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The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci, Volume 2 by Leonardo Da Vinci

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The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci

Volume 2

Translated by Jean Paul Richter



The notes on Sculpture.

Compared with the mass of manuscript treating of Painting, a very
small number of passages bearing on the practice and methods of
Sculpture are to be found scattered through the note books; these
are here given at the beginning of this section (Nos. 706-709).
There is less cause for surprise at finding that the equestrian
statue of Francesco Sforza is only incidentally spoken of; for,
although Leonardo must have worked at it for a long succession of
years, it is not in the nature of the case that it could have given
rise to much writing. We may therefore regard it as particularly
fortunate that no fewer than thirteen notes in the master's
handwriting can be brought together, which seem to throw light on
the mysterious history of this famous work. Until now writers on
Leonardo were acquainted only with the passages numbered 712, 719,
720, 722 and 723.

In arranging these notes on sculpture I have given the precedence to
those which treat of the casting of the monument, not merely because
they are the fullest, but more especially with a view to
reconstructing the monument, an achievement which really almost lies
within our reach by combining and comparing the whole of the
materials now brought to light, alike in notes and in sketches.

A good deal of the first two passages, Nos. 710 and 711, which refer
to this subject seems obscure and incomprehensible; still, they
supplement each other and one contributes in no small degree to the
comprehension of the other. A very interesting and instructive
commentary on these passages may be found in the fourth chapter of
Vasari's Introduzione della Scultura under the title "Come si fanno
i modelli per fare di bronzo le figure grandi e picciole, e come le
forme per buttarle; come si armino di ferri, e come si gettino di
metallo," &c. Among the drawings of models of the moulds for casting
we find only one which seems to represent the horse in the act of
galloping--No. 713. All the other designs show the horse as pacing
quietly and as these studies of the horse are accompanied by copious
notes as to the method of casting, the question as to the position
of the horse in the model finally selected, seems to be decided by
preponderating evidence. "Il cavallo dello Sforza"--C. Boito remarks
very appositely in the Saggio on page 26, "doveva sembrare fratello
al cavallo del Colleoni. E si direbbe che questo fosse figlio del
cavallo del Gattamelata, il quale pare figlio di uno dei quattro
cavalli che stavano forse sull' Arco di Nerone in Roma" (now at
Venice). The publication of the Saggio also contains the
reproduction of a drawing in red chalk, representing a horse walking
to the left and supported by a scaffolding, given here on Pl. LXXVI,
No. 1. It must remain uncertain whether this represents the model as
it stood during the preparations for casting it, or whether--as
seems to me highly improbable--this sketch shows the model as it was
exhibited in 1493 on the Piazza del Castello in Milan under a
triumphal arch, on the occasion of the marriage of the Emperor
Maximilian to Bianca Maria Sforza. The only important point here is
to prove that strong evidence seems to show that, of the numerous
studies for the equestrian statue, only those which represent the
horse pacing agree with the schemes of the final plans.

The second group of preparatory sketches, representing the horse as
galloping, must therefore be considered separately, a distinction
which, in recapitulating the history of the origin of the monument
seems justified by the note given under No. 720.

Galeazza Maria Sforza was assassinated in 1476 before his scheme for
erecting a monument to his father Francesco Sforza could be carried
into effect. In the following year Ludovico il Moro the young
aspirant to the throne was exiled to Pisa, and only returned to
Milan in 1479 when he was Lord (Governatore) of the State of Milan,
in 1480 after the minister Cecco Simonetta had been murdered. It may
have been soon after this that Ludovico il Moro announced a
competition for an equestrian statue, and it is tolerably certain
that Antonio del Pollajuolo took part in it, from this passage in
Vasari's Life of this artist: "E si trovo, dopo la morte sua, il
disegno e modello che a Lodovico Sforza egli aveva fatto per la
statua a cavallo di Francesco Sforza, duca di Milano; il quale
disegno e nel nostro Libro, in due modi: in uno egli ha sotto
Verona; nell'altro, egli tutto armato, e sopra un basamento pieno di
battaglie, fa saltare il cavallo addosso a un armato; ma la cagione
perche non mettesse questi disegni in opera, non ho gia potuto
sapere." One of Pollajuolo's drawings, as here described, has lately
been discovered by Senatore Giovanni Morelli in the Munich
Pinacothek. Here the profile of the horseman is a portrait of
Francesco Duke of Milan, and under the horse, who is galloping to
the left, we see a warrior thrown and lying on the ground; precisely
the same idea as we find in some of Leonardo's designs for the
monument, as on Pl. LXVI, LXVII, LXVIII, LXIX and LXXII No. 1; and,
as it is impossible to explain this remarkable coincidence by
supposing that either artist borrowed it from the other, we can only
conclude that in the terms of the competition the subject proposed
was the Duke on a horse in full gallop, with a fallen foe under its

Leonardo may have been in the competition there and then, but the
means for executing the monument do not seem to have been at once
forthcoming. It was not perhaps until some years later that Leonardo
in a letter to the Duke (No. 719) reminded him of the project for
the monument. Then, after he had obeyed a summons to Milan, the plan
seems to have been so far modified, perhaps in consequence of a
remonstrance on the part of the artist, that a pacing horse was
substituted for one galloping, and it may have been at the same time
that the colossal dimensions of the statue were first decided on.
The designs given on Pl. LXX, LXXI, LXXII, 2 and 3, LXXIII and LXXIV
and on pp. 4 and 24, as well as three sketches on Pl. LXIX may be
studied with reference to the project in its new form, though it is
hardly possible to believe that in either of these we see the design
as it was actually carried out. It is probable that in Milan
Leonardo worked less on drawings, than in making small models of wax
and clay as preparatory to his larger model. Among the drawings
enumerated above, one in black chalk, Pl. LXXIII--the upper sketch
on the right hand side, reminds us strongly of the antique statue of
Marcus Aurelius. If, as it would seem, Leonardo had not until then
visited Rome, he might easily have known this statue from drawings
by his former master and friend Verrocchio, for Verrocchio had been
in Rome for a long time between 1470 and 1480. In 1473 Pope Sixtus
IV had this antique equestrian statue restored and placed on a new
pedestal in front of the church of San Giovanni in Luterano.
Leonardo, although he was painting independently as early as in 1472
is still spoken of as working in Verrocchio's studio in 1477. Two
years later the Venetian senate decided on erecting an equestrian
statue to Colleoni; and as Verrocchio, to whom the work was
entrusted, did not at once move from Florence to Venice--where he
died in 1488 before the casting was completed--but on the contrary
remained in Florence for some years, perhaps even till 1485,
Leonardo probably had the opportunity of seeing all his designs for
the equestrian statue at Venice and the red chalk drawing on Pl.
LXXIV may be a reminiscence of it.

The pen and ink drawing on Pl. LXXII, No. 3, reminds us of
Donatello's statue of Gattamelata at Padua. However it does not
appear that Leonardo was ever at Padua before 1499, but we may
conclude that he took a special interest in this early bronze statue
and the reports he could procure of it, form an incidental remark
which is to be found in C. A. 145a; 432a, and which will be given in
Vol. II under Ricordi or Memoranda. Among the studies--in the widest
sense of the word--made in preparation statue we may include the
Anatomy of the Horse which Lomazzo and Vas mention; the most
important parts of this work still exist in the Queen's Li Windsor.
It was beyond a doubt compiled by Leonardo when at Milan; only
interesting records to be found among these designs are reproduced
in Nos. 716a but it must be pointed out that out of 40 sheets of
studies of the movements of the belonging to that treatise, a horse
in full gallop occurs but once.

If we may trust the account given by Paulus Jovius--about l527--
Leonardo's horse was represented as "vehementer incitatus et
anhelatus". Jovius had probably seen the model exhibited at Milan;
but, need we, in fact, infer from this description that the horse
was galloping? Compare Vasari's description of the Gattamelata
monument at Padua: "Egli [Donatello] vi ando ben volentieri, e fece
il cavallo di bronzo, che e in sulla piazza di Sant Antonio, nel
quale si dimostra lo sbuffamento ed il fremito del cavallo, ed il
grande animo e la fierezza vivacissimamente espressa dall'arte nella
figura che lo cavalca".

These descriptions, it seems to me, would only serve to mark the
difference between the work of the middle ages and that of the

We learn from a statement of Sabba da Castiglione that, when Milan
was taken by the French in 1499, the model sustained some injury;
and this informant, who, however is not invariably trustworthy, adds
that Leonardo had devoted fully sixteen years to this work (la forma
del cavallo, intorno a cui Leonardo avea sedici anni continui
consumati). This often-quoted passage has given ground for an
assumption, which has no other evidence to support it, that Leonardo
had lived in Milan ever since 1483. But I believe it is nearer the
truth to suppose that this author's statement alludes to the fact
that about sixteen years must have past since the competition in
which Leonardo had taken part.

I must in these remarks confine myself strictly to the task in hand
and give no more of the history of the Sforza monument than is
needed to explain the texts and drawings I have been able to
reproduce. In the first place, with regard to the drawings, I may
observe that they are all, with the following two exceptions, in the
Queen's Library at Windsor Castle; the red chalk drawing on Pl.
LXXVI No. 1 is in the MS. C. A. (see No. 7l2) and the fragmentary
pen and ink drawing on page 4 is in the Ambrosian Library. The
drawings from Windsor on Pl. LXVI have undergone a trifling
reduction from the size of the originals.

There can no longer be the slightest doubt that the well-known
engraving of several horsemen (Passavant, Le Peintre-Graveur, Vol.
V, p. 181, No. 3) is only a copy after original drawings by
Leonardo, executed by some unknown engraver; we have only to compare
the engraving with the facsimiles of drawings on Pl. LXV, No. 2, Pl.
LXVII, LXVIII and LXIX which, it is quite evident, have served as
models for the engraver.

On Pl. LXV No. 1, in the larger sketch to the right hand, only the
base is distinctly visible, the figure of the horseman is effaced.
Leonardo evidently found it unsatisfactory and therefore rubbed it

The base of the monument--the pedestal for the equestrian statue--is
repeatedly sketched on a magnificent plan. In the sketch just
mentioned it has the character of a shrine or aedicula to contain a
sarcophagus. Captives in chains are here represented on the
entablature with their backs turned to that portion of the monument
which more

strictly constitutes the pedestal of the horse. The lower portion of
the aedicula is surrounded by columns. In the pen and ink drawing
Pl. LXVI--the lower drawing on the right hand side--the sarcophagus
is shown between the columns, and above the entablature is a plinth
on which the horse stands. But this arrangement perhaps seemed to
Leonardo to lack solidity, and in the little sketch on the left
hand, below, the sarcophagus is shown as lying under an arched
canopy. In this the trophies and the captive warriors are detached
from the angles. In the first of these two sketches the place for
the trophies is merely indicated by a few strokes; in the third
sketch on the left the base is altogether broader, buttresses and
pinnacles having been added so as to form three niches. The black
chalk drawing on Pl. LXVIII shows a base in which the angles are
formed by niches with pilasters. In the little sketch to the extreme
left on Pl. LXV, No. 1, the equestrian statue serves to crown a
circular temple somewhat resembling Bramante's tempietto of San
Pietro in Montario at Rome, while the sketch above to the right
displays an arrangement faintly reminding us of the tomb of the
Scaligers in Verona. The base is thus constructed of two platforms
or slabs, the upper one considerably smaller than the lower one
which is supported on flying buttresses with pinnacles.

On looking over the numerous studies in which the horse is not
galloping but merely walking forward, we find only one drawing for
the pedestal, and this, to accord with the altered character of the
statue, is quieter and simpler in style (Pl. LXXIV). It rises almost
vertically from the ground and is exactly as long as the pacing
horse. The whole base is here arranged either as an independent
baldaquin or else as a projecting canopy over a recess in which the
figure of the deceased Duke is seen lying on his sarcophagus; in the
latter case it was probably intended as a tomb inside a church.
Here, too, it was intended to fill the angles with trophies or
captive warriors. Probably only No. 724 in the text refers to the
work for the base of the monument.

If we compare the last mentioned sketch with the description of a
plan for an equestrian monument to Gian Giacomo Trivulzio (No. 725)
it seems by no means impossible that this drawing is a preparatory
study for the very monument concerning which the manuscript gives us
detailed information. We have no historical record regarding this
sketch nor do the archives in the Trivulzio Palace give us any
information. The simple monument to the great general in San Nazaro
Maggiore in Milan consists merely of a sarcophagus placed in recess
high on the wall of an octagonal chapel. The figure of the warrior
is lying on the sarcophagus, on which his name is inscribed; a piece
of sculpture which is certainly not Leonardo's work. Gian Giacomo
Trivulzio died at Chartres in 1518, only five months before
Leonardo, and it seems to me highly improbable that this should have
been the date of this sketch; under these circumstances it would
have been done under the auspices of Francis I, but the Italian
general was certainly not in favour with the French monarch at the
time. Gian Giacomo Trivulzio was a sworn foe to Ludovico il Moro,
whom he strove for years to overthrow. On the 6th September 1499 he
marched victorious into Milan at the head of a French army. In a
short time, however, he was forced to quit Milan again when Ludovico
il Moro bore down upon the city with a force of Swiss troops. On the
15th of April following, after defeating Lodovico at Novara,
Trivulzio once more entered Milan as a Conqueror, but his hopes of
becoming _Governatore_ of the place were soon wrecked by intrigue.
This victory and triumph, historians tell us, were signalised by
acts of vengeance against the dethroned Sforza, and it might have
been particularly flattering to him that the casting and
construction of the Sforza monument were suspended for the time.

It must have been at this moment--as it seems to me--that he
commissioned the artist to prepare designs for his own monument,
which he probably intended should find a place in the Cathedral or
in some other church. He, the husband of Margherita di Nicolino
Colleoni, would have thought that he had a claim to the same
distinction and public homage as his less illustrious connection had
received at the hands of the Venetian republic. It was at this very
time that Trivulzio had a medal struck with a bust portrait of
himself and the following remarkable inscription on the reverse:_
(Sfortiam) DVC-- (ducem) MLI (Mediolani)--NOIE
(nomine)--REGIS--FRANCORVM--EODEM--ANN --(anno) RED'T (redit)--LVS
(Ludovicus)--SVPERATVS ET CAPTVS--EST--AB--EO. _In the Library of
the Palazzo Trivulzio there is a MS. of Callimachus Siculus written
at the end of the XVth or beginning of the XVIth century. At the
beginning of this MS. there is an exquisite illuminated miniature of
an equestrian statue with the name of the general on the base; it is
however very doubtful whether this has any connection with
Leonardo's design.

Nos. 731-740, which treat of casting bronze, have probably a very
indirect bearing on the arrangements made for casting the equestrian
statue of Francesco Sforza. Some portions evidently relate to the
casting of cannon. Still, in our researches about Leonardo's work on
the monument, we may refer to them as giving us some clue to the
process of bronze casting at that period.

Some practical hints (706-709).



If you wish to make a figure in marble, first make one of clay, and
when you have finished it, let it dry and place it in a case which
should be large enough, after the figure is taken out of it, to
receive also the marble, from which you intend to reveal the figure
in imitation of the one in clay. After you have put the clay figure
into this said case, have little rods which will exactly slip in to
the holes in it, and thrust them so far in at each hole that each
white rod may touch the figure in different parts of it. And colour
the portion of the rod that remains outside black, and mark each rod
and each hole with a countersign so that each may fit into its
place. Then take the clay figure out of this case and put in your
piece of marble, taking off so much of the marble that all your rods
may be hidden in the holes as far as their marks; and to be the
better able to do this, make the case so that it can be lifted up;
but the bottom of it will always remain under the marble and in this
way it can be lifted with tools with great ease.


Some have erred in teaching sculptors to measure the limbs of their
figures with threads as if they thought that these limbs were
equally round in every part where these threads were wound about



Divide the head into 12 degrees, and each degree divide into 12
points, and each point into 12 minutes, and the minutes into minims
and the minims into semi minims.



Sculptured figures which appear in motion, will, in their standing
position, actually look as if they were falling forward.

[Footnote: _figure di rilievo_. Leonardo applies this term
exclusively to wholly detached figures, especially to those standing
free. This note apparently refers to some particular case, though we
have no knowledge of what that may have been. If we suppose it to
refer to the first model of the equestrian statue of Francesco
Sforza (see the introduction to the notes on Sculpture) this
observation may be regarded as one of his arguments for abandoning
the first scheme of the Sforza Monument, in which the horse was to
be galloping (see page 2). It is also in favour of this theory that
the note is written in a manuscript volume already completed in
1492. Leonardo's opinions as to the shortcomings of plastic works
when compared with paintings are given under No. 655 and 656.]

Notes on the casting of the Sforza monument (710-715).


Three braces which bind the mould.

[If you want to make simple casts quickly, make them in a box of
river sand wetted with vinegar.]

[When you shall have made the mould upon the horse you must make the
thickness of the metal in clay.]

Observe in alloying how many hours are wanted for each
hundredweight. [In casting each one keep the furnace and its fire
well stopped up.] [Let the inside of all the moulds be wetted with
linseed oil or oil of turpentine, and then take a handful of
powdered borax and Greek pitch with aqua vitae, and pitch the mould
over outside so that being under ground the damp may not [damage

[To manage the large mould make a model of the small mould, make a
small room in proportion.]

[Make the vents in the mould while it is on the horse.]

Hold the hoofs in the tongs, and cast them with fish glue. Weigh the
parts of the mould and the quantity of metal it will take to fill
them, and give so much to the furnace that it may afford to each
part its amount of metal; and this you may know by weighing the clay
of each part of the mould to which the quantity in the furnace must
correspond. And this is done in order that the furnace for the legs
when filled may not have to furnish metal from the legs to help out
the head, which would be impossible. [Cast at the same casting as
the horse the little door]

[Footnote: The importance of the notes included under this number is
not diminished by the fact that they have been lightly crossed out
with red chalk. Possibly they were the first scheme for some fuller
observations which no longer exist; or perhaps they were crossed out
when Leonardo found himself obliged to give up the idea of casting
the equestrian statue. In the original the first two sketches are
above l. 1, and the third below l. 9.]



Make the horse on legs of iron, strong and well set on a good
foundation; then grease it and cover it with a coating, leaving each
coat to dry thoroughly layer by layer; and this will thicken it by
the breadth of three fingers. Now fix and bind it with iron as may
be necessary. Moreover take off the mould and then make the
thickness. Then fill the mould by degrees and make it good
throughout; encircle and bind it with its irons and bake it inside
where it has to touch the bronze.


Draw upon the horse, when finished, all the pieces of the mould with
which you wish to cover the horse, and in laying on the clay cut it
in every piece, so that when the mould is finished you can take it
off, and then recompose it in its former position with its joins, by
the countersigns.

The square blocks _a b_ will be between the cover and the core, that
is in the hollow where the melted bronze is to be; and these square
blocks of bronze will support the intervals between the mould and
the cover at an equal distance, and for this reason these squares
are of great importance.

The clay should be mixed with sand.

Take wax, to return [what is not used] and to pay for what is used.

Dry it in layers.

Make the outside mould of plaster, to save time in drying and the
expense in wood; and with this plaster enclose the irons [props]
both outside and inside to a thickness of two fingers; make terra
cotta. And this mould can be made in one day; half a boat load of
plaster will serve you.


Dam it up again with glue and clay, or white of egg, and bricks and

[Footnote: See Pl. LXXV. The figure "40," close to the sketch in the
middle of the page between lines 16 and 17 has been added by a
collector's hand.

In the original, below line 21, a square piece of the page has been
cut out about 9 centimetres by 7 and a blank piece has been gummed
into the place.

Lines 22-24 are written on the margin. l. 27 and 28 are close to the
second marginal sketch. l. 42 is a note written above the third
marginal sketch and on the back of this sheet is the text given as
No. 642. Compare also No. 802.]


All the heads of the large nails.

[Footnote: See Pl. LXXVI, No. i. This drawing has already been
published in the "_Saggio delle Opere di L. da Vinci_." Milano 1872,
Pl. XXIV, No. i. But, for various reasons I cannot regard the
editor's suggestions as satisfactory. He says: "_Veggonsi le
armature di legname colle quali forse venne sostenuto il modello,
quando per le nozze di Bianca Maria Sforza con Massimiliano
imperatore, esso fu collocato sotto un arco trionfale davanti al


These bindings go inside.


Salt may be made from human excrements, burnt and calcined, made
into lees and dried slowly at a fire, and all the excrements produce
salt in a similar way and these salts when distilled, are very

[Footnote: VASARI repeatedly states, in the fourth chapter of his
_Introduzione della Scultura_, that in preparing to cast bronze
statues horse-dung was frequently used by sculptors. If,
notwithstanding this, it remains doubtful whether I am justified in
having introduced here this text of but little interest, no such
doubt can be attached to the sketch which accompanies it.]



This may be done when the furnace is made [Footnote: this note is
written below the sketches.] strong and bruised.

Models for the horse of the Sforza monument (716-718).


Messer Galeazzo's big genet


Messer Galeazzo's Sicilian horse.

[Footnote: These notes are by the side of a drawing of a horse with
figured measurements.]


Measurement of the Sicilian horse the leg from behind, seen in
front, lifted and extended.

[Footnote: There is no sketch belonging to this passage. Galeazze
here probably means Galeazze di San Severino, the famous captain who
married Bianca the daughter of Ludovico il Moro.]

Occasional references to the Sforza monument (719-724).


Again, the bronze horse may be taken in hand, which is to be to the
immortal glory and eternal honour of the happy memory of the prince
your father, and of the illustrious house of Sforza.

[Footnote: The letter from which this passage is here extracted will
be found complete in section XXI. (see the explanation of it, on
page 2).]


On the 23rd of April 1490 I began this book, and recommenced the


There is to be seen, in the mountains of Parma and Piacenza, a
multitude of shells and corals full of holes, still sticking to the
rocks, and when I was at work on the great horse for Milan, a large
sackful of them, which were found thereabout, was brought to me into
my workshop, by certain peasants.


Believe me, Leonardo the Florentine, who has to do the equestrian
bronze statue of the Duke Francesco that he does not need to care
about it, because he has work for all his life time, and, being so
great a work, I doubt whether he can ever finish it. [Footnote: This
passage is quoted from a letter to a committee at Piacenza for whom
Leonardo seems to have undertaken to execute some work. The letter
is given entire in section XXL; in it Leonardo remonstrates as to
some unreasonable demands.]


Of the horse I will say nothing because I know the times. [Footnote:
This passage occurs in a rough copy of a letter to Ludovico il Moro,
without date (see below among the letters).]


During ten years the works on the marbles have been going on I will
not wait for my payment beyond the time, when my works are finished.
[Footnote: This possibly refers to the works for the pedestal of the
equestrian statue concerning which we have no farther information in
the MSS. See p. 6.]

The project of the Trivulzio monument.



[2] Cost of the making and materials for the horse [5].

[Footnote: In the original, lines 2-5, 12-14, 33-35, are written on
the margin. This passage has been recently published by G. Govi in
Vol. V, Ser. 3a, of _Transunti, Reale Accademia dei Linea, sed. del
5 Giugno, 1881,_ with the following introductory note: _"Desidero
intanto che siano stampati questi pochi frammenti perche so che sono
stati trascritti ultimamente, e verranno messi in luce tra poco
fuori d'Italia. Li ripubblichi pure chi vuole, ma si sappia almeno
che anche tra noi si conoscevano, e s'eran raccolti da anni per
comporne, quando che fosse, una edizione ordinata degli scritti di

The learned editor has left out line 22 and has written 3 _pie_ for
8 _piedi_ in line 25. There are other deviations of less importance
from the original.]

A courser, as large as life, with the rider requires for the cost of
the metal, duc. 500.

And for cost of the iron work which is inside the model, and
charcoal, and wood, and the pit to cast it in, and for binding the
mould, and including the furnace where it is to be cast ... duc.

To make the model in clay and then in wax......... duc. 432.

To the labourers for polishing it when it is cast. ....... duc. 450.

in all. . duc. 1582.

[12] Cost of the marble of the monument [14].

Cost of the marble according to the drawing. The piece of marble
under the horse which is 4 braccia long, 2 braccia and 2 inches wide
and 9 inches thick 58 hundredweight, at 4 Lire and 10 Soldi per
hundredweight.. duc. 58.

And for 13 braccia and 6 inches of cornice, 7 in. wide and 4 in.
thick, 24 hundredweight....... duc. 24.

And for the frieze and architrave, which is 4 br. and 6 in. long, 2
br. wide and 6 in. thick, 29 hundredweight., duc. 20.

And for the capitals made of metal, which are 8, 5 inches in. square
and 2 in. thick, at the price of 15 ducats each, will come to......
duc. 122.

And for 8 columns of 2 br. 7 in., 4 1/2 in. thick, 20 hundredweight
duc. 20.

And for 8 bases which are 5 1/2 in. square and 2 in. high 5 hund'..
duc. 5.

And for the slab of the tombstone 4 br. io in. long, 2 br. 4 1/2 in.
wide 36 hundredweight....... duc. 36.

And for 8 pedestal feet each 8 br. long and 6 1/2 in. wide and 6 1/2
in. thick, 20 hundredweight come to... duc. 20.

And for the cornice below which is 4 br. and 10 in. long, and 2 br.
and 5 in. wide, and 4 in. thick, 32 hund'.. duc. 32.

And for the stone of which the figure of the deceased is to be made
which is 3 br. and 8 in. long, and 1 br. and 6 in. wide, and 9 in.
thick, 30 hund'.. duc. 30.

And for the stone on which the figure lies which is 3 br. and 4 in.
long and 1 br. and 2 in., wide and 4 1/2 in. thick duc. 16.

And for the squares of marble placed between the pedestals which are
8 and are 9 br. long and 9 in. wide, and 3 in. thick, 8
hundredweight . . . duc. 8. in all. . duc. 389.

[33]Cost of the work in marble[35].

Round the base on which the horse stands there are 8 figures at 25
ducats each ............ duc. 200.

And on the same base there are 8 festoons with some other ornaments,
and of these there are 4 at the price of 15 ducats each, and 4 at
the price of 8 ducats each ....... duc. 92.

And for squaring the stones duc. 6.

Again, for the large cornice which goes below the base on which the
horse stands, which is 13 br. and 6 in., at 2 due. per br. ......
duc. 27.

And for 12 br. of frieze at 5 due. per br. ........... duc. 60.

And for 12 br. of architrave at 1 1/2 duc. per br. ....... duc. 18.

And for 3 rosettes which will be the soffit of the monument, at 20
ducats each .......... duc. 60.

And for 8 fluted columns at 8 ducats each ......... duc. 64.

And for 8 bases at 1 ducat each, duc. 8.

And for 8 pedestals, of which 4 are at 10 duc. each, which go above
the angles; and 4 at 6 duc. each .. duc. 64.

And for squaring and carving the moulding of the pedestals at 2 duc.
each, and there are 8 .... duc. 16.

And for 6 square blocks with figures and trophies, at 25 duc. each
.. duc. 150.

And for carving the moulding of the stone under the figure of the
deceased .......... duc. 40.

For the statue of the deceased, to do it well .......... duc. 100.

For 6 harpies with candelabra, at 25 ducats each ......... duc. 150.

For squaring the stone on which the statue lies, and carving the
moulding ............ duc. 20.

in all .. duc. 1075.

The sum total of every thing added together amount to ...... duc.



It can also be made without a spring. But the screw above must
always be joined to the part of the movable sheath: [Margin note:
The mint of Rome.] [Footnote: See Pl. LXXVI. This passage is taken
from a note book which can be proved to have been used in Rome.]

All coins which do not have the rim complete, are not to be accepted
as good; and to secure the perfection of their rim it is requisite
that, in the first place, all the coins should be a perfect circle;
and to do this a coin must before all be made perfect in weight, and
size, and thickness. Therefore have several plates of metal made of
the same size and thickness, all drawn through the same gauge so as
to come out in strips. And out of [24] these strips you will stamp
the coins, quite round, as sieves are made for sorting chestnuts
[27]; and these coins can then be stamped in the way indicated
above; &c.

[31] The hollow of the die must be uniformly wider than the lower,
but imperceptibly [35].

This cuts the coins perfectly round and of the exact thickness, and
weight; and saves the man who cuts and weighs, and the man who makes
the coins round. Hence it passes only through the hands of the
gauger and of the stamper, and the coins are very superior.
[Footnote: See Pl. LXXVI No. 2. The text of lines 31-35 stands
parallel 1. 24-27.

Farther evidence of Leonardo's occupations and engagements at Rome
under Pope Leo X. may be gathered from some rough copies of letters
which will be found in this volume. Hitherto nothing has been known
of his work in Rome beyond some doubtful, and perhaps mythical,
statements in Vasari.]



The incombustible growth of soot on wicks reduced to powder, burnt
tin and all the metals, alum, isinglass, smoke from a brass forge,
each ingredient to be moistened, with aqua vitae or malmsey or
strong malt vinegar, white wine or distilled extract of turpentine,
or oil; but there should be little moisture, and cast in moulds.
[Margin note: On the coining of medals (727. 728).] [Footnote: The
meaning of _scagliuolo_ in this passage is doubtful.]



A paste of emery mixed with aqua vitae, or iron filings with
vinegar, or ashes of walnut leaves, or ashes of straw very finely

[Footnote: The meaning of _scagliuolo_ in this passage is doubtful.]

The diameter is given in the lead enclosed; it is beaten with a
hammer and several times extended; the lead is folded and kept
wrapped up in parchment so that the powder may not be spilt; then
melt the lead, and the powder will be on the top of the melted lead,
which must then be rubbed between two plates of steel till it is
thoroughly pulverised; then wash it with aqua fortis, and the
blackness of the iron will be dissolved leaving the powder clean.

Emery in large grains may be broken by putting it on a cloth many
times doubled, and hit it sideways with the hammer, when it will
break up; then mix it little by little and it can be founded with
ease; but if you hold it on the anvil you will never break it, when
it is large.

Any one who grinds smalt should do it on plates of tempered steel
with a cone shaped grinder; then put it in aqua fortis, which melts
away the steel that may have been worked up and mixed with the
smalt, and which makes it black; it then remains purified and clean;
and if you grind it on porphyry the porphyry will work up and mix
with the smalt and spoil it, and aqua fortis will never remove it
because it cannot dissolve the porphyry.

If you want a fine blue colour dissolve the smalt made with tartar,
and then remove the salt.

Vitrified brass makes a fine red.



Place stucco over the prominence of the..... which may be composed
of Venus and Mercury, and lay it well over that prominence of the
thickness of the side of a knife, made with the ruler and cover this
with the bell of a still, and you will have again the moisture with
which you applied the paste. The rest you may dry [Margin note: On
stucco (729. 730).] [Footnote: In this passage a few words have been
written in a sort of cipher--that is to say backwards; as in l. 3
_erenev_ for _Venere_, l. 4 _oirucrem_ for Mercurio, l. 12 _il
orreve co ecarob_ for _il everro (?) co borace_. The meaning of the
word before _"di giesso"_ in l. 1 is unknown; and the sense, in
which _sagoma_ is used here and in other passages is obscure.--
_Venere_ and _Mercurio_ may mean 'marble' and 'lime', of which
stucco is composed.

12. The meaning of _orreve_ is unknown.]

well; afterwards fire it, and beat it or burnish it with a good
burnisher, and make it thick towards the side.


Powder ... with borax and water to a paste, and make stucco of it,
and then heat it so that it may dry, and then varnish it, with fire,
so that it shines well.



Take of butter 6 parts, of wax 2 parts, and as much fine flour as
when put with these 2 things melted, will make them as firm as wax
or modelling clay.


Take mastic, distilled turpentine and white lead.

On bronze casting generally (731-740).



Tartar burnt and powdered with plaster and cast cause the plaster to
hold together when it is mixed up again; and then it will dissolve
in water.



Take to every 2 cups of plaster 1 of ox-horns burnt, mix them
together and make your cast with it.


When you want to take a cast in wax, burn the scum with a candle,
and the cast will come out without bubbles.


2 ounces of plaster to a pound of metal;-- walnut, which makes it
like the curve.

[Footnote: The second part of this is quite obscure.]


[Dried earth 16 pounds, 100 pounds of metal wet clay 20,--of wet
100,-half,- which increases 4 Ibs. of water,--1 of wax, 1 Ib. of
metal, a little less,-the scrapings of linen with earth, measure for
measure.] [Footnote: The translation is given literally, but the
meaning is quite obscure.]


Such as the mould is, so will the cast be.



Make a bunch of iron wire as thick as thread, and scrub them with
[this and] water; hold a bowl underneath that it may not make a mud


Make an iron rod, after the manner of a large chisel, and with this
rub over those seams on the bronze which remain on the casts of the
guns, and which are caused by the joins in the mould; but make the
tool heavy enough, and let the strokes be long and broad.


First alloy part of the metal in the crucible, then put it in the
furnace, and this being in a molten state will assist in beginning
to melt the copper.


When the copper cools in the furnace, be ready, as soon as you
perceive it, to cut it with a long stick while it is still in a
paste; or if it is quite cold cut it as lead is cut with broad and
large chisels.


If you have to make a cast of a hundred thousand pounds do it with
two furnaces and with 2000 pounds in each, or as much as 3000 pounds
at most.



If you want to break up a large mass of bronze, first suspend it,
and then make round it a wall on the four sides, like a trough of
bricks, and make a great fire therein. When it is quite red hot give
it a blow with a heavy weight raised above it, and with great force.



If you wish for economy in combining lead with the metal in order to
lessen the amount of tin which is necessary in the metal, first
alloy the lead with the tin and then add the molten copper.


The furnace should be between four well founded pillars.


The coating should not be more than two fingers thick, it should be
laid on in four thicknesses over fine clay and then well fixed, and
it should be fired only on the inside and then carefully covered
with ashes and cow's dung.


The gun being made to carry 600 Ibs. of ball and more, by this rule
you will take the measure of the diameter of the ball and divide it
into 6 parts and one of these parts will be its thickness at the
muzzle; but at the breech it must always be half. And if the ball is
to be 700 lbs., 1/7th of the diameter of the ball must be its
thickness in front; and if the ball is to be 800, the eighth of its
diameter in front; and if 900, 1/8th and 1/2 [3/16], and if 1000,


If you want it to throw a ball of stone, make the length of the gun
to be 6, or as much as 7 diameters of the ball; and if the ball is
to be of iron make it as much as 12 balls, and if the ball is to be
of lead, make it as much as 18 balls. I mean when the gun is to have
the mouth fitted to receive 600 lbs. of stone ball, and more.


The thickness at the muzzle of small guns should be from a half to
one third of the diameter of the ball, and the length from 30 to 36



The furnace must be luted before you put the metal in it, with earth
from Valenza, and over that with ashes.

[Footnote 1. 2.: _Terra di Valenza_.--Valenza is north of
Alessandria on the Po.]


When you see that the bronze is congealing take some willow-wood cut
in small chips and make up the fire with it.


I say that the cause of this congealing often proceeds from too much
fire, or from ill-dried wood.


You may know when the fire is good and fit for your purpose by a
clear flame, and if you see the tips of the flames dull and ending
in much smoke do not trust it, and particularly when the flux metal
is almost fluid.


Metal for guns must invariably be made with 6 or even 8 per cent,
that is 6 of tin to one hundred of copper, for the less you put in,
the stronger will the gun be.


The tin should be put in with the copper when the copper is reduced
to a fluid.


You can hasten the melting when 2/3ds of the copper is fluid; you
can then, with a stick of chestnut-wood, repeatedly stir what of
copper remains entire amidst what is melted.

_Introductory Observations on the Architectural Designs (XII), and
Writings on Architecture (XIII)._

_Until now very little has been known regarding Leonardo's labours
in the domain of Architecture. No building is known to have been
planned and executed by him, though by some contemporary writers
incidental allusion is made to his occupying himself with
architecture, and his famous letter to Lodovico il Moro,--which has
long been a well-known document,--in which he offers his service as
an architect to that prince, tends to confirm the belief that he was
something more than an amateur of the art. This hypothesis has
lately been confirmed by the publication of certain documents,
preserved at Milan, showing that Leonardo was not only employed in
preparing plans but that he took an active part, with much credit,
as member of a commission on public buildings; his name remains
linked with the history of the building of the Cathedral at Pavia
and that of the Cathedral at Milan._

_Leonardo's writings on Architecture are dispersed among a large
number of MSS., and it would be scarcely possible to master their
contents without the opportunity of arranging, sorting and comparing
the whole mass of materials, so as to have some comprehensive idea
of the whole. The sketches, when isolated and considered by
themselves, might appear to be of but little value; it is not till
we understand their general purport, from comparing them with each
other, that we can form any just estimate of their true worth._

_Leonardo seems to have had a project for writing a complete and
separate treatise on Architecture, such as his predecessors and
contemporaries had composed--Leon Battista Alberti, Filarete,
Francesco di Giorgio and perhaps also Bramante. But, on the other
hand, it cannot be denied that possibly no such scheme was connected
with the isolated notes and researches, treating on special
questions, which are given in this work; that he was merely working
at problems in which, for some reason or other he took a special

_A great number of important buildings were constructed in Lombardy
during the period between 1472 and 1499, and among them there are
several by unknown architects, of so high an artistic merit, that it
is certainly not improbable that either Bramante or Leonardo da
Vinci may have been, directly or indirectly, concerned in their

_Having been engaged, for now nearly twenty years, in a thorough
study of Bramante's life and labours, I have taken a particular
interest in detecting the distinguishing marks of his style as
compared with Leonardo's. In 1869 I made researches about the
architectural drawings of the latter in the Codex Atlanticus at
Milan, for the purpose of finding out, if possible the original
plans and sketches of the churches of Santa Maria delle Grazie at
Milan, and of the Cathedral at Pavia, which buildings have been
supposed to be the work both of Bramante and of Leonardo. Since 1876
I have repeatedly examined Leonardo's architectural studies in the
collection of his manuscripts in the Institut de France, and some of
these I have already given to the public in my work on_ "Les Projets
Primitifs pour la Basilique de St. Pierre de Rome", _P1. 43. In 1879
I had the opportunity of examining the manuscript in the Palazzo
Trivulzio at Milan, and in 1880 Dr Richter showed me in London the
manuscripts in the possession of Lord Ashburnham, and those in the
British Museum. I have thus had opportunities of seeing most of
Leonardo's architectural drawings in the original, but of the
manuscripts tliemselves I have deciphered only the notes which
accompany the sketches. It is to Dr Richter's exertions that we owe
the collected texts on Architecture which are now published, and
while he has undertaken to be responsible for the correct reading of
the original texts, he has also made it his task to extract the
whole of the materials from the various MSS. It has been my task to
arrange and elucidate the texts under the heads which have been
adopted in this work. MS. B. at Paris and the Codex Atlanticus at
Milan are the chief sources of our knowledge of Leonardo as an
architect, and I have recently subjected these to a thorough
re-investigation expressly with a view to this work._

_A complete reproduction of all Leonardo's architectural sketches
has not, indeed, been possible, but as far as the necessarily
restricted limits of the work have allowed, the utmost completeness
has been aimed at, and no efforts have been spared to include every
thing that can contribute to a knowledge of Leonardo's style. It
would have been very interesting, if it had been possible, to give
some general account at least of Leonardo's work and studies in
engineering, fortification, canal-making and the like, and it is
only on mature reflection that we have reluctantly abandoned this
idea. Leonardo's occupations in these departments have by no means
so close a relation to literary work, in the strict sense of the
word as we are fairly justified in attributing to his numerous notes
on Architecture._

_Leonardo's architectural studies fall naturally under two heads:_

_I. Those drawings and sketches, often accompanied by short remarks
and explanations, which may be regarded as designs for buildings or
monuments intended to be built. With these there are occasionally
explanatory texts._

_II. Theoretical investigations and treatises. A special interest
attaches to these because they discuss a variety of questions which
are of practical importance to this day. Leonardo's theory as to the
origin and progress of cracks in buildings is perhaps to be
considered as unique in its way in the literature of Architecture._



_Architectural Designs._

_I. Plans for towns._

_A. Sketches for laying out a new town with a double system of high-
level and low-level road-ways._

_Pl. LXXVII, No. 1 (MS. B, 15b). A general view of a town, with the
roads outside it sloping up to the high-level ways within._

_Pl. LXXVII, No. 3 (MS. B, 16b. see No. 741; and MS. B. 15b, see No.
742) gives a partial view of the town, with its streets and houses,
with explanatory references._

_Pl. LXXVII, No. 2 (MS. B, 15b; see No. 743). View of a double
staircaise with two opposite flights of steps._

_Pl. LXXVIII, Nos. 2 and 3 (MS. B, 37a). Sketches illustrating the
connection of the two levels of roads by means of steps. The lower
galleries are lighted by openings in the upper roadway._

_B. Notes on removing houses (MS. Br. M., 270b, see No. 744)._


The roads _m_ are 6 braccia higher than the roads _p s_, and each
road must be 20 braccia wide and have 1/2 braccio slope from the
sides towards the middle; and in the middle let there be at every
braccio an opening, one braccio long and one finger wide, where the
rain water may run off into hollows made on the same level as _p s_.
And on each side at the extremity of the width of the said road let
there be an arcade, 6 braccia broad, on columns; and understand that
he who would go through the whole place by the high level streets
can use them for this purpose, and he who would go by the low level
can do the same. By the high streets no vehicles and similar objects
should circulate, but they are exclusively for the use of gentlemen.
The carts and burdens for the use and convenience of the inhabitants
have to go by the low ones. One house must turn its back to the
other, leaving the lower streets between them. Provisions, such as
wood, wine and such things are carried in by the doors _n_, and
privies, stables and other fetid matter must be emptied away
underground. From one arch to the next


must be 300 braccia, each street receiving its light through the
openings of the upper streets, and at each arch must be a winding
stair on a circular plan because the corners of square ones are
always fouled; they must be wide, and at the first vault there must
be a door entering into public privies and the said stairs lead from
the upper to the lower streets and the high level streets begin
outside the city gates and slope up till at these gates they have
attained the height of 6 braccia. Let such a city be built near the
sea or a large river in order that the dirt of the city may be
carried off by the water.


The construction of the stairs: The stairs _c d_ go down to _f g_,
and in the same way _f g_ goes down to _h k_.



Let the houses be moved and arranged in order; and this will be done
with facility because such houses are at first made in pieces on the
open places, and can then be fitted together with their timbers in
the site where they are to be permanent.

[9] Let the men of the country [or the village] partly inhabit the
new houses when the court is absent [12].

[Footnote: On the same page we find notes referring to Romolontino
and Villafranca with a sketch-map of the course of the "Sodro" and
the "(Lo)cra" (both are given in the text farther on). There can
hardly be a doubt that the last sentence of the passage given above,
refers to the court of Francis I. King of France.--L.9-13 are
written inside the larger sketch, which, in the original, is on the
right hand side of the page by the side of lines 1-8. The three
smaller sketches are below. J. P. R.]

_II. Plans for canals and streets in a town.

Pl. LXXIX, 1. and 2, (MS. B, 37b, see No. 745, and MS. B. 36a, see
No. 746). A Plan for streets and canals inside a town, by which the
cellars of the houses are made accessible in boats.

The third text given under No. 747 refers to works executed by
Leonardo in France._


The front _a m_ will give light to the rooms; _a e_ will be 6
braccia--_a b_ 8 braccia --_b e_ 30 braccia, in order that the rooms
under the porticoes may be lighted; _c d f_ is the place where the
boats come to the houses to be unloaded. In order to render this
arrangement practicable, and in order that the inundation of the
rivers may not penetrate into the cellars, it is necessary to chose
an appropriate situation, such as a spot near a river which can be
diverted into canals in which the level of the water will not vary
either by inundations or drought. The construction is shown below;
and make choice of a fine river, which the rains do not render
muddy, such as the Ticino, the Adda and many others. [Footnote 12:
_Tesino, Adda e molti altri, i.e._ rivers coming from the mountains
and flowing through lakes.] The construction to oblige the waters to
keep constantly at the same level will be a sort of dock, as shown
below, situated at the entrance of the town; or better still, some
way within, in order that the enemy may not destroy it [14].

[Footnote: L. 1-4 are on the left hand side and within the sketch
given on Pl. LXXIX, No. I. Then follows after line 14, the drawing
of a sluicegate--_conca_--of which the use is explained in the text
below it. On the page 38a, which comes next in the original MS. is
the sketch of an oval plan of a town over which is written "_modo di
canali per la citta_" and through the longer axis of it "_canale
magior_" is written with "_Tesino_" on the prolongation of the
canal. J. P. R.]


Let the width of the streets be equal to the average height of the


The main underground channel does not receive turbid water, but that
water runs in the ditches outside the town with four mills at the
entrance and four at the outlet; and this may be done by damming the
water above Romorantin.

[11]There should be fountains made in each piazza[13].

[Footnote: In the original this text comes immediately after the
passage given as No. 744. The remainder of the writing on the same
page refers to the construction of canals and is given later, in the
"Topographical Notes".

Lines 1-11 are written to the right of the plan lines 11-13
underneath it. J. P. R.]

[Footnote 10: _Romolontino_ is Romorantin, South of Orleans in

_III. Castles and Villas.

A. Castles.

Pl. LXXX, No. 1 (P. V. fol. 39b; No. d'ordre 2282). The fortified
place here represented is said by Vallardi to be the_ "castello" _at
Milan, but without any satisfactory reason. The high tower behind
the_ "rivellino" _ravelin--seems to be intended as a watch-tower.

Pl. LXXX, No. 2 (MS. B, 23b). A similarly constructed tower probably
intended for the same use.

Pl. LXXX, No. 3 (MS. B). Sketches for corner towers with steps for a

Pl. LXXX, No. 4 (W. XVI). A cupola crowning a corner tower; an
interesting example of decorative fortification. In this
reproduction of the original pen and ink drawing it appears

B. Projects for Palaces.

Pl. LXXXI, No. 2 (MS. C. A, 75b; 221a, see No. 748). Project for a
royal residence at Amboise in France.

Pl. LXXXII, No. 1 (C. A 308a; 939a). A plan for a somewhat extensive
residence, and various details; but there is no text to elucidate
it; in courts are written the three names:

Sam cosi giova
_(St. Mark)_ _(Cosmo)_ _(John)_,
arch mo nino

C. Plans for small castles or Villas.

The three following sketches greatly resemble each other. Pl.
LXXXII, No. 2 (MS. K3 36b; see No. 749)._

_Pl. LXXXII, No. 3 (MS. B 60a; See No. 750).

Pl. LXXXIII (W. XVII). The text on this sheet refers to Cyprus (see
Topographical Notes No. 1103), but seems to have no direct
connection with the sketches inserted between.

Pl. LXXXVIII, Nos. 6 and 7 (MS. B, 12a; see No. 751). A section of a
circular pavilion with the plan of a similar building by the side of
it. These two drawings have a special historical interest because
the text written below mentions the Duke and Duchess of Milan.

The sketch of a villa on a terrace at the end of a garden occurs in
C. A. 150; and in C. A. 77b; 225b is another sketch of a villa
somewhat resembling the_ Belvedere _of Pope Innocent VIII, at Rome.
In C. A. 62b; 193b there is a Loggia.

Pl. LXXXII, No. 4 (C. A. 387a; 1198a) is a tower-shaped_ Loggia
_above a fountain. The machinery is very ingeniously screened from


The Palace of the prince must have a piazza in front of it.

Houses intended for dancing or any kind of jumping or any other
movements with a multitude of people, must be on the ground- floor;
for I have already witnessed the destruction of some, causing death
to many persons, and above all let every wall, be it ever so thin,
rest on the ground or on arches with a good foundation.

Let the mezzanines of the dwellings be divided by walls made of very
thin bricks, and without wood on account of fire.

Let all the privies have ventilation [by shafts] in the thickness of
the walls, so as to exhale by the roofs.

The mezzanines should be vaulted, and the vaults will be stronger in
proportion as they are of small size.

The ties of oak must be enclosed in the walls in order to be
protected from fire.

[Footnote: The remarks accompanying the plan reproduced on Pl.
LXXXI, No. 2 are as follows: Above, to the left: "_in_ a _angholo
stia la guardia de la sstalla_" (in the angle _a_ may be the keeper
of the stable). Below are the words "_strada dabosa_" (road to
Amboise), parallel with this "_fossa br 40_" (the moat 40 braccia)
fixing the width of the moat. In the large court surrounded by a
portico "_in terre No.--Largha br.80 e lugha br 120_." To the right
of the castle is a large basin for aquatic sports with the words
"_Giostre colle nave cioe li giostra li stieno sopra le na_"
(Jousting in boats that is the men are to be in boats). J. P. R.]

The privies must be numerous and going one into the other in order
that the stench may not penetrate into the dwellings., and all their
doors must shut off themselves with counterpoises.

The main division of the facade of this palace is into two portions;
that is to say the width of the court-yard must be half the whole
facade; the 2nd ...


30 braccia wide on each side; the lower entrance leads into a hall
10 braccia wide and 30 braccia long with 4 recesses each with a

[Footnote: On each side of the castle, Pl. LXXXII. No. 2 there are
drawings of details, to the left "_Camino_" a chimney, to the right
the central lantern, sketched in red "_8 lati_" _i.e._ an octagon.]


The firststorey [or terrace] must be entirely solid.


The pavilion in the garden of the Duchess of Milan.

The plan of the pavilion which is in the middle of the labyrinth of
the Duke of Milan.

[Footnote: This passage was first published by AMORETTI in _Memorie
Storiche_ Cap. X: Una sua opera da riportarsi a quest' anno fu il
bagno fatto per la duchessa Beatrice nel parco o giardino del
Castello. Lionardo non solo ne disegno il piccolo edifizio a foggia
di padiglione, nel cod. segnato Q. 3, dandone anche separatamente la
pianta; ma sotto vi scrisse: Padiglione del giardino della duchessa;
e sotto la pianta: Fondamento del padiglione ch'e nel mezzo del
labirinto del duca di Milano; nessuna data e presso il padiglione,
disegnato nella pagina 12, ma poco sopra fra molti circoli
intrecciati vedesi = 10 Luglio 1492 = e nella pagina 2 presso ad
alcuni disegni di legumi qualcheduno ha letto Settembre 1482 in vece
di 1492, come dovea scriverevi, e probabilmente scrisse Lionardo.

The original text however hardly bears the interpretation put upon
it by AMORETTI. He is mistaken as to the mark on the MS. as well as
in his statements as to the date, for the MS. in question has no
date; the date he gives occurs, on the contrary, in another
note-book. Finally, it appears to me quite an open question whether
Leonardo was the architect who carried out the construction of the
dome-like Pavilion here shown in section, or of the ground plan of
the Pavilion drawn by the side of it. Must we, in fact, suppose that
"_il duca di Milano_" here mentioned was, as has been generally
assumed, Ludovico il Moro? He did not hold this title from the
Emperor before 1494; till that date he was only called _Governatore_
and Leonardo in speaking of him, mentions him generally as "_il
Moro_" even after 1494. On January 18, 1491, he married Beatrice
d'Este the daughter of Ercole I, Duke of Ferrara. She died on the
2nd January 1497, and for the reasons I have given it seems
improbable that it should be this princess who is here spoken of as
the "_Duchessa di Milano_". From the style of the handwriting it
appears to me to be beyond all doubt that the MS. B, from which this
passage is taken, is older than the dated MSS. of 1492 and 1493. In
that case the Duke of Milan here mentioned would be Gian Galeazzo
(1469-1494) and the Duchess would be his wife Isabella of Aragon, to
whom he was married on the second February 1489. J. P. R.]


The earth that is dug out from the cellars must be raised on one
side so high as to make a terrace garden as high as the level of the
hall; but between the earth of the terrace and the wall of the
house, leave an interval in order that the damp may not spoil the
principal walls.

_IV. Ecclesiastical Architecture.

A. General Observations._


A building should always be detached on all sides so that its form
may be seen.

[Footnote: The original text is reproduced on Pl. XCII, No. 1 to the
left hand at the bottom.]


Here there cannot and ought not to be any _campanile_; on the
contrary it must stand apart like that of the Cathedral and of San
Giovanni at Florence, and of the Cathedral at Pisa, where the
campanile is quite detached as well as the dome. Thus each can
display its own perfection. If however you wish to join it to the
church, make the lantern serve for the campanile as in the church at

[Footnote: This text is written by the side of the plan given on Pl.
XCI. No. 2.]

[Footnote 12: The Abbey of Chiaravalle, a few miles from Milan, has
a central tower on the intersection of the cross in the style of
that of the Certosa of Pavia, but the style is mediaeval (A. D.
1330). Leonardo seems here to mean, that in a building, in which the
circular form is strongly conspicuous, the campanile must either be
separated, or rise from the centre of the building and therefore
take the form of a lantern.]


It never looks well to see the roofs of a church; they should rather
be flat and the water should run off by gutters made in the frieze.

[Footnote: This text is to the left of the domed church reproduced
on Pl. LXXXVII, No. 2.]

_B. The theory of Dome Architecture.

This subject has been more extensively treated by Leonardo in
drawings than in writing. Still we may fairly assume that it was his
purpose, ultimately to embody the results of his investigation in a_
"Trattato delle Cupole." _The amount of materials is remarkably
extensive. MS. B is particularly rich in plans and elevations of
churches with one or more domes--from the simplest form to the most
complicated that can be imagined. Considering the evident connexion
between a great number of these sketches, as well as the
impossibility of seeing in them designs or preparatory sketches for
any building intended to be erected, the conclusion is obvious that
they were not designed for any particular monument, but were
theoretical and ideal researches, made in order to obtain a clear
understanding of the laws which must govern the construction of a
great central dome, with smaller ones grouped round it; and with or
without the addition of spires, so that each of these parts by
itself and in its juxtaposition to the other parts should produce
the grandest possible effect.

In these sketches Leonardo seems to have exhausted every imaginable
combination. [Footnote 1: In MS. B, 32b (see Pl. C III, No. 2) we
find eight geometrical patterns, each drawn in a square; and in MS.
C.A., fol. 87 to 98 form a whole series of patterns done with the
same intention.] The results of some of these problems are perhaps
not quite satisfactory; still they cannot be considered to give
evidence of a want of taste or of any other defect in Leonardo s
architectural capacity. They were no doubt intended exclusively for
his own instruction, and, before all, as it seems, to illustrate the
features or consequences resulting from a given principle._

_I have already, in another place,_ [Footnote 1: Les Projets
Primitifs pour la Basilique de St. Pierre de Rome, par Bramante,
Raphael etc.,Vol. I, p. 2.] _pointed out the law of construction for
buildings crowned by a large dome: namely, that such a dome, to
produce the greatest effect possible, should rise either from the
centre of a Greek cross, or from the centre of a structure of which
the plan has some symmetrical affinity to a circle, this circle
being at the same time the centre of the whole plan of the building.

Leonardo's sketches show that he was fully aware, as was to be
expected, of this truth. Few of them exhibit the form of a Latin
cross, and when this is met with, it generally gives evidence of the
determination to assign as prominent a part as possible to the dome
in the general effect of the building.

While it is evident, on the one hand, that the greater number of
these domes had no particular purpose, not being designed for
execution, on the other hand several reasons may be found for
Leonardo's perseverance in his studies of the subject.

Besides the theoretical interest of the question for Leonardo and
his_ Trattato _and besides the taste for domes prevailing at that
time, it seems likely that the intended erection of some building of
the first importance like the Duomos of Pavia and Como, the church
of Sta. Maria delle Grazie at Milan, and the construction of a Dome
or central Tower_ (Tiburio) _on the cathedral of Milan, may have
stimulated Leonardo to undertake a general and thorough
investigation of the subject; whilst Leonardo's intercourse with
Bramante for ten years or more, can hardly have remained without
influence in this matter. In fact now that some of this great
Architect's studies for S. Peter's at Rome have at last become
known, he must be considered henceforth as the greatest master of
Dome-Architecture that ever existed. His influence, direct or
indirect even on a genius like Leonardo seems the more likely, since
Leonardo's sketches reveal a style most similar to that of Bramante,
whose name indeed, occurs twice in Leonardo's manuscript notes. It
must not be forgotten that Leonardo was a Florentine; the
characteristic form of the two principal domes of Florence, Sta.
Maria del Fiore and the Battisterio, constantly appear as leading
features in his sketches.

The church of San Lorenzo at Milan, was at that time still intact.
The dome is to this day one of the most wonderful cupolas ever
constructed, and with its two smaller domes might well attract the
attention and study of a never resting genius such as Leonardo. A
whole class of these sketches betray in fact the direct influence of
the church of S. Lorenzo, and this also seems to have suggested the
plan of Bramante's dome of St. Peter's at Rome.

In the following pages the various sketches for the construction of
domes have been classified and discussed from a general point of
view. On two sheets: Pl. LXXXIV (C.A. 354b; 118a) and Pl. LXXXV,
Nos. 1-11 (Ash. II, 6b) we see various dissimilar types, grouped
together; thus these two sheets may be regarded as a sort of
nomenclature of the different types, on which we shall now have to

_1. Churches formed on the plan of a Greek cross.

Group I.

Domes rising from a circular base.

The simplest type of central building is a circular edifice.

Pl. LXXXIV, No. 9. Plan of a circular building surrounded by a

Pl. LXXXIV, No. 8. Elevation of the former, with a conical roof.

Pl. XC. No. 5. A dodecagon, as most nearly approaching the circle.

Pl. LXXXVI, No. 1, 2, 3. Four round chapels are added at the
extremities of the two principal axes;--compare this plan with fig.
1 on p. 44 and fig. 3 on p. 47 (W. P. 5b) where the outer wall is

Group II.

Domes rising from a square base.

The plan is a square surrounded by a colonnade, and the dome seems
to be octagonal.

Pl. LXXXIV. The square plan below the circular building No. 8, and
its elevation to the left, above the plan: here the ground-plan is
square, the upper storey octagonal. A further development of this
type is shown in two sketches C. A. 3a (not reproduced here), and in

Pl. LXXXVI, No. 5 (which possibly belongs to No. 7 on Pl. LXXXIV).

Pl, LXXXV, No. 4, and p. 45, Fig. 3, a Greek cross, repeated p. 45,
Fig. 3, is another development of the square central plan.

The remainder of these studies show two different systems; in the
first the dome rises from a square plan,--in the second from an
octagonal base._

_Group III.

Domes rising from a square base and four pillars. [Footnote 1: The
ancient chapel San Satiro, via del Falcone, Milan, is a specimen of
this type.]_

a) First type. _A Dome resting on four pillars in the centre of a
square edifice, with an apse in the middle, of each of the four
sides. We have eleven variations of this type.

aa) Pl. LXXXVIII, No. 3.

bb) Pl. LXXX, No. 5.

cc) Pl. LXXXV, Nos. 2, 3, 5.

dd) Pl. LXXXIV, No. 1 and 4 beneath.

ee) Pl. LXXXV, Nos. 1, 7, 10, 11._

b) Second type. _This consists in adding aisles to the whole plan of
the first type; columns are placed between the apses and the aisles;
the plan thus obtained is very nearly identical with that of S.
Lorenzo at Milan.

Fig. 1 on p. 56. (MS. B, 75a) shows the result of this treatment
adapted to a peculiar purpose about which we shall have to say a few
words later on.

Pl. XCV, No. 1, shows the same plan but with the addition of a short
nave. This plan seems to have been suggested by the general
arrangement of S. Sepolcro at Milan.

MS. B. 57b (see the sketch reproduced on p.51). By adding towers in
the four outer angles to the last named plan, we obtain a plan which
bears the general features of Bramante's plans for S. Peter's at
Rome. [Footnote 2: See_ Les projets primitifs _etc., Pl. 9-12.] (See
p. 51 Fig. 1.)

Group IV.

Domes rising from an octagonal base.

This system, developed according to two different schemes, has given
rise to two classes with many varieties.

In a) On each side of the octagon chapels of equal form are added.

In b) The chapels are dissimilar; those which terminate the
principal axes being different in form from those which are added on
the diagonal sides of the octagon.

a. First Class.

The Chapel_ "degli Angeli," _at Florence, built only to a height of
about 20 feet by Brunellesco, may be considered as the prototype of
this group; and, indeed it probably suggested it. The fact that we
see in MS. B. 11b (Pl. XCIV, No. 3) by the side of Brunellesco's
plan for the Basilica of Sto. Spirito at Florence, a plan almost
identical with that of the_ Capella degli Angeli, _confirms this
supposition. Only two small differences, or we may say improvements,
have been introduced by Leonardo. Firstly the back of the chapels
contains a third niche, and each angle of the Octagon a folded
pilaster like those in Bramante's_ Sagrestia di S. M. presso San
Satiro _at Milan, instead of an interval between the two pilasters
as seen in the Battistero at Florence and in the Sacristy of Sto.
Spirito in the same town and also in the above named chapel by

The first set of sketches which come under consideration have at
first sight the appearance of mere geometrical studies. They seem to
have been suggested by the plan given on page 44 Fig. 2 (MS. B, 55a)
in the centre of which is written_ "Santa Maria in perticha da
Pavia", _at the place marked A on the reproduction.

a) (MS. B, 34b, page 44 Fig. 3). In the middle of each side a column
is added, and in the axes of the intercolumnar spaces a second row
of columns forms an aisle round the octagon. These are placed at the
intersection of a system of semicircles, of which the sixteen
columns on the sides of the octagon are the centres.

b) The preceding diagram is completed and becomes more monumental in
style in the sketch next to it (MS. B, 35a, see p. 45 Fig. 1). An
outer aisle is added by circles, having for radius the distance
between the columns in the middle sides of the octagon.

c) (MS. B. 96b, see p. 45 Fig. 2). Octagon with an aisle round it;
the angles of both are formed by columns. The outer sides are formed
by 8 niches forming chapels. The exterior is likewise octagonal,
with the angles corresponding to the centre of each of the interior

Pl. XCII, No. 2 (MS. B. 96b). Detail and modification of the
preceding plan--half columns against piers--an arrangement by which
the chapels of the aisle have the same width of opening as the inner
arches between the half columns. Underneath this sketch the
following note occurs:_ questo vole - avere 12 facce - co 12
tabernaculi - come - _a_ - _b_. _(This will have twelve sides with
twelve tabernacles as_ a b._) In the remaining sketches of this
class the octagon is not formed by columns at the angles.

The simplest type shows a niche in the middle of each side and is
repeated on several sheets, viz: MS. B 3; MS. C.A. 354b (see Pl.
LXXXIV, No. 11) and MS. Ash II 6b; (see Pl. LXXXV, No. 9 and the
elevations No. 8; Pl. XCII, No. 3; MS. B. 4b [not reproduced here]
and Pl. LXXXIV, No. 2)._

_Pl. XCII, 3 (MS. B, 56b) corresponds to a plan like the one in MS.
B 35a, in which the niches would be visible outside or, as in the
following sketch, with the addition of a niche in the middle of each

Pl. XC, No. 6. The niches themselves are surrounded by smaller
niches (see also No. 1 on the same plate).

Octagon expanded on each side.

A. by a square chapel:

MS. B. 34b (not reproduced here).

B. by a square with 3 niches:

MS. B. 11b (see Pl. XCIV, No. 3).

C. by octagonal chapels:

a) MS. B, 21a; Pl. LXXXVIII, No. 4.

b) No. 2 on the same plate. Underneath there is the remark:_
"quest'e come le 8 cappele ano a essere facte" _(this is how the
eight chapels are to be executed).

c) Pl. LXXXVIII, No. 5. Elevation to the plans on the same sheet, it
is accompanied by the note:_ "ciasscuno de' 9 tiburi no'uole -
passare l'alteza - di - 2 - quadri" _(neither of the 9 domes must
exceed the height of two squares).

d) Pl. LXXXVIII, No. 1. Inside of the same octagon. MS. B, 30a, and
34b; these are three repetitions of parts of the same plan with very
slight variations.

D. by a circular chapel:

MS. B, 18a (see Fig. 1 on page 47) gives the plan of this
arrangement in which the exterior is square on the ground floor with
only four of the chapels projecting, as is explained in the next

Pl. LXXXIX, MS. B, 17b. Elevation to the preceding plan sketched on
the opposite side of the sheet, and also marked A. It is accompanied
by the following remark, indicating the theoretical character of
these studies:_ questo - edifitio - anchora - starebbe - bene
affarlo dalla linja - _a_ - _b_ - _c_ - _d_ - insu. _("This edifice
would also produce a good effect if only the part above the lines_ a
b, c d, _were executed").

Pl. LXXXIV, No. 11. The exterior has the form of an octagon, but the
chapels project partly beyond it. On the left side of the sketch
they appear larger than on the right side.

Pl. XC, No. 1, (MS. B, 25b); Repetition of Pl. LXXXIV, No. 11.

Pl. XC, No. 2. Elevation to the plan No. 1, and also to No. 6 of the
same sheet._

_E. By chapels formed by four niches:

Pl. LXXXIV, No. 7 (the circular plan on the left below) shows this
arrangement in which the central dome has become circular inside and
might therefore be classed after this group. [Footnote 1: This plan
and some others of this class remind us of the plan of the Mausoleum
of Augustus as it is represented for instance by Durand. See_ Cab.
des Estampes, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Topographie de Rome, V,
6, 82._]

The sketch on the right hand side gives most likely the elevation
for the last named plan.

F. By chapels of still richer combinations, which necessitate an
octagon of larger dimensions:

Pl. XCI, No. 2 (MS. Ash. 11. 8b) [Footnote 2: The note accompanying
this plan is given under No. 754.]; on this plan the chapels
themselves appear to be central buildings formed like the first type
of the third group. Pl. LXXXVIII, No. 3.

Pl. XCI, No. 2 above; the exterior of the preceding figure,
particularly interesting on account of the alternation of apses and
niches, the latter containing statues of a gigantic size, in
proportion to the dimension of the niches.

b. Second Class.

Composite plans of this class are generally obtained by combining
two types of the first class--the one worked out on the principal
axes, the other on the diagonal ones.

MS. B. 22 shows an elementary combination, without any additions on
the diagonal axes, but with the dimensions of the squares on the two
principal axes exceeding those of the sides of the octagon.

In the drawing W. P. 5b (see page 44 Fig. 1) the exterior only of
the edifice is octagonal, the interior being formed by a circular
colonnade; round chapels are placed against the four sides of the
principal axes.

The elevation, drawn on the same sheet (see page 47 Fig. 3), shows
the whole arrangement which is closely related with the one on Pl.
LXXXVI No. 1, 2.

MS. B. 21a shows:

a) four sides with rectangular chapels crowned by pediments Pl.
LXXXVII No. 3 (plan and elevation);

b) four sides with square chapels crowned by octagonal domes. Pl.
LXXXVII No. 4; the plan underneath.

MS. B. 18a shows a variation obtained by replacing the round chapels
in the principal axes of the sketch MS. B. l8a by square ones, with
an apse. Leonardo repeated both ideas for better comparison side by
side, see page 47. Fig. 2.

Pl. LXXXIX (MS. B. 17b). Elevation for the preceding figure. The
comparison of the drawing marked M with the plan on page 47 Fig. 2,
bearing the same mark, and of the elevation on Pl. LXXXIX below
(marked A) with the corresponding plan on page 47 is highly
instructive, as illustrating the spirit in which Leonardo pursued
these studies.

Pl. LXXXIV No. 12 shows the design Pl. LXXXVII No. 3 combined with
apses, with the addition of round chapels on the diagonal sides.

Pl. LXXXIV No. 13 is a variation of the preceding sketch.

Pl. XC No. 3. MS. B. 25b. The round chapels of the preceding sketch
are replaced by octagonal chapels, above which rise campaniles.

Pl. XC No. 4 is the elevation for the preceding plan.

Pl. XCII No. 1. (MS. B. 39b.); the plan below. On the principal as
well as on the diagonal axes are diagonal chapels, but the latter
are separated from the dome by semicircular recesses. The
communication between these eight chapels forms a square aisle round
the central dome.

Above this figure is the elevation, showing four campaniles on the
angles. [Footnote 1: The note accompanying this drawing is
reproduced under No. 753.]

Pl. LXXXIV No. 3. On the principal axes are square chapels with
three niches; on the diagonals octagonal chapels with niches. Cod.
Atl. 340b gives a somewhat similar arrangement.

MS. B. 30. The principal development is thrown on the diagonal axes
by square chapels with three niches; on the principal axes are inner
recesses communicating with outer ones.

The plan Pl. XCIII No. 2 (MS. B. 22) differs from this only in so
far as the outer semicircles have become circular chapels,
projecting from the external square as apses; one of them serves as
the entrance by a semicircular portico.

The elevation is drawn on the left side of the plan.

MS. B. 19. A further development of MS. B. 18, by employing for the
four principal chapels the type Pl. LXXXVIII No. 3, as we have
already seen in Pl. XCI No. 2; the exterior presents two varieties.

a) The outer contour follows the inner. [Footnote 2: These chapels
are here sketched in two different sizes; it is the smaller type
which is thus formed.]

b) It is semicircular.

Pl. LXXXVII No. 2 (MS. B. 18b) Elevation to the first variation MS.
B. 19. If we were not certain that this sketch was by Leonardo, we
might feel tempted to take it as a study by Bramante for St. Peter's
at Rome. [Footnote 3: See_ Les projets primitifs Pl. 43._]_

_MS. P. V. 39b. In the principal axes the chapels of MS. B. 19, and
semicircular niches on the diagonals. The exterior of the whole
edifice is also an octagon, concealing the form of the interior
chapels, but with its angles on their axes.

Group V.

Suggested by San Lorenzo at Milan.

In MS. C. A. 266 IIb, 8l2b there is a plan almost identical with
that of San Lorenzo. The diagonal sides of the irregular octagon are
not indicated.

If it could be proved that the arches which, in the actual church,
exist on these sides in the first story, were added in 1574 by
Martimo Bassi, then this plan and the following section would be
still nearer the original state of San Lorenzo than at present. A
reproduction of this slightly sketched plan has not been possible.
It may however be understood from Pl. LXXXVIII No. 3, by suppressing
the four pillars corresponding to the apses.

Pl. LXXXVII No. 1 shows the section in elevation corresponding with
the above-named plan. The recessed chapels are decorated with large
shells in the halfdomes like the arrangement in San Lorenzo, but
with proportions like those of Bramante's Sacristy of Santa Maria
presso S. Satiro.

MS. C. A. 266; a sheet containing three views of exteriors of Domes.
On the same sheet there is a plan similar to the one above-named but
with uninterrupted aisles and with the addition of round chapels in
the axes (compare Pl. XCVII No. 3 and page 44 Fig. 1), perhaps a
reminiscence of the two chapels annexed to San Lorenzo.--Leonardo
has here sketched the way of transforming this plan into a Latin
cross by means of a nave with side aisles.

Pl. XCI No. 1. Plan showing a type deprived of aisles and comprised
in a square building which is surrounded by a portico. It is
accompanied by the following text:_


This edifice is inhabited [accessible] below and above, like San
Sepolcro, and it is the same above as below, except that the upper
story has the dome _c d_; and the [Footnote: The church of San
Sepolcro at Milan, founded in 1030 and repeatedly rebuilt after the
middle of the XVIth century, still stands over the crypt of the
original structure.] lower has the dome _a b_, and when you enter
into the crypt, you descend 10 steps, and when you mount into the
upper you ascend 20 steps, which, with 1/3 braccio for each, make 10
braccia, and this is the height between one floor of the church and
the other.

_Above the plan on the same sheet is a view of the exterior. By the
aid of these two figures and the description, sections of the
edifice may easily be reconstructed. But the section drawn on the
left side of the building seems not to be in keeping with the same
plan, notwithstanding the explanatory note written underneath it:
"dentro il difitio di sopra" (interior of the edifice
above)[Footnote 1: _The small inner dome corresponds to_ a b _on the
plan--it rises from the lower church into the upper-- above, and
larger, rises the dome_ c d. _The aisles above and below thus
correspond_ (e di sopra come di sotto, salvoche etc.). _The only
difference is, that in the section Leonardo has not taken the
trouble to make the form octagonal, but has merely sketched circular
lines in perspective._ J. P. R._].

_Before leaving this group, it is well to remark that the germ of it
seems already indicated by the diagonal lines in the plans Pl. LXXXV
No. 11 and No. 7. We shall find another application of the same type
to the Latin cross in Pl. XCVII No. 3.

_2. Churches formed on the plan of a Latin cross.

We find among Leonardo's studies several sketches for churches on
the plan of the Latin cross; we shall begin by describing them, and
shall add a few observations.

A. Studies after existing Monuments.

Pl. XCIV No. 2. (MS. B. 11b.) Plan of Santo Spirito at Florence, a
basilica built after the designs of Brunellesco.--Leonardo has added
the indication of a portico in front, either his own invention or
the reproduction of a now lost design.

Pl. XCV No. 2. Plan accompanied by the words: "A_ e santo sepolcro
di milano di sopra"(A _is the upper church of S. Sepolcro at Milan);
although since Leonardo's time considerably spoilt, it is still the
same in plan.

The second plan with its note: "B_ e la sua parte socto tera" (B _is
its subterranean part [the crypt]) still corresponds with the
present state of this part of the church as I have ascertained by
visiting the crypt with this plan. Excepting the addition of a few
insignificant walls, the state of this interesting part of the
church still conforms to Leonardo's sketch; but in the Vestibolo the
two columns near the entrance of the winding stairs are absent.

B. Designs or Studies.

PL. XCV No. 1. Plan of a church evidently suggested by that of San
Sepolcro at Milan. The central part has been added to on the
principle of the second type of Group III. Leonardo has placed the_
"coro" _(choir) in the centre._

_Pl. XCVI No. 2. In the plan the dome, as regards its interior,
belongs to the First Class of Group IV, and may be grouped with the
one in MS. B. 35a. The nave seems to be a development of the type
represented in Pl. XCV No. 2, B. by adding towers and two lateral
porticos[Footnote 1: Already published in Les projets primitifs Pl.

On the left is a view of the exterior of the preceding plan. It is
accompanied by the following note:_


This building is inhabited below and above; the way up is by the
campaniles, and in going up one has to use the platform, where the
drums of the four domes are, and this platform has a parapet in
front, and none of these domes communicate with the church, but they
are quite separate.

_Pl. XCVI No. 1 (MS. C. A. 16b; 65a). Perspective view of a church
seen from behind; this recalls the Duomo at Florence, but with two

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