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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia by Edited by Rev. James Wood

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Constitutional History of England from the Accession of Henry VII. to the
Death of George II.," published in 1827; and the "Introduction to the
Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth
Centuries," published in 1838; "was the first," says Stopford Brooke, "to
write history in this country without prejudice" (1777-1859).

HALLE (101), a flourishing city in Prussian Saxony, on the Saale, 20
m. NW. of Leipzig; has a splendid university attended by upwards of 1500
students, and a library of 220,000 vols.; some fine old Gothic churches,
medical institutes, hospitals, &c.; it is is an important railway centre,
and is famed for its salt-works.

HALLE, SIR CHARLES, an eminent pianist, born at Hagen, in
Westphalia; in 1848 he came to England, with a reputation already gained
at Paris, and settled down in Manchester; his fine orchestra, which from
year to year visited the important cities of the kingdom, did a great
work in popularising classical music, and educating the public taste in
its regard; in 1888 he was knighted (1819-1895). His wife, _nee_
Wilhelmine Neruda, a violinist of rare talent, born at Bruenn, in Moravia,
appeared first in Vienna when only seven years old; in 1864 she married
Normann, a Swedish composer, and in 1885 became the wife of Sir Charles;
_b_. 1839.

HALLECK, HENRY WAGER, an American general; distinguished himself on
the side of the North in the Civil War, and was promoted to be
commander-in-chief; was author of "Elements of Military Art and Science"

HALLEL, name given to Psalms cxiii.-cxviii. chanted by the Jews at
their great annual festivals.

HALLER, ALBERT VON, a celebrated anatomist, physiologist, botanist,
physician, and poet, born at Bern; professor of Medicine at Goettingen;
author of works in all these departments; took a keen interest in all the
movements and questions of the day, literary and political, as well as
scientific; was a voluminous author and writer (1708-1777).

HALLEY, EDMUND, astronomer and mathematician, born near London;
determined the rotation of the sun from the spots on its surface, and the
position of 350 stars; discovered in 1680 the great comet called after
his name, which appeared again in 1825; was entrusted with the
publication of his "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton; made researches on
the orbits of comets, and was appointed in 1719 astronomer-royal

HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS, JAMES ORCHARD, a celebrated Shakespearian
scholar and antiquary, born at Chelsea; studied at Cambridge; his love
for literary antiquities manifested itself at an early age, and his
research in ballad literature and folk-lore, &c., had gained him election
as Fellow to the Royal and Antiquarian Societies at the early age of 19;
devoting himself more particularly to Shakespeare, he in 1848 published
his famous "Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare," which has grown in
fulness of detail with successive editions, and remains the most
authoritative account of Shakespeare's life we have; his "Dictionary of
Archaic and Provincial Words" is also a work of wide scholarship; having
succeeded in 1872 to the property of his father-in-law, Thomas Phillipps,
he added Phillipps to his own surname (1820-1889).

HALL-MARK, an official mark or attestation of the genuineness of
gold and silver articles.

HALLOWED FIRE, an expression of Carlyle's in definition of
Christianity "at its rise and spread" as sacred, and kindling what was
sacred and divine in man's soul, and burning up all that was not.

HALLOWE'EN, the eve of All Saints' Day, 31st October, which it was
customary, in Scotland particularly, to observe with ceremonies of a
superstitious character, presumed to have the power of eliciting certain
interesting secrets of fate from wizard spirits of the earth and air,
allowed, as believed, in that brief space, to rove about and be
accessible to the influence of the charms employed.

HALOGENS (i. e., salt producers), name given to the elementary
bodies, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine as in composition with
metals forming compounds similar to sea-salt.

HALS, FRANS, an eminent Dutch portrait-painter, born at Antwerp; is
considered to be the founder of the Dutch school of _genre_-painting; his
portraits are full of life and vigour; Vandyck alone among his
contemporaries was considered his superior (1581-1666).

England, born in London; was called to the bar in 1850; he was
Solicitor-General in the last Disraeli Government; entered Parliament in
1877, and in 1885 was raised to the peerage and made Lord-Chancellor, a
position he has held in successive Conservative Governments; _b_. 1825.

HALYBURTON, THOMAS, Scottish divine, known as "Holy Halyburton,"
born at Dupplin, near Perth; was minister of Ceres, in Fife, and from
1710 professor of Divinity in St. Andrews; was the author of several
widely-read religious works (1674-1712).

HAM, a son of Noah, and the Biblical ancestor of the southern dark
races of the world as known to the ancients.

HAM, a town in the dep. of Somme, France, 70 m. NE. of Paris, with a
fortress, used in recent times as a State prison, in which Louis Napoleon
was confined from 1840 to 1846.

HAMADAN (30), an ancient Persian town, at the foot of Mount Elwend,
160 m. SW. of Teheran, is an important _entrepot_ of Persian trade, and
has flourishing tanneries; it is believed to stand on the site of
ECBATANA (q. v.).

HAMADRYAD, a wood-nymph identified with a particular tree that was
born with it and that died with it.

HAMAH (45), the Hamath of the Bible, an ancient city of Syria, on
the Orontes, 110 m. NE. of Damascus; manufactures silk, cotton, and
woollen fabrics; is one of the oldest cities of the world; has some trade
with the Bedouins in woollen stuffs; during the Macedonian dynasty it was
known as Epiphania; in 1812 Burckhardt discovered stones in it with
Hittite inscriptions.

HAMAN, an enemy of the Jews in Persia, who persuaded the king to
decree the destruction of them against a particular day, but whose
purpose was defeated by the reversal of the sentence of doom.

HAMANN, JOHANN GEORG, a German thinker, born at Koenigsberg; a man of
genius, whose ideas were appreciated by such a man as Goethe, and whose
writings deeply influenced the views of Herder (1730-1788).

HAMBURG, a small German State (623) which includes the free city of
Hamburg (323; suburbs, 245), Bergedorf, and Cuxhaven; the city, the chief
emporium of German commerce, is situated on the Elbe, 75 m. E. of the
North Sea and 177 NW. of Berlin; was founded by Charlemagne in 808, and
is to-day the fifth commercial city of the world; the old town is
intersected by canals, while the new portion, built since 1842, is
spaciously laid out; the town library, a fine building, contains 400,000
volumes; its principal manufactures embrace cigar-making, distilling,
brewing, sugar-refining, &c.

HAMELN (14), a quaint old Prussian town and fortress in the province
of Hanover, situated at the junction of the Hamel with the Weser, 25 m.
SW. of Hanover city; associated with the legend of the Pied Piper; a fine
chain bridge spans the Weser; there are prosperous iron, paper, and
leather works, breweries, &c.

HAeMERKIN or HAeMMERLEIN, the paternal name of THOMAS A
KEMPIS (q. v.).

HAMERLING, ROBERT, Austrian poet, born at Kirchberg in the Forest,
Lower Austria; his health gave way while teaching at Trieste, and while
for upwards of 30 years an invalid in bed, he devoted himself to poetical
composition; his fame rests chiefly on his satirical epics and lyric
compositions, among the former "The King of Iron," "The Seven Deadly
Sins," and "Cupid and Psyche," and among the latter "Venus in Exile"

HAMERTON, PHILIP GILBERT, English critic, particularly of art;
edited the Portfolio, an art magazine; author of a story of life in
France entitled "Marmorne," and of a volume of essays entitled "The
Intellectual Life" (1834-1894).

HAMILCAR BARCA, a Carthaginian general and one of the greatest, the
father of Hannibal, commanded in Sicily, and held his ground there
against the Romans for six years; concluded a peace with them and ended
the First Punic War; invaded Spain with a view to invade Italy by the
Alps, and after gaining a footing there fell in battle; had his son with
him, a boy of nine, and made him swear upon the altar before he died
eternal enmity to Rome; _d_. 229 B.C.

HAMILTON (25), a town of Lanarkshire, on the Clyde, 10 m. SE. of
Glasgow; mining is the chief industry. Also a city (49) of Canada, on
Burlington Bay, at the west end of Lake Ontario, 40 m. SW. of Toronto; is
an important railway centre, and has manufactories of iron, cotton, and
woollen goods, &c.

HAMILTON, ALEXANDER, American soldier and statesman, born in West
Indies; entered the American army, fought in the War of Independence,
became commander-in-chief, represented New York State in Congress,
contributed by his essays to the favourable reception of the federal
constitution, and under it did good service on behalf of his country; was
mortally wounded in a duel (1757-1804).

HAMILTON, ELIZABETH, novelist and essayist, born, of Scottish
parentage, in Belfast; is remembered for her early advocacy of the higher
education of women and for her faithful pictures of lowly Scottish life;
"Letters of a Hindoo Rajah" and "Modern Philosophers" were clever skits
on the prevailing scepticism and republicanism of the time; "The
Cottagers of Glenburnie" is her best novel (1758-1816).

HAMILTON, EMMA, LADY, _nee_ Amy Lyon or "Hart," born at Ness,
Cheshire, a labourer's daughter; appeared as the Lady in the charlatan
Graham's "Temple of Health," London; became the mother of two
illegitimate children, and subsequently was the "geliebte" of the Hon.
Charles Greville and of his uncle Sir Wm. Hamilton, whose wife she became
in 1791; her notorious and lawless intimacy with Lord Nelson began in
1793, and in 1801 their daughter Horatia was born; although left a widow
with a goodly fortune, she fell into debt and died in poverty

HAMILTON, PATRICK, a Scottish martyr, born at the close of the 15th
century, probably in Glasgow; returning from his continental studies at
Paris and Louvain he came to St. Andrews University, where his Lutheran
sympathies involved him in trouble; he escaped to the Continent, visited
Wittenberg, the home of Luther, and then settled in Marburg, but returned
to Scotland at the close of the same year (1527) and married; the
following year he was burned at the stake in St. Andrews for heresy; his
eager and winning nature and love of knowledge, together with his early
martyrdom, have served to invest him with a special interest.

HAMILTON, WILLIAM, a minor Scottish poet, born near Uphall,
Linlithgowshire; was a contributor to Ramsay's _Tea-Table Miscellany_;
became involved in the second Jacobite rising and fled to France;
subsequently he was permitted to return and take possession of his
father's estate of Bangour, near Uphall; his collected poems include the
beautiful and pathetic ballad, "The Braes of Yarrow" (1704-1754).

HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM, distinguished philosopher of the Scotch
school, born in Glasgow; studied there and in Oxford with distinction;
bred for the bar, but hardly ever practised; contributed to the
_Edinburgh Review_, having previously published "Discussions in
Philosophy"; in 1836 he became professor of Logic and Metaphysics in
Edinburgh University, in which capacity he exercised a great influence in
the domain of philosophic speculation; his lectures were published after
his death; his system was attacked by John Stuart Mill, and criticised in
part by Dr. Hutchison Stirling, who, while deducting materially from his
repute as an original thinker, describes his "writings as always
brilliant, forcible, clear, and, where information is concerned, both
entertaining and instructive"; was "almost the only _earnest_ man,"
Carlyle testifies, he found in Edinburgh on his visit from Craigenputtock
to the city in 1833 (1788-1856).

HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM ROWAN, an eminent mathematician, born in
Dublin; such was his precocity that at 13 he was versed in thirteen
languages, and by 17 was an acknowledged master in mathematical science;
while yet an undergraduate at Trinity College, Dublin, he was appointed
in 1827 professor of Astronomy in Dublin University, and Astronomer-Royal
of Ireland; his mathematical works and treatises, of the most original
and a far-reaching character, brought him a European reputation, and
embraced his "Theory of Systems of Rays," "A General Method in Dynamics,"
and the invention of "Quaternions"; he was knighted in 1835 (1805-1865).

HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM, a system of teaching languages by interlinear

HAMMER, German Orientalist and historian, born at Graetz; author of a
"History of the Ottoman Empire" (1774-1856).

HAMMERFEST (2), the most northerly town in Europe; is situated on
the barren island of Kvaloe, and is the port of the Norwegian province of
Finmark; fishing is the staple industry; during two months in summer the
sun never sets.

HAMMERSMITH (97), a parliamentary borough of Middlesex, on the N.
side of the Thames, forms a part of W. London.

HAMMOND, HENRY, English divine, born at Chertsey; suffered as an
adherent of the royal cause, being chaplain to Charles I.; author of
"Paraphrase and Annotations of the New Testament" (1605-1660).

HAMPDEN, JOHN, a famous English statesman and patriot, cousin to
Oliver Cromwell, born in London; passed through Oxford and studied law at
the Inner Temple; subsequently he settled down on his father's estate,
and in 1621 entered Parliament, joining the opposition; he came first
into conflict with the king by refusing to contribute to a general loan
levied by Charles, and subsequently became famous by his resistance to
the ship-money tax; he was a member of the Short Parliament, and played a
prominent part in the more eventful transactions of the Long Parliament;
an attempt on Charles's part to seize Hampden and four other members
precipitated the Civil War; he took an active part in organising the
Parliamentary forces, and proved himself a brave and skilful general in
the field; he fell mortally wounded while opposing Prince Rupert in a
skirmish at Chalgrove Field; historians unite in extolling his nobility
of character, statesmanship, and single-minded patriotism (1594-1643).

HAMPDEN, RENN DICKSON, theologian and bishop, born in Barbadoes;
became a Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, and in 1832 delivered his
celebrated Bampton lectures on the "Scholastic Philosophy considered in
its Relation to Christian Theology," which drew upon him the charge of
heresy and produced an embittered controversy in the Church of England;
he was successively Principal, professor of Moral Philosophy, and of
Divinity at St. Mary's Hall, and became bishop of Hereford in 1847

HAMPOLE, RICHARD ROLLE, "the Hermit of Hampole," born at Thornton,
Yorkshire; studied at Oxford, and at the age of 19 turned hermit; was the
author of "The Pricke of Conscience," a lengthy poem of a religious
character (1290-1349).

HAMPSHIRE, HANTS (690), a maritime county of S. England, fronting
the English Channel between Dorset on the W. and Sussex on the E.; in the
NE. are the "rolling Downs," affording excellent sheep pasturage, while
the SW. is largely occupied by the New Forest; the Test, Itchen, and Avon
are principal rivers flowing to the S.; besides the usual cereals, hops
are raised, while Hampshire bacon and honey are celebrated; Southampton,
Portsmouth, and Gosport are the chief trading and manufacturing towns.

HAMPSTEAD (68), a Parliamentary borough of Middlesex, has a hilly
and bright situation, 4 m. NW. of London; is a popular place of resort
with Londoners, and contains many fine suburban residences; beyond the
village is the celebrated Heath; many literary associations are connected
with the place; the famous Kit-Cat Club of Steele and Addison's time is
now a private house on the Heath; here lived Keats, Leigh Hunt,
Coleridge, Hazlitt, &c.

HAMPTON (4), a village of Middlesex, on the Thames, 15 m. SW. of
London; in the vicinity is HAMPTON COURT PALACE, a royal residence
down to George II.'s time, and which was built originally by Wolsey, who
presented it to Henry VIII.; in William III.'s time considerable
alterations were made under the guidance of Wren; there is a fine
picture-gallery and gardens; it is now occupied by persons of good family
in reduced circumstances; the HAMPTON COURT CONFERENCE to settle
ecclesiastical differences took place here in 1604 under the presidency
of James I., and the decisions at which proved unsatisfactory to the
Puritan members of it; it was here at the suggestion of Dr. Reynolds the
authorised version of the Bible was undertaken.

HANAU (25), a Prussian town in Hesse-Nassau, at the junction of the
Kinzig and the Main, 11 m. NE. of Frankfurt; is celebrated for its
jewellery and gold and silver work, and is otherwise a busy manufacturing
town; it is the birthplace of the brothers Grimm.

HANCOCK, WINFIELD SCOTT, a noted American general, born near
Philadelphia; he had already graduated and served with distinction in the
Mexican War, when, on the outbreak of the Civil War, he received a
commission as brigadier-general of volunteers; he led a heroic charge at
Fredericksburg, and in 1864 his gallant conduct in many a hard-fought
battle was rewarded by promotion to a major-generalship in the regular
army; subsequently he held important commands in the departments of
Missouri, Dakota, &c., and in 1880 unsuccessfully opposed Garfield for
the Presidency (1824-1886).

HAeNDEL, musical composer, born at Halle; distinguished for his
musical ability from his earliest years; was sent to Berlin to study when
he was 14; began his musical career as a performer at Hamburg in 1703;
produced his first opera in 1704; spent six years in Italy, devoting
himself to his profession the while; came, on invitation, to England in
1710, where, being well received, he resolved to remain, and where, year
after year--as many as nearly fifty of them--he added to his fame by his
diligence as a composer; he produced a number of operas and oratorios;
among the latter may be noted his "Saul," his "Samson," and "Judas
Maccabaeus," and pre-eminently the "Messiah," his masterpiece, and which
fascinates with a charm that appeals to and is appreciated by initiated
and uninitiated alike (1684-1759).

HANG-CHOW (800), a Chinese town, a treaty-port since the recent war
with Japan; is at the mouth of the Tsien-tang at the entrance of the
Imperial Canal, 110 m. SW. of Shanghai; it is an important literary,
religious, and commercial centre; has flourishing silk factories, and is
noted for its gold and silver ware.

HANGING GARDENS, THE, OF BABYLON, one of the seven wonders of the
world, had an area of four acres, formed a square, were a series of
terraces supported by pillars sloping upwards like a pyramid and seeming
to hang in air; they are ascribed to Semiramis.

HANIF, name given to a Mohammedan or an Arab of rigidly monotheistic

HANKOW (750), a Chinese river-port, at the confluence of the Han and
Yangtsze Rivers; it is properly an extension of the large towns Wu-chang
and Han-yang; there is a considerable amount of shipping; tea is the
principal article of export, and a large trade is carried on with the
inland provinces.

HANLEY (85), a busy manufacturing town in the "Potteries," 18 m. N.
of Stafford; coal and iron are wrought in the neighbourhood.

HANMER, SIR THOMAS, Speaker of the House of Commons; elected in
1713, discharged the duties of the office with conspicuous impartiality;
published an edition of Shakespeare (1677-1746).

HANNAY, JAMES, a novelist and critic, born in Dumfries; spent his
boyhood in the navy, on quitting which he settled in London and took to
letters; was for a time editor of the _Edinburgh Courant_, a Tory paper,
and subsequently consul at Barcelona, where he died; he knew English
literature and wrote English well (1827-1873).

HANNIBAL, the great Carthaginian general, son of HAMILCAR
(q. v.); learned the art of war under his father in Spain; subjugated
all Spain south of the Ebro by the capture of the Roman allied city of
Saguntum, which led to the outbreak of the Second Punic War and his
leading his army through hostile territory over the Pyrenees and the Alps
into Italy; defeated the Romans in succession at the Ticinus, the Trebia,
and Lake Trasimenus, to the extirpation of the army sent against him;
passed the Apennines and descended into Apulia, where, after being
harassed by the tantalising policy of Fabius Maximus, he met the Romans
at Cannae in 216 B.C. and inflicted on them a crushing defeat, retiring
after this into winter quarters at Capua, where his soldiers became
demoralised; he next season began to experience a succession of reverses,
which ended in the evacuation of Italy and the transfer of the seat of
war to Africa, where Hannibal was met by Scipio on the field of Zama in
201 B.C. and defeated; he afterwards joined Antiochus, king of Syria,
who was at war with Rome, to his defeat there also, upon which he fled to
Prusias, king of Bithynia, where, when his surrender was demanded, he
ended his life by poisoning himself (247-183 B.C.).

HANNINGTON, JAMES, first bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, born
at Hurstpierpoint, Sussex; was ordained in 1873 after passing through
Oxford, and in 1882 undertook missionary work in Uganda, under the
auspices of the Church Missionary Society; his health breaking down when
he had gone as far as Victoria Nyanza, he returned home; but two years
later as bishop he entered upon his duties at Frere Town, near Mombasa;
in the following year he was killed by natives when making his way to the
mission station at Rubaga, in Uganda (1847-1885).

HANNO, the name of several eminent Carthaginians, one of whom,
surnamed the Great, was a persistent opponent of the Barcine faction,
headed by Hamilcar; and another was a navigator who made a voyage round
the western coast of Africa, of which he left an account in his
"Periplus" or "Circumnavigating Voyage."

HANOVER (2,278), a Prussian province since 1866, formerly an
independent kingdom; stretches N. from Westphalia to the German Ocean,
between Holland on the W. and Saxony on the E.; the district is well
watered by the Elbe, Weser, and Ems; in the S. are the Harz Mountains;
for the rest the land is flat, and much of it is occupied by
uncultivated moors; agriculture and cattle-rearing are, however, the
chief industries, while the minerals of the Harz are extensively wrought;
in 1714 George Ludwig, second Elector of Hanover, succeeded Anne on the
English throne as her nearest Protestant kinsman, and till 1837 the dual
rule was maintained, Hanover meanwhile in 1814 having been made a
kingdom; in 1837 the Hanoverian crown passed to the Duke of Cumberland,
Queen Victoria, as a woman, being ineligible; in 1866 the kingdom was
conquered and annexed by Prussia.

HANOVER (164), the capital, is situated on the Leine, 78 m. SE. of
Bremen; it consists of an old and a new portion; presents a handsome
appearance, and its many fine buildings include the royal library
(170,000 vols.), the Kestner Museum, several palaces and art-galleries,
&c.; it is the centre of the North German railway system, and its many
industries embrace iron-works, the manufacture of pianos, tobacco, linen,

HANSARD, record of the proceedings and debates in the British
Parliament, published by the printers Hansard, the founder of the firm
being Luke Hansard, a printer of Norwich, who came to London in 1770 as a
compositor, and succeeded as proprietor of the business in which he was a
workman; _d_. 1828.

HANSEATIC LEAGUE, a combination of towns in North-western Germany
for the mutual protection of their commerce against the pirates of the
Baltic and the mutual defence of their liberties against the
encroachments of neighbouring princes; it dates from 1241, and flourished
for several centuries, to the extension of their commerce far and wide;
numbered at one time 64 towns, and possessed fleets and armies, an
exchequer, and a government of their own; the League dwindled down during
the Thirty Years' War to six cities, and finally to three, Hamburg,
Luebeck, and Bremen.

HANSTEEN, CHRISTOPH, a Norwegian astronomer and mathematician, born
in Christiania, where he became professor of Mathematics; is famous for
his researches and discoveries in connection with the magnetism of the
earth, and the impetus he gave to the study of it; he prosecuted his
magnetic researches as far as the E. of Siberia, and published the
results (1784-1873).

HANSWURST (i. e. Jack Pudding), a pantomimic character in comic
performances on the German stage; a great favourite at one time with the
vulgar; distinguished for his awkwardness, his gluttonous appetite, and
his rotundity.

HANUMAN, the monkey-god of the Hindus, a friend of Rama, for whose
benefit he reared a causeway across seas to Ceylon.

HANWAY, JONAS, a traveller and philanthropist, born in Portsmouth;
travelled through Russia and Persia, and settled in London as one of the
navy commissariat; devoted himself to the reclaiming and befriending of
unfortunates of all kinds; was a man of very eccentric ways (1712-1786).

HAPSBURG or HABSBURG, HOUSE OF, a famous royal house which has
played a leading part in the history of Continental Europe from its
foundation in the 12th century by Albert, Count of Hapsburg, and which is
represented to-day by the Imperial family of Austria. Representatives of
this family wore the Imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire for
centuries. It takes its name from the castle of Habsburg or Habichtaburg,
on the Aar, built by Werner, bishop of Strasburg, in the 11th century, a
castle, however, which has long since ceased to be in the possession of
the family.

HARBOUR GRACE (7), a seaport and the second town of Newfoundland,
lies on the W. side of Conception Bay, 84 m. NW. of St. John's; its
commodious harbour is somewhat exposed; it is the seat of a Roman
Catholic bishop, and has a cathedral and convent.

HARBURG (35), a prospering Prussian seaport in Lueneburg, on the
Elbe, 5 m. S. of Hamburg; its industries embrace gutta-percha goods, oil,
chemicals, &c.; is a favourite watering-place.

HARCOURT, SIR WILLIAM VERNON, statesman, born, a clergyman's son, at
Nuneham Park, Oxfordshire; was highly distinguished at Cambridge, and in
1854 was called to the bar; was a Q.C. in 1866, and professor of
International Law at Cambridge (1869-87); he won considerable repute by
his articles in the _Saturday Review_ and his "Historicus" letters to the
_Times_, and in 1868 entered Parliament, representing Oxford in the
Liberal interest; in 1873 he became Solicitor-General, and received a
knighthood; he was a vigorous opponent of the Disraeli Government, and on
the return of the Liberals to power in 1880 became Home Secretary; under
Mr. Gladstone in 1886, and again in 1892, he held the office of
Chancellor of the Exchequer; he staunchly supported Mr. Gladstone in his
Home Rule policy; became leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons
on Mr. Gladstone's retirement, a post which for party reasons he resigned
in 1899; _b_. 1827.


HARDENBERG PRINCE VON, a Prussian statesman, born in Hanover; after
service in Hanover and Brunswick entered that of Prussia under William
II., and became Chancellor of State under William III.; distinguished
himself by the reforms he introduced in military and civic matters to the
benefit of the country, though he was restrained a good deal by the
reactionary proclivities of the king (1750-1822).

HARDICANUTE, king of England and Denmark, the son of Canute and his
successor on the Danish throne; was king of England only in part till the
death of his brother Harold, whom he survived only two years, but long
enough to alienate his subjects by the re-imposition of the Danegelt;
_d_. 1642.

HARDING, JOHN, or HARDYNG, an English rhyming chronicler in the
reign of Edward IV.; had been a soldier, and fought at Agincourt

HARDING, STEPHEN, a Benedictine monk, born in Devonshire, of noble
descent, a born ascetic, who set himself to restore his order to its
primitive austerity; retired with a few others into a dismal secluded
place at Citeaux, and became abbot; was joined there by the great St.
Bernard, his kindred, and followers, to the great aggrandisement of the
order; _d_. 1134.

HARDINGE, HENRY, VISCOUNT, a distinguished soldier and
Governor-General of India, born at Wrotham, Kent; joined the army in
1798, and served through the Peninsular and Waterloo campaigns, but
wounded at Ligny he was unable to take part in the final struggle with
Napoleon; he now turned his attention to politics; was Secretary of War
under Wellington, and subsequently twice Chief Secretary for Ireland; in
1844 he was appointed Governor-General of India, and later distinguished
himself under Gough in the first Sikh War; a viscountship and pension
followed in 1845, and seven years later he succeeded Wellington as
Commander-in-Chief of the British army (1785-1856).

HARDOUIN, JEAN, a French classical scholar, born at Quimper,
Brittany; early entered the Jesuit order; was from 1683 librarian of the
College of Louis le Grand in Paris; he is chiefly remembered for his wild
assertion that the bulk of classical literature was spurious, and the
work of 13th-century monks; Virgil's "AEneid" he declared to be an
allegorical account of St. Peter's journey to Rome, and the original
language of the New Testament to be Latin; his edition of Pliny, however,
evinces real scholarship (1646-1729).

HARDWAR, a town on the Ganges, 39 m. NE. of Saharunpur, North-West
Provinces; famous for its large annual influx of pilgrims seeking
ablution in the sacred river; a sacred festival held every twelfth year
attracts some 300,000 persons.

HARDY, THOMAS, novelist, born in Dorsetshire, with whose scenery he
has made his readers familiar; bred an architect; first earned popularity
in 1874 by his "Far from the Madding Crowd," which was followed by, among
others, "The Return of the Native," "The Woodlanders," and "Tess of the
D'Urbervilles," the last in 1892, books which require to be read in order
to appreciate the genius of the author; _b_. 1840.

HARDY, SIR THOMAS DUFFUS, an eminent palaeographer, born in Jamaica;
he acquired his skill in MS. deciphering as a clerk in the Record Office
in the Tower; in 1861 he was elected deputy-keeper of the Public Records,
and nine years later received a knighthood; his great learning is
displayed in his editions of various "Rolls" for the Record Commission,
in his "Descriptive Catalogue of MSS.," &c. (1804-1878).

HARDY, SIR THOMAS MASTERMAN, BART., a brave naval officer, whose
name is associated with the closing scene of Nelson's life, born at
Portisham, in Dorsetshire; as a commander in the battle of the Nile he
greatly distinguished himself, and gained his post-commission to Nelson's
flagship, the _Vanguard_; at Trafalgar he commanded the _Victory_, and
subsequently brought Nelson's body to England; he received a baronetcy,
and saw further service, eventually attaining to the rank of vice-admiral

HARE, JULIUS CHARLES, archdeacon of Lewes, born at Vicenza; took
orders in the Church, and in 1832 became, in succession to his uncle,
rector of Hurstmonceaux, in Sussex, the advowson of which was in his
family, in which rectory he laboured till his death; he was of the school
of Maurice; wrote "The Mission of the Comforter," and with his brother
Augustus "Guesses at Truth"; had John Sterling as his curate for a short
time, and edited his remains as well as wrote his Life, the latter in so
exclusively ecclesiastical a reference as to dissatisfy Carlyle, his
joint-trustee, and provoke him, as in duty bound, to write another which
should exhibit their common friend in the more interesting light of a man
earnestly struggling with the great burning problems of the time, calling
for some wise solution by all of us, church and no church (1795-1855).

HAREM, the apartment or suite of apartments in a Mohammedan's house
for the female inmates and their attendants, and the name given to the
collective body of them.

HARFLEUR, a village in France with a strong fortress, 4 m. S. of
Havre, taken by Henry V. in 1415, and retaken afterwards by both French
and English, becoming finally French in 1450.

HARGRAVES, EDMUND, discoverer of the gold-field in Australia, born
at Gosport, Devon; had been to California, concluded that as the
geological formation was the same in Australia where he had come from, he
would find gold there too and found it in New South Wales in 1851, for
which the Government gave him L10,000 (1818-1890).

HARGREAVES, JAMES, inventor of the spinning-jenny, born at
Standhill, near Blackburn; was a poor and illiterate weaver when in 1760
he, in conjunction with Robert Peel, brought out a carding-machine; in
1766 he invented the spinning-jenny, a machine which has since
revolutionised the cotton-weaving industry, but which at the time evoked
the angry resentment of the hand-weaver; he was driven from his native
town and settled in Nottingham, where he started a spinning-mill; he
failed to get his machine patented, and died in comparative poverty

HARI-KARI, called also a "happy despatch," a form of suicide, now
obsolete, permitted to offenders of high rank to escape the indignity of
a public execution; the nature of it may be gathered from the name, "a
gash in the belly."

HAeRING, WILHELM, German novelist, born at Breslau; bred for law, but
abandoned it for literature; wrote two romances, "Walladmor" and "Schloss
Avalon," under the pseudonym of "Walter Scott," which imposed upon some;
he afterwards assumed the name of Wilibald Alexis, a name by which he was
long honourably known (1797-1871).

HARINGTON, SIR JOHN, courtier and miscellaneous writer, translated
by desire of Queen Elizabeth Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso" (1561-1612).

HARIRI, Arabic philologist and poet of the 11th century, born at
Bassorah; celebrated far and wide as the author of "Makameat," a
collection of tales in verse, the central figure in which is one Abu
Seid, a clever and amusing production, and evincing a unique mastery of

HARLAW, BATTLE OF, a battle fought at Harlaw, 18 m. NW. of Aberdeen,
on 24th July 1411, which decided the supremacy of the Lowland Scots over
the Highland.

HARLECH, an old Welsh town in Merionethshire, facing the sea, 10 m.
N. of Barmouth; its grim old castle by the shore was a Lancastrian
fortress during the Wars of the Roses, and its capture by the Yorkists in
1468 was the occasion of the well-known song, "The March of the Men of

HARLEQUIN, a character in a Christmas pantomime, in love with
Columbine, presumed to be invisible, and deft at tricks to frustrate
those of the clown, who is his rival lover.

HARLEY, ROBERT, EARL OF OXFORD, a celebrated English politician,
born of good family; entered Parliament shortly after the Revolution
(1688) as a Whig, but after a period of vacillation threw in his lot with
Tories and in 1701 became Speaker of the House; in 1704 he was associated
with St. John (Bolingbroke) in the Cabinet as Secretary of State, and set
about undermining the influence of Godolphin and Marlborough; he became
Chancellor of the Exchequer and head of the Government; was created Earl
of Oxford and Lord High Treasurer; from this point his power began to
wane; was displaced by Bolingbroke at last in 1715; was impeached for
intriguing with the Jacobites and sent to the Tower; two years later he
was released, and the remainder of his life was spent in the pursuit of
letters and in the building up of his famous collection of MSS., now
deposited in the British Museum (1661-1724).

HARMATTAN, a hot withering wind blowing over the coast of Guinea to
the Atlantic from the interior of Africa, more or less from December to

HARMODIUS, an Athenian who in 514 B.C. conspired with
Aristogeiton, his friend, against Hipparchus and his brother Hippias, the
tyrant, but being betrayed were put to death; they figured in the
traditions of Athens as political martyrs, and as such were honoured with

HARNACK, ADOLF, a German theologian, born at Dorpat; professor
successively at Giessen, Marburg, and Berlin; has written on the history
of dogma in the Christian Church, on Gnosticism, early Christian
literature, and the Apostles' Creed, on the latter offensively to the
orthodox; B. 1851.

HAROLD I., king of England from 1035 to 1040, younger son of Cnut;
the kingdom was practically divided between him and his brother
Harthacnut; but the latter remaining in Denmark to protect his
possessions there, England passed into Harold's hands.

HAROLD II., the last of the Saxon kings of England, held the crown
for a few months in 1066, was the second son of the great EARL
GODWIN (q. v.); in 1053 he succeeded his father in the earldom of
the West Saxons, and during the later years of Edward's feeble rule was
virtual administrator of the kingdom; on his accession to the throne his
title was immediately challenged by his brother Tostig, and William, Duke
of Normandy; having crushed his brother's invasion at Stamford Bridge, he
immediately hurried S. to meet the forces of William at Hastings. Norman
strategy won the day, and Harold fell in the battle pierced through the
eye by an arrow; historians unite in ascribing to him every kingly
quality--a noble presence, sagacity, and a brave yet gentle nature.

HAROLD I. OF NORWAY, surnamed _Haarfager_ (fair-haired), by him the
petty kingdoms of Norway were all conquered and knit into one compact
realm; the story goes that he undertook this work to win the hand of his
lady-love, and that he swore an oath neither to cut nor comb his hair
till his task was done; _d_. 930.

HAROUN-AL-RASCHID ("Aaron the Orthodox or Just"), the most renowned
of the Abbaside caliphs; succeeded to the caliphate in 786 on the death
of his elder brother, El Hadi, and had for grand-vizier the Barmacide
Yahya, to whom with his four sons he committed the administration of
affairs, he the while making his court a centre of attraction to wise
men, scholars, and artists, so that under him Bagdad became the capital
of the civilised world; his glory was tarnished by one foul blot towards
the end of his reign, and that was the massacre out of jealousy of the
Barmacide family, members of which had contributed so much to his fame,
an act which he had soon occasion to repent, for it was followed by an
insurrection which cost him his life; the halo that invests his memory
otherwise was, however, more fabulous than real, and history shows him at
his best to have been avaricious, resentful, and cruel.

HARPIES, fabulous ravenous creatures, living in filth and defiling
everything they touch, with the head and breast of a woman, the wings and
claws of a bird, and a face pale with hunger, the personification of
whirlwinds and storms, conceived of as merely ravening, wasting powers.

HARRINGTON, JAMES, political writer; author of a political romance
entitled "The Commonwealth of Oceana," in which he argued that all secure
government must be based on property, and for a democracy on this basis

HARRIS, HOWEL, a noted Welsh Methodist, born at Trevecca, Brecon;
embracing Calvinism, he at the age of 21 became an itinerant preacher,
confining himself chiefly to Wales; in 1752 he took up his abode at
Trevecca, where he erected a large house to accommodate those who sought
his ministrations (1714-1773).

HARRIS, JOEL CHANDLER, American writer, born in Georgia, U.S.;
author of "Uncle Remus," his chief work a study of negro folk-lore,
followed by interesting sketches and stories; _b_. 1848.

HARRIS, LUKE, founder of the "Brotherhood of the New Life," born in
Buckinghamshire, a spiritualistic Socialist; his system founded on
SWEDENBORGIANISM (q. v.) on the one hand and a form of communism
on the other, with a scriptural Christianity spiritualised as backbone;
the destiny of man he regards as angelhood, or a state of existence like
that of God, in which the unity of sex, or fatherhood and motherhood,
meet in one; the late Laurence Oliphant and the late John Pulsford were
among his disciples; _b_. 1823.

HARRISBURG (50), capital of Pennsylvania, is beautifully situated on
the Susquehanna, 106 m. NW. of Philadelphia; the industries include
extensive iron and steel works and a flourishing lumber trade.

HARRISON, BENJAMIN. President of the United States and grandson of
William Henry Harrison, a former President, born at North Bend, Ohio;
started as a lawyer in Indianapolis, became an important functionary in
the court of Indiana, and subsequently proved himself a brave and
efficient commander during the Civil War; engaging actively in politics,
he in 1880 became a United States Senator; as the nominee of the
Protectionist and Republican party he won the Presidency against
Cleveland, but at the election of 1892 the positions were reversed; in
1893 he became a professor in San Francisco; _b_. 1833.

HARRISON, FREDERIC, barrister, born in London, professor of
Jurisprudence in the Inns of Court; author of articles contributed to
Reviews and Essays, and of Lectures on a variety of current questions,
historical, social, and religious, from the standpoint of the positivism
of Auguste Comte, with his somewhat vague "Religion of Humanity" is the
author of "Order and Progress," the "Choice of Books," &c.; _b_. 1831.

HARRISON, JOHN, a celebrated mechanician, born at Foulby, Yorkshire;
was the first to invent a chronometer which, by its ingenious apparatus
for compensating the disturbing effects caused by variations of climate,
enabled mariners to determine longitude to within a distance of 18 m.; by
this invention he won a prize of L20,000 offered by Government; amongst
other things he invented the compensating _gridiron pendulum_, still in
use (1693-1776).

HARRISON, WILLIAM, a noted historical writer, born in London;
graduated at Cambridge, and after serving as chaplain to Lord Cobham,
received the rectorship of Radwinter, in Essex; subsequently he became
canon of Windsor; his fame rests on two celebrated historical works,
"Description of England," an invaluable picture of social life and
institutions in Elizabethan times, and "Description of Britain," written
for Holinshed's "Chronicle" (1534-1593).

HARROGATE or HARROWGATE (14), a popular watering-place,
prettily situated amid forest and moorland, in the West Riding of
Yorkshire, 20 m. NW. of York; it enjoys a wide repute for its sulphurous,
saline, and chalybeate springs.

HARROW (6), a town of Middlesex, built on an eminence 200 ft. high,
12 m. from St. Paul's, London; its church, St. Mary's, founded by
Lanfranc, is a Gothic structure of great architectural interest. Harrow
School, a celebrated public school, was founded in 1571 for the free
education of 30 poor boys of the parish, but subsequently opened its
doors to "foreigners," and now numbers upwards of 500 pupils.

HARRY, BLIND, a famous Scottish minstrel who flourished in the 15th
century; the few particulars of his life which have come down to us
represent him as a blind and vagrant poet, living by reciting poems
"before princes and peers"; to him is attributed the celebrated poem,
"The Life of that Noble Champion of Scotland, Sir William Wallace,
Knight," completed about 1488, a spirited, if partly apocryphal, account
of Wallace, running to 11,861 lines in length.

HART, SOLOMON ALEXANDER, born at Plymouth; served as an engraver's
apprentice in London; studied at the Royal Academy, and excelled in
miniature painting; he became celebrated as a painter of historical
scenes and characters, and in 1854 was appointed professor of Painting in
the Royal Academy, and subsequently librarian; his works include "Henry
I. receiving intelligence of the Death of his Son," "Milton visiting
Galileo in Prison," "Wolsey and Buckingham," "Lady Jane Grey in the
Tower," &c. (1806-1881).

HARTE, BRET, American humourist, born at Albany, New York; went to
California at 15; tried various occupations, mining, school-mastering,
printing, and literary sketching, when he got on the staff of a
newspaper, and became eventually first editor of the _Overland Monthly_,
in the columns of which he established his reputation as a humourist by
the publication of the "Heathen Chinee" and other humorous productions,
such as "The Luck of Roaring Camp"; he wields a prolific pen, and all he
writes is of his own original coinage; _b_. 1839.

HARTFORD (80), the capital of Connecticut, U.S., on the
Connecticut, 50 m. from its mouth and 112 m. NE. of New York; is
handsomely laid out, and contains an imposing white marble capitol,
Episcopalian and Congregational colleges, hospitals, libraries, &c.; is
an important depot for the manufacture of firearms, iron-ware, tobacco,
&c., and is an important banking and insurance centre.

HARTLEPOOL (65), a seaport of Durham, situated on a tongue of land
which forms the Bay of Hartlepool, 4 m. N. of the Tees estuary; the chief
industries are shipbuilding, cement works, and a shipping trade, chiefly
in coal and iron. WEST HARTLEPOOL (43), lies on the opposite and
south side of the bay, 1 m. distant, but practically forming one town
with Hartlepool, and carries on a similar trade, but on a somewhat larger
scale; the extensive docks, stretching between the two towns, cover an
area of 300 acres.

HARTLEY, DAVID, an English philosopher and physician; wrote
"Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his Expectations";
ascribed sensation to vibration in the nerves, and applied the doctrine
of the association of ideas to mental phenomena (1705-1757).

HARTMANN, a German philosopher, born at Berlin; established his fame
by a work entitled the "Philosophy of the Unconscious," which rapidly
passed through nine editions; he has since written on pessimism, the
moral and the religious consciousness, the philosophy of the beautiful,
and spiritualism; he is the founder of a new school of philosophy, which
professes to be a synthesis of that of Hegel and that of Schopenhauer,
and to aim at the reconciliation of philosophic results with scientific;
_b_. 1842.

HARTMANN, MORITZ, a German poet; had a keen sympathy with the
liberal political ideas that prevailed in 1848, and which his poems
contributed to foster, and on account of which he got into trouble

HARTZENBUSCH, JUAN EUGENIO, Spanish dramatist, born at Madrid, of
German extraction; was educated under the Jesuits, but abandoned his
intention of joining the Church, took to literature, and was given a post
in the National Library at Madrid; his dramas are fresh and vigorous, and
enjoy a wide popularity; he rose to be Director of the National Library,
and in 1852 was President of the Theatrical Council (1806-1880).

HARUS`PICES, among the Romans, soothsayers who affected to foretell
future events by the inspection of the entrails of animals offered in
sacrifice, as well as by study of abnormal phenomena.

HARVARD UNIVERSITY, the oldest and premier educational institution
in the United States, is located at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 3 m. W. of
Boston; it is named after the Rev. John Harvard, a graduate of Cambridge,
who by the bequest of his library and small fortune helped to launch the
institution in 1638; it was originally intended for the training of
youths for the Puritan ministry, but it has during the present century
been extended into a university of the first rank, under emancipation
from all sectarian control; it has a student roll of about 3000, is
splendidly equipped, and now richly endowed.

HARVEST-MOON, the full moon which in our latitude, at the autumnal
equinox, rises for an evening or two about the same time.

HARVEY, SIR GEORGE, a Scotch artist, born at St. Ninians, Stirling;
was one of the original associates of the Royal Scottish Academy, of
which he at length became president; among his paintings are the
"Covenanters' Preaching," "The Curlers," and "John Bunyan in Jail"

HARVEY, WILLIAM, a celebrated English physician, born at Folkestone,
in Kent; graduated at Cambridge, and in 1602 received his medical diploma
at Padua; settling in London, he in a few years became physician to St.
Bartholomew's Hospital, and subsequently lecturer at the College of
Physicians; in 1628 he announced in a published treatise his discovery of
the circulation of the blood; for many years he was Court physician, and
attended Charles I. at the battle of Edgehill (1578-1657).

HARWICH (8), a seaport and market town of Essex; is situated on a
headland on the S. side of the conjoined estuaries of the Stour and the
Orwell, 5 m. N. of the Naze and 65 m. NE. of London; it is an important
packet station for Holland, has a good harbour and docks, with an
increasing commerce.

HARZ MOUNTAINS, a mountain range of N. Germany, stretching for 57 m.
between the Weser and the Elbe to the S. of Brunswick; it forms a
picturesque and diversified highland, is a favourite resort of tourists,
and rises to its greatest elevation in the far-famed _BROCKEN_
(q. v.); the scene of the Walpurgisnacht in "Faust"; silver, iron, and
other metals are found in considerable quantities, and, with the
extensive forests, give rise to a prosperous mining and timber industry.

HASDRUBAL, the name of several distinguished Carthaginian generals,
of whom the most noted were (1), the son of HAMILCAR BARCA (q. v.)
and brother of HANNIBAL (q. v.); he played a prominent part
in the Second Punic War, conquered Cn. Scipio in Spain (212 B.C.), and
subsequently commanded the Carthaginian army in Italy; he fell at the
battle of the Metaurus in 207 B.C.: (2) the brother-in-law of Hamilcar
Barca, whom he succeeded in 228 B.C. as administrator of the new empire
in the Iberian peninsula; he pushed the western frontiers back to the
Tagus, and by his strong yet conciliatory government firmly established
the Carthaginian power; he was assassinated in 221 B.C.

HASE, KARL AUGUST, an eminent German theologian, born at Steinbach,
Saxony, professor at Jena; author of a "Text-book of Evangelical Dogma,"
a "Life of Christ," a "Church History," &c., was equally opposed to
orthodoxy and rationalism, and sought to reconcile the creed of the
Church with the conclusions of science (1800-1890).

HASHISH, an intoxicant made from Indian hemp, having different
effects on different individuals according to the dose and to the
constitution of the individual.

HASLINGDEN (18), a busy market-town of Lancashire, 19 m. NW. of
Manchester; has flourishing cotton, silk, and woollen factories, and in
the vicinity are coal-mines, iron-works, &c.

HASSAN PASHA, a Turkish grand-vizier of African birth; twice reduced
the beys of Egypt; commanded, at the age of 85, the Turkish forces
against Russia in 1788, but being defeated, was dismissed and put to
death in 1790.

HASSELT (13); a Belgian town, capital of the province of Limburg, 47
m. NE. of Brussels; distilling, and the manufacture of lace, linen, and
tobacco are the staple industries.

HASTINGS (61), a popular holiday and health resort in Sussex;
occupies a fine situation on the coast, with lofty cliffs behind, 33 m.
E. of Brighton; has a splendid esplanade 3 m. long, parks, public
gardens, &c., and ruins of a castle.

HASTINGS, BATTLE OF, fought on 14th October 1066, on Senlac Hill, 6
m. NW. of Hastings (where now stands the little town of Battle), between
William, Duke of Normandy and Harold II., King of England; victory rested
with the Normans, and Harold was slain on the field.

India; entering the army in 1771, he saw active service in the American
War and in Holland; succeeded his father in the earldom of Moira; was in
1813 appointed to the Governor-Generalship of India; he was instrumental
in extending the Company's territories, and pacifying the warlike
Goorkhas, for which, in 1816, he was created Marquis of Hastings;
latterly he held the Governorship of Malta (1754-1826).

HASTINGS, WARREN, first Governor-General of India, born at
Churchill, Oxfordshire; early left an orphan, he was maintained at
Westminster School by his uncle, and at 17 received a clerkship in the
East India Company; for 14 years his life was occupied in mercantile and
political work, at the close of which time he returned to England; in
1769 he was back in India as a member of the Madras Council; married the
divorced wife of Baron Imhoff, and in 1772 was appointed President of the
Council in Bengal; under the new arrangement for the governing of the
provinces, Hastings was raised to the position of Governor-General in
1773; despite jealousies and misrepresentations both among his colleagues
in India and the home authorities, he steadily, and with untiring energy,
extended and brought into orderly government the British dominions; in
1785 he voluntarily resigned, and on his return he was impeached before
the House of Lords for oppression of the natives, and for conniving at
the plunder of the Begums or dowager-princesses of Oudh; the trial
brought forth the greatest orators of the day, Burke, Fox, and Sheridan
leading the impeachment, which, after dragging on for nearly eight years,
resulted in the acquittal of Hastings on all the charges; his fortune
having been consumed by the enormous expenses of the trial, he was
awarded a handsome pension by the Company, and thereafter lived in
honoured retirement (1732-1818).

HATCH, EDWIN, theologian, born at Derby; graduated at Oxford, and
was for some years professor of Classics in Trinity College, Toronto; in
1867 was appointed Vice-Principal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford; Rector of
Purleigh, Essex, in 1883; reader in Ecclesiastical History at Oxford; he
held the Grinfield, Bampton, and Hibbert lectureships at different times,
and established a reputation, both abroad and at home, for wide and
accurate scholarship; HARNACK (q. v.) translated his learned
lectures on "The Organisation of the Early Christian Churches"; and "The
Growth of Church Institutions" displayed his rare gift of combining
profound scholarship with popular presentation (1835-1889).

HATFIELD, or BISHOP'S HATFIELD (4), a market-town of
Hertfordshire, 18 m. NW. of London; its parish church dates from the 13th
century, and in the vicinity stands Hatfield House, a noble architectural
pile of James I.'s time, the seat of the Marquis of Salisbury.

HATHERLEY, BARON, barrister, elected to represent Oxford in
Parliament; in 1847 was Solicitor-General, in 1853 raised to the bench,
and in 1868 made Lord Chancellor; retired in 1872 from failing sight

HATHRAS (39), an important commercial town in the NW. Provinces,
India, 97 m. SE. of Delhi; exports large quantities of sugar, grain,
cotton, &c., and is famed for its beautiful carved stone-and-wood-work.

HATS AND CAPS, the name of two political factions in Sweden in the
middle of the 18th century, the former favouring France and the latter

HATTERAS, CAPE, a low sandy headland of a small island separated
from the mainland of N. Carolina, U.S., by Pimlico Sound; it is a
storm-swept and treacherous point, and is marked by a powerful light, 190
ft. high.

HATTI-SHERIFF, a name given to an edict of the Sultan which is
irrevocable, though many a one of them has proved a dead letter.

HATTO, archbishop of Mainz, of whom tradition alleges that he was
assailed in his palace by an army of mice, to escape whose ravages he
retired to a tower on the Rhine, whither the mice followed him and ate
him up, a judgment due, as is alleged, to his having, during a great
famine in 970, gathered the poor into a barn and burnt them to death, as
"like mice, good only for devouring corn," he said.

HAUBERK, a coat or tunic of mail made of interwoven steel rings and
extending below the knees.

HAUCH, HANS CARSTEN, Danish poet and novelist, born at
Frederikshald, in Norway; in 1846 he became professor of Northern
Literature at Kiel, and four years later of AEsthetics at Copenhagen; his
historical tragedies, lyrics, tales, and romances are instinct with true
poetic feeling, and are widely popular in Denmark (1790-1872).

HAUFF, WILHELM, a German prose writer, born in Stuttgart, who died
young; wrote "Memoirs of Satan" and "The Man in the Moon," and a number
of charmingly told "Tales," which have made his name famous among
ourselves (1802-1827).

HAUG, a German Orientalist, professor of Sanskrit at Poona, and
afterwards at Muenich; devoted himself to the exposition of the Zendavesta

HAUSER, KASPAR, a young man of about 16 who mysteriously appeared in
Nuernberg one day in 1828, was found to be as helpless and ignorant as a
baby, and held a letter in his hand giving an account of his history. The
mystery of his case interested Lord Stanhope, who charged himself with
the care of him, but he was enticed out of the house he was boarded in
one day, returned mortally wounded, and died soon after.

HAUSSA or HOUSSA, a subject people of Central Soudan, whose
language has become the common speech of some 15 millions of people
between the Mediterranean and the Gulf of Guinea. The language is allied
to the Hamitic tongues, and is written in modified Arabic characters.

HAUSSMAN, GEORGE EUGENE, a celebrated Prefect of the Seine, who,
while holding that position (1853-70), carried through extensive
architectural improvements in Paris, which transformed it into one of the
handsomest cities of Europe; the enormous cost entailed brought about his
dismissal, but not before he had received many distinctions, and been
ennobled by Napoleon III.; in 1881 he was elected to the Chamber of
Deputies (1809-1891).

HAUeY, RENE JUST, known as the Abbe Hauey, a French mineralogist, born
at St. Just; propounded the theory of crystallisation founded on
geometrical principles; absorbed in study, was caught napping during the
Revolution; got consequently into trouble, but was extricated out of it
by his friend and pupil, Geoffrey St.-Hilaire; was appointed professor of
Mineralogy by Napoleon (1743-1823).

HAVANA (200), fortified capital of the island of Cuba, in the West
Indies; has a spacious and securely sheltered harbour, an old Spanish
cathedral, a university, botanical garden, and several fine theatres; the
town is ill laid out, badly drained, and subject to yellow fever; the
staple industries are the raising of tobacco and sugar, and the
manufacture of cigars.

HAVEL, an important tributary of the Lower Elbe, which it joins a
few miles from Wittenberg; it rises in Mecklenburg, and takes a
circuitous course past Potsdam of 180 m.

HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY, British general, born at Bishop Wearmouth;
entered the army in 1815, and embarked in the service for India in 1823;
served in the Afghan and Sikh Wars, as also in Persia; on the outbreak of
the Mutiny he was in 1857 sent to the relief of Cawnpore and Lucknow, the
latter of which places he entered on 25th Sept., where, being beleagured,
he entrenched himself in the Residency, and held his own until November,
when Sir Colin Campbell came to his relief, but his health had been
undermined from his anxieties, and he died on the 22nd of that month; for
his services on this occasion a baronetcy and a pension of L1000 was
conferred on him, but it was too late, and the honour with the pension
was transferred to his son; he was a Christian soldier, and a commander
of the Puritan type (1795-1857).

HAVERFORDWEST (6), seaport and capital of Pembroke, Wales, prettily
situated on the Cleddan, 10 m. NE. of Milford; has a 14th-century castle
and a ruined priory; the chief industry is paper-making.

HAVERGAL, FRANCES RIDLEY, a hymn-writer, born at Astley, where her
father, known as a musical composer, was rector; was authoress of
"Ministry of Song," and collections which have been highly popular

HAVERSIAN CANALS, canals in the bones to convey the vessels that
nourish them.

HAVRE, LE (116), the second commercial port in France, on the N.
side of the Seine estuary, 143 m. NW. of Paris, in the dep. of
Seine-Inferieure; has a fine harbour, docks, &c., but shipping is
incommoded by the shifting sandbanks of the estuary, and railway
facilities are poor; it is an important centre of emigration, and its
industries embrace shipbuilding, iron-works, flour-mills, &c.

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS (named by Cook the Sandwich Islands) (90), a group
of volcanic islands, 12 in number, situated in the North Pacific; total
area somewhat larger than Yorkshire. Of the five inhabited islands Hawaii
is the largest; it contains the famous volcano, Kilauea, whose crater is
one of the world's wonders, being 9 m. in circumference, and filled with
a glowing lake of molten lava which ebbs and flows like an ocean tide.
The island of Maui has the largest crater on the earth. The climate of
the group is excellent, and vegetation (including forests) is abundant;
sugar and rice are the chief crops. Honolulu (on Oahu), with a splendid
harbour, is the capital. The islands are now under the jurisdiction of
the United States.

HAWARDEN, a town 7 m. W. of Chester, near which is Hawarden Castle,
where Mr. Gladstone resided and died.

HAWEIS, HUGH REGINALD, English churchman, born at Egham, Surrey,
incumbent of St. James's, Marylebone; was present in Italy during the
revolution there, and at several of the battles; is popular as a preacher
and lecturer, and has written a number of works on the times, on music,
Christ and Christianity, &c.; _b_. 1840.

HAWES, STEPHEN, an English poet; held a post In the household of
Henry VII.; author of an allegorical poem on the right education of a
knight, entitled "The Pastime of Pleasure"; _d_. _d_. 1503.

HAWICK (19), a prosperous and ancient town of Roxburghshire, at the
confluence of the Teviot and Slitrig, 52 m. SE. of Edinburgh; is a
flourishing centre of the tweed, yarn, and hosiery trade, and has besides
dye-works, tanneries, &c.

HAWK-EYE STATE, Iowa, U.S., so called from the name of an Indian
chief once a terror in those parts.

HAWKE, LORD, an English admiral, born in London; entered the navy at
an early age in 1747; defeated a French fleet off Finisterre and captured
six ships of the line in 1759; defeated Admiral Conflans off Belleisle;
was made a peer in 1776; _d_. 1781.

HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN, a Cornish clergyman and poet; was vicar for
40 years of Morwenstow, a parish on the N. Cornwall coast; author of
"Cornish Ballads"; was a humane man, of eccentric ways, and passionately
fond of animals; was the author of several works besides his ballads, in
particular "Echoes from Old Cornwall" and "Footprints of Former Men in
Far Cornwall" (1805-1875).

HAWKESWORTH, JOHN, a miscellaneous writer; wrote a book of
"Voyages," an account of the first voyage of Captain Cook; was a friend
of Johnson's, and associated with him in literary work (1715-1773).

HAWKINS, SIR JOHN, an English navigator and admiral, born at
Plymouth; was rear-admiral of the fleet sent against the Armada and
contributed to its defeat; has the unenviable distinction of having been
the first Englishman to traffic in slaves, which he carried off from
Africa and imported into the West Indies (1530-1595).

HAWKINS, SIR JOHN, retired attorney, born in London; wrote a
"History of Music," and edited Walton's "Complete Angler" with notes

HAWKWOOD, SIR JOHN, an English captain, born in Essex; embracing
the profession of arms, served with distinction at Crecy and Poitiers,
and was in consequence knighted by Edward III.; afterwards fought as
free-lance with his White Company in the wars of Italy, and finally in
the service of Florence, where he spent his last days and died in 1393.
For an account of his character, military ability, and manner of warfare,
see Ruskin's "Fors Clavigera."

HAWORTH (3), a village of Yorkshire, situated on a rising moorland
in the W. Biding, 2 m. SW. of Keighley, memorable as the lifelong home of
the Brontes, and their final resting-place.

HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL, American novelist, born at Salem,
Massachusetts; his early ambition was to be a literary man, and
"Twice-told Tales" was the first production by which he won distinction,
after the publication of which he spent some months at BROOK FARM
(q. v.), leaving which he married and took up house at Concord; from
1848 to 1850 he held a State appointment, and in his leisure hours wrote
his "Scarlet Letter," which appeared in the latter year, and established
his fame as a master of literature; this was followed by "The House of
the Seven Gables," "The Snow Image," "The Blithedale Romance," and
by-and-by "The Marble Faun," and "Our Old Home" (1804-1864).

HAYDN, JOSEPH, German composer, born at Rohrau, in Austria, of poor
parents; early evinced a musical talent, and became at the age of eight a
cathedral chorister; came into notice first as a street musician; soon
became a popular music-master in Vienna, and, under the patronage of the
Esterhazys, kapellmeister to Prince Nicolaus, a passionate lover of
music; he produced operas, symphonies, and oratorios, &c.; he is at his
best in quartettes and symphonies, and in "The Creation" and "The
Seasons"; he was a man of a happy disposition, and his character appears
in his music; he was known at length as Father Haydn (1732-1809).

HAYDON, BENJAMIN ROBERT, an English historical painter, born at
Plymouth; studied at the Royal Academy, and in 1807 exhibited "Joseph and
Mary resting on the Road to Egypt"; two years later occurred his
memorable split with the Royal Academy over a supposed slight to his
picture, "Dentatus"; "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem" brought him L1700 by
exhibition, and his "Judgment of Solomon," considered his finest work,
sold for 700 guineas; despite large sums obtained for "The Mock
Election," "The Reform Banquet," &c., he was continually in debt, and his
high-strung, sensitive temperament, smarting under imaginary slights and
weary of unrealised ambitions, led him to commit suicide by shooting
himself in his studio; he was an artist of great but unequal genius; he
was fascinated with the Elgin Marbles, and the admiration he expressed
for them contributed to persuade the Government to purchase them

HAYES, ISAAC ISRAEL, Arctic explorer, born in Pennsylvania; after
graduating in medicine, joined the Kane expedition in search of Franklin
in 1853, and subsequently made two other voyages to the Arctic regions,
accounts of which are given in his "An Arctic Boat-journey," "The Land of
Desolation," &c.; subsequently he served as a surgeon during the Civil
War, and sat in the New York Assembly (1832-1881).

HAYES, RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD, President of the United States, born at
Delaware, Ohio; graduated at Kenyon College, Ohio; studied law at
Harvard, and started practice at Cincinnati; he served with distinction
through the Civil War, entered Congress in 1865, and was thrice governor
of Ohio; in 1876 he was elected President in the Republican interest
after a protracted and bitterly disputed election; he did much to pacify
the South, reform the civil service, advance education, and to bring
about resumption of specie payments, measures which greatly restored the
prosperity of the country (1822-1893).

HAY-FEVER, a sort of catarrh, accompanied with paroxysms of
sneezing, irritation in the eyes, pains in the head, &c., most frequent
in early summer.

HAYLEY, WILLIAM, poet, the friend and biographer of Cowper; wrote
"Triumphs of Temper," a poem (1745-1820).

HAYM, RUDOLF, professor of Philosophy at Halle; wrote biographies of
Hegel, W. von Humboldt, and Schopenhauer; _b_. 1821.

HAYNAU, JULIUS JAKOB, BARON VON, a notorious Austrian general, born
at Cassel, Germany; entered the army in 1801, and while holding a command
during the Italian campaigns of 1848-49, crushed the revolt at Brescia
with such brutal ferocity as to gain him the name of the "Hyaena of
Brescia"; he was for a time dictator of Hungary, but his murderous
cruelty towards the subjugate people became a European scandal and led to
his removal; in London he was mobbed and narrowly escaped with his life

HAYTI (Hispaniola or Santo Domingo), next to Cuba the largest of the
W. Indian Islands, in the group of the Greater Antilles, lies midway
between Cuba on the W. and Porto Rico on the E.; its area, somewhat
larger than Scotland, is apportioned between the negro Republic of Hayti
in the E. and the mulatto Dominican Republic in the W.; the island is
mountainous, and forests of valuable timber abound; a warm, moist climate
favours rice, cotton, &c., and minerals are plentiful; but during this
century, under native government, the island has been retrogressive;
agriculture and mining are practically at a standstill, while the natives
seem incapable of self-government; the language spoken is a corrupt
French; Port-au-Prince and San Domingo are the chief towns; discovered in
1492 by Columbus, the island was soon denuded of its aboriginals, then
peopled by imported negroes, joined latterly by French buccaneers; in
1697 the island was ceded to France, but in 1791, under TOUSSAINT
L'OUVERTURE (q. v.), the blacks, after a bloody revolution, swept
the island clear of Europeans; population of island somewhat over a

HAYWARD, ABRAHAM, English essayist; bred to law, but took to
literature; executed a prose translation of "Faust," Pt. I. (1802-1884).

HAZLITT, WILLIAM, critic and essayist, born in Maidstone, of Irish
descent; began life as an artist, but abandoned art for letters, and
contributed to the reviews; wrote on the English poets and dramatists,
the "Characters of Shakespeare's Plays," "The Spirit of the Age," a "Life
of Napoleon," &c.; criticism was his _forte_, and he ranks among the
foremost devoted to that art; his life was not well regulated, his health
gave way, and he died in poverty (1778-1830).

HEAD, SIR EDMUND WALKER, BART., writer on art, born near Maidstone,
Kent, succeeded to the baronetcy in 1838; became lieutenant-governor of
New Brunswick in 1847, and governor-general of Canada in 1854; wrote
"Handbook of Spanish Painting," also "French Art," and some poems

HEAD, SIR FRANCIS BOND, soldier and author; governor of Upper
Canada; suppressed an insurrection; wrote a "Life of Bruce the African
Traveller," "Bubbles from the Brunnen of Nassau," "A Faggot of French
Sticks," &c. (1793-1875).

HEAD-HUNTERS, name given to the Dyaks of Borneo, from their habit of
preserving in the way of trophy the heads of those whom they slay in
battle, as the Red Indians did the scalps.

HEADRIGG, CUDDIE (i. e. Cuthbert), a ploughman in "Old Mortality."

HEALY, TIMOTHY MICHAEL, Irish Nationalist, born at Bantry, Cork;
came into prominence during the Land League agitation in 1880, and in the
same year was returned to Parliament; was called to the Irish bar in
1884, and has since been active in promoting the interests of the Home
Rule movement; in 1890 he was one of the leaders in the revolt against
Parnell; _b_. 1855.

HEARNE, THOMAS, a noted English antiquary, born in White Waltham,
Berks; graduated at Oxford in 1699, and subsequently became second keeper
of the Bodleian Library; his compilations and editions of old English
texts, e. g. Camden's "Annals," Robert of Gloucester's "Chronicle,"
display wide and ingenious scholarship; he figures in Pope's "Dunciad"

HEART OF MIDLOTHIAN, the old Tolbooth or jail of Edinburgh, the
capital of Midlothian, which gives name to one of Scott's best novels.

HEATHENISM, as defined by Carlyle, "plurality of gods, mere sensuous
representation of the Mystery of Life, and for chief recognised element
therein Physical Force, as contrasted with Christianism, or Faith in an
Invisible, not as real only, but as the only reality; Time, through every
meanest moment of it, resting on Eternity; Pagan empire of Force
displaced by a nobler supremacy, that of Holiness."

defender of Gibraltar, son of Sir Gilbert Eliott, born at Stobs, in
Roxburghshire; saw service first in the war of the Austrian Succession,
fighting at Dettingen and Fontenoy; as a colonel he fought with English
troops in alliance with Frederick the Great against Austria; for his
heroic defence of Gibraltar (1779-1783) against the combined forces of
France and Spain he was raised to the peerage as Baron of Gibraltar

HEAVEN, in Christian theology the place of the immediate Divine
presence, where God manifests Himself without veil, and His saints enjoy
that presence and know as they are known. In Scripture it denotes, (1)
the atmosphere, (2) the starry region, (3) a state of bliss, (4) as
defined, the divine presence, and (5) God Himself.

HEAVE-OFFERING, among the Jews, an offering for the support of
divine service, so called as, when offered, lifted up in presence of the

HEBBEL, FRIEDRICH, lyrist and dramatist, born at Weselburen,
Ditmarsh; settled in Vienna in 1846; "Die Nibelungen" is his best play,
others are "Judith," "Maria Magdalena," &c.; his dramas are vigorous and
original, but ill-proportioned, and in the passions they depict abnormal;
his works are collected in 12 vols. (1813-1863).

HEBE, goddess of eternal youth, daughter of Zeus and Hera; was the
cup-bearer of the gods; was superseded by Ganymedes, and became the wife
of Hercules after his admission among the immortals.

HEBER, REGINALD, bishop of Calcutta, born in Cheshire, author of a
prize poem entitled "Palestine" and a volume of "Hymns," several of them
famous; died at his post in Trichinopoly; left a narrative of a "Journey
through India" (1783-1826).

HEBERT, JACQUES RENE, commonly called Per Duchesne as editor of a
journal of that name, a violent revolutionary organ; took part in the
September Massacres; brutally insulted the queen at her trial, to the
disgust of Robespierre; was arrested by his colleagues, whom he dared to
oppose, and guillotined, his widow found weeping, following him to his
doom (1756-1794).

HEBREW, a Semitic language, the ancient language of the Jews, and
that in which the Old Testament is written, the words of which, as indeed
of others of the same stock, are derived from triliteral roots, and the
verb in which has no present tense, only a past and a future,
convertible, moreover, into one another.

HEBREW POETRY is of two kinds, either lyric or gnomic, i. e.
subjectively emotional or sententiously didactic, the former belonging to
the active or stirring, and the latter to the reflective or quiet,
periods of Hebrew history, and whether expressed in lyric or gnome rises
in the conscience and terminates in action; for Hebrew thought needs to
go no higher, since therein it finds and affirms God; and it seeks to go
no farther, for therein it compasses all being, and requires no epic and
no drama to work out its destiny. However individualistic in feature, as
working through the conscience, it yet relates itself to the whole moral
world, and however it may express itself, it beats in accord with the
pulse of eternity. The lyric expression of the Hebrew temper we find in
the Psalms and the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and the gnomic in the books
of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, while the book of Job, which is only
dramatic in form, is partly lyric and partly dramatic.

HEBREW PROPHECY had throughout regard for the Jews as a nation and
to see that it fulfilled its destiny as such in the world. This purpose
we see carried out by five steps or stages. It taught, first, by the
NEBIIM (q. v.), that the nation must regard itself as one nation;
secondly, by Elijah, that it must have Jehovah alone for its God;
thirdly, by Amos, that as a nation it was not necessarily God's chosen;
fourthly, by Isaiah, that it existed for the preservation of a holy seed;
and finally, that it ceased to exist when it was felt that religion
primarily concerned the individual and was wholly an affair of the
conscience. Thus does Hebrew prophecy terminate when it leads up to
Christianity, the first requirement of which is a regeneration of the
heart (John iii. 3), and the great promise of which is the outpouring of
a spirit that "will guide into all truth" (John xvi. 13).

HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO THE, an epistle of the New Testament of
uncertain authorship addressed to Christians of Jewish descent, who were
strongly tempted, by the persecution they were subjected to at the hands
of their Jewish brethren, to renounce the cross of Christ, which it was
feared they would too readily do, and so to their own ruin crucify the
Son of God afresh, there being only this alternative for them, either
crucifixion _with_ Christ or crucifixion _of_ Christ, and death of all
their hopes founded on Him.

HEBRIDES, or WESTERN ISLANDS, a general name for the islands on
the west coast of Scotland (save the islands of the Firth of Clyde),
about 500 in number, of which 100 are inhabited; they belong to the
counties of Ross, Inverness, and Argyll, and are divided by the Little
Minch and the Minch into the Outer Hebrides, of which the chief are
Lewis, Harris, North and South Uist, Benbecula, &c.; and the Inner
Hebrides, including Skye, Rum, Mull, Iona, Staffa, &c.; they have wild
and rocky coasts, but are picturesque and verdurous, and are much
frequented by tourists; the climate is mild and moist; cattle and sheep
rearing and fishing are the chief industries.

HEBRON, an ancient town and city of refuge, originally called
Kirjath-arba, i. e. four cities, only 20 m. S. of Jerusalem; it is a
poor place now, but still abounds in orchards and vineyards.

HECATAEUS OF MILETUS, styled the "logographer," who flourished about
500 B.C.; visited many countries, and wrote two books, "The Tour of the
World" and "Genealogies or Histories," the former containing descriptions
of the places he visited, and the latter an account of the poetical
fables and traditions of the Greeks.

HECATE, in the Greek mythology a mysterious divinity of the Titan
brood and held in honour by all the gods, identified with Phoebe in
heaven, Artemis on earth, and Persephone in Hades, as being invested with
authority in all three regions; came to be regarded exclusively as an
infernal deity, having under her command and at her beck all manner of
demons and phantom spirits.

HECKER, FRIEDRICH KARL FRANZ, a German revolutionary, born at
Eichtersheim, Baden; practised as an advocate in Mannheim, and in 1842
became an active democrat and Socialist; frustrated in an attempt during
the '48 Revolution to create a republican assembly, he headed a
revolutionary attack upon Baden, was defeated, and subsequently settled
in the United States, where he took to farming; took part in the Civil
War at the head of a regiment of Germans, and became a commander of a
brigade (1811-1881).

HECKER, JUSTUS FRIEDRICH KARL, author of a great work on the
"Epidemics of the Middle Ages"; was a professor of Medicine at Berlin

HECKMONDWIKE (10), a market-town in Yorkshire, 8 m. NE. of
Huddersfield; is the principal seat of the carpet and blanket
manufactures in the West Riding.

HECLA or HEKLA, the loftiest of 20 active volcanoes in Iceland
(5102 ft.); is an isolated peak with five craters, 68 m. E. of Reykjavik;
its most violent outbreak in recent times continued from 1845 to 1846;
its last eruption was in March 1878.

HECTIC FEVER, a fever connected with consumption, and showing itself
by a bright pink flush on the cheeks.

HECTOR, the chief hero of Troy in the war with the Greeks, the son
of Priam and Hecuba; fought with the bravest of the enemy and finally
slew Patroclus, the friend of ACHILLES (q. v.), which roused the
latter from his long lethargy to challenge him to fight; Achilles chased
him three times round the city, pierced him with his spear, and dragged
his dead body after his chariot round Ilium; his body was at the command
of Zeus delivered up to Priam and buried with great pomp within the city

HECUBA, the wife of Priam, king of Troy; distinguished both as a
wife and a mother; on the fall of the city she fell into the hands of the
Greeks, and, according to one tradition, was made a slave, and, according
to another, threw herself in despair into the sea.

HEDONISM, the doctrine of the Cyrenaics that pleasure is the end of
life, and the measure of virtue, or the _summum bonum_.

HEEM, JAN DAVIDSZ VAN, a famous Dutch painter, born at Utrecht; had
a prosperous and uneventful career in Antwerp, where in 1635 he became a
member of the Guild of Painters; he is considered the greatest of the
"still life" painters; his pictures, masterpieces of colouring and
chiaroscuro, have a great monetary value, and are to be found in the
famous galleries of Amsterdam, Vienna, Berlin, St. Petersburg, &c.

HEEREN, LUDWIG, a German historian; professor of History at
Goettingen; wrote on ancient and modern history, specially the ancient and
its antiquities; eminent in both (1760-1842).

HEFELE, KARL JOSEPH VON, a Catholic Church historian, born at
Unterkochen, in Wuertemberg; in 1840 became professor of Church History
and Christian Archaeology in the Catholic Theological Faculty in Tuebingen
University, and in 1869 Bishop of Rottenburg; was for some time zealously
opposed to the doctrine of the Papal infallibility, but subsequently
acquiesced, putting, however, his own construction on it; his best-known
works are the "History of the Christian Councils" and "Contributions to
Church History" (1809-1893).

HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH, German philosopher, the greatest of
all, born in Stuttgart; studied first at Tuebingen, with a view to
theology; as a student attracted no particular attention, was outstript
by Schelling; did domestic tutoring for a time; qualified at Jena for an
academic career; adhered to and collaborated with Schelling in
philosophy; first announced himself in 1807 by his work, "Phenomenology
of the Spirit"; became rector of the Academy at Nuernberg, where in
1812-16 he composed his "Logic"; was in 1816 appointed professor of
Philosophy at Heidelberg, whence he was removed to Berlin in 1818, where,
his philosophy being now matured, he began to apply it with intense
earnestness to every subject of human interest; he was the last of a line
of thinkers beginning with Kant, with whom, however, he affiliated
directly, and in his idealism philosophy first reached the goal which it
was till then with hesitating steps only stretching forward to; his works
fill 22 goodly sized volumes, and his system may be grouped under three
heads, the "Science of Logic," the "Philosophy of Nature," and the
"Philosophy of Spirit" (1770-1831).

HEGELIANISM, the philosophy of Hegel, which resolves being into
thought, and thought into the unity of the logical moments of simple
apprehension, judgment, and reason, all purely spiritual acts, whereby
being in itself, or _seyn_, becomes other than itself, or _daseyn_, and
returns into itself, or _fuer sich seyn_, the universal being first by
separating from itself particularised, and then by return into itself
individualised, the whole being what Hegel characterises as _Der Process
des Geistes_, "The Process of the Spirit." Something like this is what
Dr. Stirling calls "The Secret of Hegel," and an open secret it is, for
he finds it pervading the whole system; "open where you will in Hegel,"
he says, "you find him always engaged in saying pretty well the same
thing"; always identity by otherness passing into selfness, or making
that _for_ itself which is at first _in_ itself;--a philosophy which is
anticipated by the doctrine of St. Paul, which represents God as the One
_from_ whom are all things as Father, and _through_ whom are all things
as Son, and _to_ whom are all things as Spirit, the One who is thus All;
it is also involved in the doctrine of Christ when He says God is Spirit,
or the Living One who lives, and manifests Himself in life, for Himself,
from Himself, and through Himself, who, so to say, thus concretes Himself
throughout the universe.

HEGE`SIAS, a Cyrenaic philosopher, who held that life was full of
evils, that it was in vain to seek after pleasure, and that all a wise
man could do was to fortify himself as best he could against pain.

HEGESIPPUS, a Church historian of the 2nd century, a convert from
Judaism; only fragments of his "Memoirs of Ecclesiastical Affairs"

HEIDELBERG (35), a celebrated German city, in Baden, situated amid
beautiful surroundings, on the Neckar, 13 m. SE. of Mannheim; has many
interesting buildings, including ruins of a splendid 13th-century castle,
but is chiefly celebrated for its flourishing university (student roll,
800; professors, 100; library, 500,000), whose professoriate has included
many of the most distinguished German scholars; it was long the centre of
Calvinism; its chief trade is in books, tobacco, wine, and beer.

HEIJN, or HEYN, PETER PETERSEN, a famous Dutch admiral, born at
Delftshaven; from being a cabin-boy rose to be commander of the Dutch
fleet; off the east coast of S. America he twice defeated the Spanish
fleet, securing an immense booty, and in 1628 captured a flotilla of
Spanish galleons with silver and jewels equal to 16,000,000 Dutch
guilders; fell in an action off Dunkirk (1577-1629).

HEILBRONN (30), a quaint old town of Wuertemberg, on the Neckar, 23
m. N. of Stuttgart; has a fine 11th-century Gothic church, and the
Thief's Tower (Diebsthurm); is associated with the captivity of GOETZ
VON BERLICHINGEN (q. v.); it is now a busy commercial centre, and
manufactures silverware, paper, beet-sugar, chemicals, &c.

HEILSBRONN, a Bavarian market-town, 16 m. SW. of Nueremberg; is
celebrated for its Cistercian monastery, now suppressed, but whose church
still contains monuments and art relics of great historic interest.

HEINE, HEINRICH, a German lyric poet, born at Duesseldorf, of Jewish
parents; was bred to law, but devoted himself to literature, and mingled
with literary people, and associated in particular with the Varnhagen von
Ense circle; first became notable by the publication of his "Reisebilder"
and his "Buch der Lieder," the appearance of which created a wide-spread
enthusiasm in Germany in 1825 he abandoned the Jewish faith and professed
the Christian, but the creed he adopted was that of a sceptic, and he
indulged in a cynicism that outraged all propriety, and even common
decency; in 1830 he quitted Germany and settled in Paris, and there a few
years afterwards married a rich lady, who alleviated the sufferings of
his last years; an attack of paralysis in 1847 left him only one eye, and
in the following year he lost the other, but under these privations and
much bodily pain he bore up with a singular fortitude, and continued his
literary labours to the last; in his songs he was at his best, and by
these alone it is believed he will be chiefly remembered (1797-1856).

HEINECCIUS, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, a celebrated German jurist, born at
Eisenberg; was successively professor of Philosophy and subsequently of
Law at several universities of Germany; he wrote several learned works in
law treated from a philosophical standpoint; mention may be made of his
"Historia Juris Civilis Romani" and "Elementa Juris Naturae Gentium"

HEINSIUS, ANTHONY, a noted Dutch statesman, born at Delft; became
Grand Pensionary of Holland; was the intimate friend and correspondent of
William III. of England, who left the guidance of Dutch affairs largely
in his hands (1641-1720).

HEIR APPARENT, one whose right of succession is sure if he survive
the present holder.

HEIR PRESUMPTIVE, one whose right of succession is sure if not
barred by the birth of one nearer.

HEJAZ, EL, the holy land of the Moslems, a district of Arabia Felix,
and so called by containing the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina.

HEJIRA or HEJRA (Arabic, "going away"), a word applied to
Mahomet's flight from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622; Calif Omar, 17 years
later, adopted this date as the starting-point of a new Mohammedan

HEL or HELA, in Scandinavian mythology an inexorable divinity,
the death-goddess who presides over the icy realm of the dead; her maw
was insatiable and her heart pitiless.

HELDENBUCH, a collection of German heroic poems relating heroic
deeds and events connected with the inroads of the barbarians on the

HELDER, THE (25), a strongly fortified and flourishing seaport in
North Holland, on the Marsdiep, at the N. end of the North Holland Canal,
51 m. NW. of Amsterdam; is an important naval centre, and has an
excellent harbour.

HELEN, the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and the wife of Menelaus, king
of Sparta; the most beautiful of women, who was carried off to Troy by
Paris, to revenge whose abduction the princes of Greece, who had pledged
themselves to protect her, made war on Troy, a war which lasted ten

HELENA, ST., the mother of Constantine the Great; is said to have
visited Jerusalem and discovered the Holy Sepulchre and the cross on
which Christ was crucified; _d_. 328, at the age of 80. Festival, Aug.
18. There are several other saints of the same name.

HELENSBURGH (8), a pleasantly situated watering-place in Dumbarton,
on the Firth of Clyde, at the entrance of the Gareloch, 4 m. N. of

HELENUS, a son of Priam and Hecuba, celebrated for his prophetic
foresight; is said to have deserted his countrymen and joined the Greeks.

HELIAND, an old Saxon poem of the 9th century, of great philological
value, but of no great literary merit; deals with the life and work of
Christ; of the two extant MSS. one is in the British Museum.

HELICON, a mountain in Boeotia, Greece, sacred to Apollo and the
Muses; famous for the fountains on its slopes dedicated to the latter.

HELIGOLAND (2, but rising to 14 in summer), an islet of the North
Sea, 35 m. from the mouths of the Elbe and the Weser; German since 1890;
consists of the _Oberland_, a plateau, with some 400 houses, and the
_Unterland_ on the shore, 206 ft. beneath, with a group of 70 dwellings.
In the summer it is crowded with visitors, bathing being the chief
attraction; fishing is the staple industry of the native Frisians.

HELIODORUS, the most noted and earliest of the Greek romancists,
born at Emesa, Syria; flourished in the second half of the 3rd century
A.D.; his romance "AEthiopica" is a love tale of great beauty and told with
naive simplicity; has had considerable influence over subsequent romance
writers, e. g. Tasso.

HELIOGA`BALUS, a Roman emperor; invested, while yet a youth, with
the Imperial purple by the army in 218; ruled with a show of moderation
at first, but soon gave way to every manner of excess; was after four
years put to death by the Praetorian Guard, and his body thrown into the

HELIOGRAPHY, a method of signalling from distant points by means of
the sun's rays flashed from mirrors; messages can in this manner be
transmitted a distance of 190 m.; it has been found of great practical
value in military operations.

HELIOPOLIS (i. e. City of the Sun), in Egyptian _On_, one of the
oldest and most sacred cities of Egypt; was situated about 10 m. N. of
Cairo, on the eastmost branch of the Nile; it was the centre of Egyptian
learning; Solon and Plato are said to have studied there, and Potiphar
was one of its chief priests; the famous obelisk PHARAOH'S NEEDLE
stands near; and CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE, now on the Thames Embankment,
was originally of this city. Also the name of Baalbec.

HELIOS, the god of the sun, mistakenly identified with Apollo, but of an
older dynasty, was the brother of SELENE (q. v.) and EOS (q. v.); a god
of the brood of the TITANS (q. v.), and the source of light to both gods
and men; he rises from the bosom of OKEANOS (q. v.) in the morning, and
loses himself in his dark abyss every evening.

HELIOTROPE or BLOODSTONE, a variety of quartz (chalcedony or
jasper) of a deep green colour, with bright red spots. The finest
specimens, which come from South Asia, are of fairly translucent
chalcedony; those of jasper are opaque; they are used as seals,
ring-stones, &c.

HELL FIRE, the infinite terror to a true man, the infinite misery
which he never fails to realise must befall him if he come short in his
loyalty to truth and duty.

HELL GATE or HURL GATE, a narrow pass in the East River,
between the city of New York and Long Island; at one time its hidden
shoals and swift narrow current were dangerous to ships, but extensive
blasting operations, completed in 1885, have greatly widened and cleared
the pass.

HELLAS, the name of the abode of the ancient Greeks, and of greater
extent than Greece proper.

HELLE, a maiden who, with her brother Phrixus, fled on the
golden-fleeced ram to escape from the cruelty of her step-dame Ino, and
fell into the strait called the Hellespont after her, in which she was
drowned. See GOLDEN FLEECE.

HELLENISTS, originally Jews who would fain have seen Jewish thought
and life more or less transformed in spirit as well as fashion after a
Greek pattern; eventually those who by contact with Greek civilisation
became Grecianised, and were open to learn as much from the civilisation
of the Greeks as was consistent with the maintenance in their integrity
of the principles of their own religion.

HELLER, STEPHEN, a distinguished pianist and composer, born at
Pesth; made his _debut_ at nine, and by 17 had won a reputation
throughout the great cities of Europe; in 1838 he settled in Paris, and
gave himself to teaching and composition; he ranks beside Chopin as a
master of technique; his works are almost entirely pianoforte pieces

HELMHOLTZ, HERMANN VON, an eminent German scientist, born at
Potsdam, Brandenburg; was first an army doctor, and in 1849 became
professor of Physiology in Koenigsberg, and subsequently in Bonn and
Heidelberg; in 1871 he became professor of Physics in Berlin; was
ennobled, and in 1887 nominated head of the Charlottenburg Institute; to
physiology he made contributions of great value on the various
sense-organs, and to physics on the conservation of energy; but his most
original work was done in connection with acoustics in its relation to
optics; his published works include "Theory of Sound Sensations'" and
"Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music"

HELMONT, JEAN BAPTIST VAN, a celebrated German chemist, the father
of chemistry, born at Brussels; his early years were divided between the
study of medicine and the practice of a religious mysticism; the works of
Paracelsus stimulated his interest in chemistry and physics, and having
married a noble Brabant lady, he settled down on the family estate near

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