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The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci, Complete by Leonardo Da Vinci

Part 16 out of 16

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Notes on pupils (1458-1468.)


Giacomo came to live with me on St.-Mary Magdalen's[Footnote: _Il di
della Maddalena._ July 22.] day, 1490, aged 10 years. The second day
I had two shirts cut out for him, a pair of hose, and a jerkin, and
when I put aside some money to pay for these things he stole 4
_lire_ the money out of the purse; and I could never make him
confess, though I was quite certain of the fact.--Thief, liar,
obstinate, glutton.

The day after, I went to sup with Giacomo Andrea, and the said
Giacomo supped for two and did mischief for four; for he brake 3
cruets, spilled the wine, and after this came to sup where I ....

Item: on the 7th day of September he stole a silver point of the
value of 22 soldi from Marco[Footnote 6: _Marco_, probably
Leonardo's pupil Marco d'Oggionno; 1470 is supposed to be the date
of his birth and 1540 of his death.

_Che stava con meco._ We may infer from this that he left the master
shortly after this, his term of study having perhaps expired.] who
was living with me, 4 _lire_ this being of silver; and he took it
from his studio, and when the said Marco had searched for it a long
while he found it hidden in the said Giacomo's box 4 _lire_.

Item: on the 26th January following, I, being in the house of Messer
Galeazzo da San Severino [Footnote 9: Galeazzo. See No. 718 note.],
was arranging the festival for his jousting, and certain footmen
having undressed to try on some costumes of wild men for the said
festival, Giacomo went to the purse of one of them which lay on the
bed with other clothes, 2 lire 4 S, and took out such money as was
in it.

Item: when I was in the same house, Maestro Agostino da Pavia gave
to me a Turkish hide to have (2 lire.) a pair of short boots made of
it; this Giacomo stole it of me within a month and sold it to a
cobbler for 20 soldi, with which money, by his own confession, he
bought anise comfits.

Item: again, on the 2nd April, Giovan Antonio [Footnote 16: Giovan
Antonio, probably Beltraffio, 1467 to 1516.] having left a silver
point on a drawing of his, Giacomo stole it, and this was of the
value of 24 soldi (1 lira 4 S.)

The first year-

A cloak, 2 lire,
6 shirts, 4 lire,
3 jerkins, 6 lire,
4 pairs of hose, 7 lire 8 soldi,
1 lined doublet, 5 lire,
24 pairs of shoes, 6 lire 5 soldi,
A cap, 1 lira,
laces, 1 lira.

[Footnote: Leonardo here gives a detailed account not only of the
loss he and others incurred through Giacomo but of the wild tricks
of the youth, and we may therefore assume that the note was not made
merely as a record for his own use, but as a report to be forwarded
to the lad's father or other responsible guardian.]


On the last day but one of September;

Thursday the 27th day of September Maestro Tommaso came back and
worked for himself until the last day but one of February. On the
18th day of March, 1493, Giulio, a German, came to live with
me,--Lucia, Piero, Leonardo.

On the 6th day of October.


1493. On the 1st day of November we settled accounts. Giulio had to
pay 4 months; and Maestro Tommaso 9 months; Maestro Tommaso
afterwards made 6 candlesticks, 10 days' work; Giulio some
fire-tongs 15 days work. Then he worked for himself till the 27th
May, and worked for me at a lever till the 18th July; then for
himself till the 7th of August, and for one day, on the fifteenth,
for a lady. Then again for me at 2 locks until the 20th of August.


On the 23rd day of August, 12 lire from Pulisona. On the 14th of
March 1494, Galeazzo came to live with me, agreeing to pay 5 lire a
month for his cost paying on the l4th day of each month.

His father gave me 2 Rhenish florins.

On the l4th of July, I had from Galeazzo 2 Rhenish florins.


On the 15th day of September Giulio began the lock of my studio


Saturday morning the 3rd of August 1504 Jacopo the German came to
live with me in the house, and agreed with me that I should charge
him a carlino a day.


1511. On the 26th of September Antonio broke his leg; he must rest
40 days.

[Footnote: This note refers possibly to Beltraffio.]


I left Milan for Rome on the 24th day of September, 1513, with
Giovanni [Footnote 2: _Giovan;_ it is not likely that Leonardo
should have called Giovan' Antonio Beltraffio at one time Giovanni,
as in this note and another time Antonio, as in No. 1464 while in
No. 1458 l. 16 we find _Giovan'Antonio_, and in No. 1436, l.6
_Beltraffio_. Possibly the Giovanni here spoken of is Leonardo's
less known pupil Giovan Pietrino (see No. 1467, 5).], Francesco di
Melzi [Footnote 2,3: _Francesco de' Melzi_ is often mentioned, see
Nos. 1350.], Salai [Footnote 3: _Salai_. See No. 1519 note.],
Lorenzo and il Fanfoia.

[Footnote 4: _Lorenzo_. See No. 1351, l. 10 (p. 408). Amoretti gives
the following note in _Mem. Stor. XXIII:_ 1505. _Martedi--sera a di
14 d'aprile. Venne Lorenzo a stare con mecho: disse essere d'eta
d'anni 17 .. a di 15 del detto aprile ebbi scudi 25 d'oro dal
chamerlingo di Santa Maria nuova._ This, he asserts is derived from
a MS. marked S, in quarto. This MS. seems to have vanished and left
no trace behind; Amoretti himself had not seen it, but copied from a
selection of extracts made by Oltrocchi before the Leonardo MSS.
were conveyed to Paris on the responsibility of the first French
Republic. Lorenzo, by this, must have been born in 1487. The
sculptor Lorenzetto was born in 1490. Amoretti has been led by the
above passage to make the following absurd observations:

_Cotesto Lorenzo, che poi gli fu sempre compagno, almeno sin che
stette in Italia, sarebb' egli Lorenzo Lotto bergamasco? Sappiamo
essere stato questo valente dipintore uno de'bravi scolari del
Vinci_ (?).

_Il Fafoia_, perhaps a nickname. Cesare da Sesto, Leonardo's pupil,
seems to have been in Rome in these years, as we learn from a
drawing by him in the Louvre.


On the 3rd day of January.

Benedetto came on the 17th of October; he stayed with me two months
and 13 days of last year, in which time he earned 38 lire, 18 soldi
and 8 dinari; he had of this 26 lire and 8 soldi, and there remains
to be paid for the past year 12 lire 10 soldi.

Giodatti (?) came on the 8th day of September, at 4 soldi a month,
and stayed with me 3 months and 24 days, and earned 59 lire 14 soldi
and 8 dinari; he has had 43 lire, 4 soldi, there remains to pay 16
lire, 10 soldi and 8 dinari.

Benedetto, 24 grossoni.

[Footnote: This seems to be an account for two assistants. The name
of the second is scarcely legible. The year is not given. The note
is nevertheless of chronological value. The first line tells us the
date when the note was registered, January 3d, and the observations
that follow refer to events of the previous month 'of last year'
_(dell'anno passato)_. Leonardo cannot therefore have written thus
in Florence where the year was, at that period, calculated as
beginning in the month of March (see Vol. I, No. 4, note 2). He must
then have been in Milan. What is more important is that we thus
learn how to date the beginning of the year in all the notes written
at Milan. This clears up Uzielli's doubts: _A Milano facevasi
cominciar l'anno ab incarnatione, cioe il 25 Marzo e a nativitate,
cioe il 25 Decembre. Ci sembra probabile che Leonardo dovesse
prescegliere lo stile che era in uso a Firenze._ (_Ricerche_, p. 84,


Gian Maria 4,
Benedetto 4,
Gian Pietro [5] 3,
Salai 3,
Bartolomeo 3,
Gherardo 4.


Salai, 20 lire,
Bonifacio, 2 lire,
Bartolomeo, 4 lire,
Arrigo [Harry], 15 lire.

Quotations and notes on books and authors (1469-1508).


Book on Arithmetic [Footnote 1: _"La nobel opera de arithmethica ne
la qual se tracta tute cosse amercantia pertinente facta & compilata
per Piero borgi da Veniesia", in-40. In fine: "Nela inclita cita di
Venetia a corni. 2 augusto. 1484. fu imposto fine ala presente
opera." Segn. a--p. quaderni. V'ha pero un' altra opera simile di
Filippo Calandro, 1491. E da consultarsi su quest' ultimo, Federici:
Memorie Trevigiane, Fiore di virtu: pag. 73. "Libricciuolo composto
di bello stile verso il 1320 e piu volte impresso nel secolo XV
(ristampato poi anche piu tardi). Gli accademici della Crusca lo
ammettono nella serie dei testi di lingua. Vedasi Gamba, Razzolini,
Panzer, Brunet, Lechi, ecc._ (G. D'A.)], 'Flowers of Virtue',

Pliny [Footnote 2: _"Historia naturale di C. Plinio Secondo,
tradocta di lingua latina in fiorentina per Christophoro Laudino &
Opus Nicolai Jansonis gallici imp. anno salutis M.CCCC.LXXVI.
Venetiis" in-fol.--Diogene Laertio. Incomincia: "El libro de la vita
de philosophi etc.: Impressum Venetiis" per Bernardinum Celerium de
Luere, 1480", in-40_ (G. D'A.).], 'Lives of the Philosophers',

The Bible [Footnote 3: _"La Bibia volgare historiata (per Nicolo di
Mallermi) Venecia ... M.CCCC.LXXI in kalende di Augusto (per
Vindelino de Spira)" 2 vol. in-fol. a 2 col. di 50 lin,; od altra
ediz. della stessa versione del Mallermi, Venetia 1471, e sempre:
"Venecia per Gabriel de Piero 1477," in-fol.; 2 vol.; Ottavio Scotto
da Modoetia 1481," "Venetia 1487 per Joan Rosso Vercellese," "1490
Giovanni Ragazo di Monteferato a instantia di Luchanthonio di
Giunta, ecc."--Lapidario Teofrasto? Mandebille: "Le grand
lapidaire," versione italiana ms.?... Giorgio Agricola non puo
essere, perche nato nel 1494, forse Alberto Magno: de mineralibus.
Potrebbe essere una traduzione del poema latino (Liber lapidum seu
de gemmis) di Marbordio Veterio di Rennes (morto nel 1123 da lui
stesso tradotto in francese dal greco di Evao re d'Arabia celebre
medico che l'aveva composto per l'imperatore Tiberio. Marbodio
scrisse il suo prima per Filippo Augusto re di Francia. Vi sono
anche traduzioni in prosa. "Il lapidario o la forza e la virtu delle
pietre preziose, delle Erbe e degli Animali."_ (G. D'A.)],

'On warfare' [Footnote 4: _Il Vegezio? ... Il Frontino? ... Il
Cornazzano?... Noi crediamo piuttosto il Valturio. Questo libro
doveva essere uno de'favoriti di Leonardo poiche libro di scienza e
d'arte nel tempo stesso._], 'Epistles of Filelfo',

[Footnote: The late Marchese Girolamo d'Adda published a highly
valuable and interesting disquisition on this passage under the
title: _Leonardo da Vinci e la sua Libreria, note di un bibliofilo
(Milano 1873. Ed. di soli 75 esemplari_; privately printed). In the
autumn of 1880 the Marchese d'Adda showed me a considerable mass of
additional notes prepared for a second edition. This, as he then
intended, was to come out after the publication of this work of
mine. After the much regretted death of the elder Marchese, his son,
the Marchese Gioachino d'Adda was so liberal as to place these MS.
materials at my disposal for the present work, through the kind
intervention of Signor Gustavo Frizzoni. The following passages,
with the initials G. d'A. are prints from the valuable notes in that
publication, the MS. additions I have marked. I did not however
think myself justified in reproducing here the acute and interesting
observations on the contents of most of the rare books here

[Footnote: 1467. 5. See No. 1465, 2.]

The first decade, [5] 'On the preservation of health', The third
decade, [6] Ciecho d'Ascoli, The fourth decade, [7] Albertus Magnus,
Guido, [8] New treatise on rhetorics, Piero Crescentio, [9]
Cibaldone, 'Quadriregio', [10] Aesop,

Donato, [Footnote 11: "_Donatus latine & italice: Impressum Venetiis
impensis Johannis Baptistae de Sessa anno_ 1499, _in_-4".-- "_El
Psalterio de David in lingua volgare (da Malermi Venetia nel
M.CCCC.LXXVI,_" in-fol. s. n._ (G. D'A.)] Psalms,

Justinus, [Footnote 12: Compare No. 1210, 48.--_La versione di
Girolamo Squarzafico:_ "_Il libro di Justino posto diligentemente in
materna lingua. Venetia ale spesse (sic) di Johane de Colonia &
Johane Gheretze_ ... l477," _in-fol._--"_Marsilii Ficini, Theologia
platonica, sive de animarum immortalitate, Florentine, per Ant.
Misconimum_ 1482," _in-fol., ovvero qualche versione italiana di
questo stesso libro, ms._ (G. D'A.)] 'On the immortality of the

Guido [Footnote 13: _Forse_ "_la Historia Trojana Guidonis_" _od il
_"_manipulus_" _di_ "_Guido da Monterocherii_"_ ma piu probabilmente
_"_Guido d'Arezzo_"_ il di cui libro: _"_Micrologus, seu disciplina
artis musicae_"_ poteva da Leonardo aversi ms.; di questi ne
esistono in molto biblioteche, e fu poi impresso nel 1784 dal

_Molte sono le edizione dei sonetti di Burchiello Fiorentino,
impresse nel secolo XV. La prima e piu rara e recercata:_
"_Incominciano li sonetti, ecc. (per Christoforo Arnaldo)_"_, in_-4
_senza numeri, richiami o segnature, del_ 1475, _e fors' anche del_
1472, _secondo Morelli e Dibdin, ecc._ (G. D'A.)] Burchiello,

'Doctrinale' [Footnote 14: _Versione italiana det "Doctrinal de
Sapience" di Guy de Roy, e foris'anche l'originale in lingua

_Di Pulci Luigi, benche nell' edizione:_ "_Florentiae_ 1479" _in_-4
si dica: _"_Il Driadeo composto in rima octava per Lucio Pulcro_"_
Altre ediz, del secolo XV, _"_Florentie Miscomini_ 1481, _in_-40,
_Firenze, apud S. Jacob, de Ripoli,_ 1483,_" _in_-4 _e "Antoni de
Francesco,_ 1487," _in_-4 _e Francesco di Jacopo_ 1489,_in_-4 _ed
altre ancora di Venezia e senza alcuna nota ecc._ (G. D'A.)]

Morgante [Footnote 15: _Una delle edizioni del Morgante impresse nel
secolo XV, ecc.--_

_Quale delle opere di Francesco Petrarca, sarebbe malagevole
l'indovinare, ma probabilmente il Canzoniere._ (G. D'A.)] Petrarch.

John de Mandeville [Footnote 16: _Sono i viaggi del cavaliere_
"_Mandeville_" _gentiluomo inglese. Scrisse il suo libro in lingua
francese. Fu stampato replicatamente nel secolo XV in francese, in
inglese ed in italiano ed in tedesco; del secolo XV ne annoverano
forse piu di 27 edizioni, di cui ne conosciamo_ 8 _in francese,
quattro in latino, sei in tedesco e molte altre in volgare._ (G.

'On honest recreation' [Footnote 17: _Il Platina (Bartolomeo Sacchi)
la versione italiana_ "_de la honesta voluptate, & valetudine (& de
li obsonnii) Venetia (senza nome di tipografo)_ 1487," _piccolo
in_-4 _gotico._ (G. D'A.)--Compare No. 844, 21.]

Manganello, [Footnote 18: _Il Manganello: Satira eccessivamente
vivace contro le donne ad imitazione della Sesta di Giovenale.
Manganello non e soltanto il titolo del libricino, sua ben anche il
nome dell'autore ch'era un_ "_milanese_". _Di questo libercolo
rarissimo, che sembra impresso a Venezia dallo Zoppino (Nicolo
d'Aristotile detto il), senza data, ma dei primissimi anni del
secolo XVI, e forse piu antico, come vedremo in appresso, non se ne
conoscono fra biblioteche pubbliche e private che due soli esemplari
in Europa._ (G. D'A.)]

The Chronicle of Isidoro, [Footnote 19: "_Cronica desidero_",
_sembra si deggia leggere piuttosto_ "_cronico disidoro_"_; ed in
questo caso s'intenderebbe la_ "_cronica d'Isidoro_" _tanto in voga
a quel tempo_ "_Comenza la Cronica di Sancto Isidoro menore con
alchune additione cavate del testo & istorie de la Bibia & del libro
di Paulo Oroso .... Impresso in Ascoli in casa del reverendo misser
Pascale ..... per mano di Guglielmo de Linis de Alamania
M.CCCC.LXXVII_" _in_-4 _di_ 157 _ff. E il primo libro impresso ad
Ascoli e l'edizione principe di questa cronica in oggi assai rara.
Non lo e meno l'edizione di Cividal del Friuli_, 1480, _e quella ben
anche di Aquila_, 1482, _sempre in-_4. _Vedasi Panzer, Hain, Brunet
e P. Dechamps._ (G. D'A.)]

The Epistles of Ovid, [Footnote 20: "_Le pistole di Ovidio tradotte
in prosa. Napoli Sixt. Riessinger_", _in_-4, _oppure:_ "_Epistole
volgarizzate_ 1489," _in_-4 _a due col._ "_impresse ne la cita
(sic) di Bressa per pre: Baptista de Farfengo,_" _(in ottave) o:_
"_El libro dele Epistole di Ovidio in rima volgare per messere
Dominico de Monticelli toschano. Brescia Farfengo_," _in_-4 _got.
(in rima volgare)_, 1491, _ed anche la versione di Luca Pulci.
Firenze, Mischomini_, 1481, _in_-4. (G. D'A.) ]

Epistles of Filelfo, [Footnote 21: See l. 4.]

Sphere, [Footnote 22: "_Jo: de Sacrobusto_," _o_ "_Goro Dati_," _o_
"_Tolosano da Colle_" _di cui molteplici edizioni del secolo XV._
(G. D'A.)]

The Jests of Poggio, [Footnote 23: _Tre edizioni delle facezie del
Poggio abbiamo in lingua italiana della fine del secolo XV, tutte
senza data. "Facetie de Poggio fiorentino traducte de latino in
vulgare ornatissimo," in-40, segn. a--e in caratteri romani;
l'altra: "Facetie traducte de latino in vulgare," in-40, caratteri
gotici, ecc._ (G. D'A.)] Chiromancy, [Footnote 24: "_Die Kunst
Cyromantia etc, in tedesco. 26 ff. di testo e figure il tutte
eseguito su tavole di legno verso la fine del secolo XV da Giorgio
Schapff". Dibdin, Heinecken, Sotheby e Chatto ne diedero una lunga
descrizione; i primi tre accompagnati da fac-simili. La data 1448
che si legge alla fine del titolo si riferisce al periodo della
composizione del testo, non a quello della stampa del volume benche
tabellario. Altri molti libri di Chiromanzia si conoscono di quel
tempo e sarebbe opera vana il citarli tutti._ (G. D'A.)]

Formulary of letters, [Footnote 25: _Miniatore Bartolomeo.
"Formulario de epistole vulgare missive e responsive, & altri fiori
de ornali parlamenti al principe Hercule d'Esti ecc. composto ecc.
Bologna per Ugo di Rugerii," in-40, del secolo XV. Altra edizione di
"Venetia Bernardino di Novara, 1487" e "Milano per Joanne Angelo
Scinzenzeler 1500," in-40._ (G. D'A.)

Five books out of this list are noted by Leonardo in another MS.
(Tr. 3): _donato, -- lapidario, -- plinio, -- abacho, -- morgante._]


Nonius Marcellus, Festus Pompeius, Marcus Varro.

[Footnote: Nonius Marcellus and Sextus Pompeius Festus were Roman
grammarians of about the fourth century A. D. Early publications of
the works of Marcellus are: _De proprietate sermonis, Romae_ (about
1470), and 1471 (place of publication unknown). _Compendiosa
doctrina, ad filium, de proprietate sermonum._ Venice, 1476. BRUNET,
_Manuel du libraire_ (IV, p. 97) notes: _Le texte de cet ancien
grammairien a ete reimprime plusieurs fois a la fin du XVe siecle,
avec ceux de Pomponius Festus et de Terentius Varro. La plus
ancienne edition qui reunisse ces trois auteurs est celle de Parme,
1480 ... Celles de Venise, 1483, 1490, 1498, et de Milan, 1500,
toutes in-fol., ont peu de valeur._]


Map of Elephanta in India which Antonello Merciaio has from maestro
Maffeo;--there for seven years the earth rises and for seven years
it sinks;--Enquire at the stationers about Vitruvius.


See 'On Ships' Messer Battista, and Frontinus 'On Acqueducts'
[Footnote 2: 2. _Vitruvius de Arch., et Frontinus de Aquedoctibus._
Florence, 1513.--This is the earliest edition of Frontinus.--The
note referring to this author thus suggests a solution of the
problem of the date of the Leicester Manuscript.].

[Footnote: Compare No. 1113, 25.]


Anaxagoras: Every thing proceeds from every thing, and every thing
becomes every thing, and every thing can be turned into every thing
else, because that which exists in the elements is composed of those


The Archimedes belonging to the Bishop of Padua.

[Footnote: See No. 1421, 1. 3, 6 and Vol. I, No. 343.]


Archimedes gave the quadrature of a polygonal figure, but not of the
circle. Hence Archimedes never squared any figure with curved sides.
He squared the circle minus the smallest portion that the intellect
can conceive, that is the smallest point visible.

[Footnote: Compare No. 1504.]


If any man could have discovered the utmost powers of the cannon, in
all its various forms and have given such a secret to the Romans,
with what rapidity would they have conquered every country and have
vanquished every army, and what reward could have been great enough
for such a service! Archimedes indeed, although he had greatly
damaged the Romans in the siege of Syracuse, nevertheless did not
fail of being offered great rewards from these very Romans; and when
Syracuse was taken, diligent search was made for Archimedes; and he
being found dead greater lamentation was made for him by the Senate
and people of Rome than if they had lost all their army; and they
did not fail to honour him with burial and with a statue. At their
head was Marcus Marcellus. And after the second destruction of
Syracuse, the sepulchre of Archimedes was found again by Cato[25],
in the ruins of a temple. So Cato had the temple restored and the
sepulchre he so highly honoured.... Whence it is written that Cato
said that he was not so proud of any thing he had done as of having
paid such honour to Archimedes.

[Footnote: Where Leonardo found the statement that Cato had found
and restored the tomb of Archimedes, I do not know. It is a merit
that Cicero claims as his own (Tusc. V, 23) and certainly with a
full right to it. None of Archimedes' biographers --not even the
diligent Mazzucchelli, mentions any version in which Cato is named.
It is evidently a slip of the memory on Leonardo's part. Besides,
according to the passage in Cicero, the grave was not found _'nelle
ruine d'un tempio'_--which is highly improbable as relating to a
Greek--but in an open spot (H. MULLER-STRUBING).--See too, as to
Archimedes, No. 1417.

Leonardo says somewhere in MS. C.A.: _Architronito e una macchina di
fino rame, invenzlon d' Archimede_ (see _'Saggio'_, p. 20).]


Aristotle, Book 3 of the Physics, and Albertus Magnus, and Thomas
Aquinas and the others on the rebound of bodies, in the 7th on
Physics, on heaven and earth.


Aristotle says that if a force can move a body a given distance in a
given time, the same force will move half the same body twice as far
in the same time.


Aristotle in Book 3 of the Ethics: Man merits praise or blame solely
in such matters as lie within his option to do or not to do.


Aristotle says that every body tends to maintain its nature.


On the increase of the Nile, a small book by Aristotle. [Footnote:
_De inundatione Nili_, is quoted here and by others as a work of
Aristotle. The Greek original is lost, but a Latin version of the
beginning exists (Arist. Opp. IV p. 213 ed. Did. Par.).

In his quotations from Aristotle Leonardo possibly refers to one of
the following editions: _Aristotelis libri IV de coelo et mundo; de
anima libri III; libri VIII physi- corum; libri de generatione et
corruptione; de sensu et sensato... omnia latine, interprete
Averroe, Venetiis 1483_ (first Latin edition). There is also a
separate edition of _Liber de coelo et mundo_, dated 1473.]


Avicenna will have it that soul gives birth to soul as body to body,
and each member to itself.

[Footnote: Avicenna, see too No. 1421, 1. 2.]


Avicenna on liquids.


Roger Bacon, done in print. [Footnote: The earliest printed edition
known to Brunet of the works of Roger Bacon, is a French
translation, which appeared about fourty years after Leonardo's


Cleomedes the philosopher.

[Footnote: Cleomede. A Greek mathematician of the IVth century B. C.
We have a Cyclic theory of Meteorica by him. His works were not
published before Leonardo's death.]



The highest good is wisdom, the chief evil is suffering in the body.
Because, as we are composed of two things, that is soul and body, of
which the first is the better, the body is the inferior; wisdom
belongs to the better part, and the chief evil belongs to the worse
part and is the worst of all. As the best thing of all in the soul
is wisdom, so the worst in the body is suffering. Therefore just as
bodily pain is the chief evil, wisdom is the chief good of the soul,
that is with the wise man; and nothing else can be compared with it.

[Footnote: _Aulus Cornelius Celsus_, a Roman physician, known as the
Roman Hippocrates, probably contemporary with Augustus. Only his
eight Books 'De Medicina', are preserved. The earliest editions are:
_Cornelius Celsus, de medicina libr. VIII._, Milan 1481 Venice 1493
and 1497.]


Demetrius was wont to say that there was no difference between the
speech and words of the foolish and ignorant, and the noises and
rumblings of the wind in an inflated stomach. Nor did he say so
without reason, for he saw no difference between the parts whence
the noise issued; whether their lower parts or their mouth, since
one and the other were of equal use and importance.

[Footnote: Compare Vol. I, No. 10.]


Maestro Stefano Caponi, a physician, lives at the piscina, and has
Euclid _De Ponderibus_.


5th Book of Euclid. First definition: a part is a quantity of less
magnitude than the greater magnitude when the less is contained a
certain number of times in the greater.

A part properly speaking is that which may be multiplied, that is
when, being multiplied by a certain number, it forms exactly the
whole. A common aggregate part ...

Second definition. A greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of a
less, when the greater is measured by the less.

By the first we define the lesser [magnitude] and by the second the
greater is defined. A part is spoken


of in relation to the whole; and all their relations lie between
these two extremes, and are called multiples.


Hippocrates says that the origin of men's sperm derives from the
brain, and from the lungs and testicles of our parents, where the
final decocture is made, and all the other limbs transmit their
substance to this sperm by means of expiration, because there are no
channels through which they might come to the sperm.

[Footnote: The works of Hippocrates were printed first after
Leonardo's death.]


Lucretius in his third [book] 'De Rerum Natura'. The hands, nails
and teeth were (165) the weapons of ancient man.

They also use for a standard a bunch of grass tied to a pole (167).

[Footnote: _Lucretius, de rerum natura libri VI_ were printed first
about 1473, at Verona in 1486, at Brescia in 1495, at Venice in 1500
and in 1515, and at Florence in 1515. The numbers 165 and 167 noted
by Leonardo at the end of the two passages seem to indicate pages,
but if so, none of the editions just mentioned can here be meant,
nor do these numbers refer to the verses in the poems of Lucretius.]


Ammianus Marcellinus asserts that seven hundred thousand volumes of
books were burnt in the siege of Alexandria in the time of Julius

[Footnote: _Ammiani Marcellini historiarum libri qui extant XIII_,
published at Rome in 1474.]


Mondino says that the muscles which raise the toes are in the
outward side of the thigh, and he adds that there are no muscles in
the back [upper side] of the feet, because nature desired to make
them light, so as to move with ease; and if they had been fleshy
they would be heavier; and here experience shows ...

[Footnote: _"Mundini anatomia. Mundinus, Anothomia (sic). Mundini
praestantissimorum doctorum almi studii ticiensis (sic) cura
diligentissime emendata. Impressa Papiae per magistrum Antonium de
Carfano 1478," in-fol.; ristampata: "Bononiae Johan. de Noerdlingen,
1482," in-fol.; "Padova per Mattheum Cerdonis de Vuindischgretz,
1484," in-40; "Lipsia, 1493," in-40; "Venezia, 1494," in-40 e ivi
"1498," con fig. Queste figure per altro non sono, come si e
preteso, le prime che fossero introdotte in un trattato di Notamia.
Nel 'fasciculus Medicinae' di Giovanni Ketham, che riproduce
l''Anatomia' del Mundinus, impresso pure a Venezia da J. e G. de
Gregoriis, 1491, in-fol., contengonsi intagli in legno (si vogliono
disegnati non gia incisi da Andrea Mantegna) di grande dimensione, e
che furono piu volte riprodotti negli anni successivi. Quest'
edizione del "fasciculus" del 1491, sta fra nostri libri e potrebbe
benissimo essere il volume d'Anatomia notato da Leonardo._ (G.


Of the error of those who practice without knowledge;--[3] See first
the 'Ars poetica' of Horace [5].

[Footnote: A 3-5 are written on the margin at the side of the title
line of the text given, entire as No. 19]


The heirs of Maestro Giovanni Ghiringallo have the works of


The catapult, as we are told by Nonius and Pliny, is a machine
devised by those &c.

[Footnote: _Plinius_, see No. 946.]


I have found in a history of the Spaniards that in their wars with
the English Archimedes of Syracuse who at that time was living at
the court of Ecliderides, King of the Cirodastri. And in maritime
warfare he ordered that the ships should have tall masts, and that
on their tops there should be a spar fixed [Footnote 6: Compare No.
1115.] of 40 feet long and one third of a foot thick. At one end of
this was a small grappling iron and at the other a counterpoise; and
there was also attached 12 feet of chain; and, at the end of this
chain, as much rope as would reach from the chain to the base of the
top, where it was fixed with a small rope; from this base it ran
down to the bottom of the mast where a very strong spar was attached
and to this was fastened the end of the rope. But to go on to the
use of his machine; I say that below this grappling iron was a fire
[Footnote 14: Compare No. 1128.] which, with tremendous noise, threw
down its rays and a shower of burning pitch; which, pouring down on
the [enemy's] top, compelled the men who were in it to abandon the
top to which the grappling-iron had clung. This was hooked on to the
edges of the top and then suddenly the cord attached at the base of
the top to support the cord which went from the grappling iron, was
cut, giving way and drawing in the enemy's ship; and if the
anchor--was cast ...

[Footnote: Archimedes never visited Spain, and the names here
mentioned cannot be explained. Leonardo seems to quote here from a
book, perhaps by some questionable mediaeval writer. Prof. C. Justi
writes to me from Madrid, that Spanish savants have no knowledge of
the sources from which this story may have been derived.]


Theophrastus on the ebb and flow of the tide, and of eddies, and on
water. [Footnote: The Greek philosophers had no opportunity to study
the phenomenon of the ebb and flow of the tide and none of them
wrote about it. The movement of the waters in the Euripus however
was to a few of them a puzzling problem.]


Tryphon of Alexandria, who spent his life at Apollonia, a city of
Albania (163). [Footnote: Tryphon of Alexandria, a Greek Grammarian
of the time of Augustus. His treatise TtaOY Aeijecu appeared first
at Milan in 1476, in Constantin Laskaris's Greek Grammar.]


Messer Vincenzio Aliprando, who lives near the Inn of the Bear, has
Giacomo Andrea's Vitruvius.


Vitruvius says that small models are of no avail for ascertaining
the effects of large ones; and I here propose to prove that this
conclusion is a false one. And chiefly by bringing forward the very
same argument which led him to this conclusion; that is, by an
experiment with an auger. For he proves that if a man, by a certain
exertion of strength, makes a hole of a given diameter, and
afterwards another hole of double the diameter, this cannot be made
with only double the exertion of the man's strength, but needs much
more. To this it may very well be answered that an auger


of double the diameter cannot be moved by double the exertion, be-
cause the superficies of a body of the same form but twice as large
has four times the extent of the superficies of the smaller, as is
shown in the two figures a and n.



Vitruvius, measuring miles by means of the repeated revolutions of
the wheels which move vehicles, extended over many Stadia the lines
of the circumferences of the circles of these wheels. He became
aware of them by the animals that moved the vehicles. But he did not
discern that this was a means of finding a square equal to a circle.
This was first done by Archimedes of Syracuse, who by multiplying
the second diameter of a circle by half its circumference produced a
rectangular quadrilateral equal figure to the circle [Footnote 10:
Compare No. 1475.].

[Footnote: _Vitruvius_, see also Nos. 1113 and 343.]


Virgil says that a blank shield is devoid of merit because among the
people of Athens the true recognition confirmed by testimonies ...

[Footnote: The end of the text cannot be deciphered.]


In Vitolone there are 805 conclusions [problems] in perspective.

[Footnote: _(Witelo, Vitellion, Vitellon) Vitellione. E da vedersi
su questo ottico prospettico del secolo XIII Luca Pacioli, Paolo
Lomazzo, Leonardo da Vinci, ecc. e fra i moderni il Graesse, il
Libri, il Brunet, e le Memorie pubblicate dal principe Boncompagni,
e 'Sur l' orthographe du nom et sur la patrie de Witelo (Vitellion)
note de Maximilien Curtze, professeur a Thorn', ove sono descritti i
molti codici esistenti nelle biblioteche d' Europa. Bernardino Baldi
nelle sue 'Vite de'matematici', manoscritto presso il principe
Boncompagni, ha una biografia del Vitellione. Questo scritto del
Baldi reca la data 25 agosto 1588. Discorsero poi di lui Federigo
Risnerio e Giovanni di Monteregio nella prefazione dell' Alfagrano,
Giovanni Boteone, Girolamo Cardano, 'De subtilitate', che nota gli
errori di Vitellione. Visse, secondo il Baldi, intorno all' anno
1269, ma secondo il Reinoldo fioriva nel 1299, avendo dedicata la
sua opera ad un frate Guglielmo di Monteca, che visse di que' tempi.

Intorno ad un manoscritto dell' ottica di Vitellione, citato da Luca
Pacioli v'ha un secondo esemplare del Kurlz, con aggiunte del
principe Boncompagni, e le illustrazioni del cav. Enrico Narducci.
Nel 'Catalogo di manoscritti' posseduti da D. Baldassare de'
principi Boncompagni, compilato da esso Narducci, Roma, 1862, sotto
al n. 358, troviamo citato: Vitellio, 'Perspectiva', manoscritto del
secolo XIV. La 'Prospettiva di Vitelleone' (sic) Thuringo-poloni e
citata due volte da Paolo Lomazzo nel Trattato dell' arte della
pittura. Vitellio o Vitello o Witelo. Il suo libro fu impresso in
foglio a Norimberga nel 1535; la secondo edizione e del 1551, sempre
di Norimberga, ed una terza di Basilea, 1572._ (See _Indagini
Storiche ... sulla Libreria-Visconteo-Sforzesca del Castello di
Pavia ... per cura di_ G. D'A., _Milano 1879. P. I. Appendice p.
113. 114)._]


Vitolone, at Saint Mark's.

[Footnote: _Altro codice di cotesta 'Prospettiva' del Vitolone
troviamo notato nel 'Canone bibliographico di Nicolo V', conservato
alla, Magliabecchiana, in copia dell' originale verosimilmente
inviato dal Parentucelli a Cosimo de' Medici (Magliab. cod. segn. 1
VII, 30 carte da 193 a 198). Proviene dal Convento di San Marco e lo
aveva trascritto frate Leonardo Scruberti fiorentino, dell' ordine
dei predicatori che fu anche bibliotecario della Medicea pubblica in
San Marco_ (See _Indagini Storiche ... per cura di_ G. D'A. _Parte
I, p. 97)._]


How this proposition of Xenophon is false.

If you take away unequal quantities from unequal quantities, but in
the same proportion, &c. [Footnote: Xenophon's works were published
several times during Leonardo's lifetime.]

Inventories and accounts (1509--1545).


On the 28th day of April I received from the Marchesino 103 lire and
12 dinari. [Footnote: Instead of the indication of the year there is
a blank space after _d'aprile_.--Marchesino Stange was one of
Lodovico il Moro's officials.--Compare No. 1388.]


On the 10th day of July 1492 in 135
Rhenish florins 1. 445
in dinari of 6 soldi 1. 112 S 16
in dinari of 5 1/2 soldi 1. 29 S 13
9 in gold and 3 scudi 1. 53
1. 811 in all


On the first day of February, lire 1200.


The hall towards the court is 126 paces long and 27 braccia wide.


The narrow cornice above the hall lire 30.

The cornice beneath that, being one for each picture, lire 7, and
for the cost of blue, gold, white, plaster, indigo and glue 3 lire;
time 3 days.

The pictures below these mouldings with their pilasters, 12 lire

I calculate the cost for smalt, blue and gold and other colours at 1
1/2 lire.

The days I calculate at 3, for the invention of the composition,
pilasters and other things.


Item for each vault 7 lire

outlay for blue and gold 3 1/2

time, 4 days

for the windows 1 1/2

The cornice below the windows 16 soldi per braccio

item for 24 pictures of Roman history 14 lire each

The philosophers 10 lire

the pilasters, one ounce of blue 10 soldi

for gold 15 soldi

Total 2 and 1/2 lire.


The cornice above lire 30

The cornice below lire 7

The compositions, one with another lire 13


Salai, 6 lire ... 4 soldi ... 10 soldi for a chain;--

On the l4th of March I had 13 lire S. 4; 16 lire remain.


How many braccia high is the level of the walls?--

123 braccia

How large is the hall?

How large is the garland?

30 ducats.

On the 29th day of January, 1494

cloth for hose lire 4 S 3

lining S 16

making S 8

to Salai S 3

a jasper ring S 13

a sparkling stone S 11

to Caterina S 10

to Caterina S 10


The wheel lire 7

the tire lire 10

the shield lire 4

the cushion lire 8

the ends of the axle-tree lire 2

bed and frame lire 30

conduit lire 10

S.K.M.II.2 4a]


Parsley 10 parts

mint 1 part

thyme 1 part

Vinegar ... and a little salt two pieces of canvas for Salai.

[Footnote: This note, of about the year 1494, is the earliest
mention of Salai, and the last is of the year 1513 (see No. 1465,
3). From the various notes in the MSS. he seems to have been
Leonardo's assistant and keeper only, and scarcely himself a
painter. At any rate no signed or otherwise authenticated picture by
him is known to exist. Vasari speaks somewhat doubtfully on this


On Tuesday I bought wine for morning [drinking]; on Friday the 4th
day of September the same.

[Footnote: This note enables us to fix the date of the Manuscript,
in which it is to be found. In 1495 the 4th of September fell on a
Friday; the contents of the Manuscript do not permit us to assign it
to a much earlier or later date (Compare No. 1522, and Note).]


The cistern ... at the Hospital, --2 ducats, --beans, --white maize,
--red maize, --millet, --buckwheat, --kidney beans, --beans, --peas.



For the 3 lbs of tapers 27 S
For the bier 8 S
A pall over the bier 12 S
For bearing and placing the cross 4 S
For bearing the body 8 S
For 4 priests and 4 clerks 20 S
Bell, book and sponge 2 S
For the gravediggers 16 S
To the senior 8 S
For a license from the authorities 1 S
106 S

The doctor 2 S
Sugar and candles 12 S
120 S

[Footnote: See Nos. 1384 and 1517.]


Salai's cloak, the 4th of April 1497.
4 braccia of silver cloth l. 15 S 4
green velvet to trim it l. 9 S --
binding l.-- S 9
loops l.-- S 12
the making l. 1 S 5
binding for the front l.-- S 5
stitching _________
here are 13 grossoni of his l. 26 S 5
Salai stole the soldi.


On Monday I bought 4 braccia of cloth lire 13 S 14 1/2 on the 17th
of, October 1497.


Memorandum. That on the 8th day of April 1503, I, Leonardo da Vinci,
lent to Vante, miniature painter 4 gold ducats, in gold. Salai
carried them to him and gave them into his own hand, and he said he
would repay within the space of 40 days.

Memorandum. That on the same day I paid to Salai 3 gold ducats which
he said he wanted for a pair of rose-coloured hose with their
trimming; and there remain 9 ducats due to him--excepting that he
owes me 20 ducats, that is 17 I lent him at Milan, and 3 at Venice.

Memorandum. That I gave Salai 21 braccia of cloth to make a shirt,
at 10 soldi the braccio, which I gave him on the 20th day of April

[Footnote: With regard to Vante or Attavante, the miniature painter
(not Nanni as I formerly deciphered this name, which is difficult to
read; see _Zeitschrift fur Bild. Kunst_, 1879, p. 155), and Vasari,
Lives of Frate Giovanni da Fiesole, of Bartolommeo della Gatta, and
of Gherardo, _miniatore._ He, like Leonardo, was one of the
committee of artists who, in 1503, considered the erection and
placing of Michel Angelo's David. The date of his death is not
known; he was of the same age as Leonardo. Further details will be
found in '_Notizie di Attavante miniatore, e di alcuni suoi lavori_'
(Milanese's ed. of Vasari, III, 231-235).]


On the morning of San Peter's day, June 29th, 1504, I took io
ducats, of which I gave one to Tommaso my servant to spend.

On Monday morning 1 florin to Salai to spend on the house.

On Thursday I took 1 florin for my own spending.

Wednesday evening 1 florin to Tommaso, before supper.

Saturday morning 1 florin to Tommaso.

Monday morning 1 florin less 10 soldi.

Thursday to Salai 1 florin less 10 soldi.

For a jerkin, 1 florin.

For a jerkin And a cap 2 florins.

To the hosier, 1 florin.

To Salai, 1 florin.

Friday morning, the 19th of July, 1 florin, less 6 soldi. I have 7
fl. left, and 22 in the box.

Tuesday, the 23th day of July, 1 florin to Tommaso.

Monday morning, to Tommaso 1 florin.

[Wednesday morning 1 fl. to Tommaso.]

Thursday morning the 1st day of August 1 fl. to Tommaso.

Sunday, the 4th of August, 1 florin.

Friday, the 9th day of August 1504, I took 10 ducats out of the box.


1504. On the 9th day of August, 1504, I took 10 florins in gold[2]
... [3] on Friday the 9th day of August fifteen grossoni that is fl.
5 S 5 ... given to me 1 florin in gold on the 12th day of August [4]
... on the 14th of August, 32 grossoni to Tommaso. On the 18th of
the same 5 grossoni to Salai. On the 8th of September 6 grossoni to
the workman to spend; that is on the day of our Lady's birth. On the
16th day of September I gave 4 grossoni to Tommaso: on a Sunday.

[Footnote: In the original, the passage given as No. 1463 is written
between lines 2 and 3 of this text, and it is possible that the
entries in lines 3 and 4 refer to the payments of Jacopo Tedesco,
who is there mentioned. The first words of these lines are very

[Footnote 7: _Al fattore._ Il Fattore, was, as is well known, the
nick-name of Giovanni Franceso Penni, born in Florence in 1486, and
subsequently a pupil of Raphael's. According to Vasari he was known
by it even as a boy. Whether he is spoken of in this passage, or
whether the word Fattore should be translated literally, I will not
undertake to decide. The latter seems to me more probably right.]


On the day of October, 1508, I had 30 scudi; 13 I lent to Salai to
make up his sister's dowry, and 17 I have left.


Memorandum of the money I have had from the King as my salary from
July 1508 till April next 1509. First 100 scudi, then 70, then 50,
then 20 and then 200 florins at 48 soldi the florin. [Footnote:
Compare No. 1350 and 1561.]


Saturday the 2nd day of March I had from Santa Maria Novella 5 gold
ducats, leaving 450. Of these I gave 2 the same day to Salai, who
had lent them to me. [Footnote: See '_Conto corrente di Leonardo da
Vinci con lo Spedale di S. Maria Nuova_' [1500 a 1507, 1513-1520]
published by G. UZIELLI, _Ricerche intorno a Leonardo da Vinci,
Firenze,_ 1872, pp. 164, 165, 218 and 219. The date here given by
Leonardo does not occur in either of the accounts.]


Thursday, the eighth day of June, I took 17 grossoni, 18 soldi; on
the same Thursday in the morning I gave to Salai 22 soldi for the


To Salai 4 grossoni, and for one braccio of velvet, 5 lire, and 1/2;
viz. 10 soldi for loops of silver; Salai 14 soldi for binding, the
making of the cloak 25 soldi. [Footnote: Compare No. 1523.]


I gave to Salai 93 lire 6 soldi, of which I have had 67 lire and
there remain 26 lire 6 soldi.


To Salai S 42

2 dozen of laces S 8

for papers S 3 d 8

a pair of shoes S 14

for velvet S 14

a sword and knife S 21

to the barber S 11

to Paolo for a ... S 20

For having his fortune told S 6


On Friday morning,
one florin to Salai to
spend; 3 soldi received

bread S.. d

wine S.. d

grapes S.. d

mushrooms S.. d

fruit S.. d

[Footnote 6: Compare Nos. 1545, l. 4 and 5,
with similar entries for horse's fodder.]
bran S.. d

at the barber's S.. d

for shoes S.. d


On Thursday morning one florin.


On Saint Ambrose's day from the morning to Thursday 36 soldi.


The moneys I have had from Ser Matteo;
first 20 grassoni, then on 13 occasions 3 f.
and then 61 grassoni, then 3, and then 33;
46 soldi 12 grossoni.


For paper S 18

for canvas S 30

for paper S 10 d 19

Total S 73


20 pounds of German
blue, at one ducat the pound lire 80 S d

60 pounds of white, S..
the pound lire 15 S d

1 1/2 pound at 4 S the pound lire 6 S d

2 pounds of cinnabar at
S 18 the pound lire 1 S 16 d

6 pounds of green at S 12
the pound lire 3 S 12 d

4 pounds of yellow at S 12
the pound lire 2 S 8 d

1 pound of minium at S 8
the pound lire 0 S 8 d

4 pounds of ... at S 2
the pound lire 0 S 8 d

6 pounds of ochre at S 1
the pound lire 0 S 6 d

black ... at S 2 the pound
for 20 lire 2 S 0 d

wax to make the stars
29 pounds at S--the pound lire 0 S 0 d

40 pounds of oil for painting
at 5 soldi the pound lire 10 S 0 d

Altogether lire 120 d 18
without the gold. 18

tin for putting on the gold 120 18



Two large hatchets and one very small one, 8 brass spoons, 4
tablecloths, 2 towels, 15 small napkins, 2 coarse napkins, 2 coarse
cloths, 2 wrappers, 3 pairs of sheets, 2 pairs new and 1 old.


Bed 7 0 S

ring 7 0

crockery 2 5

gardener 1 2

..... 2 8

porters 2 1

glasses 1

fuel 3 6

a lock 1

Section title: Miscellaneous Notes.


New tin-ware 3 pairs of sheets
6 small bowls, each of 4 breadths,
6 bowls, 2 small sheets,
2 large dishes, 2 tablecloths and 1/2,
2 dishes medium size, 16 coarse cloths,
2 small ones 8 shirts,
Old tin-ware 9 napkins,
3 small bowls, 2 hand-towels.
4 bowls,
3 square stones,
2 small bowls,
1 large bowl,
1 platter,
4 candlesticks,
1 small candlestick.


Hose S 40
straw S 60
wheat S 42
wine S 54
bread S 18
meat S 54
eggs S 5
salad S 3
the Barber S 2 d 6
horses S 1



meat S 10 d
wine S 12 d
bran S 5 d 4
herbs S 10 d
buttermilk S 4 d 4
melon S 3 d
bread S 3 d 1
Monday S 9 8
..... S 6 d
wine S 12 d
bran S 9 d 4
buttermilk S 4 d 4
herbs S 8 d
Tuesday S d
meat S 0 d 8
wine S 12 d
bread S 3 d
meal S 5 d 4
herbs S 8 d
wine S 5 d
melon S 2 d
meal S 5 d 4
vegetables S 8

Notes by unknown persons among the MSS. (1546-1565).


Miseracione divina sacro sancte Romane ecclesie tituli n cardinalis
2wulgariter nuncupatus venerabili religioso fratri Johanni Mair
d'Nustorf 3ordinis praedicatorum provintie teutonie (?) conventus
Wiennensis capellano 4 nostro commensali salutem in dno sempiternam
Religione zelus rite ac in [ferite?] 5honestas aliarumque
laudabilium probitatis et virtutum merita quibus apud nos fide
6digno commendationis testimonio Magistri videlicet ordinis felicis
recordacionis Leonardi de 7Mansuetis de Perusio sigillo suo ... us
dans tibi ad ... opera virtutum comen(salem)? 8 locum et tempus
success(ores) cujus similiter officium ministratus qui
praedecessoris sui donum (?) 9confirmavit et de novo dedit
aliorumque plurima [laudatis] qui opera tua laudant 10nos inducunt
ut tibi (?) reddamus ad gratiam liberalem hinc est quod nos
cupientes. [Footnote: The meaning of this document, which is very
difficult to decipher, and is written in unintelligible Latin, is,
that Leonardo di Mansuetis recommends the Rev. Mair of Nusdorf,
chaplain at Vienna, to some third person; and says also that
something, which had to be proved, has been proved. The rest of the
passages on the same leaf are undoubtedly in Leonardo's hand. (Nos.
483, 661, 519, 578, 392, 582, 887 and 894.)]


Johannes Antonius di Johannes Ambrosius de Bolate. He who lets time
pass and does not grow in virtue, the more I think of it the more I
grieve. No man has it in him to be virtuous who will give up honour
for gain. Good fortune is valueless to him who knows not toil. The
man becomes happy who follows Christ. There is no perfect gift
without great suffering. Our glories and our triumphs pass away.
Foul lust, and dreams, and luxury, and sloth have banished every
virtue from the world; so that our Nature, wandering and perplexed,
has almost lost the old and better track. Henceforth it were well to
rouse thyself from sleep. The master said that lying in down will
not bring thee to Fame; nor staying beneath the quilts. He who,
without Fame, burns his life to waste, leaves no more vestige of
himself on earth than wind-blown smoke, or the foam upon the sea.
[Footnote: From the last sentence we may infer that this text is by
the hand of a pupil of Leonardo's.-- On the same sheet are the notes
Nos.1175 and 715 in Leonardo's own handwriting.]


On the morning of Santo Zanobio the
29th of May 1504, I had from Lionardo Vinci
15 gold ducats and began to spend them.
to Mona Margarita S 62 d 4
to remake the ring S 19 d 8
clothes S 13
good beef S 4
eggs S 6
debt at the bank S 7
velvet S 12
wine S 6 d 4
meat S 4
mulberries S 2 d 4
mushrooms S 3 d 4
salad S 1
fruit S 1 d 4
candles S 3
... S 1
flour S 2

Sunday 198 8

bread S 6
wine S 9 d 4
meat S 7
soup S 2
fruit S 3 d 4
candles S 3 d

Monday 31

bread S 6 d 4
meat S 10 d 8
wine S 9 d 4
fruit S 4
soup S 1 d 8




bread S 6
meat S 11
wine S 7
fruit S 9
soup S 2
salad S 1

[Footnote 1548 and 1549: On the same sheet is the text No. 1015 in Leonardo's own handwriting.]


To Monna Margarita S 5
to Tomaso S 14
to Monna Margarita d 5 S 2
on the day of San Zanobi
left ... after
payment d 13 S 2 d 4
of Monna Margarita

altogether d 14 S 5 d 4


On Monday, the l3th of February, I lent lire S 7 to Lionardo to
spend, Friday d 7.

[Footnote: This note is followed by an account very like the one
given as No. 1549.]


Stephano Chigi, Canonico ..., servant of the honorable Count Grimani
at S. Apostoli.

[Footnote: Compare No. 674, 21-23.]


Having become anxious ... Bernardo di Simone, Silvestro di Stefano,
Bernardo di Jacopo, Francesco di Matteo Bonciani, Antonio di
Giovanni Ruberti, Antonio da Pistoia.... Antonio; He who has time
and waits for time, will lose his friends and his money.


Reverend Maestro, Domino Giovanni, I spoke to Maestro Zacaria as a
brother about this business, and I made him satisfied with the
arrangement that I had wished; that is, as regards the commission
that I had from the parties and I say that between us there is no
need to pay money down, as regard the pictures of the ...


Of things seen through a mist that which is nearest its farthest
limit will be least visible, and all the more so as they are more


Theodoricus Rex Semper Augustus.


Either you say Hesperia alone, and it will mean Italy, or you add
ultima, and it will mean Spain. Umbria, part of Tuscany.

[Footnote: The notes in Greek, Nos. 1557, 1558 and 1562 stand in
close connection with each other, but the meaning of some words is
very doubtful, and a translation is thus rendered impossible.]


[Footnote: Greek Characters]


Canonica of ... on the 5th of July 1507; my dearly beloved mother,
sisters and cousin I herewith inform you that thanks to God I am ...
about the sword which I ... bring it to Maso at the piazza ... and I
will settle the business of Piero so that ...

[Footnote: AMORETTI, _Mem. Stor. XXIV_, quotes the first three lines
of this letter as by Leonardo. The character of the writing however
does not favour this hypothesis, and still less the contents. I
should regard it rather a rough draft of a letter by young Melzi. I
have not succeeded in deciphering completely the 13 lines of this
text. Amoretti reads at the beginning _Canonica di Vaprio_, but
_Vaprio_ seems to me a very doubtful reading.]


Ut bene respondet Naturae ars docta! dedisset
Vincius, ut tribuit cetera - sic animam -
Noluit ut similis magis haec foret: altera sic est:
Possidet illius Maurus amans animam.

[Footnote: These three epigrams on the portrait of Lucrezia
Crivelli, a picture by Leonardo which must have been lost at a very
early date, seem to have been dedicated to Leonardo by the poet.
Leonardo used the reverse of the sheet for notes on geometry.]

Hujus quam cernis nomen Lucretia, Divi Omnia cui larga contribuere
manu. Rara huic forma data est; pinxit Leonardos, amavit Maurus,
pictorum primus hic, ille ducum.

Naturam, ac superas hac laesit imagine Divas Pictor: tantum hominis
posse manum haec doluit, Illae longa dari tam magnae tempera formae,
Quae spatio fuerat deperitura brevi.


Egidius Romanus on the formation of the human body in the mother's
womb [Footnote 1: _Liber magistri Egidii de pulsibus matrice
conipositus (cum commentario Gentilis de Fulgineo)_ published in
1484 at Padova, in 1494 and in 1514 at Venice, and in 1505 at

[Footnote 2:2. This text appears to be in a handwriting different
from that in the note, l. 1. Here the reading is not so simple as
AMORETTI gave it, _Mem. Star. XXV: A Monsieur Lyonard Peintre du Roy
pour Amboyse_. He says too that this address is of the year 1509,
and Mr. Ravaisson remarks: "_De cette suscription il semble qu'on
peut inferer que Leonard etait alors en France, a la cour de Louis
XII ... Pour conclure je crois qu'il n'est pas prouve que Leonard de
Vinci n'ait pas fait un voyage de quelques mois en France sous Louis
XII, entre le printemps de 1509 et l'automne de_ 1510."--I must
confess that I myself have not succeeded in deciphering completely
this French writing of which two words remain to me doubtful. But so
much seems to be quite evident that this is not an address of a
letter at all, but a certificate or note. _Amboise_[l. 6] I believe
to be the signature of Charles d'Amboise the Governor of Milan. If
this explanation is the right one, it can be easily explained by the
contents of Nos. 1350 and 1529. The note, line 1, was perhaps added
later by another hand; and Leonardo himself wrote afterwards on the
same sheet some geometrical explanations. I must also point out that
the statement that this sheet belongs to the year 1509 has
absolutely no foundation in fact. There is no clue whatever for
giving a precise date to this note.] To Monsieur le Vinci,--the
horses of the king's equerry.... Continue the payment to Ms.
Lyonard, Painter to the King.

[6] Amboise.


[Footnote: Greek Characters]


Memorandum to Maestro Lionardo to have ... the state of Florence.


To remind your Excellency that Ridolfo Manini brought to Florence a
quantity of crystal besides other stones such as are ...


XVI C. 6 de Ciuitate Dei, se Antipodes.

[Footnote: A facsimile of this note, which refers to a well known
book by St. Augustin, is given on page 254.]


Leonardo's Will.

Be it known to all persons, present and to come that at the court of
our Lord the King at Amboise before ourselves in person, Messer
Leonardo da Vinci painter to the King, at present staying at the
place known as Cloux near Amboise, duly considering the certainty of
death and the uncertainty of its time, has acknowledged and declared
in the said court and before us that he has made, according to the
tenor of these presents, his testament and the declaration of his
last will, as follows. And first he commends his soul to our Lord,
Almighty God, and to the Glorious Virgin Mary, and to our lord Saint
Michael, to all the blessed Angels and Saints male and female in

Item. The said Testator desires to be buried within the church of
Saint Florentin at Amboise, and that his body shall be borne thither
by the chaplains of the church.

Item. That his body may be followed from the said place to the said
church of Saint Florentin by the _collegium_ of the said church,
that is to say by the rector and the prior, or by their vicars and
chaplains of the church of Saint Denis of Amboise, also the lesser
friars of the place, and before his body shall be carried to the
said church this Testator desires, that in the said church of Saint
Florentin three grand masses shall be celebrated by the deacon and
sub-deacon and that on the day when these three high masses are
celebrated, thirty low masses shall also be performed at Saint

Item. That in the said church of Saint Denis similar services shall
be performed, as above.

Item. That the same shall be done in the church of the said friars
and lesser brethren.

Item. The aforesaid Testator gives and bequeaths to Messer Francesco
da Melzo, nobleman, of Milan, in remuneration for services and
favours done to him in the past, each

[Footnote: See page 420.]

and all of the books the Testator is at present possessed of, and
the instruments and portraits appertaining to his art and calling as
a painter.

Item. The same Testator gives and bequeaths henceforth for ever to
Battista de Vilanis his servant one half, that is the moity, of his
garden which is outside the walls of Milan, and the other half of
the same garden to Salai his servant; in which garden aforesaid
Salai has built and constructed a house which shall be and remain
henceforth in all perpetuity the property of the said Salai, his
heirs and successors; and this is in remuneration for the good and
kind services which the said de Vilanis and Salai, his servants have
done him in past times until now.

Item. The said Testator gives to Maturina his waiting woman a cloak
of good black cloth lined with fur, a ... of cloth and two ducats
paid once only; and this likewise is in remuneration for good
service rendered to him in past times by the said Maturina.

Item. He desires that at his funeral sixty tapers shall be carried
which shall be borne by sixty poor men, to whom shall be given money
for carrying them; at the discretion of the said Melzo, and these
tapers shall be distributed among the four above mentioned churches.

Item. The said Testator gives to each of the said churches ten lbs.
of wax in thick tapers, which shall be placed in the said churches
to be used on the day when those said services are celebrated.

Item. That alms shall be given to the poor of the Hotel-Dieu, to the
poor of Saint Lazare d'Amboise and, to that end, there shall be
given and paid to the treasurers of that same fraternity the sum and
amount of seventy soldi of Tours.

Item. The said Testator gives and bequeaths to the said Messer
Francesco Melzo, being present and agreeing, the remainder of his
pension and the sums of money which are owing to him from the past
time till the day of his death by the receiver or treasurer-general
M. Johan Sapin, and each and every sum of money that he has already
received from the aforesaid Sapin of his said pension, and in case
he should die before the said Melzo and not otherwise; which moneys
are at present in the possession of the said Testator in the said
place called Cloux, as he says. And he likewise gives and bequeaths
to the said Melzo all and each of his clothes which he at present
possesses at the said place of Cloux, and all in remuneration for
the good and kind services done by him in past times till now, as
well as in payment for the trouble and annoyance he may incur with
regard to the execution of this present testament, which however,
shall all be at the expense of the said Testator.

And he orders and desires that the sum of four hundred scudi del
Sole, which he has deposited in the hands of the treasurer of Santa
Maria Nuova in the city of Florence, may be given to his brothers
now living in Florence with all the interest and usufruct that may
have accrued up to the present time, and be due from the aforesaid
treasurer to the aforesaid Testator on account of the said four
hundred crowns, since they were given and consigned by the Testator
to the said treasurers.

Item. He desires and orders that the said Messer Francesco de Melzo
shall be and remain the sole and only executor of the said will of
the said Testator; and that the said testament shall be executed in
its full and complete meaning and according to that which is here
narrated and said, to have, hold, keep and observe, the said Messer
Leonardo da Vinci, constituted Testator, has obliged and obliges by
these presents the said his heirs and successors with all his goods
moveable and immoveable present and to come, and has renounced and
expressly renounces by these presents all and each of the things
which to that are contrary. Given at the said place of Cloux in the
presence of Magister Spirito Fieri vicar, of the church of Saint
Denis at Amboise, of M. Guglielmo Croysant priest and chaplain, of
Magister Cipriane Fulchin, Brother Francesco de Corion, and of
Francesco da Milano, a brother of the Convent of the Minorites at
Amboise, witnesses summoned and required to that end by the
indictment of the said court in the presence of the aforesaid M.
Francesco de Melze who accepting and agreeing to the same has
promised by his faith and his oath which he has administered to us
personally and has sworn to us never to do nor say nor act in any
way to the contrary. And it is sealed by his request with the royal
seal apposed to legal contracts at Amboise, and in token of good

Given on the XXIIIrd day of April MDXVIII, before Easter.

And on the XXIIIrd day of this month of April MDXVIII, in the
presence of M. Guglielmo Borian, Royal notary in the court of the
bailiwick of Amboise, the aforesaid M. Leonardo de Vinci gave and
bequeathed, by his last will and testament, as aforesaid, to the
said M. Baptista de Vilanis, being present and agreeing, the right
of water which the King Louis XII, of pious memory lately deceased
gave to this same de Vinci, the stream of the canal of Santo
Cristoforo in the duchy of Milan, to belong to the said Vilanis for
ever in such wise and manner that the said gentleman made him this
gift in the presence of M. Francesco da Melzo, gentleman, of Milan
and in mine.

And on the aforesaid day in the said month of April in the said year
MDXVIII the same M. Leonardo de Vinci by his last will and testament
gave to the aforesaid M. Baptista de Vilanis, being present and
agreeing, each and all of the articles of furniture and utensils of
his house at present at the said place of Cloux, in the event of the
said de Vilanis surviving the aforesaid M. Leonardo de Vinci, in the
presence of the said M. Francesco Melzo and of me Notary &c. Borean.

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