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The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci, Volume 2 by Leonardo Da Vinci

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Arrigo is to have 11 gold Ducats. Arrigo is to have 4 gold ducats in
the middle of August.


Give your master the instance of a captain who does not himself win
the victory, but the soldiers do by his counsels; and so he still
deserves the reward.


Messer Pier Antonio.


Oil,--yellow,--Ambrosio,--the mouth, --the farmhouse.


My dear Alessandro from Parma, by the hand of ...


Giovannina, has a fantastic face,--is at Santa Caterina, at the
Hospital. [Footnote: Compare the text on the same page: No. 667.]


24 tavole make 1 perch. 4 trabochi make 1 tavola. 4 braccia and a
half make a trabocco. A perch contains 1936 square braccia, or 1944.


The road of Messer Mariolo is 13 1/4 braccia wide; the House of
Evangelista is 75.

It enters 7 1/2 braccia in the house of Mariolo. [Footnote: On this
page and that which faces it, MS.I2 7la, are two diagrams with
numerous reference numbers, evidently relating to the measurements
of a street.]


I ask at what part of its curved motion the moving cause will leave
the thing moved and moveable.

Speak to Pietro Monti of these methods of throwing spears.


Antonio de' Risi is at the council of Justice.


Paolo said that no machine that moves another .... [Footnote: The
passage, of which the beginning is here given, deals with questions
in mechanics. The instances in which Leonardo quotes the opinions of
his contemporaries on scientific matters are so rare as to be worth
noticing. Compare No. 901. ]


Caravaggio. [Footnote: _Caravaggio_, a village not far from the Adda
between Milan and Brescia, where Polidoro and Michelangelo da
Caravaggio were born. This note is given in facsimile on Pl. XIII,
No. I (above, to the left). On Pl. XIII, No. 2 above to the right we
read _cerovazo_.]


Pulleys,--nails,--rope,--mercury,--cloth, Monday.



Maghino, Speculus of Master Giovanni the Frenchman; Galenus on


Near to Cordusio is Pier Antonio da Tossano and his brother
Serafino. [Footnote: This note is written between lines 23 and 24 of
the text No. 710. Corduso, Cordusio (_curia ducis_) = Cordus in the
Milanese dialect, is the name of a Piazza between the Via del
Broletto and the Piazza de' Mercanti at Milan.. In the time of il
Moro it was the centre of the town. The persons here named were
members of the noble Milanese family de'Fossani; Ambrogio da
Possano, the contemporary painter, had no connection with them.]


Memoranda after 1500 (1414--1434)


Paul of Vannochio at Siena ... The upper chamber for the apostles.

[4] Buildings by Bramante.

The governor of the castle made a prisoner.

[6] Visconti carried away and his son killed. [Footnote 6: Visconti.
_Chi fosse quel Visconte non sapremmo indovinare fra tanti di questo
nome. Arluno narra che allora atterrate furono le case de' Viconti,
de' Castiglioni, de' Sanseverini, e de' Botta e non improbabile
che ne fossero insultati e morti i padroni. Molti Visconti annovera
lo stesso Cronista che per essersi rallegrati del ritorno del duca
in Milano furono da' Francesi arrestati, e strascinati in Francia
come prigionieri di stato; e fra questi Messer Francesco Visconti, e
suo figliuolo Battista_. (AMORETTI, Mem. Stor. XIX.).]

Giovanni della Rosa deprived of his money.

Borgonzio began ....; and moreover his fortunes fled. [Footnote 8:
Borgonzio o Brugonzio Botta fu regolatore delle ducali entrate sotto
il Moro, alla cui fuga la casa sua fu pur messa a sacco da'
partitanti francesi. (AMORETTI, l. c.)]

The Duke has lost the state, property and liberty and none of his
entreprises was carried out by him.

[Footnote: l. 4--10 This passage evidently refers to events in Milan
at the time of the overthrow of Ludovico il Moro. Amoretti published
it in the '_Memorie Storiche_' and added copious notes.]


Ambrosio Petri, St. Mark, 4 boards for the window, 2 ..., 3 the
saints of chapels, 5 the Genoese at home.


Piece of tapestry,--pair of compasses,-- Tommaso's book,--the book
of Giovanni Benci,--the box in the custom-house,--to cut the
cloth,--the sword-belt,--to sole the boots, --a light hat,--the cane
from the ruined houses,--the debt for the table linen,
--swimming-belt,--a book of white paper for drawing,--charcoal.--How
much is a florin ...., a leather bodice.


Borges shall get for you the Archimedes from the bishop of Padua,
and Vitellozzo the one from Borgo a San Sepolcro [Footnote 3: Borgo
a San Sepolcro, where Luca Paciolo, Leonardo's friend, was born.]

[Footnote: Borges. A Spanish name.]


Marzocco's tablet.


Marcello lives in the house of Giacomo da Mengardino.


Where is Valentino?--boots,--boxes in the
custom-house,...,--[Footnote 5: Carmine. A church and monastery at
Florence.] the monk at the Carmine,--squares,--[Footnotes 7 and 8:
Martelli, Borgherini; names of Florentine families. See No. 4.]
Piero Martelli,--[8] Salvi Borgherini,--send back the bags,--a
support for the spectacles,--[Footnote 11: San Gallo; possibly
Giuliano da San Gallo, the Florentine architect.] the nude study of
San Gallo,--the cloak. Porphyry,--groups,--square,--[Footnote 16:
Pandolfini, see No. 1544 note.] Pandolfino. [Footnote: Valentino.
Cesare Borgia is probably meant. After being made Archbishop of
Valence by Alexander VI he was commonly called Valentinus or
Valentino. With reference to Leonardo's engagements by him see pp.
224 and 243, note.]


Concave mirrors; philosophy of Aristotle;[Footnote 2: _Avicenna_
(Leonardo here writes it Avinega) the Arab philosopher, 980-1037,
for centuries the unimpeachable authority on all medical questions.
Leonardo possibly points here to a printed edition: _Avicennae
canonum libri V, latine_ 1476 _Patavis._ Other editions are, Padua
1479, and Venice 1490.] the books of Avicenna Italian and Latin
vocabulary; Messer Ottaviano Palavicino or his Vitruvius [Footnote
3: _Vitruvius._ See Vol. I, No. 343 note.]. bohemian knives;
Vitruvius[Footnote 6: _Vitruvius._ See Vol. I, No. 343 note.]; go
every Saturday to the hot bath where you will see naked men;

'Meteora' [Footnote 7: _Meteora._ See No. 1448, 25.],

Archimedes, on the centre of gravity; [Footnote 9: The works of
Archimedes were not printed during Leonardo's life-time.] anatomy
[Footnote 10: Compare No. 1494.] Alessandro Benedetto; The Dante of
Niccolo della Croce; Inflate the lungs of a pig and observe whether
they increase in width and in length, or in width diminishing in

[Footnote 14: _Johannes Marliani sua etate philosophorum et
medicorum principis et ducalis phisic. primi de proportione motuum
velocitate questio subtilissima incipit ex ejusdem Marliani
originali feliciter extracta, M(ilano)_ 1482.

Another work by him has the title: _Marlianus mediolanensis. Questio
de caliditate corporum humanorum tempore hiemis ed estatis et de
antiparistasi ad celebrem philosophorum et medicorum universitatem
ticinensem._ 1474.] Marliano, on Calculation, to Bertuccio.
Albertus, on heaven and earth [Footnote 15: See No. 1469, 1. 7.],
[from the monk Bernardino]. Horace has written on the movements of
the heavens.

[Footnote: _Filosofia d'Aristotele_ see No. 1481 note.]


Of the three regular bodies as opposed to some commentators who
disparage the Ancients, who were the originators of grammar and the
sciences and ...


The room in the tower of Vaneri.

[Footnote: This note is written inside the sketch of a plan of a
house. On the same page is the date 1513 (see No. 1376).]


The figures you will have to reserve for the last book on shadows
that they may appear in the study of Gerardo the illuminator at San
Marco at Florence.

[Go to see Melzo, and the Ambassador, and Maestro Bernardo].

[Footnote: L. 1-3 are in the original written between lines 3 and 4
of No. 292. But the sense is not clear in this connection. It is
scarcely possible to devine the meaning of the following sentence.

2. 3. _Gherardo_ Miniatore, a famous illuminator, 1445-1497, to whom
Vasari dedicated a section of his Lives (Vol. II pp. 237-243, ed.
Sansoni 1879).

5. _Bernardo_, possibly the painter Bernardo Zenale.]


Hermes the philosopher.


Suisset, viz. calculator,--Tisber, --Angelo Fossobron,--Alberto.


The structure of the drawbridge shown me by Donnino, and why _c_ and
_d_ thrust downwards.

[Footnote: The sketch on the same page as this text represents two
poles one across the other. At the ends of the longest are the
letter _c_ and _d_. The sense of the passage is not rendered any


The great bird will take its first flight;-- on the back of his
great swan,--filling the universe with wonders; filling all writings
with his fame and bringing eternal glory to his birthplace.

[Footnote: This seems to be a speculation about the flying machine
(compare p. 271).]


This stratagem was used by the Gauls against the Romans, and so
great a mortality ensued that all Rome was dressed in mourning.

[Footnote: Leonardo perhaps alludes to the Gauls under Brennus, who
laid his sword in the scale when the tribute was weighed.]


Alberto da Imola;--Algebra, that is, the demonstration of the
equality of one thing to another.


Johannes Rubicissa e Robbia.


Ask the wife of Biagio Crivelli how the capon nurtures and hatches
the eggs of the hen,--he being drunk.


The book on Water to Messer Marco Antonio.

[Footnote: Possibly Marc-Antonio della Torre, see p. 97.]


Have Avicenna's work on useful inventions translated; spectacles
with the case, steel and fork and...., charcoal, boards, and paper,
and chalk and white, and wax;.... .... for glass, a saw for bones
with fine teeth, a chisel, inkstand ........ three herbs, and Agnolo
Benedetto. Get a skull, nut,--mustard.

Boots,--gloves, socks, combs, papers, towels, shirts,....
shoe-tapes,--..... shoes, penknife, pens. A skin for the chest.

[Footnote: 4. Lapis. Compare Condivi, _Vita di Michelagnolo
Buonarotti_, Chap. XVIII.: _Ma egli_ (Michelangelo) _non avendo che
mostrare, prese una penna (percioche in quel tempo il lapis non era
in uso) e con tal leggiadria gli dipinse una mano ecc._ The incident
is of the year l496.--Lapis means pencil, and chalk (_matita_).
Between lines 7 and 8 are the texts given as Nos. 819 and No. 7.]

Undated memoranda (1435-1457).


The book of Piero Crescenze,--studies from the nude by Giovanni
Ambrosio,--compasses, --the book of Giovanni Giacomo.



To make some provisions for my garden, --Giordano, _De
Ponderibus_[Footnote 3: _Giordano_. Jordanus Nemorarius, a
mathematician of the beginning of the XIIIth century. No particulars
of his life are known. The title of his principal work is:
_Arithmetica decem libris demonstrata_, first published at Paris
1496. In 1523 appeared at Nuremberg: _Liber Jordani Nemorarii de
ponderibus, propositiones XIII et earundem demonstrationes,
multarumque rerum rationes sane pulcherrimas complectens, nunc in
lucem editus._],--the peacemaker, the flow and ebb of the sea,--have
two baggage trunks made, look to Beltraffio's [Footnote 6:
_Beltraffio_, see No. 465, note 2.

There are sketches by the side of lines 8 and 10.] lathe and have
taken the stone,--out leave the books belonging to Messer Andrea the
German,-- make scales of a long reed and weigh the substance when
hot and again when cold. The mirror of Master Luigi; _A b_ the flow
and ebb of the water is shown at the mill of Vaprio,--a cap.


Giovanni Fabre,--Lazaro del Volpe,-- the common,--Ser Piero.

[Footnote: These names are inserted on a plan of plots of land
adjoining the Arno.]


[Lactantius], [the book of Benozzo], groups,--to bind the book,--a
lantern,--Ser Pecantino,--Pandolfino.--[Rosso]--a square, --small
knives,--carriages,--curry combs-- cup.


Quadrant of Carlo Marmocchi,--Messer Francesco Araldo,--Ser
Benedetto d'Accie perello,--Benedetto on arithmetic,--Maestro Paulo,
physician,--Domenico di Michelino,-- ...... of the Alberti,--Messer
Giovanni Argimboldi.


Colours, formula,--Archimedes,--Marcantonio.

Tinned iron,--pierced iron.


See the shop that was formerly Bartolommeo's, the stationer.

[Footnote: 6. _Marc Antonio_, see No. 1433.]


The first book is by Michele di Francesco Nabini; it treats on


Messer Francesco, physician of Lucca, with the Cardinal Farnese.

[Footnote: _Alessandro Farnese_, afterwards Pope Paul III was
created in 1493 Cardinal di San Cosimo e San Damiano, by Alexander


Pandolfino's book [Footnote 1: _Pandolfino, Agnolo_, of Florence. It
is to this day doubtful whether he or L. B. Alberti was the author
of the famous work '_Del Governo della Famiglia_'. It is the more
probable that Leonardo should have meant this work by the words _il
libro_, because no other book is known to have been written by
Pandolfino. This being the case this allusion of Leonardo's is an
important evidence in favour of Pandolfino's authorship (compare No.
1454, line 3).],--knives,--a pen for ruling,--to have the vest
dyed,--The library at St.-Mark's,--The library at Santo
Spirito,--Lactantius of the Daldi [Footnote 7: The works of
Lactantius were published very often in Italy during Leonardo's
lifetime. The first edition published in 1465 "_in monastero
sublacensi_" was also the first book printed in Italy.],--Antonio
Covoni,--A book by Maestro Paolo Infermieri, --Boots, shoes and
hose,--(Shell)lac, --An apprentice to do the models for me. Grammar,
by Lorenzo de Medici,--Giovanni del Sodo,--Sansovino, [Footnote 15:
_Sansovino_, Andrea--the _sculptor_; 1460-1529.]--a ruler,--a very
sharp knife,--Spectacles,--fractions....,
--repair.........,--Tomaso's book,-- Michelagnolo's little chain;
Learn the multiplication of roots from Maestro Luca;--my map of the
world which Giovanni Benci has [Footnote 25: Leonardo here probably
alludes to the map, not executed by him (See p. 224), which is with
the collection of his MSS. at Windsor, and was published in the
_Archaeologia_ Vol. XI (see p. 224).];-Socks,--clothes from the
customhouse-officier,--Red Cordova leather,--The map of the world,
of Giovanni Benci,--a print, the districts about Milan--Market book.

Get the Friar di Brera to show you [the book] '_de Ponderibus_'
[Footnote 11: _Brera_, now _Palazzo delle Scienze ed Arti. Until
1571 it was the monastery of the order of the Umiliati and
afterwards of the Jesuits.

_De ponderibus_, compare No. 1436, 3.],--

Of the measurement of San Lorenzo,--

I lent certain groups to Fra Filippo de Brera, [Footnote 13:
_Brera_, now _Palazzo delle Scienze ed Arti. Until 1571 it was the
monastery of the order of the Umiliati and afterwards of the

_De ponderibus_, compare No. 1436, 3.]--

Memorandum: to ask Maestro Giovannino as to the mode in which the
tower of Ferrara is walled without loopholes,--

Ask Maestro Antonio how mortars are placed on bastions by day or by

Ask Benedetto Portinari how the people go on the ice in Flanders,--

On proportions by Alchino, with notes by Marliano, from Messer

The measurement of the sun, promised me by Maestro Giovanni, the

The cross bow of Maestro Gianetto,--

The book by Giovanni Taverna that Messer Fazio,--

You will draw Milan [21],--

The measurement of the canal, locks and supports, and large boats;
and the expense,--

Plan of Milan [Footnote 23: _Fondamento_ is commonly used by
Leonardo to mean ground-plan. See for instance p. 53.],--

Groups by Bramante [Footnote 24: _Gruppi_. See Vol. I p. 355, No.
600, note 9.],--

The book on celestial phenomena by Aristoteles, in Italian [Footnote
25: _Meteora_. By this Leonardo means no doubt the four books. He
must refer here to a MS. translation, as no Italian translation is
known to have been published (see No. 1477 note).],--

Try to get Vitolone, which is in the library at Pavia [Footnote 26:
_Vitolone_ see No. 1506, note.

_Libreria di Pavia_. One of the most famous of Italian libraries.
After the victory of Novara in April 1500, Louis XII had it conveyed
to France, '_come trofeo di vittoria_'!] and which treats of
Mathematics,--He had a master [learned] in waterworks and get him to
explain the repairs and the costs, and a lock and a canal and a mill
in the Lombard fashion.

A grandson of Gian Angelo's, the painter has a book on water which
was his fathers.

Paolino Scarpellino, called Assiolo has great knowledge of water

[Footnote 12: _Sco Lorenzo_. A church at Milan, see pp. 39, 40 and

[Footnote 13. 24: _Gruppi_. See Vol. I p. 355, No. 600, note 9.]

[Footnote 16: The _Portinari_ were one of the great merchant-
families of Florence.]


Francesco d'Antonio at Florence.


Giuliano Condi[1],--Tomaso Ridolfi,-- Tomaso Paganelli,--Nicolo del
Nero,--Simone Zasti,--Nasi,--the heir of Lionardo Manelli,
--Guglielmo di Ser Martino,--Bartolomeo del Tovaglia,--Andrea
Arrigucci,-- Nicolo Capponi,--Giovanni Portinari.

[Footnote: I. _Guiliano Gondi_. Ser Piero da Vinci, Leonardo's
father, lived till 1480, in a house belonging to Giuliano Gondi. In
1498 this was pulled down to make room for the fine Palazzo built on
the Piazza San Firenze by Giuliano di San Gallo, which still exists.
In the _Riassunto del Catasto di Ser Piero da Vinci_, 1480, Leonardo
is not mentioned; it is evident therefore that he was living
elsewhere. It may be noticed incidentally that in the _Catasto di
Giuliano Gondi_ of the same year the following mention is made of
his four eldest sons:

_Lionardo mio figliuolo d'eta d'anni 29, non fa nulla, Giovambatista
d'eta d'anni 28 in Ghostantinopoli, Billichozo d'eta d'anni 24 a
Napoli, Simone d'eta d'anni 23 in Ungheria._

He himself was a merchant of gold filigree (_facciamo lavorare una
bottegha d'arte di seta ... facciamo un pocho di trafico a Napoli_}.
As he was 59 years old in 1480, he certainly would not have been
alive at the time of Leonardo's death. But Leonardo must have been
on intimate terms with the family till the end of his life, for in a
letter dated June 1. 1519, in which Fr. Melzi, writing from Amboise,
announces Leonardo's death to Giuliano da Vinci at Florence (see p.
284), he says at the end "_Datemene risposta per i Gondi_" (see
UZIELLI, _Ricerche_, passim).

Most of the other names on the list are those of well-known
Florentine families.]




Vespuccio will give me a book of Geometry.

[Footnote: See No. 844, note, p. 130.]


Marcantonio Colonna at Santi Apostoli.

[Footnote: In July 1506 Pope Julius II gave Donna Lucrezia della
Rovere, the daughter of his sister Lucchina, in marriage to the
youthful Marcantonio Colonna, who, like his brothers Prospero and
Fabrizio, became one of the most famous Captains of his family. He
gave to him Frascati and made him a present of the palazzo he had
built, when Cardinal, near the church of Santi Apostoli which is now
known as the Palazzo Colonna (see GREGOROVIUS, _Gesch. der Stadt
Rom._ Vol. VIII, book XIV I, 3. And COPPI, _Mem. Colonnesi_ p.


A box, a cage,-- A square, to make the bird [Footnote 2: Vasari
states that Leonardo invented mechanical birds which moved through
the air. Compare No. 703.],-- Pandolfino's book, mortar [?],-- Small
knives, Venieri for the

[Footnote: Much of No. 1444 is repeated in this memorandum.]

Pen for ruling, stone,--star,--

To have the vest dyed, Alfieri's tazza,--

The Libraries, the book on celestial

Lactantius of the go to the house of
Daldi,-- the Pazzi,

Book from Maestro small box,--
Paolo Infermieri,--

Boots, shoes and small gimlet,--

Lac, .......,--

An apprentice for .....,--

Grammar of Lo- the amount of the
renzo de' Medici, ...

Giovanni del Sodo .....
for...,--the broken

Sansovino, the....

Piero di Cosino the wings,--

[Footnote 16: _Pier di Cosimo_ the well known Florentine painter
1462-1521. See VASARI, _Vite_ (Vol. IV, p. 134 ed. Sansoni 1880)
about Leonardo's influence on Piero di Cosimo's style of painting.]

Filippo and Lorenzo [Footnote 17: _Filippo e Lorenzo_; probably the
painters Filippino Lippi and Lorenzo di Credi. L. di Credi's
pictures and Vasari's history of that painter bear ample evidence to
his intimate relations with Leonardo.],--A ruler-,-- Spectacles,--to
do the..... again,--Tomaso's book,--Michelagnolo's chain,--The
multiplication of roots,--Of the bow and strinch,--The map of the
world from Benci,-- Socks,--The clothes from the custom-house
officier,--Cordova leather,--Market books, --waters of
Cronaca,--waters of Tanaglino..., --the caps,--Rosso's mirror; to
see him make it,--1/3 of which I have 5/6,--on the celestial
phenomena, by Aristotle [Footnote 36: _Meteora_. See No. 1448,
25.],--boxes of Lorenzo di Pier Francesco [Footnote 37: _Lorenzo di
Pier Francesco_ and his brother _Giovanni_ were a lateral branch of
the _Medici_ family and changed their name for that of
Popolani.],--Maestro Piero of the Borgo,--To have my book
bound,--Show the book to Serigatto,-- and get the rule of the clock
[Footnote 41: Possibly this refers to the clock on the tower of the
Palazzo Vecchio at Florence. In February 1512 it had been repaired,
and so arranged as to indicate the hours after the French manner
(twelve hours a. m. and as many p. m.).],--
ring,--nutmeg,--gum,--the square,--Giovan' Batista at the piazza,
de' Mozzi,--Giovanni Benci has my book and jaspers,--brass for the


Search in Florence for......


Bernardo da Ponte ... Val di Lugano ... many veins for anatomical

[Footnote: This fragmentary note is written on the margin of a
drawing of two legs.]


Paolo of Tavechia, to see the marks in the German stones.

[Footnote: This note occurs on a pen and ink drawing made by
Leonardo as a sketch for the celebrated large cartoon in the
possession of the Royal Academy of Arts, in London. This cartoon is
commonly supposed to be identical with that described and lauded by
Vasari, which was exhibited in Florence at the time and which now
seems to be lost. Mr. Alfred Marks, of Long Ditton, in his valuable
paper (read before the Royal Soc. of Literature, June 28, 1882) "On
the St. Anne of Leonardo da Vinci", has adduced proof that the
cartoon now in the Royal Academy was executed earlier at Milan. The
note here given, which is written on the sheet containing the study
for the said cartoon, has evidently no reference to the drawing on
which it is written but is obviously of the same date. Though I have
not any opening here for discussing this question of the cartoon, it
seemed to me important to point out that the character of the
writing in this note does not confirm the opinion hitherto held that
the Royal Academy cartoon was the one described by Vasari, but, on
the contrary, supports the hypothesis put forward by Mr. Marks.]

Notes on pupils (1458-1468.)


Giacomo came to live with me on St.-Mary Magdalen's[Footnote: _Il di
della Maddalena._ July 22.] day, 1490, aged 10 years. The second day
I had two shirts cut out for him, a pair of hose, and a jerkin, and
when I put aside some money to pay for these things he stole 4
_lire_ the money out of the purse; and I could never make him
confess, though I was quite certain of the fact.--Thief, liar,
obstinate, glutton.

The day after, I went to sup with Giacomo Andrea, and the said
Giacomo supped for two and did mischief for four; for he brake 3
cruets, spilled the wine, and after this came to sup where I ....

Item: on the 7th day of September he stole a silver point of the
value of 22 soldi from Marco[Footnote 6: _Marco_, probably
Leonardo's pupil Marco d'Oggionno; 1470 is supposed to be the date
of his birth and 1540 of his death.

_Che stava con meco._ We may infer from this that he left the master
shortly after this, his term of study having perhaps expired.] who
was living with me, 4 _lire_ this being of silver; and he took it
from his studio, and when the said Marco had searched for it a long
while he found it hidden in the said Giacomo's box 4 _lire_.

Item: on the 26th January following, I, being in the house of Messer
Galeazzo da San Severino [Footnote 9: Galeazzo. See No. 718 note.],
was arranging the festival for his jousting, and certain footmen
having undressed to try on some costumes of wild men for the said
festival, Giacomo went to the purse of one of them which lay on the
bed with other clothes, 2 lire 4 S, and took out such money as was
in it.

Item: when I was in the same house, Maestro Agostino da Pavia gave
to me a Turkish hide to have (2 lire.) a pair of short boots made of
it; this Giacomo stole it of me within a month and sold it to a
cobbler for 20 soldi, with which money, by his own confession, he
bought anise comfits.

Item: again, on the 2nd April, Giovan Antonio [Footnote 16: Giovan
Antonio, probably Beltraffio, 1467 to 1516.] having left a silver
point on a drawing of his, Giacomo stole it, and this was of the
value of 24 soldi (1 lira 4 S.)

The first year-

A cloak, 2 lire,
6 shirts, 4 lire,
3 jerkins, 6 lire,
4 pairs of hose, 7 lire 8 soldi,
1 lined doublet, 5 lire,
24 pairs of shoes, 6 lire 5 soldi,
A cap, 1 lira,
laces, 1 lira.

[Footnote: Leonardo here gives a detailed account not only of the
loss he and others incurred through Giacomo but of the wild tricks
of the youth, and we may therefore assume that the note was not made
merely as a record for his own use, but as a report to be forwarded
to the lad's father or other responsible guardian.]


On the last day but one of September;

Thursday the 27th day of September Maestro Tommaso came back and
worked for himself until the last day but one of February. On the
18th day of March, 1493, Giulio, a German, came to live with
me,--Lucia, Piero, Leonardo.

On the 6th day of October.


1493. On the 1st day of November we settled accounts. Giulio had to
pay 4 months; and Maestro Tommaso 9 months; Maestro Tommaso
afterwards made 6 candlesticks, 10 days' work; Giulio some
fire-tongs 15 days work. Then he worked for himself till the 27th
May, and worked for me at a lever till the 18th July; then for
himself till the 7th of August, and for one day, on the fifteenth,
for a lady. Then again for me at 2 locks until the 20th of August.


On the 23rd day of August, 12 lire from Pulisona. On the 14th of
March 1494, Galeazzo came to live with me, agreeing to pay 5 lire a
month for his cost paying on the l4th day of each month.

His father gave me 2 Rhenish florins.

On the l4th of July, I had from Galeazzo 2 Rhenish florins.


On the 15th day of September Giulio began the lock of my studio


Saturday morning the 3rd of August 1504 Jacopo the German came to
live with me in the house, and agreed with me that I should charge
him a carlino a day.


1511. On the 26th of September Antonio broke his leg; he must rest
40 days.

[Footnote: This note refers possibly to Beltraffio.]


I left Milan for Rome on the 24th day of September, 1513, with
Giovanni [Footnote 2: _Giovan;_ it is not likely that Leonardo
should have called Giovan' Antonio Beltraffio at one time Giovanni,
as in this note and another time Antonio, as in No. 1464 while in
No. 1458 l. 16 we find _Giovan'Antonio_, and in No. 1436, l.6
_Beltraffio_. Possibly the Giovanni here spoken of is Leonardo's
less known pupil Giovan Pietrino (see No. 1467, 5).], Francesco di
Melzi [Footnote 2,3: _Francesco de' Melzi_ is often mentioned, see
Nos. 1350.], Salai [Footnote 3: _Salai_. See No. 1519 note.],
Lorenzo and il Fanfoia.

[Footnote 4: _Lorenzo_. See No. 1351, l. 10 (p. 408). Amoretti gives
the following note in _Mem. Stor. XXIII:_ 1505. _Martedi--sera a di
14 d'aprile. Venne Lorenzo a stare con mecho: disse essere d'eta
d'anni 17 .. a di 15 del detto aprile ebbi scudi 25 d'oro dal
chamerlingo di Santa Maria nuova._ This, he asserts is derived from
a MS. marked S, in quarto. This MS. seems to have vanished and left
no trace behind; Amoretti himself had not seen it, but copied from a
selection of extracts made by Oltrocchi before the Leonardo MSS.
were conveyed to Paris on the responsibility of the first French
Republic. Lorenzo, by this, must have been born in 1487. The
sculptor Lorenzetto was born in 1490. Amoretti has been led by the
above passage to make the following absurd observations:

_Cotesto Lorenzo, che poi gli fu sempre compagno, almeno sin che
stette in Italia, sarebb' egli Lorenzo Lotto bergamasco? Sappiamo
essere stato questo valente dipintore uno de'bravi scolari del
Vinci_ (?).

_Il Fafoia_, perhaps a nickname. Cesare da Sesto, Leonardo's pupil,
seems to have been in Rome in these years, as we learn from a
drawing by him in the Louvre.


On the 3rd day of January.

Benedetto came on the 17th of October; he stayed with me two months
and 13 days of last year, in which time he earned 38 lire, 18 soldi
and 8 dinari; he had of this 26 lire and 8 soldi, and there remains
to be paid for the past year 12 lire 10 soldi.

Giodatti (?) came on the 8th day of September, at 4 soldi a month,
and stayed with me 3 months and 24 days, and earned 59 lire 14 soldi
and 8 dinari; he has had 43 lire, 4 soldi, there remains to pay 16
lire, 10 soldi and 8 dinari.

Benedetto, 24 grossoni.

[Footnote: This seems to be an account for two assistants. The name
of the second is scarcely legible. The year is not given. The note
is nevertheless of chronological value. The first line tells us the
date when the note was registered, January 3d, and the observations
that follow refer to events of the previous month 'of last year'
_(dell'anno passato)_. Leonardo cannot therefore have written thus
in Florence where the year was, at that period, calculated as
beginning in the month of March (see Vol. I, No. 4, note 2). He must
then have been in Milan. What is more important is that we thus
learn how to date the beginning of the year in all the notes written
at Milan. This clears up Uzielli's doubts: _A Milano facevasi
cominciar l'anno ab incarnatione, cioe il 25 Marzo e a nativitate,
cioe il 25 Decembre. Ci sembra probabile che Leonardo dovesse
prescegliere lo stile che era in uso a Firenze._ (_Ricerche_, p. 84,


Gian Maria 4,
Benedetto 4,
Gian Pietro [5] 3,
Salai 3,
Bartolomeo 3,
Gherardo 4.


Salai, 20 lire,
Bonifacio, 2 lire,
Bartolomeo, 4 lire,
Arrigo [Harry], 15 lire.

Quotations and notes on books and authors (1469-1508).


Book on Arithmetic [Footnote 1: _"La nobel opera de arithmethica ne
la qual se tracta tute cosse amercantia pertinente facta & compilata
per Piero borgi da Veniesia", in-40. In fine: "Nela inclita cita di
Venetia a corni. 2 augusto. 1484. fu imposto fine ala presente
opera." Segn. a--p. quaderni. V'ha pero un' altra opera simile di
Filippo Calandro, 1491. E da consultarsi su quest' ultimo, Federici:
Memorie Trevigiane, Fiore di virtu: pag. 73. "Libricciuolo composto
di bello stile verso il 1320 e piu volte impresso nel secolo XV
(ristampato poi anche piu tardi). Gli accademici della Crusca lo
ammettono nella serie dei testi di lingua. Vedasi Gamba, Razzolini,
Panzer, Brunet, Lechi, ecc._ (G. D'A.)], 'Flowers of Virtue',

Pliny [Footnote 2: _"Historia naturale di C. Plinio Secondo,
tradocta di lingua latina in fiorentina per Christophoro Laudino &
Opus Nicolai Jansonis gallici imp. anno salutis M.CCCC.LXXVI.
Venetiis" in-fol.--Diogene Laertio. Incomincia: "El libro de la vita
de philosophi etc.: Impressum Venetiis" per Bernardinum Celerium de
Luere, 1480", in-40_ (G. D'A.).], 'Lives of the Philosophers',

The Bible [Footnote 3: _"La Bibia volgare historiata (per Nicolo di
Mallermi) Venecia ... M.CCCC.LXXI in kalende di Augusto (per
Vindelino de Spira)" 2 vol. in-fol. a 2 col. di 50 lin,; od altra
ediz. della stessa versione del Mallermi, Venetia 1471, e sempre:
"Venecia per Gabriel de Piero 1477," in-fol.; 2 vol.; Ottavio Scotto
da Modoetia 1481," "Venetia 1487 per Joan Rosso Vercellese," "1490
Giovanni Ragazo di Monteferato a instantia di Luchanthonio di
Giunta, ecc."--Lapidario Teofrasto? Mandebille: "Le grand
lapidaire," versione italiana ms.?... Giorgio Agricola non puo
essere, perche nato nel 1494, forse Alberto Magno: de mineralibus.
Potrebbe essere una traduzione del poema latino (Liber lapidum seu
de gemmis) di Marbordio Veterio di Rennes (morto nel 1123 da lui
stesso tradotto in francese dal greco di Evao re d'Arabia celebre
medico che l'aveva composto per l'imperatore Tiberio. Marbodio
scrisse il suo prima per Filippo Augusto re di Francia. Vi sono
anche traduzioni in prosa. "Il lapidario o la forza e la virtu delle
pietre preziose, delle Erbe e degli Animali."_ (G. D'A.)],

'On warfare' [Footnote 4: _Il Vegezio? ... Il Frontino? ... Il
Cornazzano?... Noi crediamo piuttosto il Valturio. Questo libro
doveva essere uno de'favoriti di Leonardo poiche libro di scienza e
d'arte nel tempo stesso._], 'Epistles of Filelfo',

[Footnote: The late Marchese Girolamo d'Adda published a highly
valuable and interesting disquisition on this passage under the
title: _Leonardo da Vinci e la sua Libreria, note di un bibliofilo
(Milano 1873. Ed. di soli 75 esemplari_; privately printed). In the
autumn of 1880 the Marchese d'Adda showed me a considerable mass of
additional notes prepared for a second edition. This, as he then
intended, was to come out after the publication of this work of
mine. After the much regretted death of the elder Marchese, his son,
the Marchese Gioachino d'Adda was so liberal as to place these MS.
materials at my disposal for the present work, through the kind
intervention of Signor Gustavo Frizzoni. The following passages,
with the initials G. d'A. are prints from the valuable notes in that
publication, the MS. additions I have marked. I did not however
think myself justified in reproducing here the acute and interesting
observations on the contents of most of the rare books here

[Footnote: 1467. 5. See No. 1465, 2.]

The first decade, [5] 'On the preservation of health', The third
decade, [6] Ciecho d'Ascoli, The fourth decade, [7] Albertus Magnus,
Guido, [8] New treatise on rhetorics, Piero Crescentio, [9]
Cibaldone, 'Quadriregio', [10] Aesop,

Donato, [Footnote 11: "_Donatus latine & italice: Impressum Venetiis
impensis Johannis Baptistae de Sessa anno_ 1499, _in_-4".-- "_El
Psalterio de David in lingua volgare (da Malermi Venetia nel
M.CCCC.LXXVI,_" in-fol. s. n._ (G. D'A.)] Psalms,

Justinus, [Footnote 12: Compare No. 1210, 48.--_La versione di
Girolamo Squarzafico:_ "_Il libro di Justino posto diligentemente in
materna lingua. Venetia ale spesse (sic) di Johane de Colonia &
Johane Gheretze_ ... l477," _in-fol._--"_Marsilii Ficini, Theologia
platonica, sive de animarum immortalitate, Florentine, per Ant.
Misconimum_ 1482," _in-fol., ovvero qualche versione italiana di
questo stesso libro, ms._ (G. D'A.)] 'On the immortality of the

Guido [Footnote 13: _Forse_ "_la Historia Trojana Guidonis_" _od il
_"_manipulus_" _di_ "_Guido da Monterocherii_"_ ma piu probabilmente
_"_Guido d'Arezzo_"_ il di cui libro: _"_Micrologus, seu disciplina
artis musicae_"_ poteva da Leonardo aversi ms.; di questi ne
esistono in molto biblioteche, e fu poi impresso nel 1784 dal

_Molte sono le edizione dei sonetti di Burchiello Fiorentino,
impresse nel secolo XV. La prima e piu rara e recercata:_
"_Incominciano li sonetti, ecc. (per Christoforo Arnaldo)_"_, in_-4
_senza numeri, richiami o segnature, del_ 1475, _e fors' anche del_
1472, _secondo Morelli e Dibdin, ecc._ (G. D'A.)] Burchiello,

'Doctrinale' [Footnote 14: _Versione italiana det "Doctrinal de
Sapience" di Guy de Roy, e foris'anche l'originale in lingua

_Di Pulci Luigi, benche nell' edizione:_ "_Florentiae_ 1479" _in_-4
si dica: _"_Il Driadeo composto in rima octava per Lucio Pulcro_"_
Altre ediz, del secolo XV, _"_Florentie Miscomini_ 1481, _in_-40,
_Firenze, apud S. Jacob, de Ripoli,_ 1483,_" _in_-4 _e "Antoni de
Francesco,_ 1487," _in_-4 _e Francesco di Jacopo_ 1489,_in_-4 _ed
altre ancora di Venezia e senza alcuna nota ecc._ (G. D'A.)]

Morgante [Footnote 15: _Una delle edizioni del Morgante impresse nel
secolo XV, ecc.--_

_Quale delle opere di Francesco Petrarca, sarebbe malagevole
l'indovinare, ma probabilmente il Canzoniere._ (G. D'A.)] Petrarch.

John de Mandeville [Footnote 16: _Sono i viaggi del cavaliere_
"_Mandeville_" _gentiluomo inglese. Scrisse il suo libro in lingua
francese. Fu stampato replicatamente nel secolo XV in francese, in
inglese ed in italiano ed in tedesco; del secolo XV ne annoverano
forse piu di 27 edizioni, di cui ne conosciamo_ 8 _in francese,
quattro in latino, sei in tedesco e molte altre in volgare._ (G.

'On honest recreation' [Footnote 17: _Il Platina (Bartolomeo Sacchi)
la versione italiana_ "_de la honesta voluptate, & valetudine (& de
li obsonnii) Venetia (senza nome di tipografo)_ 1487," _piccolo
in_-4 _gotico._ (G. D'A.)--Compare No. 844, 21.]

Manganello, [Footnote 18: _Il Manganello: Satira eccessivamente
vivace contro le donne ad imitazione della Sesta di Giovenale.
Manganello non e soltanto il titolo del libricino, sua ben anche il
nome dell'autore ch'era un_ "_milanese_". _Di questo libercolo
rarissimo, che sembra impresso a Venezia dallo Zoppino (Nicolo
d'Aristotile detto il), senza data, ma dei primissimi anni del
secolo XVI, e forse piu antico, come vedremo in appresso, non se ne
conoscono fra biblioteche pubbliche e private che due soli esemplari
in Europa._ (G. D'A.)]

The Chronicle of Isidoro, [Footnote 19: "_Cronica desidero_",
_sembra si deggia leggere piuttosto_ "_cronico disidoro_"_; ed in
questo caso s'intenderebbe la_ "_cronica d'Isidoro_" _tanto in voga
a quel tempo_ "_Comenza la Cronica di Sancto Isidoro menore con
alchune additione cavate del testo & istorie de la Bibia & del libro
di Paulo Oroso .... Impresso in Ascoli in casa del reverendo misser
Pascale ..... per mano di Guglielmo de Linis de Alamania
M.CCCC.LXXVII_" _in_-4 _di_ 157 _ff. E il primo libro impresso ad
Ascoli e l'edizione principe di questa cronica in oggi assai rara.
Non lo e meno l'edizione di Cividal del Friuli_, 1480, _e quella ben
anche di Aquila_, 1482, _sempre in-_4. _Vedasi Panzer, Hain, Brunet
e P. Dechamps._ (G. D'A.)]

The Epistles of Ovid, [Footnote 20: "_Le pistole di Ovidio tradotte
in prosa. Napoli Sixt. Riessinger_", _in_-4, _oppure:_ "_Epistole
volgarizzate_ 1489," _in_-4 _a due col._ "_impresse ne la cita
(sic) di Bressa per pre: Baptista de Farfengo,_" _(in ottave) o:_
"_El libro dele Epistole di Ovidio in rima volgare per messere
Dominico de Monticelli toschano. Brescia Farfengo_," _in_-4 _got.
(in rima volgare)_, 1491, _ed anche la versione di Luca Pulci.
Firenze, Mischomini_, 1481, _in_-4. (G. D'A.) ]

Epistles of Filelfo, [Footnote 21: See l. 4.]

Sphere, [Footnote 22: "_Jo: de Sacrobusto_," _o_ "_Goro Dati_," _o_
"_Tolosano da Colle_" _di cui molteplici edizioni del secolo XV._
(G. D'A.)]

The Jests of Poggio, [Footnote 23: _Tre edizioni delle facezie del
Poggio abbiamo in lingua italiana della fine del secolo XV, tutte
senza data. "Facetie de Poggio fiorentino traducte de latino in
vulgare ornatissimo," in-40, segn. a--e in caratteri romani;
l'altra: "Facetie traducte de latino in vulgare," in-40, caratteri
gotici, ecc._ (G. D'A.)] Chiromancy, [Footnote 24: "_Die Kunst
Cyromantia etc, in tedesco. 26 ff. di testo e figure il tutte
eseguito su tavole di legno verso la fine del secolo XV da Giorgio
Schapff". Dibdin, Heinecken, Sotheby e Chatto ne diedero una lunga
descrizione; i primi tre accompagnati da fac-simili. La data 1448
che si legge alla fine del titolo si riferisce al periodo della
composizione del testo, non a quello della stampa del volume benche
tabellario. Altri molti libri di Chiromanzia si conoscono di quel
tempo e sarebbe opera vana il citarli tutti._ (G. D'A.)]

Formulary of letters, [Footnote 25: _Miniatore Bartolomeo.
"Formulario de epistole vulgare missive e responsive, & altri fiori
de ornali parlamenti al principe Hercule d'Esti ecc. composto ecc.
Bologna per Ugo di Rugerii," in-40, del secolo XV. Altra edizione di
"Venetia Bernardino di Novara, 1487" e "Milano per Joanne Angelo
Scinzenzeler 1500," in-40._ (G. D'A.)

Five books out of this list are noted by Leonardo in another MS.
(Tr. 3): _donato, -- lapidario, -- plinio, -- abacho, -- morgante._]


Nonius Marcellus, Festus Pompeius, Marcus Varro.

[Footnote: Nonius Marcellus and Sextus Pompeius Festus were Roman
grammarians of about the fourth century A. D. Early publications of
the works of Marcellus are: _De proprietate sermonis, Romae_ (about
1470), and 1471 (place of publication unknown). _Compendiosa
doctrina, ad filium, de proprietate sermonum._ Venice, 1476. BRUNET,
_Manuel du libraire_ (IV, p. 97) notes: _Le texte de cet ancien
grammairien a ete reimprime plusieurs fois a la fin du XVe siecle,
avec ceux de Pomponius Festus et de Terentius Varro. La plus
ancienne edition qui reunisse ces trois auteurs est celle de Parme,
1480 ... Celles de Venise, 1483, 1490, 1498, et de Milan, 1500,
toutes in-fol., ont peu de valeur._]


Map of Elephanta in India which Antonello Merciaio has from maestro
Maffeo;--there for seven years the earth rises and for seven years
it sinks;--Enquire at the stationers about Vitruvius.


See 'On Ships' Messer Battista, and Frontinus 'On Acqueducts'
[Footnote 2: 2. _Vitruvius de Arch., et Frontinus de Aquedoctibus._
Florence, 1513.--This is the earliest edition of Frontinus.--The
note referring to this author thus suggests a solution of the
problem of the date of the Leicester Manuscript.].

[Footnote: Compare No. 1113, 25.]


Anaxagoras: Every thing proceeds from every thing, and every thing
becomes every thing, and every thing can be turned into every thing
else, because that which exists in the elements is composed of those


The Archimedes belonging to the Bishop of Padua.

[Footnote: See No. 1421, 1. 3, 6 and Vol. I, No. 343.]


Archimedes gave the quadrature of a polygonal figure, but not of the
circle. Hence Archimedes never squared any figure with curved sides.
He squared the circle minus the smallest portion that the intellect
can conceive, that is the smallest point visible.

[Footnote: Compare No. 1504.]


If any man could have discovered the utmost powers of the cannon, in
all its various forms and have given such a secret to the Romans,
with what rapidity would they have conquered every country and have
vanquished every army, and what reward could have been great enough
for such a service! Archimedes indeed, although he had greatly
damaged the Romans in the siege of Syracuse, nevertheless did not
fail of being offered great rewards from these very Romans; and when
Syracuse was taken, diligent search was made for Archimedes; and he
being found dead greater lamentation was made for him by the Senate
and people of Rome than if they had lost all their army; and they
did not fail to honour him with burial and with a statue. At their
head was Marcus Marcellus. And after the second destruction of
Syracuse, the sepulchre of Archimedes was found again by Cato[25],
in the ruins of a temple. So Cato had the temple restored and the
sepulchre he so highly honoured.... Whence it is written that Cato
said that he was not so proud of any thing he had done as of having
paid such honour to Archimedes.

[Footnote: Where Leonardo found the statement that Cato had found
and restored the tomb of Archimedes, I do not know. It is a merit
that Cicero claims as his own (Tusc. V, 23) and certainly with a
full right to it. None of Archimedes' biographers --not even the
diligent Mazzucchelli, mentions any version in which Cato is named.
It is evidently a slip of the memory on Leonardo's part. Besides,
according to the passage in Cicero, the grave was not found _'nelle
ruine d'un tempio'_--which is highly improbable as relating to a
Greek--but in an open spot (H. MULLER-STRUBING).--See too, as to
Archimedes, No. 1417.

Leonardo says somewhere in MS. C.A.: _Architronito e una macchina di
fino rame, invenzlon d' Archimede_ (see _'Saggio'_, p. 20).]


Aristotle, Book 3 of the Physics, and Albertus Magnus, and Thomas
Aquinas and the others on the rebound of bodies, in the 7th on
Physics, on heaven and earth.


Aristotle says that if a force can move a body a given distance in a
given time, the same force will move half the same body twice as far
in the same time.


Aristotle in Book 3 of the Ethics: Man merits praise or blame solely
in such matters as lie within his option to do or not to do.


Aristotle says that every body tends to maintain its nature.


On the increase of the Nile, a small book by Aristotle. [Footnote:
_De inundatione Nili_, is quoted here and by others as a work of
Aristotle. The Greek original is lost, but a Latin version of the
beginning exists (Arist. Opp. IV p. 213 ed. Did. Par.).

In his quotations from Aristotle Leonardo possibly refers to one of
the following editions: _Aristotelis libri IV de coelo et mundo; de
anima libri III; libri VIII physi- corum; libri de generatione et
corruptione; de sensu et sensato... omnia latine, interprete
Averroe, Venetiis 1483_ (first Latin edition). There is also a
separate edition of _Liber de coelo et mundo_, dated 1473.]


Avicenna will have it that soul gives birth to soul as body to body,
and each member to itself.

[Footnote: Avicenna, see too No. 1421, 1. 2.]


Avicenna on liquids.


Roger Bacon, done in print. [Footnote: The earliest printed edition
known to Brunet of the works of Roger Bacon, is a French
translation, which appeared about fourty years after Leonardo's


Cleomedes the philosopher.

[Footnote: Cleomede. A Greek mathematician of the IVth century B. C.
We have a Cyclic theory of Meteorica by him. His works were not
published before Leonardo's death.]



The highest good is wisdom, the chief evil is suffering in the body.
Because, as we are composed of two things, that is soul and body, of
which the first is the better, the body is the inferior; wisdom
belongs to the better part, and the chief evil belongs to the worse
part and is the worst of all. As the best thing of all in the soul
is wisdom, so the worst in the body is suffering. Therefore just as
bodily pain is the chief evil, wisdom is the chief good of the soul,
that is with the wise man; and nothing else can be compared with it.

[Footnote: _Aulus Cornelius Celsus_, a Roman physician, known as the
Roman Hippocrates, probably contemporary with Augustus. Only his
eight Books 'De Medicina', are preserved. The earliest editions are:
_Cornelius Celsus, de medicina libr. VIII._, Milan 1481 Venice 1493
and 1497.]


Demetrius was wont to say that there was no difference between the
speech and words of the foolish and ignorant, and the noises and
rumblings of the wind in an inflated stomach. Nor did he say so
without reason, for he saw no difference between the parts whence
the noise issued; whether their lower parts or their mouth, since
one and the other were of equal use and importance.

[Footnote: Compare Vol. I, No. 10.]


Maestro Stefano Caponi, a physician, lives at the piscina, and has
Euclid _De Ponderibus_.


5th Book of Euclid. First definition: a part is a quantity of less
magnitude than the greater magnitude when the less is contained a
certain number of times in the greater.

A part properly speaking is that which may be multiplied, that is
when, being multiplied by a certain number, it forms exactly the
whole. A common aggregate part ...

Second definition. A greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of a
less, when the greater is measured by the less.

By the first we define the lesser [magnitude] and by the second the
greater is defined. A part is spoken


of in relation to the whole; and all their relations lie between
these two extremes, and are called multiples.


Hippocrates says that the origin of men's sperm derives from the
brain, and from the lungs and testicles of our parents, where the
final decocture is made, and all the other limbs transmit their
substance to this sperm by means of expiration, because there are no
channels through which they might come to the sperm.

[Footnote: The works of Hippocrates were printed first after
Leonardo's death.]


Lucretius in his third [book] 'De Rerum Natura'. The hands, nails
and teeth were (165) the weapons of ancient man.

They also use for a standard a bunch of grass tied to a pole (167).

[Footnote: _Lucretius, de rerum natura libri VI_ were printed first
about 1473, at Verona in 1486, at Brescia in 1495, at Venice in 1500
and in 1515, and at Florence in 1515. The numbers 165 and 167 noted
by Leonardo at the end of the two passages seem to indicate pages,
but if so, none of the editions just mentioned can here be meant,
nor do these numbers refer to the verses in the poems of Lucretius.]


Ammianus Marcellinus asserts that seven hundred thousand volumes of
books were burnt in the siege of Alexandria in the time of Julius

[Footnote: _Ammiani Marcellini historiarum libri qui extant XIII_,
published at Rome in 1474.]


Mondino says that the muscles which raise the toes are in the
outward side of the thigh, and he adds that there are no muscles in
the back [upper side] of the feet, because nature desired to make
them light, so as to move with ease; and if they had been fleshy
they would be heavier; and here experience shows ...

[Footnote: _"Mundini anatomia. Mundinus, Anothomia (sic). Mundini
praestantissimorum doctorum almi studii ticiensis (sic) cura
diligentissime emendata. Impressa Papiae per magistrum Antonium de
Carfano 1478," in-fol.; ristampata: "Bononiae Johan. de Noerdlingen,
1482," in-fol.; "Padova per Mattheum Cerdonis de Vuindischgretz,
1484," in-40; "Lipsia, 1493," in-40; "Venezia, 1494," in-40 e ivi
"1498," con fig. Queste figure per altro non sono, come si e
preteso, le prime che fossero introdotte in un trattato di Notamia.
Nel 'fasciculus Medicinae' di Giovanni Ketham, che riproduce
l''Anatomia' del Mundinus, impresso pure a Venezia da J. e G. de
Gregoriis, 1491, in-fol., contengonsi intagli in legno (si vogliono
disegnati non gia incisi da Andrea Mantegna) di grande dimensione, e
che furono piu volte riprodotti negli anni successivi. Quest'
edizione del "fasciculus" del 1491, sta fra nostri libri e potrebbe
benissimo essere il volume d'Anatomia notato da Leonardo._ (G.


Of the error of those who practice without knowledge;--[3] See first
the 'Ars poetica' of Horace [5].

[Footnote: A 3-5 are written on the margin at the side of the title
line of the text given, entire as No. 19]


The heirs of Maestro Giovanni Ghiringallo have the works of


The catapult, as we are told by Nonius and Pliny, is a machine
devised by those &c.

[Footnote: _Plinius_, see No. 946.]


I have found in a history of the Spaniards that in their wars with
the English Archimedes of Syracuse who at that time was living at
the court of Ecliderides, King of the Cirodastri. And in maritime
warfare he ordered that the ships should have tall masts, and that
on their tops there should be a spar fixed [Footnote 6: Compare No.
1115.] of 40 feet long and one third of a foot thick. At one end of
this was a small grappling iron and at the other a counterpoise; and
there was also attached 12 feet of chain; and, at the end of this
chain, as much rope as would reach from the chain to the base of the
top, where it was fixed with a small rope; from this base it ran
down to the bottom of the mast where a very strong spar was attached
and to this was fastened the end of the rope. But to go on to the
use of his machine; I say that below this grappling iron was a fire
[Footnote 14: Compare No. 1128.] which, with tremendous noise, threw
down its rays and a shower of burning pitch; which, pouring down on
the [enemy's] top, compelled the men who were in it to abandon the
top to which the grappling-iron had clung. This was hooked on to the
edges of the top and then suddenly the cord attached at the base of
the top to support the cord which went from the grappling iron, was
cut, giving way and drawing in the enemy's ship; and if the
anchor--was cast ...

[Footnote: Archimedes never visited Spain, and the names here
mentioned cannot be explained. Leonardo seems to quote here from a
book, perhaps by some questionable mediaeval writer. Prof. C. Justi
writes to me from Madrid, that Spanish savants have no knowledge of
the sources from which this story may have been derived.]


Theophrastus on the ebb and flow of the tide, and of eddies, and on
water. [Footnote: The Greek philosophers had no opportunity to study
the phenomenon of the ebb and flow of the tide and none of them
wrote about it. The movement of the waters in the Euripus however
was to a few of them a puzzling problem.]


Tryphon of Alexandria, who spent his life at Apollonia, a city of
Albania (163). [Footnote: Tryphon of Alexandria, a Greek Grammarian
of the time of Augustus. His treatise TtaOY Aeijecu appeared first
at Milan in 1476, in Constantin Laskaris's Greek Grammar.]


Messer Vincenzio Aliprando, who lives near the Inn of the Bear, has
Giacomo Andrea's Vitruvius.


Vitruvius says that small models are of no avail for ascertaining
the effects of large ones; and I here propose to prove that this
conclusion is a false one. And chiefly by bringing forward the very
same argument which led him to this conclusion; that is, by an
experiment with an auger. For he proves that if a man, by a certain
exertion of strength, makes a hole of a given diameter, and
afterwards another hole of double the diameter, this cannot be made
with only double the exertion of the man's strength, but needs much
more. To this it may very well be answered that an auger


of double the diameter cannot be moved by double the exertion, be-
cause the superficies of a body of the same form but twice as large
has four times the extent of the superficies of the smaller, as is
shown in the two figures a and n.



Vitruvius, measuring miles by means of the repeated revolutions of
the wheels which move vehicles, extended over many Stadia the lines
of the circumferences of the circles of these wheels. He became
aware of them by the animals that moved the vehicles. But he did not
discern that this was a means of finding a square equal to a circle.
This was first done by Archimedes of Syracuse, who by multiplying
the second diameter of a circle by half its circumference produced a
rectangular quadrilateral equal figure to the circle [Footnote 10:
Compare No. 1475.].

[Footnote: _Vitruvius_, see also Nos. 1113 and 343.]


Virgil says that a blank shield is devoid of merit because among the
people of Athens the true recognition confirmed by testimonies ...

[Footnote: The end of the text cannot be deciphered.]


In Vitolone there are 805 conclusions [problems] in perspective.

[Footnote: _(Witelo, Vitellion, Vitellon) Vitellione. E da vedersi
su questo ottico prospettico del secolo XIII Luca Pacioli, Paolo
Lomazzo, Leonardo da Vinci, ecc. e fra i moderni il Graesse, il
Libri, il Brunet, e le Memorie pubblicate dal principe Boncompagni,
e 'Sur l' orthographe du nom et sur la patrie de Witelo (Vitellion)
note de Maximilien Curtze, professeur a Thorn', ove sono descritti i
molti codici esistenti nelle biblioteche d' Europa. Bernardino Baldi
nelle sue 'Vite de'matematici', manoscritto presso il principe
Boncompagni, ha una biografia del Vitellione. Questo scritto del
Baldi reca la data 25 agosto 1588. Discorsero poi di lui Federigo
Risnerio e Giovanni di Monteregio nella prefazione dell' Alfagrano,
Giovanni Boteone, Girolamo Cardano, 'De subtilitate', che nota gli
errori di Vitellione. Visse, secondo il Baldi, intorno all' anno
1269, ma secondo il Reinoldo fioriva nel 1299, avendo dedicata la
sua opera ad un frate Guglielmo di Monteca, che visse di que' tempi.

Intorno ad un manoscritto dell' ottica di Vitellione, citato da Luca
Pacioli v'ha un secondo esemplare del Kurlz, con aggiunte del
principe Boncompagni, e le illustrazioni del cav. Enrico Narducci.
Nel 'Catalogo di manoscritti' posseduti da D. Baldassare de'
principi Boncompagni, compilato da esso Narducci, Roma, 1862, sotto
al n. 358, troviamo citato: Vitellio, 'Perspectiva', manoscritto del
secolo XIV. La 'Prospettiva di Vitelleone' (sic) Thuringo-poloni e
citata due volte da Paolo Lomazzo nel Trattato dell' arte della
pittura. Vitellio o Vitello o Witelo. Il suo libro fu impresso in
foglio a Norimberga nel 1535; la secondo edizione e del 1551, sempre
di Norimberga, ed una terza di Basilea, 1572._ (See _Indagini
Storiche ... sulla Libreria-Visconteo-Sforzesca del Castello di
Pavia ... per cura di_ G. D'A., _Milano 1879. P. I. Appendice p.
113. 114)._]


Vitolone, at Saint Mark's.

[Footnote: _Altro codice di cotesta 'Prospettiva' del Vitolone
troviamo notato nel 'Canone bibliographico di Nicolo V', conservato
alla, Magliabecchiana, in copia dell' originale verosimilmente
inviato dal Parentucelli a Cosimo de' Medici (Magliab. cod. segn. 1
VII, 30 carte da 193 a 198). Proviene dal Convento di San Marco e lo
aveva trascritto frate Leonardo Scruberti fiorentino, dell' ordine
dei predicatori che fu anche bibliotecario della Medicea pubblica in
San Marco_ (See _Indagini Storiche ... per cura di_ G. D'A. _Parte
I, p. 97)._]


How this proposition of Xenophon is false.

If you take away unequal quantities from unequal quantities, but in
the same proportion, &c. [Footnote: Xenophon's works were published
several times during Leonardo's lifetime.]

Inventories and accounts (1509--1545).


On the 28th day of April I received from the Marchesino 103 lire and
12 dinari. [Footnote: Instead of the indication of the year there is
a blank space after _d'aprile_.--Marchesino Stange was one of
Lodovico il Moro's officials.--Compare No. 1388.]


On the 10th day of July 1492 in 135
Rhenish florins 1. 445
in dinari of 6 soldi 1. 112 S 16
in dinari of 5 1/2 soldi 1. 29 S 13
9 in gold and 3 scudi 1. 53
1. 811 in all


On the first day of February, lire 1200.


The hall towards the court is 126 paces long and 27 braccia wide.


The narrow cornice above the hall lire 30.

The cornice beneath that, being one for each picture, lire 7, and
for the cost of blue, gold, white, plaster, indigo and glue 3 lire;
time 3 days.

The pictures below these mouldings with their pilasters, 12 lire

I calculate the cost for smalt, blue and gold and other colours at 1
1/2 lire.

The days I calculate at 3, for the invention of the composition,
pilasters and other things.


Item for each vault 7 lire

outlay for blue and gold 3 1/2

time, 4 days

for the windows 1 1/2

The cornice below the windows 16 soldi per braccio

item for 24 pictures of Roman history 14 lire each

The philosophers 10 lire

the pilasters, one ounce of blue 10 soldi

for gold 15 soldi

Total 2 and 1/2 lire.


The cornice above lire 30

The cornice below lire 7

The compositions, one with another lire 13


Salai, 6 lire ... 4 soldi ... 10 soldi for a chain;--

On the l4th of March I had 13 lire S. 4; 16 lire remain.


How many braccia high is the level of the walls?--

123 braccia

How large is the hall?

How large is the garland?

30 ducats.

On the 29th day of January, 1494

cloth for hose lire 4 S 3

lining S 16

making S 8

to Salai S 3

a jasper ring S 13

a sparkling stone S 11

to Caterina S 10

to Caterina S 10


The wheel lire 7

the tire lire 10

the shield lire 4

the cushion lire 8

the ends of the axle-tree lire 2

bed and frame lire 30

conduit lire 10

S.K.M.II.2 4a]


Parsley 10 parts

mint 1 part

thyme 1 part

Vinegar ... and a little salt two pieces of canvas for Salai.

[Footnote: This note, of about the year 1494, is the earliest
mention of Salai, and the last is of the year 1513 (see No. 1465,
3). From the various notes in the MSS. he seems to have been
Leonardo's assistant and keeper only, and scarcely himself a
painter. At any rate no signed or otherwise authenticated picture by
him is known to exist. Vasari speaks somewhat doubtfully on this


On Tuesday I bought wine for morning [drinking]; on Friday the 4th
day of September the same.

[Footnote: This note enables us to fix the date of the Manuscript,
in which it is to be found. In 1495 the 4th of September fell on a
Friday; the contents of the Manuscript do not permit us to assign it
to a much earlier or later date (Compare No. 1522, and Note).]


The cistern ... at the Hospital, --2 ducats, --beans, --white maize,
--red maize, --millet, --buckwheat, --kidney beans, --beans, --peas.



For the 3 lbs of tapers 27 S
For the bier 8 S
A pall over the bier 12 S
For bearing and placing the cross 4 S
For bearing the body 8 S
For 4 priests and 4 clerks 20 S
Bell, book and sponge 2 S
For the gravediggers 16 S
To the senior 8 S
For a license from the authorities 1 S
106 S

The doctor 2 S
Sugar and candles 12 S
120 S

[Footnote: See Nos. 1384 and 1517.]


Salai's cloak, the 4th of April 1497.
4 braccia of silver cloth l. 15 S 4
green velvet to trim it l. 9 S --
binding l.-- S 9
loops l.-- S 12
the making l. 1 S 5
binding for the front l.-- S 5
stitching _________
here are 13 grossoni of his l. 26 S 5
Salai stole the soldi.


On Monday I bought 4 braccia of cloth lire 13 S 14 1/2 on the 17th
of, October 1497.


Memorandum. That on the 8th day of April 1503, I, Leonardo da Vinci,
lent to Vante, miniature painter 4 gold ducats, in gold. Salai
carried them to him and gave them into his own hand, and he said he
would repay within the space of 40 days.

Memorandum. That on the same day I paid to Salai 3 gold ducats which
he said he wanted for a pair of rose-coloured hose with their
trimming; and there remain 9 ducats due to him--excepting that he
owes me 20 ducats, that is 17 I lent him at Milan, and 3 at Venice.

Memorandum. That I gave Salai 21 braccia of cloth to make a shirt,
at 10 soldi the braccio, which I gave him on the 20th day of April

[Footnote: With regard to Vante or Attavante, the miniature painter
(not Nanni as I formerly deciphered this name, which is difficult to
read; see _Zeitschrift fur Bild. Kunst_, 1879, p. 155), and Vasari,
Lives of Frate Giovanni da Fiesole, of Bartolommeo della Gatta, and
of Gherardo, _miniatore._ He, like Leonardo, was one of the
committee of artists who, in 1503, considered the erection and
placing of Michel Angelo's David. The date of his death is not
known; he was of the same age as Leonardo. Further details will be
found in '_Notizie di Attavante miniatore, e di alcuni suoi lavori_'
(Milanese's ed. of Vasari, III, 231-235).]


On the morning of San Peter's day, June 29th, 1504, I took io
ducats, of which I gave one to Tommaso my servant to spend.

On Monday morning 1 florin to Salai to spend on the house.

On Thursday I took 1 florin for my own spending.

Wednesday evening 1 florin to Tommaso, before supper.

Saturday morning 1 florin to Tommaso.

Monday morning 1 florin less 10 soldi.

Thursday to Salai 1 florin less 10 soldi.

For a jerkin, 1 florin.

For a jerkin And a cap 2 florins.

To the hosier, 1 florin.

To Salai, 1 florin.

Friday morning, the 19th of July, 1 florin, less 6 soldi. I have 7
fl. left, and 22 in the box.

Tuesday, the 23th day of July, 1 florin to Tommaso.

Monday morning, to Tommaso 1 florin.

[Wednesday morning 1 fl. to Tommaso.]

Thursday morning the 1st day of August 1 fl. to Tommaso.

Sunday, the 4th of August, 1 florin.

Friday, the 9th day of August 1504, I took 10 ducats out of the box.


1504. On the 9th day of August, 1504, I took 10 florins in gold[2]
... [3] on Friday the 9th day of August fifteen grossoni that is fl.
5 S 5 ... given to me 1 florin in gold on the 12th day of August [4]
... on the 14th of August, 32 grossoni to Tommaso. On the 18th of
the same 5 grossoni to Salai. On the 8th of September 6 grossoni to
the workman to spend; that is on the day of our Lady's birth. On the
16th day of September I gave 4 grossoni to Tommaso: on a Sunday.

[Footnote: In the original, the passage given as No. 1463 is written
between lines 2 and 3 of this text, and it is possible that the
entries in lines 3 and 4 refer to the payments of Jacopo Tedesco,
who is there mentioned. The first words of these lines are very

[Footnote 7: _Al fattore._ Il Fattore, was, as is well known, the
nick-name of Giovanni Franceso Penni, born in Florence in 1486, and
subsequently a pupil of Raphael's. According to Vasari he was known
by it even as a boy. Whether he is spoken of in this passage, or
whether the word Fattore should be translated literally, I will not
undertake to decide. The latter seems to me more probably right.]


On the day of October, 1508, I had 30 scudi; 13 I lent to Salai to
make up his sister's dowry, and 17 I have left.


Memorandum of the money I have had from the King as my salary from
July 1508 till April next 1509. First 100 scudi, then 70, then 50,
then 20 and then 200 florins at 48 soldi the florin. [Footnote:
Compare No. 1350 and 1561.]


Saturday the 2nd day of March I had from Santa Maria Novella 5 gold
ducats, leaving 450. Of these I gave 2 the same day to Salai, who
had lent them to me. [Footnote: See '_Conto corrente di Leonardo da
Vinci con lo Spedale di S. Maria Nuova_' [1500 a 1507, 1513-1520]
published by G. UZIELLI, _Ricerche intorno a Leonardo da Vinci,
Firenze,_ 1872, pp. 164, 165, 218 and 219. The date here given by
Leonardo does not occur in either of the accounts.]


Thursday, the eighth day of June, I took 17 grossoni, 18 soldi; on
the same Thursday in the morning I gave to Salai 22 soldi for the


To Salai 4 grossoni, and for one braccio of velvet, 5 lire, and 1/2;
viz. 10 soldi for loops of silver; Salai 14 soldi for binding, the
making of the cloak 25 soldi. [Footnote: Compare No. 1523.]


I gave to Salai 93 lire 6 soldi, of which I have had 67 lire and
there remain 26 lire 6 soldi.


To Salai S 42

2 dozen of laces S 8

for papers S 3 d 8

a pair of shoes S 14

for velvet S 14

a sword and knife S 21

to the barber S 11

to Paolo for a ... S 20

For having his fortune told S 6


On Friday morning,
one florin to Salai to
spend; 3 soldi received

bread S.. d

wine S.. d

grapes S.. d

mushrooms S.. d

fruit S.. d

[Footnote 6: Compare Nos. 1545, l. 4 and 5,
with similar entries for horse's fodder.]
bran S.. d

at the barber's S.. d

for shoes S.. d


On Thursday morning one florin.


On Saint Ambrose's day from the morning to Thursday 36 soldi.


The moneys I have had from Ser Matteo;
first 20 grassoni, then on 13 occasions 3 f.
and then 61 grassoni, then 3, and then 33;
46 soldi 12 grossoni.


For paper S 18

for canvas S 30

for paper S 10 d 19

Total S 73


20 pounds of German
blue, at one ducat the pound lire 80 S d

60 pounds of white, S..
the pound lire 15 S d

1 1/2 pound at 4 S the pound lire 6 S d

2 pounds of cinnabar at
S 18 the pound lire 1 S 16 d

6 pounds of green at S 12
the pound lire 3 S 12 d

4 pounds of yellow at S 12
the pound lire 2 S 8 d

1 pound of minium at S 8
the pound lire 0 S 8 d

4 pounds of ... at S 2
the pound lire 0 S 8 d

6 pounds of ochre at S 1
the pound lire 0 S 6 d

black ... at S 2 the pound
for 20 lire 2 S 0 d

wax to make the stars
29 pounds at S--the pound lire 0 S 0 d

40 pounds of oil for painting
at 5 soldi the pound lire 10 S 0 d

Altogether lire 120 d 18
without the gold. 18

tin for putting on the gold 120 18



Two large hatchets and one very small one, 8 brass spoons, 4
tablecloths, 2 towels, 15 small napkins, 2 coarse napkins, 2 coarse
cloths, 2 wrappers, 3 pairs of sheets, 2 pairs new and 1 old.


Bed 7 0 S

ring 7 0

crockery 2 5

gardener 1 2

..... 2 8

porters 2 1

glasses 1

fuel 3 6

a lock 1

Section title: Miscellaneous Notes.


New tin-ware 3 pairs of sheets
6 small bowls, each of 4 breadths,
6 bowls, 2 small sheets,
2 large dishes, 2 tablecloths and 1/2,
2 dishes medium size, 16 coarse cloths,
2 small ones 8 shirts,
Old tin-ware 9 napkins,
3 small bowls, 2 hand-towels.
4 bowls,
3 square stones,
2 small bowls,
1 large bowl,
1 platter,
4 candlesticks,
1 small candlestick.


Hose S 40
straw S 60
wheat S 42
wine S 54
bread S 18
meat S 54
eggs S 5
salad S 3
the Barber S 2 d 6
horses S 1



meat S 10 d
wine S 12 d
bran S 5 d 4
herbs S 10 d
buttermilk S 4 d 4
melon S 3 d
bread S 3 d 1
Monday S 9 8
..... S 6 d
wine S 12 d
bran S 9 d 4
buttermilk S 4 d 4
herbs S 8 d
Tuesday S d

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