Part 17 out of 53
in rustic simplicity of life, cultivating his garden; bating his
persecution of the Christians, he ruled the Roman world wisely and well
DIODATI, a Calvinistic theologian, born at Lucca; was taken while a
child with his family to Geneva; distinguished himself there in the
course of the Reformation as a pastor, a preacher, professor of Hebrew,
and a professor of Theology; translated the Bible into Italian and into
French; a nephew of his was a school-fellow and friend of Milton, who
wrote an elegy on his untimely death (1576-1614).
DIODORUS SICULUS, historian, born in Sicily, of the age of Augustus;
conceived the idea of writing a universal history; spent 30 years at the
work; produced what he called "The Historical Library," which embraced
the period from the earliest ages to the end of Caesar's Gallic war, and
was divided into 40 books, of which only a few survive entire, and some
fragments of the rest.
DIOGENES LAERTIUS, a Greek historian, born at Laerte, in Cilicia;
flourished in the 2nd century A.D.; author of "Lives of the
Philosophers," a work written in 10 books; is full of interesting
information regarding the men, but is destitute of critical insight into
DIOGENES OF APOLLONIA, a Greek philosopher of the Ionic school, and
an adherent of ANAXIMENES (q. v.), if of any one, being more of
an eclectic than anything else; took more to physics than philosophy;
contributed nothing to the philosophic movement of the time.
DIOGENES THE CYNIC, born in Sinope, in Pontus, came to Athens, was
attracted to ANTISTHENES (q. v.) and became a disciple, and a
sansculotte of the first water; dressed himself in the coarsest, lived on
the plainest, slept in the porches of the temples, and finally took up
his dwelling in a tub; stood on his naked manhood; would not have
anything to do with what did not contribute to its enhancement; despised
every one who sought satisfaction in anything else; went through the
highways and byways of the city at noontide with a lit lantern in quest
of a man; a man himself not to be laughed at or despised; visiting
Corinth, he was accosted by Alexander the Great: "I am Alexander," said
the king, and "I am Diogenes" was the prompt reply; "Can I do anything to
serve you?" continued the king; "Yes, stand out of the sunlight,"
rejoined the cynic; upon which Alexander turned away saying, "If I were
not Alexander, I would be Diogenes." D'Alembert declared Diogenes the
greatest man of antiquity, only that he wanted decency. "Great truly,"
says Carlyle, but adds with a much more serious drawback than that
(412-323 B.C.). See "SARTOR RESARTUS," BK. III. CHAP. 1.
DIOGENES THE STOIC, born in Seleucia; a successor of Zeno, and head
of the school at Athens, 2nd century B.C.
DIOMEDES, king of Argos, called Tydides, from his father; was, next
to Achilles, the bravest of the Greeks at the Trojan war; fought under
the protection of Athene against both Hector and AEneas, and even wounded
both Aphrodite and Ares; dared along with Ulysses to carry off the
Palladium from Troy; was first in the chariot race in honour of
Patroclus, and overcame Ajax with the spear.
DIOMEDES, king of Thrace; fed his horses with human flesh, and was
killed by Hercules for his inhumanity.
DION CASSIUS, a Greek historian, born at Nicaea, in Bithynia, about
A.D. 155; went to Rome, and served under a succession of emperors; wrote
a "History of Rome" from AEneas to Alexander Severus in 80 books, of which
only 18 survive entire; took years to prepare for and compose it; it is
of great value, and often referred to.
DION CHRYSOSTOMUS (Dion with the golden, or eloquent, mouth), a
celebrated Greek rhetorician, born at Prusa, in Bithynia, about the
middle of the 1st century; inclined to the Platonic and Stoic
philosophies; came to Rome, and was received with honour by Nerva and
Trajan; is famous as an orator and as a writer of pure Attic Greek.
DION OF SYRACUSE, a pupil of Plato, and an austere man; was from his
austerity obnoxious to his pleasure-loving nephew, Dionysius the Younger;
subjected to banishment; went to Athens; learned his estates had been
confiscated, and his wife given to another; took up arms, drove his
nephew from the throne, usurped his place, and was assassinated in 353
B.C., the citizens finding that in getting rid of one tyrant they had but
saddled themselves with another, and greater.
DIONE, a Greek goddess of the earlier mythology; figures as the wife
of the Dodonian Zeus; drops into subordinate place after his nuptials
DIONYSIUS THE ELDER, tyrant of Syracuse from 406 to 367 B.C.; at
first a private citizen; early took interest in public affairs, and
played a part in them; entered the army, and rose to be head of the
State; subdued the other cities of Sicily, and declared war against
Carthage; was attacked by the Carthaginians, and defeated them three
times over; concluded a treaty of peace with them, and spent the rest of
his reign, some 20 years, in maintaining and extending his territory; was
distinguished, it is said, as he might well be, both as a poet and a
philosopher; tradition represents him as in perpetual terror of his life,
and taking every precaution to guard it from attack.
DIONYSIUS THE YOUNGER, tyrant of Syracuse, son of the preceding,
succeeded him in 367 B.C. at the age of thirty; had never taken part in
public affairs; was given over to vicious indulgences, and proved
incapable of amendment, though DION (q. v.) tried hard to reform
him; was unpopular with the citizens, who with the help of Dion, whom he
had banished, drove him from the throne; returning after 10 years, was
once more expelled by Timoleon; betook himself to Corinth, where he
associated himself with low people, and supported himself by keeping a
DIONYSIUS OF ALEXANDRIA, patriarch from 348, a disciple of Origen,
and his most illustrious pupil; a firm but judicious defender of the
faith against the heretics of the time, in particular the Sabellians and
the Chiliasts; _d_. 264.
DIONYSIUS, ST., THE AREOPAGITE (i. e. judge of the Areopagus),
according to Acts xvii. 34, a convert of St. Paul's; became bishop of
Athens, and died a martyr in 95; was long regarded as the father of
mysticism in the Christian Church, on the false assumption that he was
the author of writings of a much later date imbued with a pantheistic
idea of God and the universe.
DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS, a Greek historian and rhetorician of the
age of Augustus; came to Italy in 29 B.C., and spent 27 years in Rome,
where he died; devoted himself to the study of the Roman republic, its
history and its people, and recorded the result in his "Archaeologia,"
written in Greek, which brings down the narrative to 264 B.C.; it
consisted of 20 books, of which only 9 have come down to us entire; he is
the author of works in criticism of the orators, poets, and historians of
DIONYSIUS PERIEGETES, a Greek geographer who lived about the 4th
century, and wrote a description of the whole earth in hexameters and in
a terse and elegant style.
DIONYSUS, the god of the vine or wine; the son of ZEUS AND
SEMELE (q. v.), the "twice born," as plucked first from the womb of
his dead mother and afterwards brought forth from the thigh of Zeus,
which served to him as his "incubator." See BACCHUS.
DIOPHANTUS, a Greek mathematician, born in Alexandria; lived
presumably about the 4th century; left works in which algebraic methods
are employed, and is therefore credited with being the inventor of
DIOSCOR`IDES, a Greek physician, born in Cilicia, lived in the 1st
century; left a treatise in 5 books on materia medica, a work of great
research, and long the standard authority on the subject.
DIOSCURI, twin sons of Zeus, Castor and Pollux, a stalwart pair of
youths, of the Doric stock, great the former as a horse-breaker and the
latter as a boxer; were worshipped at Sparta as guardians of the State,
and pre-eminently as patrons of gymnastics; protected the hearth, led the
army in war, and were the convoy of the traveller by land and the voyager
by sea, which as constellations they are still held to be.
DIPHILUS, a Greek comic poet, born at Sinope; contemporary of
Menander; was the forerunner of Terence and Plautus, the Roman poets.
DIPHTHERIA, a contagious disease characterised by the formation of a
false membrane on the back of the throat.
DIPPEL, JOHANN KONRAD, a celebrated German alchemist; professed to
have discovered the philosopher's stone; did discover Prussian blue, and
an animal oil that bears his name (1672-1734).
DIPPEL'S OIL, an oil obtained from the distinctive distillation of
DIRCAEAN SWAN, Pindar, so called from the fountain Dirce, near
Thebes, his birthplace.
DIRCE, the wife of Lycus, king of Thebes, who for her cruelty to
Antiope, her divorced predecessor, was, by Antiope's two sons, Zethos and
Amphion, tied to a wild bull and dragged to death, after which her
carcass was flung by them into a well; the subject is represented in a
famous antique group by Apollonius and Tauriscus.
DIRECTORY, THE, the name given to the government of France,
consisting of a legislative body of two chambers, the Council of the
Ancients and the Council of Five Hundred, which succeeded the fall of the
Convention, and ruled France from October 27, 1795, till its overthrow by
Bonaparte on the 18th Brumaire (November 9, 1799). The Directors proper
were five in number, and were elected by the latter council from a list
presented by the former, and the chief members of it were Barras and
DIRSCHAU (11), a Prussian town on the Vistula, 21 m. SE. of Danzig,
with iron-works and a timber trade.
DIS, a name given to Pluto and the nether world over which he rules.
DISCIPLINE, THE TWO BOOKS OF, books of dates 1561 and 1581,
regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Presbyterian churches of
Scotland, of which the ground-plan was drawn up by Knox on the Geneva
DISCOBOLUS, THE, an antique statue representing the thrower of the
discus, in the Louvre, and executed by the sculptor Myron.
DISCORD, APPLE OF. See _infra_.
DISCORD, THE GODDESS OF, a mischief-making divinity, daughter of
Night and sister of Mars, who on the occasion of the wedding of Thetis
with Peleus, threw into the hall where all the gods and goddesses were
assembled a golden apple inscribed "To the most Beautiful," and which
gave rise to dissensions that both disturbed the peace of Olympus and the
impartial administration of justice on earth. See PARIS.
DISMAL SCIENCE, Carlyle's name for the political economy that with
self-complacency leaves everything to settle itself by the law of supply
and demand, as if that were all the law and the prophets. The name is
applied to every science that affects to dispense with the spiritual as a
ruling factor in human affairs.
DISMAS, ST., the good thief to whom Christ promised Paradise as he
hung on the cross beside Him.
DISRAELI, BENJAMIN. See BEACONSFIELD.
D'ISRAELI, ISAAC, a man of letters, born at Enfield, Middlesex; only
son of a Spanish Jew settled in England, who left him a fortune, which
enabled him to cultivate his taste for literature; was the author of
several works, but is best known by his "Curiosities of Literature," a
work published in six vols., full of anecdotes on the quarrels and
calamities of authors; was never a strict Jew; finally cut the
connection, and had his children baptized as Christians (1766-1848).
DITHYRAMB, a hymn in a lofty and vehement style, originally in
honour of Bacchus, in celebration of his sorrows and joys, and
accompanied with flute music.
DITMARSH (77), a low-lying fertile district in West Holstein,
between the estuaries of the Elbe and the Eider; defended by dykes; it
had a legal code of its own known as the "Ditmarisches Landbuch."
DITTON, HUMPHRY, author of a book on fluxions (1675-1715).
DIU (12), a small Portuguese island, with a port of the same name,
in the Gulf of Cambay, S. of the peninsula of Gujarat, India; was a
flourishing place once, and contained a famous Hindu temple; inhabited
now chiefly by fishermen.
DIVAN, THE, a collection of poems by Haefiz, containing nearly 600
odes; also a collection of lyrics in imitation of Goethe, entitled
DIVES, the name given, originally in the Vulgate, to the rich man in
the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus.
DIVIDING RANGE, a range of mountains running E. from Melbourne, and
then N., dividing the basin of the Murray from the plain extending to the
DIVINE COMEDY, THE, the great poem of Dante, consisting of three
compartments, "Inferno," "Purgatorio," and "Paradiso"; "three
kingdoms ... Dante's World of Souls...; all three making up the true
Unseen World, as it figured in the Christianity of the Middle Ages; a
thing for ever memorable, for ever true in the essence of it, to all
men ... but delineated in no human soul with such depth of veracity as
in this of Dante's ... to the earnest soul of Dante it is all one visible
fact--Hell, Purgatory, Paradise, with him not mere emblems, but
indubitable awful realities." See DANTE, and CARLYLE'S "HEROES
DIVINE DOCTOR, Jean de Ruysbroek, the mystic (1294-1381).
DIVINE PAGAN, HYPATIA (q. v.).
DIVINE RIGHT, a claim on the part of kings, now all but extinct,
though matter of keen debate at one time, that they derive their
authority to rule direct from the Almighty, and are responsible to no
inferior power, a right claimed especially on the part of and in behalf
of the Bourbons in France and the Stuart dynasty in England, and the
denial of which was regarded by them and their partisans as an outrage
against the ordinance of very Heaven.
DIXIE LAND, nigger land in U.S.
DIXON, W. HEPWORTH, an English writer and journalist, born in
Manchester; called to the bar, but devoted himself to literary work;
wrote Lives of Howard, Penn, Robert Blake, and Lord Bacon, "New America,"
"Spiritual Wives," &c.; was editor of the _Athenoeum_ from 1853 to 1869;
died suddenly (1821-1879).
DIZIER, ST. (13), a flourishing French town, 30 m. from
DIZZY, a nickname given to Benjamin Disraeli.
DJEZZAR (i. e. Butcher), the surname of Achmed Pasha, pacha of
Acre; was born at Bosnia; sold as a slave, and raised himself by his
servility to his master to the length of executing his cruellest wishes;
in 1799 withstood a long siege of Acre by Bonaparte, and obliged him to
DJINNESTAN, the region of the Jinns.
DNIEPER, a river of Russia, anciently called the Borysthenes, the
third largest for volume of water in Europe, surpassed only by the Danube
and the Volga; rises in the province of Smolensk, and flowing in a
generally southerly direction, falls into the Black Sea below Kherson
after a course of 1330 m.; it traverses some of the finest provinces of
the empire, and is navigable nearly its entire length.
DNIESTER, a river which takes its rise in Austria, in the
Carpathians, enters Russia, flows generally in a SE. direction past
Bender, and after a rapid course of 650 m. falls into the Black Sea at
DOAB, THE, a richly fertile, densely peopled territory in the
Punjab, between the Jumna and Ganges, and extending 500 m. N., that is,
as far as the Himalayas; it is the granary of Upper India.
DOBELL, SIDNEY, poet, born at Cranbrook, in Kent; wrote, under the
pseudonym of Sidney Yendys, the "Roman," a drama, "Balder," and, along
with Alexander Smith, sonnets on the war (the Crimean); suffered much
from weak health (1824-1874).
DOeBEREINER, a German chemist, professor at Jena; inventor of a lamp
called after him; Goethe was much interested in his discoveries
DOeBEREINER'S LAMP, a light caused by a jet of hydrogen passing over
DOBROVSKI, JOSEPH, a philologist, born in Gyarmet, in Hungary;
devoted his life to the study of the Bohemian language and literature;
wrote a history of them, the fruit of immense labour, under which his
brain gave way more than once; was trained among the Jesuits (1753-1829).
DOBRENTER, Hungarian archaeologist; devoted 30 years of his life to
the study of the Magyar language; author of "Ancient Monuments of the
Magyar Language" (1786-1851).
DOBRUDJA (196), the part of Roumania between the Danube and the
Black Sea, a barren, unwholesome district; rears herds of cattle.
DOBSON, AUSTIN, poet and prose writer, born at Plymouth, is in a
department of the Civil Service; wrote "Vignettes in Rhyme," "Proverbs in
Porcelain," "Old World Idylls," in verse, and in prose Lives of Fielding,
Hogarth, Steele, and Goldsmith; contributed extensively to the magazines;
DOBSON, WILLIAM, portrait-painter, born in London; succeeded Vandyck
as king's serjeant-painter to Charles I.; painted the king and members of
his family and court; supreme in his art prior to Sir Joshua Reynolds;
died in poverty (1610-1646).
DOCETAE, a sect of heretics in the early Church who held that the
humanity of Christ was only seeming, not real, on the Gnostic or
Manichaean theory of the essential impurity and defiling nature of matter
or the flesh.
DOCTOR (lit. teacher), a title implying that the possessor of it
is such a master of his art that he can teach it as well as practise it.
DOCTOR MIRABILIS, Roger Bacon.
DOCTOR MY-BOOK, John Abernethy, from his saying to his patients,
"Read my book."
DOCTOR OF THE INCARNATION, Cyril of Alexandria, from his controversy
with the Nestorians.
DOCTOR SLOP, a doctor in "Tristram Shandy," fanatical about a
forceps he invented.
DOCTOR SQUINTUM, George Whitfield.
DOCTOR SYNTAX. See COMBE, WILLIAM.
DOCTORS' COMMONS, a college of doctors of the civil law in London,
where they used to eat in common, and where eventually a number of the
courts of law were held.
DOCTRINAIRES, mere theorisers, particularly on social and political
questions; applied originally to a political party that arose in France
in 1815, headed by Roger-Collard and represented by Guizot, which stood
up for a constitutional government that should steer clear of
acknowledging the divine right of kinghood on the one hand and the divine
right of democracy on the other.
DODABETTA, the highest peak, 8700 ft., in the Nilgherries.
DODD, DR. WILLIAM, an English divine, born at Bourne, Lincolnshire;
was one of the royal chaplains; attracted fashionable audiences as a
preacher in London, but lived extravagantly, and fell hopelessly into
debt, and into disgrace for the nefarious devices he adopted to get out
of it; forged a bond for L4500 on the Earl of Chesterfield, who had been
a pupil of his; was arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death, a
sentence which was carried out notwithstanding the great exertions made
to procure a pardon; wrote a "Commentary on the Bible," and compiled "The
Beauties of Shakespeare" (1729-1777).
DODDRIDGE, PHILIP, a Nonconformist divine, born in London; was
minister at Kebworth, Market Harborough, and Northampton successively,
and much esteemed both as a man and a teacher; suffered from pulmonary
complaint; went to Lisbon for a change, and died there; was the author of
"The Family Expositor," but is best known by his "Rise and Progress of
Religion in the Soul," and perhaps also by his "Life of Colonel Gardiner"
DOeDERLEIN, LUDWIG, a German philologist, born at Jena; became
professor of Philology at Erlangen; edited Tacitus, Horace, and other
classic authors, but his principal works were on the etymology of the
Latin language (1791-1863).
DODGER, THE ARTFUL, a young expert in theft and other villanies in
Dickens's "Oliver Twist."
DODGSON, CHARLES LUTWIDGE, English writer and man of genius, with
the _nom de plume_ of Lewis Carroll; distinguished himself at Oxford in
mathematics; author of "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," with its
sequel, "Through the Looking-Glass," besides other works, mathematical,
poetic, and humorous; mingled humour and science together (1833-1898).
DODINGTON, GEORGE BUBB, an English politician, notorious for his
fickleness, siding now with this party, now with that; worked for and won
a peerage before he died; with all his pretensions, and they were many, a
mere flunkey at bottom (1691-1762).
DODO, an ungainly bird larger than a turkey, with short scaly legs,
a big head and bill, short wings and tail, and a greyish down plumage,
now extinct, though it is known to have existed in the Mauritius some 200
DODO`NA, an ancient oracle of Zeus, in Epirus, close by a grove of
oak trees, from the agitation of the branches of which the mind of the
god was construed, the interpreters being at length three old women; it
was more or less a local oracle, and was ere long superseded by the more
widely known oracle of DELPHI (q. v.).
DODS, MEG, an old landlady of consistently inconsistent qualities in
"St. Ronan's Well"; also the pseudonym of the authoress of a book on
DODSLEY, ROBERT, an English poet, dramatist, and publisher; wrote a
drama called "The Toyshop," which, through Pope's influence, was acted in
Drury Lane with such success as to enable the author to commence business
as a bookseller in Pall Mall; projected and published the _Miscellany_,
and continued to write plays, the most popular "Cleone"; is best known in
connection with his "Collection of Old Plays"; he was a patron of
Johnson, and much esteemed by him (1703-1764).
DOEG, a herdsman of Saul (1 Sam. xxi. 7); a name applied by Dryden
to Elkanah Settle in "Absalom and Achitophel."
DOGBERRY, a self-satisfied night constable in "Much Ado about
DOG-DAYS, 20 days before and 20 after the rising of the dog-star
Sirius, at present from 3rd July to 11th August.
DOGE, the name of the chief magistrate of Venice and Genoa, elected
at first annually and then for life in Venice, with, in course of time,
powers more and more limited, and at length little more than a
figure-head; the office ceased with the fall of the republic in 1797, as
it did in Genoa in 1804.
DOGGER BANK, a sandbank in the North Sea; a great fishing-field,
extending between Jutland in Denmark and Yorkshire in England, though
distant from both shores, 170 m. long, over 60 m. broad, and from 8 to 10
DOGS, ISLE OF, a low-lying projection of a square mile in extent
from the left bank of the Thames, opposite Greenwich, and 31/2 m. E. of St.
DOG-STAR, SIRIUS (q. v.).
DOLABELLA, son-in-law of Cicero, a profligate man, joined Caesar, and
was raised by him to the consulship; joined Caesar's murderers after his
death; was declared from his profligacy a public enemy; driven to bay by
a force sent against him, ordered one of his soldiers to kill him.
DOLCI, CARLO, a Florentine painter, came of a race of artists;
produced many fine works, the subjects of them chiefly madonnas, saints.
DOLCINO, a heresiarch and martyr of the 14th century, of the
Apostolic Brethren, a sect which rose in Piedmont who made themselves
obnoxious to the Church; was driven to bay by his persecutors, and at
last caught and tortured and burnt to death; a similar fate overtook
others of the sect, to its extermination.
DOLDRUMS, a zone of the tropics where calms, squalls, and baffling
DOLE (12), a town in the dep. of Jura, on the Doubs, and the Rhone
and Rhine Canal, 28 m. SE. of Dijon, with iron-works, and a trade in
wine, grain, &c.
DOLET, ETIENNE, a learned French humanist, born at Orleans, became,
by the study of the classics, one of the lights of the Renaissance, and
one of its most zealous propagandists; suffered persecution after
persecution at the hands of the Church, and was burned in the Place
Maubert, Paris, a martyr to his philosophic zeal and opinions
DOLGELLY, capital of Merioneth, Wales, with manufactures of flannel.
DOLGOROUKI, the name of a noble and illustrious Russian family.
DOLLART ZEE, a gulf in Holland into which the Ems flows, 8 m. long
by 7 broad, and formed by inundation of the North Sea.
DOeLLINGER, a Catholic theologian, born in Bamberg, Bavaria,
professor of Church History in the University of Muenich; head of the old
Catholic party in Germany; was at first a zealous Ultramontanist, but
changed his opinions and became quite as zealous in opposing, first, the
temporal sovereignty, and then the infallibility of the Pope, to his
excommunication from the Church; he was a polemic, and as such wrote
extensively on theological and ecclesiastical topics; lived to a great
age, and was much honoured to the last (1799-1890).
DOLLOND, JOHN, a mathematical instrument-maker, born in
Spitalfields, London, of Dutch descent; began life as a silk-weaver; made
good use of his leisure hours in studies bearing mainly on physics; went
into partnership with his son, who was an optician; made a study of the
telescope, suggested improvements which commended themselves to the Royal
Society, and in especial how, by means of a combination of lenses, to get
rid of the coloured fringe in the image (1706-1761).
DOLMEN, a rude structure of prehistoric date, consisting of upright
unhewn stones supporting one or more heavy slabs; long regarded as altars
of sacrifice, but now believed to be sepulchral monuments; found in great
numbers in Bretagne especially.
DOLOMITE ALPS, a limestone mountain range forming the S. of the
Eastern Alps, in the Tyrol and N. Italy, famous for the remarkable and
fantastic shapes they assume; named after Dolomieu, a French
mineralogist, who studied the geology of them.
DOMAT, JEAN, a learned French jurist and friend of Pascal, regarded
laws and customs as the reflex of political history (1625-1696).
DOMBASLE, an eminent French agriculturist, born at Nancy
DOM-BOKE (i. e. Doom-book), a code of laws compiled by King Alfred
from two prior Saxon codes, to which he prefixed the Ten Commandments of
Moses, and rules of life from the Christian code of ethics.
DOMBROWSKI, JOHN HENRY, a Polish general, served in the Polish
campaigns against Russia and Prussia in 1792-1794; organised a Polish
legion which did good service in the wars of Napoleon; covered the
retreat of the French at the Beresina in 1812 (1755-1818).
DOMDANIEL, a hall under the ocean where the evil spirits and
magicians hold council under their chief and pay him homage.
DOMENICHI`NO, a celebrated Italian painter, born at Bologna; studied
under Calvaert and Caracci; was of the Bolognese school, and reckoned one
of the first of them; his principal works are his "Communion of St.
Jerome," now in the Vatican, and the "Martyrdom of St. Agnes," at
Bologna, the former being regarded as his masterpiece; he was the victim
of persecution at the hands of rivals; died at Naples, not without
suspicion of having been poisoned (1581-1641).
DOMESDAY BOOK, the record, in 2 vols., of the survey of all the
lands of England made in 1081-1086 at the instance of William the
Conqueror for purposes of taxation; the survey included the whole of
England, except the four northern counties and part of Lancashire, and
was made by commissioners appointed by the king, and sent to the
different districts of the country, where they held courts, and
registered everything on evidence; it is a valuable document.
DOMINIC DE GUZMAN, ST., saint of the Catholic Church, born in Old
Castile; distinguished for his zeal in the conversion of the heretic;
essayed the task by simple preaching of the Word; sanctioned persecution
when persuasion was of no avail; countenanced the crusade of Simon de
Montfort against the Albigenses for their obstinate unbelief, and thus
established a precedent which was all too relentlessly followed by the
agents of the Spanish Inquisition, the chiefs of which were of the
Dominican order, so that he is ignominiously remembered as the "burner
and slayer of heretics" (1170-1221). Festival, Aug. 4.
DOMINICA, or DOMINIQUE (26), the largest and most southerly of
the Leeward Islands, and belongs to Britain; one-half of the island is
forest, and parts of it have never been explored; was discovered by
Columbus on Sunday, November 3, 1493, whence its name.
DOMINICAL LETTER, one of seven letters, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, used to
mark the Sundays throughout the year, so that if A denote the first
Sunday, it will denote all the rest, and so on with B, C, &c., till at
the end of seven years A becomes the dominical letter again.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, or ST. DOMINGO (610), a republic forming
the E. part of the island of Haiti, and consisting of two-thirds of it;
it belonged alternately to France and Spain till 1865, when, on revolt,
the Spaniards were expelled, and a republic established; the capital is
St. Domingo (15), and the chief port Puerto Plata.
DOMINICANS, a religious order of preaching friars, founded at
Toulouse in 1215 by St. Dominic, to aid in the conversion of the heretic
Albigenses to the faith, and finally established as the order whose
special charge it was to guard the orthodoxy of the Church. The order was
known by the name Black Friars in England, from their dress; and Jacobins
in France, from the street of Paris in which they had their
DOMINIE, SAMPSON, a schoolmaster in "Guy Mannering," "a poor,
modest, humble scholar, who had won his way through the classics, but
fallen to the leeward in the voyage of life."
DOMINIS, MARCO ANTONIO DE, a vacillating ecclesiastic, born in
Dalmatia; was educated by the Jesuits; taught mathematics in Padua; wrote
a treatise in which an explanation was for the first time given of the
phenomenon of the rainbow; became archbishop of Spalatro; falling under
suspicion he passed over to England, professed Protestantism, and was
made dean of Windsor; reconciled to the Papacy, returned to the Church of
Rome, and left the country; his sincerity being distrusted, was cast into
prison, where he died, his body being afterwards disinterred and burned
DOMITIAN, Roman emperor, son of Vespasian, brother of Titus, whom he
succeeded in 81, the last of the twelve Caesars; exceeded the expectations
of every one in the beginning of his reign, as he had given proof of a
licentious and sanguinary character beforehand, but soon his conduct
changed, and fulfilled the worst fears of his subjects; his vanity was
wounded by the non-success of his arms, and his vengeful spirit showed
itself in a wholesale murder of the citizens; many conspiracies were
formed against his life, and he was at length murdered by an assassin,
who had been hired by his courtiers and abetted by his wife Domitia, in
DOMREMY, a small village on the Meuse, in the dep. of Vosges; the
birthplace of Joan of Arc.
DON, a Russian river, the ancient Tanais; flows southward from its
source in the province of Tula, and after a course of 1153 m. falls into
the Sea of Azov; also the name of a river in Aberdeenshire, and another
DON JUAN, the member of a distinguished family of Seville, who
seduces the daughter of a noble, and when confronted by her father stabs
him to death in a duel; he afterwards prepares a feast and invites the
stone statue of his victim to partake of it; the stone statue turns up at
the least, compels Don Juan to follow him, and delivers him over to the
abyss of hell, the depths of which he had qualified himself for by his
utter and absolute depravity.
DON QUIXOTE, the title of a world-famous book written by Miguel
Cervantes, in satire of the romances of chivalry with which his
countrymen were so fascinated; the chief character of which gives title
to it, a worthy gentleman of La Mancha, whose head is so turned by
reading tales of knight-errantry, that he fancies he is a knight-errant
himself, sallies forth in quest of adventures, and encounters them in the
most commonplace incidents, one of his most ridiculous extravagancies
being his tilting with the windmills, and the overweening regard he has
for his Dulcinea del Tobosa.
DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM, a philologist, born in London; Fellow of
Cambridge and tutor of Trinity College; author of "New Cratylus; or
Contributions towards a more Accurate Knowledge of the Greek Language," a
work of great erudition and of value to scholars; contributed also to the
philological study of Latin, and wrote a grammar of both languages; he
failed when he intruded into the field of biblical criticism (1811-1861).
DONATELLO, a great Italian sculptor, born at Florence, where he was
apprenticed to a goldsmith; tried his hand at carving in leisure hours;
went to Rome and studied the monuments of ancient art; returned to
Florence and executed an "Annunciation," still preserved in a chapel in
Santa Croce, which was followed by marble statues of St. Peter, St. Mark,
and St. George, before one of which, that of St. Mark, Michael Angelo
exclaimed, "Why do you not speak to me?"; he executed tombs and figures,
or groups in bronze as well as marble; his schoolmasters were the
sculptors of Greece, and the real was his ultimate model (1383-1460).
DONATI, an Italian astronomer, born at Pisa; discoverer of the comet
of 1858, called Donati's comet (1826-1873).
DONATISTS, a sect in N. Africa, founded by Donatus, bishop of
Carthage, in the 4th century, that separated from the rest of the Church
and formed itself into an exclusive community, with bishops and
congregations of its own, on the ground that no one was entitled to be a
member of Christ's body, or an overseer of Christ's flock, who was not of
divine election, and that in the face of an attempt, backed by the
Emperor Constantine, to thrust a bishop on the Church at Carthage,
consecrated by an authority that had betrayed and sold the Church to the
world; the members of it were subject to cruel persecutions in which they
gloried, and were annihilated by the Saracens in the 7th century.
DONATUS, a Latin grammarian and rhetorician of the 4th century, the
teacher of St. Jerome; the author of treatises in grammar known as
Donats, and, along with the sacred Scriptures, the earliest examples of
printing by means of letters cut on wooden blocks, and so appreciated as
elementary treatises that they gave name to treatises of the kind on any
subject; he wrote also _scholia_ to the plays of Terence.
DONAU, the German name for the Danube.
DONCASTER (26), a market and manufacturing town in the West Riding
of Yorkshire, well built, in a pleasant country, on the right bank of the
Don, 33 m. S. of York; famous for its races, the St. Leger in particular,
called after Colonel St. Leger, who instituted them in 1776.
DONDRA HEAD, the southern extremity of Ceylon, once the site of the
DONEGAL (185), a county in the NW. of Ireland, in the province of
Ulster, the most mountainous in the country; is mossy and boggy, and is
indented along the coast with bays, and fringed with islands.
DONETZ, a tributary of the Russian Don, the basin of which forms one
large coal-field, reckoned to be as large as all Yorkshire, and is
reckoned one of the largest of any in the world.
DONGOLA, NEW, a town in Nubia, on the left bank of the Nile, above
the third cataract, 20 deg. N. and over 700 m. from Cairo; was founded by the
DONIZETTI, a celebrated Italian composer, born at Bergamo, Lombardy,
and studied at Bologna; devoted himself to dramatic music; produced over
60 operas, among the number "Lucia di Lammermoor," the "Daughter of the
Regiment," "Lucrezia Borgia," and "La Favorita," all well known, and all
possessing a melodious quality of the first order (1797-1848).
DONNE, JOHN, English poet and divine, born in London; a man of good
degree; brought up in the Catholic faith; after weighing the claims of
the Romish and Anglican communions, joined the latter; married a young
lady of sixteen without consent of her father, which involved him in
trouble for a time; was induced to take holy orders by King James; was
made his chaplain, and finally became Dean of St. Paul's; wrote sermons,
some 200 letters and essays, as well as poems, the latter, amid many
defects, revealing a soul instinct with true poetic fire (1573-1631). See
"Professor Saintsbury on Donne."
DONNYBROOK, a village now included in Dublin, long celebrated for
its fairs and the fights it was the scene of on such occasions.
DONON, the highest peak of the Vosges Mountains.
DOO, GEORGE THOMAS, a celebrated English line-engraver, and one of
the best in his day (1800-1886).
DOON, a river rendered classic by the muse of Burns, which after a
course of 30 m. joins the Clyde 2 m. S. of Ayr.
DORA, the child-wife of "David Copperfield," Dickens's novel.
DORA D'ISTRIA, the pseudonym of Helena Ghika, born in Wallachia, of
noble birth; distinguished for her beauty and accomplishments; was
eminent as a linguist; translated the "Iliad" into German; wrote works,
the fruits of travels (1829-1888).
DORAN, JOHN, an English man of letters, born In London, of Irish
descent; wrote on miscellaneous subjects; became editor of the _Athenaeum_
and _Notes and Queries_ (1807-1878).
DORAT, JEAN, a French poet, born at Limoges; a Greek scholar;
contributed much to the revival of classical literature in France, and
was one of the FRENCH PLEIADE (q. v.); _d_. 1588.
DORCAS SOCIETY, a society for making clothing for the poor. See Acts
DORCHESTER (7), the county town of Dorset, on the Frome; was a Roman
town, and contains the ruins of a Roman amphitheatre.
DORDOGNE, a river in the S. of France, which, after a course of 300
m., falls into the estuary of Garonne; also a dep. (478) through which it
DORE, GUSTAVE, a French painter and designer, born in Strasburg;
evinced great power and fertility of invention, having, it is alleged,
produced more than 50,000 designs; had a wonderful faculty for seizing
likenesses, and would draw from memory groups of faces he had seen only
once; among the books he illustrated are the "Contes Drolatiques" of
Balzac, the works of Rabelais and Montaigne, Dante's "Inferno," also his
"Purgatorio" and "Paradiso," "Don Quixote," Tennyson's "Idylls," Milton's
works, and Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner"; among his paintings were
"Christ Leaving the Praetorium," and "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem"; he
has left behind him works of sculpture as well as drawings and pictures;
his art has been severely handled by the critics, and most of all by
Ruskin, who treats it with unmitigated scorn (1832-1883).
DORIA, ANDREA, a naval commander, born in Genoa, of noble descent,
though his parents were poor; a man of patriotic instincts; adopted the
profession of arms at the age of 19; became commander of the fleet in
1513; attacked with signal success the Turkish corsairs that infested the
Mediterranean; served under Francis I. to free his country from a faction
that threatened its independence, and, by his help, succeeded in
expelling it; next, in fear of the French supremacy, served, under
Charles V., and entering Genoa, was hailed as its liberator, and received
the title of "Father and Defender of his country"; the rest of his life,
and it was a long one, was one incessant wrestle with his great rival
Barbarossa, the chief of the corsairs, and which ended in his defeat
DORIANS, one of the four divisions of the Hellenic race, the other
three being the Achaeans, the AEolians, and the Ionians; at an early period
overran the whole Peloponnesus; they were a hardy people, of staid habits
and earnest character.
DORIC, the oldest, strongest, and simplest of the four Grecian
orders of architecture.
DORINE, a petulant domestic in Moliere's "Tartuffe."
DORIS, a small mountainous country of ancient Greece, S. of
Thessaly, and embracing the valley of the Pindus.
DORIS, the wife of Nereus, and mother of the Nereids.
DORISLAUS, ISAAC, a lawyer, born at Alkmaar, in Holland; came to
England, and was appointed Judge-Advocate; acted as such at King
Charles's trial, and was for that latter offence assassinated at the
Hague one evening by certain high-flying Royalist cut-throats, Scotch
several of them; "his portrait represents him as a man of heavy,
deep-wrinkled, elephantine countenance, pressed down by the labours of
life and law" (1595-1649).
DORKING (7), a market-town picturesquely situated in the heart of
Surrey, 24 m. SW. of London; gives name to a breed of fowls; contains a
number of fashionable villas.
DORN, a distinguished German orientalist; wrote a History of the
Afghans, and on their language (1805-1881).
DORNER, ISAAK AUGUST, a German theologian, born at Wuertemberg;
studied at Tuebingen; became professor of Theology in Berlin, after having
held a similar post in several other German universities; his principal
works were the "History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person
of Christ," and the "History of Protestant Theology" (1809-1884).
DORNOCH, the county town of Sutherland, a small place, but a royal
burgh; has a good golf course.
DOROS, a son of Helen and grandson of Deucalion, the father of the
Dorians, as his brother AEolis was of the AEolians.
DOROTHEA, ST., a virgin of Alexandria, suffered martyrdom by being
beheaded in 311. Festival, Feb. 6.
DORPAT (38), a town on the Embach, in Livonia, Russia, 150 m. NE. of
Riga, with a celebrated university founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632;
it has a well-equipped staff, and is well attended; the majority of the
population is German.
D'ORSAY, COUNT, a man of fashion, born in Paris; entered the French
army; forsook it for the society of Lord and Lady Blessington; married
Lady B.'s daughter by a former marriage; came to England with her
ladyship on her husband's death; started a joint establishment in London,
which became a rendezvous for all the literary people and artists about
town; was "Phoebus Apollo of Dandyism"; paid homage to Carlyle at Chelsea
one day in 1839; "came whirling hither in a chariot that struck all
Chelsea into mute amazement with splendour," says Carlyle, who thus
describes him, "a tall fellow of six feet three, built like a tower, with
floods of dark auburn hair, with a beauty, with an adornment
unsurpassable on this planet: withal a rather substantial fellow at
bottom, by no means without insight, without fun, and a sort of rough
sarcasm, rather striking out of such a porcelain figure"; having shown
kindness to Louis Napoleon when in London, the Prince did not forget him,
and after the _coup d'etat_ appointed him to a well-salaried post, but he
did not live to enjoy it (1798-1852).
DORSET (194), maritime county in the S. of England, with a deeply
indented coast; it consists of a plain between two eastward and westward
reaching belts of downs; is mainly a pastoral county; rears sheep and
cattle, and produces butter and cheese.
DORT, or DORDRECHT (34), a town on an island in the Maas, in
the province of South Holland, 12 m. SE. of Rotterdam; admirably situated
for trade, connected as it is with the Rhine as well, on which rafts of
wood are sent floating down to it; is famous for a Synod held here in
1618-19, at which the tenets of Arminius were condemned, and the
doctrines of Calvin approved of and endorsed as the doctrines of the
DORTMUND (89), a town in Westphalia; a great mineral and railway
centre, with large iron and steel forges, and a number of breweries.
DORY, JOHN, the hero of an old ballad.
DO-THE-BOYS'-HALL, a scholastic establishment in "Nicholas
DOUAY (31), a town on the Scarpe, in the dep. of Nord, France, 20 m.
S. of Lille, and one of the chief military towns of the country; has a
college founded in 1568 for the education of Catholic priests intended
for England, and is where a version of the Bible in English for the use
of Catholics was issued.
DOUBS, a tributary of the Saone, which it falls into below Dole;
gives name to the dep. (303), which it traverses.
DOUBTING CASTLE, a castle belonging to Giant Despair in the
"Pilgrim's Progress," which only one key could open, the key Promise.
DOUCE, FRANCIS, a learned antiquary, born in London; for a time
keeper of MSS. in the British Museum; author of "Illustrations of
Shakespeare," and an illustrated volume, "The Dance of Death"; left in
the Museum a chest of books and MSS. not to be opened till 1900; was a
man of independent means, and a devoted archaeologist (1757-1834).
DOUGLAS (19), the largest town and capital as well as chief port of
the Isle of Man, 74 m. from Liverpool; much frequented as a
bathing-place; contains an old residence of the Dukes of Atholl, entitled
Castle Mona, now a hotel. See MAN, ISLE OF.
DOUGLAS, the name of an old Scotch family, believed to be of Celtic
origin, and that played a conspicuous part at one time in the internal
and external struggles of the country; they figure in Scottish history in
two branches, the elder called the Black and the later the Red Douglases
or the Angus branch, now represented by the houses of Hamilton and Home.
The eldest of the Douglases, William, was a kinsman of the house of
Murray, and appears to have lived about the end of the 12th century. One
of the most illustrious of the family was the Good Sir James,
distinguished specially as the "Black" Douglas, the pink of knighthood
and the associate of Bruce, who carried the Bruce's heart in a casket to
bury it in Palestine, but died fighting in Spain, 1330.
DOUGLAS, GAWIN or GAVIN, a Scottish poet and bishop of Dunkeld,
third son of Archibald, Earl of Angus, surnamed "Bell-the-Cat"; political
troubles obliged him to leave the country and take refuge at the Court of
Henry VII., where he was held in high regard; died here of the plague,
and was buried by his own wish in the Savoy; besides Ovid's "Art of
Love," now lost, he translated (1512-1513) the "AEneid" of Virgil into
English verse, to each book of which he prefixed a prologue, in certain
of which there are descriptions that evince a poet's love of nature
combined with his love as a Scotchman for the scenery of his native land;
besides this translation, which is his chief work, he indited two
allegorical poems, entitled the "Palace of Honour," addressed to James
IV., and "King Hart" (1474-1522).
DOUGLAS, SIR HOWARD, an English general and writer on military
subjects, born at Gosport; saw service in the Peninsula; was Governor of
New Brunswick and Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands
DOUGLAS, JOHN, bishop of Salisbury, born at Pittenweem, Fife; wrote
"The Criterion of, or a Discourse on, Miracles" against Hume; was a
friend of Samuel Johnson's (1721-1807).
DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD, an American statesman, born in Brandon,
Vermont; a lawyer by profession, and a judge; a member of Congress and
the Senate; was a Democrat; stood for the Presidency when Lincoln was
elected; was a leader in the Western States; a splendid monument is
erected to his memory in Chicago (1813-1861).
DOUGLASS, FREDERICK, American orator, born a slave in Maryland;
wrought as a slave in a Baltimore shipbuilder's yard; escaped at the age
of 21 to New York; attended an anti-slavery meeting, where he spoke so
eloquently that he was appointed by the Anti-Slavery Society to lecture
in its behalf, which he did with success and much appreciation in England
as well as America; published an Autobiography, which gives a thrilling
account of his life (1817-1895).
DOULTON, SIR HENRY, the reviver of art pottery, born in Lambeth;
knighted in the Jubilee year for his eminence in that department; _b_.
DOURO, a river, and the largest, of the Spanish Peninsula, which
rises in the Cantabrian Mountains; forms for 40 m. the northern boundary
of Portugal, and after a course of 500 m. falls into the Atlantic at
Oporto; is navigable only where it traverses Portugal.
DOUSTER-SWIVEL, a German swindling schemer in the "Antiquary."
DOVE, in Christian art the symbol of the Holy Ghost, or of a pure,
or a purified soul, and with an olive branch, the symbol of peace and the
gospel of peace.
DOVE, HEINRICH WILHELM, a German physicist, born at Liegnitz,
Silesia; professor of Natural Philosophy in Berlin; was eminent chiefly
in the departments of meteorology and optics; he discovered how by the
stereoscope to detect forged bank-notes (1803-1879).
DOVER (33), a seaport on the E. coast of Kent, and the nearest in
England to the coast of France, 60 m. SE. of London, and with a mail
service to Calais and Ostend; is strongly fortified, and the chief
station in the SE. military district of England; was the chief of the
DOVER, STRAIT OF, divides France from England and connects the
English Channel with the North Sea, and at the narrowest 20 m. across;
forms a busy sea highway; is called by the French _Pas de Calais_.
DOVREFELD, a range of mountains in Norway, stretching NE. and
extending between 62 deg. and 63 deg. N. lat., average height 3000 ft.
DOW or DOUW, GERARD, a distinguished Dutch genre-painter, born
at Leyden; a pupil of Rembrandt; his works, which are very numerous, are
the fruit of a devoted study of nature, and are remarkable for their
delicacy and perfection of finish; examples of his works are found in all
the great galleries of Europe (1613-1675).
DOWDEN, EDWARD, literary critic, professor of English Literature in
Dublin University, born in Cork; is distinguished specially as a
Shakesperian; is author of "Shakespeare: a Study of his Mind and Art,"
"Introduction to Shakespeare," and "Shakesperian Sonnets, with Notes";
has written "Studies in Literature," and a "Life of Shelley"; is well
read in German as well as English literature; has written with no less
ability on Goethe than on Shakespeare; _b_. 1843.
DOWN (266), a maritime county in the SE. of the province of Ulster,
Ireland, with a mostly level and fairly fertile soil, and manufactures of
DOWNS, THE, a safe place of anchorage, 8 m. long by 6 m. broad, for
ships between Goodwin Sands and the coast of Kent.
DOWNS, THE NORTH AND SOUTH, two parallel ranges of low broad hills
covered with a light soil and with a valley between, called the Weald,
that extend eastward from Hampshire to the sea-coast, the North
terminating in Dover cliffs, Kent, and the South in Beachy Head, Sussex;
the South famous for the breed of sheep that pastures on them.
DOYLE, DR. CONAN, novelist, nephew of Richard and grandson of John,
born in Edinburgh; studied and practised medicine, but gave it up after a
time for literature, in which he had already achieved no small success;
several of his productions have attracted universal attention, especially
his "Adventures" and his "Memoir of Sherlock Holmes"; wrote a short play
"A Story of Waterloo," produced with success by Sir Henry Irving; _b_.
DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS, an English poet, born near Tadcaster;
bred to the bar, but devoted to poetry and horse-racing; became professor
of Poetry at Oxford; author of "Miscellaneous Verses," "Two Destinies,"
"Retreat of the Guards," "The Thread of Honour," and "The Private of the
DOYLE, JOHN, an eminent caricaturist, of Irish origin, under the
initials H. B. (1797-1868).
DOYLE, RICHARD, eminent caricaturist, born in London, son of the
preceding; contributed to _Punch_, of which he designed the cover, but
left the staff, in 1850 owing to the criticisms in the journal adverse to
the Catholic Church; devoted himself after that chiefly to book
illustration and water-colour painting (1824-1883).
DOZY, REINHART, an Orientalist and linguist, born at Leyden, where
he became professor of History; devoted himself to the study of the
history of the Arabs or Moors in North-Western Africa and Spain, his
chief work being "The History of the Mussulmans of Spain"; wrote also a
"Detailed Dictionary of the Names of the Dress of the Arabs" (1820-1883).
DRACHENFELS (Dragon's Rock), one of the Siebengebirge, 8 m. SE. of
Bonn, 1056 ft. above the Rhine, and crowned by a castle with a commanding
view; the legendary abode of the dragon killed by Siegfried in the "Lay
of the Nibelungen."
DRACO, a celebrated Athenian law-giver, who first gave stability to
the State by committing the laws to writing, and establishing the Ephetae,
or court of appeal, 621 B.C.; only he punished every transgressor of his
laws with death, so that his code became unbearable, and was superseded
ere long by a milder, instituted by Solon, who affixed the penalty of
death to murder alone; he is said to have justified the severity of his
code by maintaining that the smallest crime deserved death, and he knew
no severer punishment for greater; it is said he was smothered to death
in the theatre by the hats and cloaks showered on him as a popular mark
of honour; he was archon of Athens.
DRAGON, a fabulous monster, being a hideous impersonation of some
form of deadly evil, which only preternatural heroic strength and courage
can subdue, and on the subdual and slaying of which depends the
achievement of some conquest of vital moment to the human race or some
members of it; is represented in mediaeval art as a large, lizard-like
animal, with the claws of a lion, the wings of an eagle, and the tail of
a serpent, with open jaws ready and eager to devour, which some knight
high-mounted thrusts at to pierce to death with a spear; in the Greek
mythology it is represented with eyes ever on the watch, in symbol of the
evil that waylays us to kill us if we don't kill it, as in guarding the
"Apples of the Hesperides" and the "Golden Fleece," because these are
prizes that fall only to those who are as watchful of him as he is of
them; and it is consecrated to Minerva to signify that true wisdom, as
sensible of the ever-wakeful dragon, never goes to sleep, but is equally
ever on the watch.
DRAGONNADES, the name given to the persecution at the instance of
Louis XIV. to force the Huguenots of France back into the bosom of the
Catholic Church by employment of dragoons.
DRAGON'S TEETH, the teeth of the dragon that Cadmus slew, and which
when sown by him sprang up as a host of armed men, who killed each other
all to the five who became the ancestors of the Thebans, hence the phrase
to "sow dragon's teeth," to breed and foster strife.
DRAKE, SIR FRANCIS, a great English seaman of the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, born near Tavistock, in Devon; served in the Royal Navy under
his relative, Sir John Hawkins, and distinguished himself with signal
success by his valour and daring against the pride of Spain, towards
which, as the great Catholic persecuting power, he had been taught to
cherish an invincible hatred; came swoop down like a hawk on its ports
across seas, and bore himself out of them laden with spoil; in 1577
sailed for America with five ships, passed through the Strait of
Magellan, the first Englishman to do it; plundered the W. coast as far as
Peru; lost all his ships save one; crossed the Pacific, and came home by
way of the Cape--the first to sail round the world--with spoil to the
value of L300,000, his successes contributing much to embolden his
countrymen against the arrogance of the Catholic king; and he was
vice-admiral in the fleet that drove back the Armada from our shores
DRAKE, FRIEDRICH, a German sculptor, born at Pyrmont; studied under
Rauch; executed numerous statues and busts, among others busts of Oken
and Ranke, Bismarck and Moltke; his chief works are the "Eight Provinces
of Prussia," represented by large allegorical figures, and the "Warrior
crowned by Victory" (1805-1882).
DRAKE, NATHAN, a physician, born at York; author of "Shakespeare and
his Times" (1766-1836).
DRAKENBERG MOUNTAINS, a range of mountains in S. Africa, 6500 ft.
high, between Natal and the Orange Free State.
DRAMATIC UNITIES, three rules of dramatic construction prescribed by
Aristotle, observed by the French dramatists, but ignored by Shakespeare,
that (1) a play should represent what takes place within eight hours, (2)
there must be no change of locality, and (3) there must be no minor plot.
DRAMMEN (20), a Norwegian seaport on a river which falls into
Christiania Bay, 30 m. SW. of Christiania; trade chiefly in timber.
DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM, a chemist, scientist, and man of letters, born
at Liverpool; settled in the United States; wrote on chemistry,
physiology, and physics generally, as well as works of a historical
character, such as the "History of the Intellectual Development of
Europe" and the "History of the Conflict between Science and Religion,"
an able book (1811-1882).
DRAPIER, a pseudonym adopted by Swift in his letters to the people
of Ireland anent Wood's pence, and which led to the cancelling of the
DRAVE, a river from the Eastern Alps which flows eastward, and after
a course of 380 miles falls into the Danube 10 m. below Essek.
DRAVIDIANS, races of people who occupied India before the arrival of
Aryans, and being driven S. by them came to settle chiefly in the S. of
the Dekkan; they are divided into numerous tribes, each with a language
of its own, but of a common type or group, some of them literary and
some of them not, the chief the Tamil; the tribes together number over
DRAWCANSIR, a blustering, bullying boaster in Buckingham's play the
"Rehearsal"; he kills every one of the combatants, "sparing neither
friend nor foe."
DRAYTON, MICHAEL, an English poet, born In Warwickshire, like
Shakespeare; was one of the three chief patriotic poets, Warner and
Daniel being the other two, which arose in England after her humiliation
of the pride of Spain, although he was no less distinguished as a love
poet; his great work is his "Polyolbion," in glorification of England,
consisting of 30 books and 100,000 lines; it gives in Alexandrines "the
tracts, mountains, forests, and other parts of this renowned isle of
Britain, with intermixture of the most remarkable stories, antiquities,
wonders, pleasures, and commodities of the same digested in a poem"; this
was preceded by other works, and succeeded by a poem entitled "The Ballad
of Agincourt," pronounced one of the most spirited martial lyrics in the
DRELINCOURT, a French Protestant divine, born at Sedan; author of
"Consolations against the Fear of Death" (1595-1669).
DRENTHE (137), a province of Holland lying between Hanover and the
Zuyder Zee; the soil is poor, and the population sparse.
DRESDEN (250), the capital of Saxony, on the Elbe, 116 m. SE. of
Berlin; a fine city, with a museum rich in all kinds of works of art, and
called in consequence the "Florence of Germany"; here the Allies were
defeated by Napoleon in 1813, when he entered the city, leaving behind
him 30,000 men, who were besieged by the Russians and compelled to
surrender as prisoners of war the same year.
DREYFUS, L'AFFAIRE. On 23rd December 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, an
Alsatian Jew, captain of French Artillery; was by court-martial found
guilty of revealing to a foreign power secrets of national defence, and
sentenced to degradation and perpetual imprisonment; he constantly
maintained his innocence, and, in time, the belief that he had been
unjustly condemned became prevalent, and a revision of the trial being at
length ordered, principally through the exertions of Colonel Picquart and
Zola, the well-known author, Dreyfus was brought back from Cayenne, where
he had been kept a close prisoner and cruelly treated, and a fresh trial
at Rennes began on 6th August 1899, and lasted till 9th September; the
proceedings, marked by scandalous "scenes," and by an attempt to
assassinate one of prisoner's counsel--disclosed an alarmingly corrupt
condition of affairs in some lines of French public life under the
Republic of the time, and terminated in a majority verdict of "guilty";
M. Dreyfus was set at liberty on 20th September, the sentence of ten
years' imprisonment being remitted; _b_. 1860.
DREYSE, NICHOLAUS VON, inventor of the needle-gun, born at Soemmerda,
near Erfurt, the son of a locksmith, and bred to his father's craft;
established a large factory at Soemmerda for a manufactory of firearms;
was ennobled 1864 (1787-1867).
DROGHEDA (11), a seaport in co. Louth, near the mouth of the Boyne,
32 m. N. of Dublin, with manufactures and a considerable export trade;
was stormed by Cromwell in 1649 "after a stout resistance," and the
garrison put to the sword; surrendered to William III. after the battle
of the Boyne in 1690.
DROMORE, a cathedral town in co. Down, Ireland, 17 m. SW. of
Belfast, of which Jeremy Taylor was bishop.
DROOGS, steep rocks which dot the surface of Mysore, in India, and
resemble hay-ricks, some of these 1500 ft. high, some with springs on the
top, and scalable only by steps cut in them.
DROSTE-HUeLSHOFF, FRAULEIN VON, a German poetess, born near Muenster;
was of delicate constitution; wrote tales as well as lyrics in record of
deep and tender experiences (1797-1848).
DROUET, JEAN BAPTISTE, notable king-taker, a violent Jacobin and
member of the Council of the Five Hundred; had been a dragoon soldier;
was postmaster at St. Menehould when Louis XVI., attempting flight,
passed through the place, and by whisper of surmise had the progress of
Louis and his party arrested at Varennes, June 21, 1791, for which
service he received honourable mention and due reward in money; was taken
captive by the Austrians at last; perched on a rock 100 ft. high,
descended one night by means of a paper kite he had constructed, but was
found at the foot helpless with leg broken (1763-1824).
DROUET, JEAN BAPTISTE, COMTE D'ERLON, marshal of France, born at
Rheims; distinguished in the wars of the Republic and the Empire; on
Napoleon's return from Elba seized on the citadel of Lille, and held it
for the emperor; commanded the first _corps d'armee_ at Waterloo; left
France at the Restoration; returned after the July Revolution; became
governor of Algiers, and was created marshal (1765-1844).
DROUOT, a French general, son of a baker at Nancy; Napoleon, whom,
as commander of artillery, he accompanied over all his battlefields in
Europe and to Elba, used to call him the _Sage of the Grande Armee_
DROUYN DE LHUYS, French statesman and diplomatist, born in Paris;
was ambassador at the Hague and Madrid; distinguished himself by his
opposition to Guizot; served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Louis
Napoleon; withdrew into private life after the collapse at Sedan
DROYSEN, a German historian, born in Pomerania; professor in Berlin;
author of the "History of Prussian Policy," "History of Alexander the
Great," and "History of Hellenism" (1808-1884).
DROZ, the name of a Swiss family of mechanicians, one of them, Jean
Pierre, an engraver of medals (1746-1833); also of a French moralist and
historian, author of "History of Louis XVI." (1773-1850).
DROZ, GUSTAV, a highly popular and brilliant novelist, born in
Paris; author of "Monsieur, Madam, et Bebe," "Entre Nous," and "Cahier
bleu de Mlle. Cibot" (1832-1895).
DRUIDS, a sacred order of learned men under a chief called the
Archdruid, among the ancient Celtic nations, particularly of Gaul and
Britain, who, from their knowledge of the arts and sciences of the day,
were the ministers of religion and justice, as well as the teachers of
youth to the whole community, and exercised an absolute control over the
unlearned people whom they governed; they worshipped in oak groves, and
the oak tree and the mistletoe were sacred to them; the heavenly bodies
appear to have been also objects of their worship, and they appear to
have believed in the immortality and transmigration of the soul; but they
committed nothing to writing, and for our knowledge of them we have to
depend on the reports of outsiders.
DRUMCLOG MOSS, a flat wilderness of broken bog and quagmire in
Lanarkshire, where the Covenanters defeated Claverhouse's dragoons in
DRUMMOND, HENRY, popular scientist and Christian teacher, born in
Stirling; was educated at Edinburgh and Tuebingen; studied for the Free
Church; lectured on natural science; became famous by the publication of
"Natural Law in the Spiritual World," a book which took with the
Christian public at once, and had an enormous sale, which was succeeded
by "Tropical Africa," a charmingly-written book of travel, and by a
series of booklets, commencing with "The Greatest Thing in the World,"
intended to expound and commend the first principles of the Christian
faith; his last work except one, published posthumously, entitled the
"Ideal Life," was the "Ascent of Man," in which he posits an altruistic
element in the process of evolution, and makes the goal of it a higher
and higher life (1851-1897).
DRUMMOND, CAPTAIN THOMAS, civil engineer, born in Edinburgh;
inventor of the Drummond Light; was employed in the trigonometrical
survey of Great Britain and Ireland; became Under-Secretary for Ireland,
and was held in high favour by the Irish (1797-1840).
DRUMMOND, WILLIAM, of Hawthornden, a Scottish poet, named the
"Petrarch of Scotland," born in Hawthornden; studied civil law at
Bourges, but poetry had more attractions for him than law, and on the
death of his father he returned to his paternal estate, and devoted
himself to the study of it and the indulgence of his poetic tastes. "His
work was done," as Stopford Brooke remarks, "in the reign of James I.,
but is the result of the Elizabethan influence extending to Scotland.
Drummond's sonnets and madrigals have some of the grace of Sidney, and he
rose at intervals into grave and noble verse, as in his sonnet on John
the Baptist." He was a devoted Royalist; his first poem was "Tears" on
the death of James I.'s eldest son Henry, and the fate of Charles I. is
said to have cut short his days; the visit of Ben Jonson to him at
Hawthornden is well known (1585-1649).
DRUMMOND LIGHT, an intensely-brilliant and pure white light produced
by the play of an oxyhydrogen flame upon a ball of lime, so called from
the inventor, Captain Thomas Drummond.
DRURY, DRU, a naturalist, born in London; bred a silversmith; took
to entomology; published "Illustrations of Natural History"; his
principal work "Illustrations of Exotic Entomology" (1725-1803).
DRURY LANE, a celebrated London theatre founded in 1663, in what was
a fashionable quarter of the city then; has since that time been thrice
burnt down; was the scene of Garrick's triumphs, and of those of many of
his illustrious successors, though it is now given up chiefly to
pantomimes and spectacular exhibitions.
DRUSES, a peculiar people, numbering some 80,000, inhabiting the S.
of Lebanon and Anti-lebanon, with the Maronites on the N., whose origin
is very uncertain, only it is evident, though they speak the Arab
language, they belong to the Aryan race; their religion, a mixture of
Christian, Jewish, and Mohammedan beliefs, is grounded on faith in the
unity and the incarnation of God; their form of government is half
hierarchical and half feudalistic; in early times they were under emirs
of their own, but in consequence of the sanguinary, deadly, and mutually
exterminating strife between them and the Christian Maronites in 1860,
they were put under a Christian governor appointed by the Porte.
DRUSUS, M. LIVIUS, a tribune of the people at Rome in 122 B.C., but
a stanch supporter of the aristocracy; after passing a veto on a popular
measure proposed by Gracchus his democratic colleague, proposed the same
measure himself in order to show and prove to the people that the
patricians were their best friends; the success of this policy gained him
the name of "patron of the senate."
DRUSUS, M. LIVIUS, tribune of the people, 91 B.C., son of the
preceding, and an aristocrat; pursued the same course as his father, but
was baffled in the execution of his purpose, which was to broaden the
constitution, in consequence of which he formed a conspiracy, and was
assassinated, an event which led to the SOCIAL WAR (q. v.).
DRUSUS, NERO CLAUDIUS, surnamed "Germanicus," younger brother of
Tiberius and son-in-law of Marc Antony; distinguished himself in four
successive campaigns against the tribes of Germany, but stopped short at
the Elbe, scared by the apparition of a woman of colossal stature who
defied him to cross, so that he had to "content himself with erecting
some triumphal pillars on his own safe side of the river and say that the
tribes across were conquered"; falling ill of a mortal malady, his
brother the emperor hastened across the Alps to close his eyes, and
brought home his body, which was burned and the ashes buried in the tomb
DRYADS, nymphs of forest trees, which were conceived of as born with
the tree they were attached to and dying along with it; they had their
abode in wooded mountains away from men; held their revels among
themselves, but broke them off at the approach of a human footstep.
DRYAS, the father of Lycurgus, a Thracian king, and slain by him,
who, in a fit of frenzy against the Bacchus worshippers, mistook him for
a vine and cut him down. See LYCURGUS.
DRYASDUST, a name of Sir Walter Scott's invention, and employed by
him to denote an imaginary character who supplied him with dry
preliminary historical details, and since used to denote a writer who
treats a historical subject with all due diligence and research, but
without any appreciation of the human interest in it, still less the soul
DRYBURGH, an abbey, now a ruin, founded by David I., on the Tweed,
in Berwickshire, 3 m. SE. of Melrose; the burial-place of Sir Walter
DRYDEN, JOHN, a celebrated English poet, "glorious John," born in
Northamptonshire, of a good family of Puritan principles; educated at
Westminster School and Cambridge; his first poetic production of any
merit was a set of "heroic stanzas" on the death of Cromwell; at the
Restoration he changed sides and wrote a poem which he called "Astraea
Redux" in praise of the event, which was ere long followed by his "Annus
Mirabilis," in commemoration of the year 1666, which revealed at once the
poet and the royalist, and gained him the appointment of poet-laureate,
prior to which and afterwards he produced a succession of plays for the
stage, which won him great popularity, after which he turned his mind to
political affairs and assumed the role of political satirist by
production of his "Absalom and Achitophel," intended to expose the
schemes of Shaftesbury, represented as Achitophel and Monmouth as
Absalom, to oust the Duke of York from the succession to the throne; on
the accession of James II. he became a Roman Catholic, and wrote "The
Hind and the Panther," characterised by Stopford Brooke as "a model of
melodious reasoning in behalf of the milk-white hind of the Church of
Rome," and really the most powerful thing of the kind in the language; at
the Revolution he was deprived of his posts, but it was after that event
he executed his translation of Virgil, and produced his celebrated odes
and "Fables" (1631-1700).
DUALISM, or MANICHAEISM, the doctrine that there are two
opposite and independently existing principles which go to constitute
every concrete thing throughout the universe, such as a principle of good
and a principle of evil, light and darkness, life and death, spirit and
matter, ideal and real, yea and nay, God and Devil, Christ and
Antichrist, Ormuzd and Ahriman.
DU BARRY, COUNTESS, mistress of Louis XV., born at Vaucouleurs,
daughter of a dressmaker; came to Paris, professing millinery; had
fascinating attractions, and was introduced to the king; governed France
to its ruin and the dismissal of all Louis' able and honourable advisers;
fled from Paris on the death of Louis, put on mourning for his death; was
arrested, brought before the Revolutionary tribunal, condemned for
wasting the finances of the State, and guillotined (1746-1793).
DU BELLAY, a French general, born at Montmirail; served under
Francis I. (1541-1590).
DUBLIN (360), the capital of Ireland, at the mouth of the Liffey,
which divides it in two, and is crossed by 12 bridges; the principal and
finest street is Sackville Street, which is about 700 yards long and 40
wide; it has a famous university and two cathedrals, besides a castle,
the residence of the Lord-Lieutenant; and a park, the Phoenix, one of the
finest in Europe; manufactures porter, whisky, and poplin.
DUBOIS, GUILLAUME, cardinal and prime minister of France; notorious
for his ambition and his debauchery; appointed tutor to the Duke of
Orleans; encouraged him in vice, and secured his attachment and patronage
in promotion, so that in the end he rose to the highest honours, and even
influence, in both Church and state; notwithstanding his debauchery he
was an able man and an able minister (1656-1723).
DUBOIS, REYMOND, a German physiologist, born in Berlin, of French
descent; professor of Physiology at Berlin; distinguished for his
researches in animal electricity; _b_. 1818.
DUBOIS DE CRANCE, a violent French revolutionary, born at
Charleville; besieged and captured Lyons, giving no quarter; was Minister
of War under the Directory; secured the adoption of the principle of
conscription in recruiting the army (1747-1814).
DUBOURG, a French magistrate, member of the parlement of Paris;
burnt as a heretic for recommending clemency in the treatment of the
DUBUFE, a distinguished French portrait-painter (1820-1883).
DUBUQUE (36), a town in Iowa, U.S., on the Mississippi, with
lead-mines and a trade in grain, timber, &c.
DUCAMP, MAXIME, a French litterateur, born in Paris; has written
"Travels in the East"; is the author of "Paris," its civic life, as also
an account of its "Convulsions"; _b_. 1822.
DU CANGE, CHARLES, one of the most erudite of French scholars, born
at Amiens, and educated among the Jesuits; wrote on language, law,
archaeology, and history; devoted himself much to the study of the Middle
Ages; contributed to the rediscovery of old French literature, and wrote
a history of the Latin empire; his greatest works are his Glossaries of
the Latin and Greek of the Middle Ages (1614-1688).
DUCAT, a coin, generally in gold, that circulated in Venice, and was
current in Germany at one time, of varied value.
DU CHAILLU, PAUL BELLONI, an African traveller, born in Louisiana;
his principal explorations confined to the equatorial region of West
Africa, and the result an extension of our knowledge of its geography,
ethnology, and zoology, and particularly of the character and habits of
the ape tribes, and above all the gorilla; _b_. 1837.
DU CHATELET, MARQUISE DE, a scientific lady and friend of
Voltaire's, born in Paris; "a too fascinating shrew," as he at length
found to his cost (1706-1749).
DUCHESNE, ANDRE, French historian and geographer, born in Touraine;
styled the "Father of French History"; famous for his researches in it
and in French antiquities, and for histories of England, Scotland, and
Ireland respectively; his industry was unwearied; he left more than 100
folios in MS. (1584-1640).
DUCHOBORTZI, a religious community in Russia of Quaker principles,
and of a creed that denied the doctrine of the Trinity and the divinity
of Christ; they became a cause of trouble to the empire by their
fanaticism, and were removed to a high plateau in Transcaucasia, where
they live by cattle-rearing.
DUCIS, JEAN, a French dramatist, born at Versailles; took
Shakespeare for his model; declined Napoleon's patronage, thinking it
better, as he said, to wear rags than wear chains (1733-1816).
DUCKING STOOL, a stool or chair in which a scolding woman was
confined, and set before her own door to be pelted at, or borne in a
tumbrel through the town to be jeered at, or placed at the end of a
see-saw and _ducked_ in a pool.
DUCLOS, CHARLES, a witty and satirical French writer, born at Dinan;
author of "Observations," and "A History of the Manners of the Eighteenth
Century," and "Memoires of the Reigns of Louis XIV. and Louis XV."; he
mingled much in French society of the period, and took studious note of
its passing whims (1704-1772).
DUCORNET, a French historical-painter, born at Lille; being born
without arms, painted with his foot (1805-1856).
DUCOS, ROGER, French politician, born at Bordeaux, member of the
National Convention and of the Directory (1754-1816).
DUCROT, a French general, born at Nivers; served in Algeria, in the
Italian campaign of 1859, and as head of a division in the German War;
was imprisoned for refusing to sign the capitulation treaty of Sedan, but
escaped and took part in the defence of Paris when besieged by the
DU DEFFAND, MARQUISE. See DEFFAND.
DUDLEY (90), the largest town in Worcestershire, 81/2 m. NW. of
Birmingham, in the heart of the "Black Country," with coal-mines,
iron-works, and hardware manufactures.
DUDLEY, EDMUND, an English lawyer and privy-councillor; was
associated with Empson as an agent in carrying on the obnoxious policy of
Henry VII., and beheaded along with him at the instance of Henry VIII. on
a charge of high treason in 1510.
DUDLEY, JOHN, grand-marshal of England, son of the preceding,
father-in-law of Lady Jane Grey; beheaded in 1558 for his part in an
insurrection in her favour.
DUFF, ALEXANDER, an eminent Indian missionary, born at Moulin, near
Pitlochry, Perthshire; a man of Celtic blood, apostolic zeal, and fervid
eloquence; was the first missionary sent out to India by the Church of
Scotland; sailed in 1830, returned in 1840, in 1849, and finally in 1863,
stirring up each time the missionary spirit in the Church; he was the
originator of a new method of missionary operations in the East by the
introduction of English as the vehicle of instruction in the Christian
faith, which met at first with much opposition, but was finally crowned
with conspicuous success; died in Edinburgh (1806-1873).
DUFF, JAMES GRANT, Indian soldier and statesman, born at Banff;
conspicuous as a soldier for his services in subduing the Mahratta
chiefs, and as a statesman for establishing friendly relations between
the Mahrattas and the East India Company (1789-1858).
DUFFERIN, MARQUIS OF, and EARL OF AVA, statesman and
diplomatist; held office under Lord John Russell and Mr. Gladstone; was
in succession Governor-General of Canada, ambassador first at St.
Petersburg, then at Constantinople, and finally Governor-General of
India; has since acted as ambassador at Rome and Paris; is a man of
literary as well as administrative ability; _b_. 1826.
DUFFY, SIR CHARLES GAVAN, an Irish patriot, born in co. Monaghan;
bred for the bar; took to journalism in the interest of his country's
emancipation; was one of the founders of the _Nation_ newspaper; was
twice over tried for sedition, but acquitted; emigrated at length to
Australia, where he soon plunged into Colonial politics, and in his
political capacity rendered distinguished services to the Australian
colonies, especially in obtaining important concessions from the
mother-country; he is the author of the "Ballad Poetry of Ireland," and
an interesting record of his early experiences in "Young Ireland"; _b_.
DUFOUR, a Swiss general, born at Constance; commanded the army
directed against the SONDERBUND (q. v.), and brought the war
there to a close (1787-1875).
DUFRESNE, CHARLES. See DU CANGE.
DUFRESNY, French painter and poet, born at Paris (1765-1825).
DUFRESNY, CHARLES RIVIERE, French dramatist, a universal genius,
devoted to both literature and the arts; held in high esteem by Louis
XIV.; wrote a number of comedies, revealing a man of the world, instinct
with wit, and careless of style (1648-1724).
DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM, antiquary, born in Warwickshire; was made
Chester herald, accompanied Charles I. throughout the Civil War; his
chief work was the "Monasticum Anglicanum," which he executed conjointly
with Roger Duckworth; wrote also on the antiquities of Warwickshire and
heraldry; left 27 folio MSS. now in the Bodleian Library (1605-1686).
DUGOMMIER, French general, pupil of Washington, born at Guadeloupe;
distinguished himself in Italy; commanded at the siege of Toulon, which
he took; fell at the battle of Sierra-Negra, in Spain, which he had
DUGUAY-TROUIN, RENE, a celebrated French sea-captain, born at St.
Malo; distinguished at first in privateer warfare during the reign of
Louis XIV., and afterwards as a frigate captain in the royal navy, to
which the royal favour promoted him; was much beloved by the sailors and
subordinate officers; died poor (1673-1736).
DU GUESCLIN, BERTRAND, constable of France, born in Cotes du Nord;
one of the most illustrious of French war-captains, and distinguished as
one or the chief instruments in expelling the English from Normandy,
Guienne, and Poitou; was taken prisoner at the battle of Auray in 1364,
but ransomed for 100,000 francs, and again by the Black Prince, but soon
liberated; he was esteemed for his valour by foe and friend alike, and he
was buried at St. Denis in the tomb of the kings of France (1314-1380).
DUHESME, a French general; covered with wounds at Waterloo, he was
cruelly massacred by the Brunswick hussars in the house to which he had
fled for refuge (1760-1815).
DUILIUS, CAIUS, a Roman consul; distinguished for having on the
coast of Sicily gained the first naval victory recorded in the annals of
Rome, 260 B.C.
DULCE DOMUM (for Sweet Home), a song sung by the pupils at
Winchester College on the approach of and at the break-up of the school
for the summer holidays.
DULCINEA DEL TOBOSA, the name Don Quixote gave to his beloved
Aldonza Lorenzo, a coarse peasant-girl of Tobosa, conceived by him as a
model of all feminine perfection, and as such adored by him.
DULIA, an inferior kind of worship paid to angels and saints, in
contradistinction to LATRIA (q. v.).
DULONG, a French chemist, born at Rouen; discoverer, by accidental
explosion, of the chloride of nitrogen (1785-1838).
DULUTH (52), a port on Lake Superior, with a fine harbour, and a
great centre of commerce.
DULWICH, a southern Surrey suburb of London, with a flourishing
college founded in 1619, and a picture gallery attached, rich especially
in Dutch paintings. See ALLEYN, EDWARD.
DUMACHUS, the impenitent thief, figures in Longfellow's "Golden
Legend" as one of a band of robbers who attacked St. Joseph on his flight
DUMAS, ALEXANDRE, THE ELDER, a celebrated French author, born at
Villers-Cotterets, son of General Dumas, a Creole; lost his father at
four, and led for a time a miscellaneous life, till, driven by poverty,
he came to Paris to seek his fortune; here he soon made his mark, and
became by-and-by the most popular dramatist and romancier of his time;
his romances are numerous, and he reached the climax of his fame by the
production of "Monte Cristo" in 1844, and the "Three Musketeers" the year
after; he was unhappy in his marriage and with his wife, as afterwards,
he squandered his fortune in reckless extravagance; before the end it was
all spent, and he died at Dieppe, broken in health and impaired in
intellect, ministered to by his son and daughter (1806-1876).
DUMAS, ALEXANDRE, THE YOUNGER or _fils_, dramatist and novelist,
born in Paris, son of the preceding; he made his _debut_ as a novelist
with "La Dame aux Camelias" in 1848, which was succeeded by a number of
other novels; he eventually gave himself up to the production of dramas,
in which he was more successful than in romance (1824-1895).
DUMAS, JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRE, a distinguished French chemist, born at
Alais; was admitted to the Academie francaise at the age of 25; at the
Revolution of 1848 he became a member of the National Assembly; was
created a senator under the Empire, but retired into private life after
Sedan; he was distinguished for his studies in chemistry, both
theoretical and practical, and ranks among the foremost in the science
DU MAURIER, artist, born in Paris; started in London as a designer
of wood engravings; did illustrations for _Once a Week_, the _Cornhill
Magazine, &c._., and finally joined the staff of _Punch_, to which he
contributed numerous clever sketches; he published a novel, "Peter
Ibbetson," in 1891, which was succeeded in 1895 by "Trilby," which had
such a phenomenal success in both England and America (1834-1897).
DUMB OX, THOMAS AQUINAS (q. v.), so called from his
taciturnity before he opened his mouth and began, as predicted, to fill
the world with his lowing.
DUMBARTON (17), the county town of Dumbartonshire, and a royal
burgh, at the mouth of the Leven, on the Clyde, 15 m. from Glasgow;
shipbuilding the chief industry; it was the capital of the kingdom of
Strathclyde; adjoining is a castle of historic interest, 250 ft. high,
kept up as a military fortress; the county, which is fertile, and was
originally part of Lennox, is traversed by the Leven, with its
bleach-fields and factories.
DUMBDRUDGE, an imaginary village referred to in "Sartor," where the
natives toil and _drudge_ away and _say nothing_ about it, as villagers
all over the world used contentedly to do, and did for most part, at the
time "Sartor" was written, though less so now.
DUMBIEDIKES, a Scotch laird who figures in the "Heart of
Midlothian," in love with Jeanie Deans.
DUMESNIL, MARIE FRANCOISE, a celebrated French tragedienne, born
near Alencon; like Mrs. Siddons, surpassed all others at the time in the
representation of dignity, pathos, and strong emotion; made her first
appearance in 1737, retired in 1775 (1711-1803).
DUMFRIES (18), an agricultural market-town, county town of
Dumfriesshire and a seaport, stands on the left bank of the Nith, with
Maxwelltown as suburb on the right, 90 m. SW. of Edinburgh; manufactures
tweeds and hosiery, and trades in cattle; here Robert Burns spent the
last five years of his life, and his remains lie buried.
DUMFRIESSHIRE (74), a south-western Border county of Scotland; an
agricultural district, which slopes from a northern pastoral region to
the Solway, and is traversed by the fertile valleys of Nithsdale and
DUMNORIX, a chief of the AEduan nation in Gaul, who gave some trouble
to Caesar in his conquest of Gaul.
DUMONT, AUGUSTIN-ALEXANDRE, a sculptor, born in Paris (1801-1884).
DUMONT, JEAN, an eminent French publicist, who settled in Austria