant series of successes, which
were rewarded with honours on his return to England; was made
commander-in-chief of the Madras army in 1881, commander-in-chief in
India in 1885, and commander of the forces in Ireland in 1895; _b_. 1832.

ROBERTSON, FREDERICK WILLIAM, distinguished preacher, born in
London; a graduate of Brasenose College, Oxford, entered the Church in
1840, was curate first at Winchester, next at Cheltenham, and finally
settled in Brighton; is known far and wide by his printed sermons for his
insight into, and his earnestness in behalf of, Christian truth

ROBERTSON, JOSEPH, antiquary, born and educated at Aberdeen;
apprenticed to a lawyer, but soon took to journalism, and became editor
of the _Aberdeen Constitutional_, and afterwards of the _Glasgow
Constitutional_; in 1849 was editor of the _Edinburgh Evening Courant_,
and four years later received the post of curator of the historical
department of the Edinburgh Register House; author of various historical,
antiquarian, and topographical works (1810-1866).

ROBERTSON, THOMAS WILLIAM, a popular dramatist, the son of an actor,
born at Newark-on-Trent; brought up amongst actors, he naturally took to
the stage, but without success; always ready with his pen, he at last
made his mark with "David Garrick," and followed it up with the equally
successful "Ours," "Caste," "School," &c. (1829-1871).

ROBERTSON, WILLIAM, historian, born in Borthwick, Midlothian; was
educated in Edinburgh; entered the Church; became minister of Gladsmuir;
distinguished himself in the General Assembly of the Church; became
leader of the Moderate party; one of the ministers of Greyfriars Church,
Edinburgh, and Principal of the University, having previously written his
"History of Scotland," which brought him other honours, and which was
followed by a "History of Charles V." and a "History of America," all of
which contributed to awaken an interest in historical studies; he was
what is called a "Moderate" to the backbone, and his cronies were men
more of a sceptical than a religious turn of mind, David Hume being one
of the number; while his history of Scotland, however well it may be
written, as Carlyle testifies, is no history of Scotland at all

ROBESPIERRE, MAXIMILIEN, leader of the Jacobins in the French
Revolution, born in Arras, of Irish origin; bred to the bar; became an
advocate and a judge; he resigned because he could not brook to sentence
a man to death; inspired by the gospel of Rousseau, became a red-hot
Republican and an "INCORRUPTIBLE" (q. v.); carried things with a
high hand; was opposed by the Girondists, and accused, but threw back the
charge on them; carried the mob along with him, and with them at his back
procured sentence of death against the king; head of the Committee of
Public Safety, he laid violent hands first on the queen and then on all
who opposed or dissented from the extreme course he was pursuing; had the
worship of reason established in June 1794, and was at the end of the
month following beheaded by the guillotine, amid the curses of women and
men (1758-1794).

ROBIN HOOD, a famous outlaw who, with his companions, held court in
Sherwood Forest, Nottingham, and whose exploits form the subject of many
an old English ballad and tale. He was a robber, but it was the rich he
plundered and not the poor, and he was as zealous in the protection of
the weak as any Knight of the Round Table; he was an expert in the use of
the bow and the QUARTER-STAFF (q. v.), and he and his men led a
merry life together.

ROBINS, BENJAMIN, father of the modern science of artillery, born,
the son of a Quaker, at Bath; established himself in London as a teacher
of mathematics, as also his reputation by several mathematical treatises;
turned his attention to the theoretical study of artillery and
fortification; upheld Newton's principle of ultimate ratios against
Berkeley, and in 1742 published his celebrated work, the "New Principles
of Gunnery," which revolutionised the art of gunnery; was appointed
engineer-in-general to the East India Company (1749), and planned the
defences of Madras (1707-1751).

ROBINSON, EDWARD, Biblical scholar, born in Connecticut; author of
"Biblical Researches in Palestine"; a professor in New York (1794-1863).

ROBINSON, HENRY CRABB, literary dilettante, born at Bury St.
Edmunds; lived some years at Weimar, and got acquainted with Goethe and
his circle; called to the English bar, and on quitting practice at it
with a pension, became acquainted with the literary notabilities in
London, and left a diary full of interesting reminiscences (1775-1807).

admiral, in 1824; withdrew from the army shortly after his first
commission, and gave himself to Government Colonial service; received a
knighthood, and held Governorship of Hong-Kong in 1859; was successively
governor of Ceylon, New South Wales, New Zealand, Cape of Good Hope, &c.;
created Lord Rosmead in 1896 (1824-1898).

ROBINSON, MARY, poetess, born at Leamington; author of various
poetical works, a translation of Euripides' "Hippolytus," a Life of Emily
Bronte, &c.; married in 1886 to M. Darmesteter, a noted French
Orientalist; _b_. 1857.

ROBSON, FREDERICK (stage name of F. R. Brownhill), a noted comedian,
born at Margate; took to the stage in 1844 after serving some time as an
apprentice to a London engraver; his greatest triumphs were won after
1853 on the boards of the Olympic Theatre, London; he combined in a high
degree all the gifts of a low comedian with a rare power of rising to the
grave and the pathetic (1821-1864).

ROCHAMBEAU, COMTE DE, marshal of France, born at Vendome; commanded
the troops sent out by France to assist the American colonies in their
rebellion against the mother-country (1725-1807).

ROCHDALE (72), a flourishing town and cotton centre in Lancashire,
prettily situated on the Roche, 11 m. NE. Of Manchester; its woollen and
cotton trade (flannels and calicoes) dates back to Elizabeth's time; has
an interesting 12th century parish church.

ROCHE, ST., the Patron saint of the plague-stricken; being
plague-smitten himself, and overtaken with it in a desert place, he was
discovered by a dog, who brought him a supply of bread daily from his
master's table till he recovered.

ROCHEFORT, COMTE DE, commonly known as Henri Rochefort, French
journalist and violent revolutionary, who was deported for his share in
the Commune in 1871, but escaped and was amnestied, and went back to
Paris under eclipse; _b_. 1830.

ROCHELLE, LA (23), a fortified seaport of France, on an inlet of the
Bay of Biscay, 95 m. NW. of Bordeaux; capital of the department of
Charente-Inferieure; has a commodious harbour, noteworthy public
buildings, a fine promenade and gardens; shipbuilding, glass-works,
sugar-refineries, &c., are among its chief industries.

ROCHESTER, 1, an interesting old city (26), of Kent, 29 m. SE. of
London, on the Medway, lying between and practically forming one town
with Strood and Chatham; the seat of a bishop since 604; has a fine
cathedral, which combines in its structure examples of Norman, Early
English, and Decorated architecture; a hospital for lepers founded in
1078; a celebrated Charity House, and a strongly posted Norman castle. 2,
Capital (163), of Monroe County, New York, on the Genesee River, near
Lake Ontario, 67 m. NE. of Buffalo; is a spacious and well-appointed
city, with a university, theological seminary, &c.; has varied and
flourishing manufactures.

ROCHESTER, JOHN WILMOT, EARL OF, a witty profligate of the court of
Charles II.; wrote poems, many of them licentious, among them, however,
some exquisite songs; killed himself with his debauchery; died penitent;
he was the author of the epitaph, accounted the best epigram in the
English language, "Here lies our sovereign Lord the king," &c.

ROCHET, a linen vestment worn by bishops, abbots, and other
dignitaries, in the form of a surplice, but shorter and open at the

ROCK ISLAND (14), capital of Rock Island county, Illinois, on the
Mississippi; a busy centre of railway and river traffic; derives its name
from an island in the river, where there is an extensive Government
arsenal; a fine bridge spans the river.

ROCK TEMPLES, temples hewn out of solid rock, found in Western India
especially, such as those at ELLORA (q. v.) and ELEPHANTA
(q. v.).

ROCKALL, a remarkable peak of granite rock, rising some 70 ft. above
the sea-level from the bed of an extensive sandbank in the Atlantic, 184
m. W. of St. Kilda; a home and haunt for sea-birds.

ROCK-BUTTER, a soft mineral substance found oozing from alum slates,
and consisting of alum, alumina, and oxide of iron.

ROCKFORD (24), a busy manufacturing town, capital of Winnebago
County, Illinois, on the Rock River, 86 m. NW. of Chicago.

ROCKHAMPTON (12), the chief port of Central Queensland, Australia,
on the Fitzroy, 35 m. from its mouth; in the vicinity are rich
gold-fields, also copper and silver; engaged in tanning, meat-preserving,
&c.; is connected by a handsome bridge with its suburb North Rockhampton.

ROCKING STONES or LOGANS, large stones, numerous in Cornwall,
Wales, Yorkshire, &c., so finely poised as to rock to and fro under the
slightest force.

great ability; succeeded to the title in 1750; opposed the policy of
Bute, and headed the Whig opposition; in 1762 became Prime Minister, and
acted leniently with the American colonies, repealing the Stamp Act; was
a bitter opponent of North's American policy of repression; held the
Premiership again for a few months in 1782 (1730-1782).

ROCKY MOUNTAINS, an extensive and lofty chain of mountains in North
America, belonging to the Cordillera system, and forming the eastern
buttress of the great Pacific Highlands, of which the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade Mountains form the western buttress, stretching in rugged lines
of almost naked rock, interspersed with fertile valleys, from New Mexico
through Canada to the Arctic Ocean, broken only by a wonderfully
beautiful tract of elevated plateau in southern Wyoming, over which
passes the Union Pacific Railroad; reaches its greatest height in
Colorado (Gray's Peak, 14,341 ft.); gold, silver, &c., are found

ROCOCO, name given to a debased style of architecture, overlaid with
a tasteless, senseless profusion of fantastic ornamentation, without
unity of design or purpose, which prevailed in France and elsewhere in
the 18th century.

ROCROI (2), a small fortified town of France, about 3 m. from the
Belgian frontier, in the dep. of Ardennes; memorable for a great victory
of the French under Conde over the Spaniards in 1643.

RODBERTUS, JOHANN KARL, Socialist, born in Greifswald; believed in a
Socialism that would in course of time realise itself with the gradual
elevation of the people up to the Socialistic ideal (1815-1875).

RODERIC, the last king of the Visigoths in Spain, was slain in
battle with the Moors, who had invaded Spain during a civil war, and his
army put to flight in 711.

RODERICK RANDOM, the hero of a novel of Smollett's, a young Scotch
scapegrace, rough and reckless, and bold enough.

RODEZ (15), a town of France, in the dep. of Aveyron; crowns an
eminence at the foot of which flows the Aveyron, 80 m. NE. of Toulouse;
has a beautiful Gothic cathedral, interesting Roman remains; manufactures
textiles, leather, paper, &c.

RODIN, AUGUSTE, eminent French sculptor, born in Paris,
distinguished for his statues and busts; _b_. 1840-1917.

RODNEY, LORD, English admiral, born at Walton-on-Thames; entered the
navy at the age of 12, and obtained the command of a ship in 1742; did
good service in Newfoundland; was made Admiral of the Blue in 1759, and
in that year destroyed the stores at Havre de Grace collected for the
invasion of England; in 1780 defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St.
Vincent; in 1782 defeated the French fleet under Count de Grasse by
breaking the enemy's line; was first made a baronet and then a peer, with
a pension of L2000, for his services to the country (1718-1792).

RODOSTO (19), a Turkish town on the N. coast of the Sea of Marmora,
60 m. W. of Constantinople; is the seat of an archbishop of the Greek
Church, has many mosques; fruitful vineyards in the vicinity produce
excellent wine.

RODRIGUEZ (2), an interesting volcanic island lying far out in the
Indian Ocean, 380 m. NE. of Mauritius, of which it is a dependency;
agriculture is the chief employment; has a good climate, but is subject
to severe hurricanes.

ROE, EDWARD PAYSON, American novelist, born in New Windsor, New
York; studied for the ministry and served as a chaplain during the Civil
War; settled down as a pastor of a Presbyterian church at Highland Fells;
made his mark as a novelist in 1872 with "Barriers Burned Away"; took to
literature and fruit-gardening, and won a wide popularity with such
novels as "From Jest to Earnest," "Near to Nature's Heart," &c.

ROEBUCK, JOHN ARTHUR, English Radical politician, born at Madras;
represented first Bath and then Sheffield in Parliament, contributed to
the downfall of the Aberdeen Government, and played in general an
independent part; his vigorous procedure as a politician earned for him
the nickname of "Tear 'em" (1802-1879).

ROERMOND (12), an old Dutch town in Limburg, at the confluence of
the Roer and the Meuse, 29 m. N. by E. of Maestricht; has a splendid
13th-century cathedral; manufactures cottons, woollens, &c.

ROESKILDE, an interesting old Danish city, situated on a fjord, 20
m. W. by S. of Copenhagen, dates back to the 10th century; has a fine
13th-century cathedral, the burying-place of most of the Danish kings.

ROGATION DAYS, the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday preceding
Ascension Day, on which special litanies are sung or recited by the Roman
Catholic clergy and people in public procession; has its origin in an old
custom dating from the 6th century. In England the practice ceased after
the Reformation.

ROGER I., the youngest of the 12 sons of Tancred of Hauteville;
conquered Sicily from the Saracens after a war of 30 years, and governed
it under the title of count in part from 1071 and wholly from 1089 to

ROGER II., son and successor of the preceding, was crowned king of
the two Sicilies by the Pope; waged war advantageously against the
Emperor of the East and the Saracens of North Africa; ruled the country
well and promoted industry (1097-1154).

ROGER OF WENDOVER, an early English chronicler, lived in the 13th
century; was a monk of St. Albans and subsequently prior of Belvoir;
wrote a history of the world down to Henry III.'s reign, the only
valuable portion of it being that which deals with his own times.

ROGERS, HENRY, English essayist; contributed for years to the
_Edinburgh Review_; author of the "Eclipse of Faith" (1806-1877).

ROGERS, JAMES E. THORWOLD, political economist, born in Hampshire;
became professor of Political Economy at Oxford; author of a "History of
Agriculture and Prices in England" and "Six Centuries of Work and Wages,"
an abridgment of it (1823-1890).

ROGERS, JOHN, the first of the Marian martyrs, born at Birmingham;
prepared a revised edition of the English Bible, preached at Paul's Cross
against Romanism the Sunday after Mary's entrance into London, and was

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