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The Mechanical Properties of Wood by Samuel J. Record

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| | | tests | mois- | per | square | per | | | tests | mois- | per | tests | mois- | |
| | | | ture | square | inch | square | | | | ture | square | | ture | |
| | | | | inch | | inch | | | | | inch | | | |
|-----------------+----------+-------+-------+--------+--------+---------+--------+--------+-------+ ------+---------+-------+-------+----------|
| | | | | | 1,000 | | | | | | | | | |
| | Inches | | | Lbs. | lbs. | Lbs. | Inches | Inches | | | Lbs. | | | Lbs. |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Longleaf pine | 4 by 4 | 46 | 26.3 | 3,480 | | 4,800 | 4 by 4 | 4 | 22 | 25.3 | 568 | 44 | 21.8 | 973 |
| | 2 by 2 | 14 | 34.7 | | | 4,400 | | | | | | | | |
| Douglas fir | 6 by 6 | 515 | 30.7 | 2,780 | 1,181 | 3,500 | 4 by 8 | 16 | 259 | 30.3 | 570 | 531 | 29.7 | 765 |
| | 5 by 6 | 170 | 30.9 | 2,720 | 2,123 | 3,490 | | | | | | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 902 | 29.8 | 3,500 | 1,925 | 4,030 | | | | | | | | |
| Douglas fir | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| (fire-killed) | 6 by 6 | 108 | 34.8 | 2,620 | 1,801 | 3,290 | 6 by 8 | 16 | 24 | 33.7 | 368 | 77 | 35.8 | 631 |
| | 2 by 2 | 204 | 37.9 | | | 3,430 | | | | | | | | |
| Shortleaf pine | 6 by 6 | 95 | 41.2 | 2,514 | 1,565 | 3,436 | 5 by 8 | 16 | 12 | 37.7 | 361 | 179 | 47.0 | 704 |
| | 5 by 8 | 23 | 43.5 | 2,241 | 1,529 | 3,423 | 5 by 8 | 14 | 12 | 42.8 | 366 | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 281 | 51.4 | | | 3,570 | 5 by 8 | 12 | 24 | 53.0 | 325 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 5 by 5 | 8 | 24 | 47.0 | 344 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 2 by 2 | 2 | 277 | 48.5 | 400 | | | |
| Western larch | 6 by 6 | 107 | 49.1 | 2,675 | 1,575 | 3,510 | 6 by 8 | 16 | 22 | 43.6 | 417 | 179 | 40.7 | 700 |
| | 2 by 2 | 491 | 50.6 | 3,026 | 1,545 | 3,696 | 6 by 8 | 12 | 20 | 40.2 | 416 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 4 by 6 | 6 | 53 | 52.8 | 478 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 4 by 4 | 4 | 30 | 50.4 | 472 | | | |
| Loblolly pine | 8 by 8 | 14 | 63.4 | 1,560 | 365 | 2,140 | 8 by 4 | 8 | 16 | 67.2 | 392 | 121 | 83.2 | 630 |
| | 4 by 8 | 18 | 60.0 | 2,430 | 691 | 3,560 | 4 by 4 | 8 | 38 | 44.6 | 546 | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 53 | 74.0 | | | 3,240 | | | | | | | | |
| Tamarack | 6 by 7 | 4 | 49.9 | 2,332 | 1,432 | 3,032 | | | | | | 24 | 39.2 | 668 |
| | 4 by 7 | 6 | 27.7 | 2,444 | 1,334 | 3,360 | | | | | | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 165 | 36.8 | | | 3,190 | | | | | | | | |
| Western hemlock | 6 by 6 | 82 | 46.6 | 2,905 | 1,617 | 3,355 | 6 by 4 | 6 | 30 | 48.7 | 434 | 54 | 65.7 | 630 |
| | 2 by 2 | 131 | 55.6 | 2,938 | 1,737 | 3,392 | | | | | | | | |
| Redwood | 6 by 6 | 34 | 83.6 | 3,194 | 1,240 | 3,882 | 6 by 8 | 16 | 13 | 86.7 | 473 | 148 | 84.2 | 742 |
| | 2 by 2 | 143 | 36.8 | 3,490 | 1,222 | 3,980 | 6 by 6 | 12 | 14 | 83.0 | 424 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 6 by 7 | 9 | 13 | 74.7 | 477 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 6 by 3 | 14 | 13 | 75.6 | 411 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 6 by 2 | 12 | 12 | 66.5 | 430 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 6 by 2 | 10 | 11 | 55.0 | 423 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 6 by 2 | 8 | 12 | 56.7 | 396 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 2 by 2 | 2 | 186 | 75.5 | 569 | | | |
| Norway pine | 6 by 7 | 5 | 29.0 | 1,928 | 905 | 2,404 | | | | | | 20 | 26.7 | 589 |
| | 4 by 7 | 8 | 28.4 | 2,154 | 1,063 | 2,652 | | | | | | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 178 | 26.8 | | | 2,504 | | | | | | | | |
| Red spruce | 2 by 2 | 58 | 35.4 | | | 2,750 | 2 by 2 | 2 | 43 | 31.8 | 310 | 30 | 32.0 | 758 |
| White spruce | 2 by 2 | 84 | 61.0 | | | 2,370 | 2 by 2 | 2 | 46 | 50.4 | 270 | 40 | 58.0 | 651 |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| _Note.--Following is an explanation of the abbreviations used in the foregoing tables:_ |
| F.S. at E.L. = Fiber stress at elastic limit. |
| M. of E. = Modulus of elasticity. |
| M. of R. = Modulus of rupture. |
| Cr. str. at E.L. = Crushing strength at elastic limit. |
| Cr. str. at max. ld. = Crushing strength at maximum load. |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TABLE XX TABLE XX |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| BENDING TESTS ON AIR-SEASONED MATERIAL |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| | Sizes | | | | F.S. at E.L. | M. of R. | M. of E. | Calculated |
| |-----------------| Num- | Per | Rings | | | | shear |
| Species | | | ber | cent | per |-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------|
| | Cross | Span | of | mois- | inch | Average | Ratio | Average | Ratio | Average | Ratio | Average | Ratio |
| | Section | | tests | ture | | per sq. | to 2" | per sq. | to 2" | per sq. | to 2" | per sq. | to 2" |
| | | | | | | inch | by 2" | inch | by 2" | inch | by 2" | inch | by 2" |
|-----------------+----------+------+-------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+-------+---------+-------+---------+-------|
| | | | | | | | | | | 1,000 | | | |
| | Inches | Ins. | | | | Lbs. | | Lbs. | | lbs. | | Lbs. | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Longleaf pine | 8 by 16 | 180 | 5 | 22.2 | 16.0 | 3,390 | 0.50 | 4,274 | 0.37 | 1,747 | 1.00 | 288 | 0.75 |
| | 6 by 16 | 132 | 1 | 23.4 | 17.1 | 3,470 | .51 | 6,610 | .57 | 1,501 | .86 | 388 | 1.01 |
| | 6 by 10 | 177 | 2 | 19.0 | 8.8 | 4,560 | .68 | 7,880 | .68 | 1,722 | .99 | 214 | .56 |
| | 4 by 11 | 180 | 1 | 18.4 | 23.9 | 3,078 | .46 | 8,000 | .69 | 1,660 | .95 | 251 | .66 |
| | 6 by 8 | 177 | 6 | 20.0 | 13.7 | 4,227 | .63 | 8,196 | .71 | 1,634 | .94 | 177 | .46 |
| | 2 by 2 | 30 | 17 | 15.9 | 13.9 | 6,750 | 1.00 | 11,520 | 1.00 | 1,740 | 1.00 | 383 | 1.00 |
| Douglas fir | 8 by 16 | 180 | 91 | 20.8 | 13.1 | 4,563 | .68 | 6,372 | .61 | 1,549 | .91 | 269 | .64 |
| | 5 by 8 | 180 | 30 | 14.9 | 12.2 | 5,065 | .76 | 6,777 | .65 | 1,853 | 1.09 | 218 | .52 |
| | 2 by 2 | 24 | 211 | 19.0 | 16.4 | 6,686 | 1.00 | 10,378 | 1.00 | 1,695 | 1.00 | 419 | 1.00 |
| Shortleaf pine | 8 by 16 | 180 | 3 | 17.0 | 12.3 | 4,220 | .54 | 6,030 | .50 | 1,517 | .85 | 398 | .98 |
| | 8 by 14 | 180 | 3 | 16.0 | 12.3 | 4,253 | .55 | 5,347 | .44 | 1,757 | .98 | 307 | .76 |
| | 8 by 12 | 180 | 7 | 16.0 | 12.4 | 5,051 | .65 | 7,331 | .60 | 1,803 | 1.01 | 361 | .89 |
| | 5 by 8 | 180 | 6 | 12.2 | 22.5 | 7,123 | .92 | 9,373 | .77 | 1,985 | 1.11 | 301 | .74 |
| | 2 by 2 | 30 | 67 | 14.2 | 13.7 | 7,780 | 1.00 | 12,120 | 1.00 | 1,792 | 1.00 | 404 | 1.00 |
| Western larch | 8 by 16 | 180 | 23 | 18.3 | 21.9 | 3,343 | .57 | 5,440 | .53 | 1,409 | .90 | 349 | .96 |
| | 8 by 12 | 180 | 29 | 17.8 | 23.4 | 3,631 | .62 | 6,186 | .60 | 1,549 | .99 | 295 | .81 |
| | 5 by 8 | 180 | 10 | 13.6 | 27.6 | 4,730 | .80 | 7,258 | .71 | 1,620 | 1.04 | 221 | .61 |
| | 2 by 2 | 30 | 240 | 16.1 | 26.8 | 5,880 | 1.00 | 10,254 | 1.00 | 1,564 | 1.00 | 364 | 1.00 |
| Loblolly pine | 8 by 16 | 180 | 14 | 20.5 | 7.4 | 4,195 | .81 | 6,734 | .72 | 1,619 | 1.10 | 462 | 1.45 |
| | 6 by 16 | 126 | 4 | 20.2 | 5.0 | 2,432 | .47 | 4,295 | .46 | 1,324 | .90 | 266 | .84 |
| | 6 by 10 | 174 | 3 | 21.3 | 4.7 | 3,100 | .60 | 6,167 | .66 | 1,449 | .99 | 173 | .54 |
| | 4 by 12 | 174 | 4 | 19.8 | 4.7 | 2,713 | .52 | 5,745 | .61 | 1,249 | .85 | 185 | .58 |
| | 8 by 8 | 180 | 9 | 22.9 | 4.9 | 2,903 | .56 | 4,557 | .48 | 1,136 | .77 | 93 | .29 |
| | 6 by 7 | 144 | 2 | 21.1 | 5.0 | 2,990 | .58 | 4,968 | .53 | 1,286 | .88 | 116 | .36 |
| | 4 by 8 | 132 | 8 | 19.5 | 9.1 | 3,384 | .65 | 6,194 | .66 | 1,200 | .82 | 196 | .62 |
| | 2 by 2 | 30 | 123 | 17.6 | 6.6 | 5,170 | 1.00 | 9,400 | 1.00 | 1,467 | 1.00 | 318 | 1.00 |
| Tamarack | 6 by 12 | 162 | 5 | 23.0 | 15.1 | 3,434 | .45 | 5,640 | .43 | 1,330 | .82 | 318 | .75 |
| | 4 by 10 | 162 | 4 | 14.4 | 9.7 | 4,100 | .54 | 5,320 | .41 | 1,386 | .84 | 252 | .59 |
| | 2 by 2 | 30 | 47 | 11.3 | 16.2 | 7,630 | 1.00 | 13,080 | 1.00 | 1,620 | 1.00 | 425 | 1.00 |
| Western hemlock | 8 by 16 | 180 | 44 | 17.7 | 17.8 | 4,398 | .69 | 6,420 | .62 | 1,737 | 1.04 | 406 | 1.06 |
| | 2 by 2 | 28 | 311 | 17.9 | 19.4 | 6,333 | 1.00 | 10,369 | 1.00 | 1,666 | 1.00 | 382 | 1.00 |
| Redwood | 8 by 16 | 180 | 6 | 26.3 | 22.4 | 3,797 | .79 | 4,428 | .57 | 1,107 | .96 | 294 | 1.05 |
| | 6 by 12 | 180 | 6 | 16.1 | 17.7 | 3,175 | .66 | 3,353 | .43 | 728 | .64 | 167 | .60 |
| | 7 by 9 | 180 | 6 | 15.9 | 15.2 | 3,280 | .69 | 4,002 | .51 | 1,104 | .96 | 147 | .53 |
| | 3 by 14 | 180 | 6 | 13.1 | 24.4 | | | 5,033 | .64 | | | 291 | 1.04 |
| | 2 by 12 | 180 | 5 | 13.8 | 14.4 | 3,928 | .82 | 5,336 | .68 | 1,249 | 1.09 | 260 | .93 |
| | 2 by 10 | 180 | 5 | 13.8 | 24.8 | 3,757 | .79 | 4,606 | .59 | 1,198 | 1.05 | 186 | .67 |
| | 2 by 8 | 180 | 6 | 13.7 | 20.7 | 4,314 | .90 | 5,050 | .65 | 1,313 | 1.15 | 166 | .60 |
| | 2 by 2 | 28 | 122 | 15.2 | 18.8 | 4,777 | 1.00 | 7,798 | 1.00 | 1,146 | 1.00 | 279 | 1.00 |
| Norway pine | 6 by 12 | 162 | 5 | 16.7 | 8.1 | 2,968 | .56 | 5,204 | .61 | 1,123 | .97 | 286 | 1.02 |
| | 4 by 10 | 162 | 5 | 13.7 | 12.0 | 5,170 | .98 | 6,904 | .82 | 1,712 | 1.48 | 317 | 1.13 |
| | 2 by 2 | 30 | 60 | 14.9 | 11.2 | 5,280 | 1.00 | 8,470 | 1.00 | 1,158 | 1.00 | 281 | 1.00 |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| _Note.--Following is an explanation of the abbreviations used in the foregoing tables:_ |
| F.S. at E.L. = Fiber stress at elastic limit. |
| M. of E. = Modulus of elasticity. |
| M. of R. = Modulus of rupture. |
| Cr. str. at E.L. = Crushing strength at elastic limit. |
| Cr. str. at max. ld. = Crushing strength at maximum load. |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TABLE XXI TABLE XXI |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| COMPRESSION AND SHEAR TESTS ON AIR-SEASONED MATERIAL |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| | Compression | Compression | Shear |
| | parallel to grain | perpendicular to grain | |
| |------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+--------------------------|
| | | | | Cr. | | Cr. | | | | | Cr. | | | |
| Species | | | Per | str. | M. of | str. | | | | Per | str. | | Per | |
| | Size of | No. | cent | at | E. | at max. | Stress | | No. | cent | at max. | No. | cent | Shear |
| | specimen | of | of | E. L. | per | ld.,. | area | Height | of | of | ld., | of | of | strength |
| | | tests | mois- | per | square | per | | | tests | mois- | per | tests | mois- | |
| | | | ture | square | inch | square | | | | ture | square | | ture | |
| | | | | inch | | inch | | | | | inch | | | |
|-----------------+----------+-------+-------+--------+--------+---------+--------+--------+-------+ ------+---------+-------+-------+----------|
| | | | | | 1,000 | | | | | | | | | |
| | Inches | | | Lbs. | lbs. | Lbs. | Inches | Inches | | | Lbs. | | | Lbs. |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Longleaf pine | 4 by 5 | 46 | 26.3 | 3,480 | | 4,800 | 4 by 5 | 4 | 22 | 25.1 | 572 | 52 | 20.2 | 984 |
| Douglas fir | 6 by 6 | 259 | 20.3 | 3,271 | 1,038 | 4,258 | 4 by 8 | 16 | 44 | 20.8 | 732 | 465 | 22.1 | 822 |
| | 2 by 2 | 247 | 18.7 | 3,842 | 1,084 | 5,002 | 4 by 8 | 10 | 32 | 18.1 | 584 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 4 by 4 | 8 | 51 | 20.2 | 638 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 4 by 4 | 6 | 49 | 24.0 | 613 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 4 by 4 | 4 | 29 | 24.8 | 603 | | | |
| Shortleaf pine | 6 by 6 | 29 | 15.7 | 4,070 | 1,951 | 6,030 | 8 by 5 | 16 | 4 | 17.8 | 725 | 85 | | 1,135 |
| | 2 by 2 | 57 | 14.2 | | | 6,380 | 8 by 5 | 14 | 3 | 16.3 | 757 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 8 by 5 | 12 | 5 | 15.1 | 730 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 5 by 5 | 8 | 6 | 13.0 | 918 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 2 by 2 | 2 | 57 | 13.9 | 926 | | | |
| Western larch | 6 by 6 | 112 | 16.0 | | | 5,445 | 8 by 6 | 16 | 17 | 18.8 | 491 | 193 | 15.0 | 905 |
| | 4 by 4 | 81 | 14.7 | | | 6,161 | 8 by 6 | 12 | 18 | 17.6 | 526 | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 270 | 14.8 | | | 5,934 | 5 by 4 | 8 | 22 | 13.3 | 735 | | | |
| Loblolly pine | 6 by 6 | 23 | | 3,357 | 1,693 | 5,005 | 8 by 5 | 16 | 12 | 19.8 | 602 | 156 | 11.3 | 1,115 |
| | 5 by 5 | 10 | 22.4 | 2,217 | 545 | 2,950 | 8 by 5 | 8 | 7 | 22.9 | 679 | | | |
| | 4 by 8 | 8 | 19.4 | 3,010 | 633 | 3,920 | 4 by 5 | 8 | 8 | 19.5 | 715 | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 69 | | | | 5,547 | | | | | | | | |
| Tamarack | 6 by 7 | 3 | 15.7 | 2,257 | 1,042 | 3,323 | 2 by 2 | 2 | 57 | 16.2 | 697 | 60 | 14.0 | 879 |
| | 4 by 7 | 3 | 13.6 | 3,780 | 1,301 | 4,823 | | | | | | | | |
| | 4 by 4 | 57 | 14.9 | 3,386 | 1,353 | 4,346 | | | | | | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 66 | 14.6 | | | 4,790 | | | | | | | | |
| Western hemlock | 6 by 6 | 102 | 18.6 | 4,840 | 2,140 | 5,814 | 7 by 6 | 15 | 25 | 18.2 | 514 | 131 | 17.7 | 924 |
| | 2 by 2 | 463 | 17.0 | 4,560 | 1,923 | 5,403 | 6 by 6 | 6 | 26 | 16.8 | 431 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 4 by 4 | 4 | 6 | 15.9 | 488 | | | |
| Redwood | 6 by 6 | 18 | 16.9 | | | 4,276 | 8 by 6 | 16 | 5 | 25.4 | 548 | 95 | 12.4 | 671 |
| | 2 by 2 | 115 | 14.6 | | | 5,119 | 6 by 6 | 12 | 6 | 14.7 | 610 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 7 by 6 | 9 | 5 | 14.8 | 500 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 3 by 6 | 14 | 2 | 12.6 | 470 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 2 by 6 | 12 | 2 | 16.2 | 498 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 2 by 6 | 10 | 4 | 14.3 | 511 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 2 by 6 | 8 | 2 | 13.2 | 429 | | | |
| | | | | | | | 2 by 2 | 2 | 145 | 13.8 | 564 | | | |
| Norway pine | 6 by 7 | 4 | 15.2 | 2,670 | 1,182 | 4,212 | 2 by 2 | 2 | 36 | 10.0 | 924 | 44 | 11.9 | 1,145 |
| | 4 by 7 | 2 | 22.2 | 3,275 | 1,724 | 4,575 | | | | | | | | |
| | 4 by 4 | 55 | 16.6 | 3,048 | 1,367 | 4,217 | | | | | | | | |
| | 2 by 2 | 44 | 11.2 | | | 7,550 | | | | | | | | |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| _Note.--Following is an explanation of the abbreviations used in the foregoing tables:_ |
| F.S. at E.L. = Fiber stress at elastic limit. |
| M. of E. = Modulus of elasticity. |
| M. of R. = Modulus of rupture. |
| Cr. str. at E.L. = Crushing strength at elastic limit. |
| Cr. str. at max. ld. = Crushing strength at maximum load. |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|

|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TABLE XXII TABLE XXII |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| [b]WORKING UNIT-STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL TIMBER[c] |
| EXPRESSED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH |
| (From Manual of the American Railway Engineering Assn., 1911, p. 153) |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| NOTE.--The working unit-stresses given in the table are intended for railroad bridges and trestles. For highway bridges and trestles the unit-stresses may be increased |
| twenty-five (25) per cent. For buildings and similar structures, in which the timber is protected from the weather and practically free from impact, the unit-stresses may be |
| increased fifty (50) per cent. To compute the deflection of a beam under long-continued loading instead of that when the load is first applied, only fifty (50) per cent of the |
| corresponding modulus of elasticity given in the table is to be employed. |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| | BENDING | SHEARING | COMPRESSION | |
| |---------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------| Ratio |
| | Extreme | Modulus of | Parallel to | Longitudinal | Perpendicular | Parallel to | For | Formulae for | of |
| | fibre | elasticity | the grain | shear in | to the grain | the grain | columns | working stress in | length |
| KIND OF | stress | | | beams | | | under 15 | long columns over | of |
| TIMBER |--------------------+------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------| diameters | 15 diameters | stringer |
| | Average | Working | | Average | Working | Elastic | Working | Elastic | Working | Average | Working | working | | to |
| | ultimate | stress | Average | ultimate | stress | limit | stress | limit | stress | ultimate | stress | stress | | depth |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Douglas fir | 6100 | 1200 | 1,510,000 | 690 | 170 | 270 | 110 | 630 | 310 | 3600 | 1200 | 900 | 1200(1-_l_/60_d_) | 10 |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Longleaf pine | 6500 | 1300 | 1,610,000 | 720 | 180 | 300 | 120 | 520 | 260 | 3800 | 1300 | 980 | 1300(1-_l_/60_d_) | 10 |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Shortleaf pine | 5600 | 1100 | 1,480,000 | 710 | 170 | 330 | 130 | 340 | 170 | 3400 | 1100 | 830 | 1100(1-_l_/60_d_) | 10 |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| White pine | 4400 | 900 | 1,130,000 | 400 | 100 | 180 | 70 | 290 | 150 | 3000 | 1000 | 750 | 1000(1-_l_/60_d_) | 10 |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Spruce | 4800 | 1000 | 1,310,000 | 600 | 150 | 170 | 70 | 370 | 180 | 3200 | 1100 | 830 | 1100(1-_l_/60_d_) | |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Norway pine | 4200 | 800 | 1,190,000 | 590[d] | 130 | 250 | 100 | | 150 | 2600[d] | 800 | 600 | 800(1-_l_/60_d_) | |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Tamarack | 4600 | 900 | 1,220,000 | 670 | 170 | 260 | 100 | | 220 | 3200[d] | 1000 | 750 | 1000(1-_l_/60_d_) | |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Western hemlock | 5800 | 1100 | 1,480,000 | 630 | 160 | 270[d] | 100 | 440 | 220 | 3500 | 1200 | 900 | 1200(1-_l_/60_d_) | |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Redwood | 5000 | 900 | 800,000 | 300 | 80 | | | 400 | 150 | 3300 | 900 | 680 | 900(1-_l_/60_d_) | |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Bald cypress | 4800 | 900 | 1,150,000 | 500 | 120 | | | 340 | 170 | 3900 | 1100 | 830 | 1100(1-_l_/60_d_) | |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| Red cedar | 4200 | 800 | 800,000 | | | | | 470 | 230 | 2800 | 900 | 680 | 900(1-_l_/60_d_) | |
|-----------------+----------+---------+------------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+----------+---------+-----------+-------------------+----------|
| White oak | 5700 | 1100 | 1,150,000 | 840 | 210 | 270 | 110 | 920 | 450 | 3500 | 1300 | 980 | 1300(1-_l_/60_d_) | 12 |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| These unit-stresses are for a green condition of timber and are _l_ = Length in inches. |
| to be used without increasing the live load stresses for impact. _d_ = Least side in inches. |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|[Footnote b: Adopted, Vol. 1909, pp. 537, 564, 609-611.] |
|[Footnote c: Green timber in exposed work.] |
|[Footnote d: Partially air-dry] |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Part I: Some general works on mechanics, materials of
construction, and testing of materials.

Part II: Publications and articles on the mechanical properties
of wood, and timber testing.

Part III: Publications of the U.S. Government on the mechanical
properties of wood, and timber testing.

PART 1. SOME GENERAL WORKS ON MECHANICS, MATERIALS OF
CONSTRUCTION, AND TESTING OF MATERIALS

ALLAN, WILLIAM: Strength of beams under transverse loads. New
York, 1893.

ANDERSON, SIR JOHN: The strength of materials and structures.
London, 1902.

BARLOW, PETER: Strength of materials, 1st ed. 1817; rev. 1867.

BURR, WILLIAM H.: The elasticity and resistance of the materials
of engineering. New York, 1911.

CHURCH, IRVING P.: Mechanics of engineering. New York, 1911.

HATFIELD, R.G.: Theory of transverse strain. 1877.

HATT, W.K., and SCOFIELD, H.H.: Laboratory manual of testing
materials. New York, 1913.

JAMESON, J.M.: Exercises in mechanics. (Wiley technical series.)
New York, 1913.

JAMIESON, ANDREW: Strength of materials. (Applied mechanics and
mechanical engineering, Vol. II.) London, 1911.

JOHNSON, J.B.: The materials of construction. New York, 1910.

KENT, WILLIAM: The strength of materials. New York, 1890.

KOTTCAMP, J.P.: Exercises for the applied mechanics laboratory.
(Wiley technical series.) New York, 1913.

LANZA, GAETANO: Applied mechanics. New York, 1901.

MERRIMAN, MANSFIELD: Mechanics of materials. New York, 1912.

MURDOCK, H.E.: Strength of materials. New York, 1911.

RANKINE, WILLIAM J.M.: A manual of applied mechanics. London,
1901.

THIL, A.: Conclusion de l'etude presentee a la Commission des
methodes d'essai des materiaux de construction. Paris, 1900.

THURSTON, ROBERT H.: A treatise on non-metallic materials of
engineering: stone, timber, fuel, lubricants, etc. (Materials of
engineering, Part I.) New York, 1899.

UNWIN, WILLIAM C.: The testing of materials of construction.
London, 1899.

WATERBURY, L.A.: Laboratory manual for testing materials of
construction. New York, 1912.

WOOD, DEVOLSON: A treatise on the resistance of materials. New
York, 1897.

PART II. PUBLICATIONS AND ARTICLES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF WOOD, AND TIMBER TESTING

ABBOT, ARTHUR V.: Testing machines, their history, construction
and use. Van Nostrand's Eng. Mag., Vol. XXX, 1884, pp. 204-214;
325-344; 382-397; 477-490.

ADAMS, E.E.: Tests to determine the strength of bolted timber
joints. Cal. Jour, of Technology, Sept., 1904.

ALVAREZ, ARTHUR C.: The strength of long seasoned Douglas fir
and redwood. Univ. of Cal. Pub. in Eng., Vol. I, No. 2,
Berkeley, 1913, pp. 11-20.

BARLOW, PETER: An essay on the strength and stress of timber.
London, 1817; 3d ed., 1826.

----: Experiments on the strength of different kinds of wood
made in the carriage department, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. Jour.
Franklin Inst., Vol. X, 1832, pp. 49-52. Reprinted from
Philosophical Mag. and Annals of Philos., No. 63, Mch., 1832.

BATES, ONWARD: Pine stringers and floorbeams for bridges. Trans.
Am. Soc. C.E., Vol. XXIII.

BAUSCHINGER, JOHANN: Untersuchungen ueber die Elasticitaet und
Festigkeit von Fichten- und Kiefernbauhoelzern. Mitt. a. d.
mech.-tech. Laboratorium d. k. techn. Hochschule in Muenchen, 9.
Hft., Muenchen, 1883.

----: Verhandlungen der Muenchener Conferenz und der von ihr
gewaehlten staendigen Commission zur Vereinbarung einheitlicher
Pruefungsmethoden fuer Bau- und Constructions-material. _Ibid._,
14. Hft., 1886.

----: Untersuchungen ueber die Elasticitaet und Festigkeit
verschiedener Nadelhoelzer. _Ibid._, 16. Hft., 1887.

BEARE, T. HUDSON: Timber: its strength and how to test it.
Engineering, London, Dec. 9, 1904.

BEAUVERIE, J.: Le bois. I. Paris, 1905, pp. 105-185.

----: Les bois industriels. Paris, 1910, pp. 55-77. Bending
tests with wood, executed at the Danish State Testing
Laboratory, Copenhagen. Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1912,
XXIII_{2}, pp. 17. See also Eng. Record, Vol. LXVI, 1912, p.
269.

BERG, WALTER G.: Berg's complete timber test record. Chicago,
1899. Reprint from Am. By. Bridges and Buildings. BOULGER, G.S.:
Wood. London, 1908, pp. 112-121.

BOUNICEAU,--: Note et experiences sur la torsion des bois.
[N.p., n.d.]

BOVEY, HENRY T.: Results of experiments at McGill University,
Montreal, on the strength of Canadian Douglas fir, red pine,
white pine, and spruce. Trans. Can. Soc. C.E., Vol. IX, Part I,
1895, pp. 69-236.

BREUIL, M. PIERRE: Contribution to the discussion on the testing
of wood. Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1906, Disc, 1_e_, pp. 2.

BROWN, T.S.: An Account of some experiments made by order of
Col. Totten, at Fort Adams, Newport, R.I., to ascertain the
relative stiffness and strength of the following kinds of
timber, viz.: white pine (_Pinus strobus_), spruce (_Abies
nigra_), and southern pine (_Pinus australis_), also called
long-leaved pine. Jour. Franklin Inst., Vol. VII (n.s.), 1831,
pp. 230-238.

BUCHANAN, C.P.: Some tests of old timber. Eng. News, Vol. LXIV,
No. 23, 1910, p. 67.

BUSGEN, M.: Zur Bestimmung der Holzhaerten. Zeitschrift f. Forst-
und Jagdwesen. Berlin, 1904, pp. 543-562.

CHEVANDIER, E., et WERTHEIM, G.: Memoire sur les proprietes
mecaniques du bois. Paris, 1846.

CIESLAR, A.: Studien ueber die Qualitaet rasch erwachsenen
Fichtenholzes. Centralblatt f. d. ges. Forstwesen, Wien, 1902,
pp. 337-403.

CLINE, McGARVEY: Forest Service investigations of American woods
with special reference to investigations of mechanical
properties. Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1912, XXIII_{5}, pp.
17.

----: Forest Service tests to determine the influence of
different methods and rates of loading on the strength and
stiffness of timber. Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat., Vol. VIII, 1908,
pp. 535-540.

----: The Forest Products Laboratory: its purpose and work.
Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat., Vol. X, 1910, pp. 477-489.

----: Specifications and grading rules for Douglas fir timber:
an analysis of Forest Service tests on structural timbers. Proc.
Am. Soc. Test. Mat., Vol. XI, 1911, pp. 744-766.

Comparative strength and resistance of various tie timbers.
Elec. Traction Weekly, Chicago, June 15, 1912.

DAY, FRANK M.: Microscopic examination of timber with regard to
its strength. 1883, pp. 6.

DEWELL, H.D.: Tests of some joints used in heavy timber framing.
Eng. News, Mch. 19, 1914, pp. 594-598; _et seq._

DOeRR, KARL: Die Festigkeit von Fichten- und Kiefernholz.
Deutsche Bauzeitung, Berlin, Aug. 17, 1910. See also Zeitschrift
d. ver. deutsch. Ing., Bd. 54, Nr. 36, 1910, p. 1503.

DUPIN, CHARLES: Experiences sur la flexibilite, la force, et
l'elasticite des bois. Jour, de l'Ecole Polytechnique, Vol. X,
1815.

DUPONT, ADOLPHE, et BOUQUET DE LA GRYE: Les bois indigenes et
etrangers. Paris, 1875, pp. 273-352.

ESTRADA, ESTEBAN DUQUE: On the strength and other properties of
Cuban woods. Van Nostrand's Eng. Mag., Vol. XXIX, 1883, pp.
417-426; 443-449.

EVERETT, W.H.: Memorandum on mechanical tests of some Indian
timbers. Govt. Bul. No. 6 (o.s.), Calcutta.

EXNER, WILHELM FRANZ: Die mechanische Technologie des Holzes.
Wien, 1871. (A translation and revision of Chevandier and
Wertheim's Memoire sur les proprietes mecaniques du bois.)

----: Die technischen Eigenschaften der Hoelzer. Lorey's Handbuch
der Forstwissenschaft, II. Bd., 6. Kap., Tuebingen, 1903.

FERNOW, B.E.: Scientific timber testing. Digest of Physical
Tests, Vol. I, No. 2, 1896, pp. 87-95.

FOWKE, FRANCIS: Experiments on British colonial and other woods.
1867.

GARDNER, ROLAND: I. Mechanical tests, properties, and uses of
thirty Philippine woods. II. Philippine sawmills, lumber market
and prices. Bul. 4, Bu. For., P.I., 1906. (2d ed., 1907,
contains tests of 34 woods.)

GAYER, KARL: Forest utilization. (Vol. V, Schlich's Manual of
Forestry. Translation of Die Forstbenutzung, Berlin, 1894.)
London, 1908.

GOLLNER, H.: Ueber die Festigkeit des Schwarzfoehrenholzes. Mitt.
a. d. forstl. Versuchswesen Oesterreichs. II. Bd., 3. Hft.,
Wien, 1881.

GOTTGETREU, RUDOLPH: Physische und chemische Beschaffenheit der
Baumaterialien. 3d ed., Berlin, 1880.

GREEN, A.O.: Tasmanian timbers: their qualities and uses.
Hobart, Tasmania, 1903, pp. 63.

GREGORY, W.B.: Tests of creosoted timber. Trans. Am. Soc. C.E.,
Vol. LXXVI, 1913, pp. 1192-1203. See also _ibid._, Vol. LXX, p.
37.

GRISARD, JULES, et VANDENBERGHE, MAXIMILIEN: Les bois
industriels, indigenes et exotiques; synonymie et description
des especes, proprietes physiques des bois, qualites, defauts,
usages et emplois. Paris, 189-. From Bul. de la Societe
nationale d'acclimatation de France, Vols. XXXVIII-XL.

Hardwoods of Western Australia. Engineering, Vol. LXXXIII, Jan.
11, 1907, pp. 35-37.

HATT, WILLIAM KENDRICK: A Preliminary program for the timber
test work to be undertaken by the Bureau of Forestry, United
States Department of Agriculture. Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat.,
Vol. III, 1903, pp. 308-343. Appendix I: Method of determining
the effect of the rate of application of load on the strength of
timber, pp. 325-327; App. II: A discussion on the effect of
moisture on strength and stiffness of timber, together with a
plan of procedure for future tests, pp. 328-334.

HATT, WILLIAM KENDRICK: Relation of timber tests to forest
products. Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1906, C 2 _e_, pp. 6.

----: Structural timber. Proc. Western Ry. Club, St. Louis, Mch.
17, 1908.

----: Abstract of report on the present status of timber tests
in the Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1909, XVL, pp. 10.

---- and TURNER, W.P.: The Purdue University impact machine.
Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat., Vol. VI, 1906, pp. 462-475.

HAUPT, HERMAN: formulae for the strain upon timber. Center of
gravity of an ungula and semi-cylinder. Jour. Franklin Inst.,
Vol. XIX, 3d series, 1850, pp. 408-413.

HEARDING, W.H.: Report upon experiments ... upon the compressive
power of pine and hemlock timber. Washington, 1872, pp. 12.

HOWE, MALVERD A.: Wood in compression; bearing values for
inclined cuts. Eng. News, Vol. LXVIII, 1912, pp. 190-191.

HOYER, EGBERT: Lehrbuch der vergleichenden mechanischen
Technologie. 1878.

IHLSENG, MANGUS C.: On the modulus of elasticity of some
American woods as determined by vibration. Van Nostrand's Eng.
Mag., Vol. XIX, 1878, pp. 8-9.

----: On a mode of measuring the velocity of sounds in woods.
Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts, Vol. XVII, 1879.

JACCARD, P.: Etude anatomique des bois comprimes. Mitt. d. Schw.
Centralanstalt f. d. forst. Versuchswesen. X. Bd., 1. Hft.,
Zurich, 1910, pp. 53-101.

JANKA, GABRIEL: Untersuchungen ueber die Elasticitaet und
Festigkeit der oesterreichischen Bauhoelzer. I. Fichte Suedtirols;
II. Fichte von Nordtirol vom Wienerwalde und Erzgebirge; III.
Fichte aus den Karpaten, aus dem Boehmerwalde, Ternovanerwalde
und den Zentralalpen. Technische Qualitaet des Fichtenholzes im
allgemeinen; IV. Laerche aus dem Wienerwalde, aus Schlesien,
Nord- und Suedtirol. Mitt. a. d. forst. Untersuchungswesen
Oesterreichs, Wien, 1900-13.

----: Untersuchungen ueber Holzqualitaet. Centralblatt f. d. ges.
Forstwesen. Wien, 1904, pp. 95-115.

----: Ueber neuere holztechnologische Untersuchungen. Oesterr.
Vierteljahresschrift fuer Forstwesen, Wien, 1906, pp. 248-269.

----: Die Haerte des Holzes. Centralblatt f. d. ges. Forstwesen,
Wien, 1906, pp. 193-202; 241-260.

JANKA, GABRIEL: Die Einwirkung von Suess- und Salzwaessern auf die
gewerblichen Eigenschaften der Hauptholzarten. I. Teil.
Untersuchungen u. Ergebnisse in mechanisch-technischer Hinsicht.
Mitt. a. d. forst. Versuchswesen Oesterreichs, 33. Hft., Wien,
1907.

----: Results of trials with timber carried out at the Austrian
forestry testing-station at Mariabrunn. Proc. Int. Assn. Test.
Mat., 1906, Disc. 2 _e_, pp. 7.

----: Ueber die an der k. k. forstlichen Versuchsanstalt
Mariabrunnen gewonnenen Resultate der Holzfestigkeitspruefungen.
Zeitschrift d. Oesterr. Ing. u. Arch. Ver., Wien, Aug. 9, 1907.

----: Ueber Holzhaerteprufueng. Centralblatt f. d. ges.
Forstwesen, Wien, 1908, pp. 443-456.

----: Testing the hardness of wood by means of the ball test.
Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1912, XXIII_{3}.

JENNY, K.: Untersuchungen ueber die Festigkeit der Hoelzer aus den
Laendern der ungarischen Krone. Budapest, 1873.

JOHNSON, J.B.: Time tests of timber in endwise compression.
Paper before Section D, Am. Assn. for Adv. of Sci., Aug., 1898.

JOHNSON, WALTER B.: Experiments on the adhesion of iron spikes
of various forms when driven into different species of timbers.
Jour. Franklin Inst., Vol. XIX (n.s.), 1837, pp. 281-292.

JULIUS, G.A.: Western Australia timber tests, 1906. The physical
characteristics of the hardwoods of Western Australia. Perth,
1906, pp. 36.

----: Supplement to the Western Australia timber tests, 1906.
The hardwoods of Australia. Perth, 1907, pp. 6.

KARMARSH, CARL: Handbuch der mechanischen Technologie. I. Aufl.,
1837; V. Aufl., 1875; verm. von H. Fisher, 1888.

KIDDER, F.E.: Experiments on the transverse strength of southern
and white pine. Van Nostrand's Eng. Mag., Vol. XXII, 1880, pp.
166-168.

----: Experiments on the strength and stiffness of small spruce
beams. _Ibid._, Vol. XXIV, 1881, pp. 473-477.

----: Experiments on the fatigue of small spruce beams. Jour.
Franklin Inst., Vol. CXIV, 1882, pp. 261-279.

KIDWELL, EDGAR: The efficiency of built-up wooden beams. Trans.
Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Feb., June, 1898.

KIRKALDY, WM. G.: Illustrations of David Kirkaldy's system of
mechanical testing. London, 1891.

KUMMER, FREDERICK A.: The effects of preservative treatment on
the strength of timber. Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat., Vol. IV,
1904, pp. 434-438.

LABORDERE, P., and ANSTETT, F.: Contribution to the study of
means for improving the strength of wood for pavements. Proc.
Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1912, XXIII_{4}, pp. 12.

LANZA, GAETANO: An account of certain tests on the transverse
strength and stiffness of large spruce beams. Trans. Am. Soc.
Mech. Eng., Vol. IV, 1882, pp. 119-135. See also Jour. Franklin
Inst., Vol. XCV, 1883, pp. 81-94.

LASLETT, T.: Properties and characteristics of timber. Chatham,
1867.

----: Timber and timber trees, native and foreign. (2d ed.
revised and enlarged by H. Marshall Ward.) London and New York,
1894.

LEA, W.: Tables of strength and deflection of timber. London,
1861.

LEDEBUR, A.: Die Verarbeitung des Holzes auf mechanischem Wege.
1881.

LORENZ, N. VON: Analytische Untersuchung des Begriffes der
Holzhaerte. Centralblatt f. d. ges. Forstwesen, Wien, 1909, pp.
348-387.

LUDWIG, PAUL: Die Regelprobe. Ein neues Verfahren zur
Haertebestimmung von Materialien. Berlin. 1908.

MACFARLAND, H.B.: Tests of longleaf pine bridge timbers. Bul.
149, Am. Ry. Eng. Assn., Sept., 1912. See also Eng. News, Dec.
12, 1912, p. 1035.

McKAY, DONALD: On the weight and strength of American
ship-timber. Jour. Franklin Inst., Vol. XXXIX (3d series), 1860,
p. 322.

MALETTE, J.: Essais des bois de construction. Revue Technique,
Apr. 25, 1905.

MANN, JAMES: Australian timber: its strength, durability, and
identification. Melbourne, 1900.

MARTIN, CLARENCE A.: Tests on the relation between cross-bending
and direct compressive strength in timber. Railroad Gazette,
Mch. 13, 1903.

Methods of testing metals and alloys ... Recommended by the
Fourth Congress of the International Association for Testing
Materials, held at Brussels, Sept. 3-6, 1906. London, 1907, pp.
54. Methods of testing wood, pp. 39-49.

MIKOLASCHEK, CARL: Untersuchungen ueber die Elasticitaet und
Festigkeit der wichtigsten Bau- und Nutzhoelzer. Mitt. a. d.
forstl. Versuchswesen Oesterreiches, II. Bd., 1. Hft., Wien,
1879.

MOELLER, JOSEPH: Die Rohstoffe des Tischler- und
Drechslergewerbes. I. Theil: Das Holz. Kassel, 1883, pp. 68-122.

MOLESWORTH, G.L.: Graphic diagrams of strength of teak beams.
Roorke, 1881.

MORGAN, J.J.: Bending strength of yellow pine timber. Eng.
Record, Vol. LXVII, 1913, pp. 608-609.

MOROTO, K.: Untersuchungen ueber die Biegungselasticitaet und
-Festigkeit der japanischen Bauhoelzer. Centralblatt f. d. ges.
Forstwesen, Wien, 1908, pp. 346-355.

NORDLINGER, H.: Die technischen Eigenschaften der Hoelzer fuer
Forst- und Baubeamte, Technologen und Gewerbetreibende.
Stuttgart, 1860.

----: Druckfestigkeit des Holzes. 1882.

----: Die gewerblichen Eigenschaften der Hoelzer. Stuttgart,
1890.

NORTH, A.T.: The grading of timber on the strength basis.
Address before Western Society of Engineers. Lumber World
Review, May 25, 1914, pp. 27-29.

NORTON, W.A.: Results of experiments on the set of bars of wood,
iron, and steel, after a transverse stress. Van Nostrand's Eng.
Mag., Vol. XVII, 1877, pp. 531-535.

PACCINOTTI E PERI: [Investigations into the elasticity of
timbers.] Il Cimento, Vol. LVIII, 1845.

PALACIO, E.: Tensile tests of timber. La Ingenieria, Buenos
Aires, May 31, 1903, _et seq._

PARENT,--: Experiences sur la resistance des bois de chene et de
sapin. Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences, 1707-08.

Propositions relatives a l'etablissement d'un precede uniforme
pour l'essai des qualites techniques des bois. Proc. Int. Assn.
Test. Mat., 1901, Annexe, pp. 13-28.

ROGERS, CHARLES G.: A manual of forest engineering for India.
Vol. I, Calcutta, 1900, pp. 50-91.

RUDELOFF, M.: Der heutige Stand der Holzuntersuchungen. Mitt. a.
d. koeniglichen tech. Versuchsanstalt, Berlin, IV, 1899.

----: Principles of a standard method of testing wood. Proc.
Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1906, 23 C, pp. 16.

----: Large _vs._ small test-pieces in testing wood. Proc. Int.
Soc. Test. Mat., 1912, XXIII_{1}, pp. 7.

SARGENT, CHARLES SPRAGUE: Woods of the United States, with an
account of their structure, qualities, and uses. New York, 1885.

SCHNEIDER, A.: Zusammengesetzte Traeger. Zeitschrift d. Oesterr.
Ing. u. Arch. Ver., Nov. 24; Dec. 9, 1899.

SCHWAPPACH, A.F.: Beitraege zur Kenntniss der Qualitaet des
Rotbuchenholzes. Zeitschrift f. Forst- und Jagdwesen, Berlin,
1894, pp. 513-539.

----: Untersuchungen ueber Raumgewicht und Druckfestigkeit des
Holzes wichtiger Waldbaeume. Berlin, 1897-98.

----: Etablissement de methodes uniformes pour l'essai a la
compression des bois. Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1901, Rapport
23, pp. 28.

SEBERT, H.: Notice sur les bois de la Nouvelle Caledonie suivie
de considerations generates sur les proprietes mecaniques des
bois et sur les precedes employes pour les mesurer. Paris.

SHERMAN, EDWARD C.: Crushing tests on water-soaked timbers. Eng.
News, Vol. LXII, 1909, p. 22.

SNOW, CHARLES H.: The principal species of wood: their
characteristic properties. New York, 1908.

STAUFFER, OTTMAR: Untersuchungen ueber specifisches
Trockengewicht, sowie anatomisches Verhalten des Holzes der
Birke. Muenchen, 1892.

STENS, D.: Ueber die Eigenschaftenimpraegnierter Grubenholzer,
insbesondere ueber ihre Festigkeit. Glueckauf, Essen, Mch. 6,
1907.

Strength of wood for pavements. Can. Eng., Toronto, Sept. 12,
1912.

STUeBSCHEN-KISCHNER: Karmarsch-Heerins technisches Wroeterbuch. 3.
Aufl., 1886.

TALBOT, ARTHUR N.: Tests of timber beams. Bul. 41, Eng. Exp.
Sta., Univ. of Ill., Urbana, 1910.

Tests of wooden beams made at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology on spruce, white pine, yellow pine, and oak beams of
commercial sizes. Technology Quarterly, Boston, Vol. VII, 1894.

TETMAJER, L. v.: Zur Frage der Knickungsfestigkeit der
Bauhoelzer. Schweizerische Bauzeitung, Bd. 11, Nr. 17.

----: Methoden und Resultate der Pruefung der schweizerischen
Bauhoelzer. Mitt. d. Anstalt z. Pruefung v. Baumaterialien am
eidgenoessischen Polytechnicum in Zuerich. 2. Hft., 1884.

----: Methoden und Resultate der Pruefung der schweizerischen
Bauhoelzer. Mitt. d. Materialpruefungs-Anstalt am Schweiz.
Polytechnikum in Zuerich. Landesaustellungs-Ausgabe, 2. Hft.,
Zuerich, 1896.

THELEN, ROLF: The structural timbers of the Pacific Coast.
Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat., Vol. VIII, 1908, pp. 558-567.

THURSTON, R.H.: Torsional resistance of materials determined by
a new apparatus with automatic registry. Jour. Franklin Inst.,
Vol. LXV, 1873, pp. 254-260.

----: On the strength of American timber. _Ibid._, Vol. LXXVIII,
1879, pp. 217-235.

----: Experiments on the strength of yellow pine. _Ibid._, Vol.
LXXIX, 1880, pp. 157-163.

----: Influence of time on bending strength and elasticity.
Proc. Am. Assn. for Adv. Sci., 1881. Also Proc. Inst. C.E., Vol.
LXXI.

----: On the effect of prolonged stress upon the strength and
elasticity of pine timber. Jour. Franklin Inst., Vol. LXXX,
1881, pp. 161-169. THURSTON, R.H.: On Flint's investigations of
Nicaraguan woods. _Ibid._, Vol. XCIV, 1887, pp. 289-315.

TIEMANN, HARRY DONALD: The effect of moisture and other
extrinsic factors upon the strength of wood. Proc. Am. Soc.
Test. Mat., Vol. VII, 1907, pp. 582-594.

----: The effect of the speed of testing upon the strength of
wood and the standardization of tests for speed. _Ibid._, Vol.
VIII, 1908, pp. 541-557.

----: The theory of impact and its application to testing
materials. Jour. Franklin Inst., Vol. CLXVIII, 1909, pp.
235-259; 336-364.

----: Some results of dead load bending tests of timber by means
of a recording deflectometer. Proc. Am. Soc. Test. Mat., Vol.
IX, 1909, pp. 534-548.

TJADEN, M.E.H.: Het Indrukken van Paalkoppen in Kespen. De
Ingenieur, Sept. 11, 1909.

----: Weerstand van Hout loodrecht op de Vezelrichting. _Ibid._,
May, 1911.

----: Buigvastheid van Hout. _Ibid._, May 31, 1913.

TRAUTWINE, JOHN C.: Shearing strength of some American woods.
Jour. Franklin Inst., Vol. CIX, 1880, pp. 105-106.

TREDGOLD, THOMAS: Elementary principles of carpentry. London,
1870.

TURNBULL, W.: A practical treatise on the strength and stiffness
of timber. London, 1833.

Untersuchungen ueber den Einfluss des Blauwerdens auf die
Festigkeit von Kiefernholz. Mitt. a. d. koenig. techn.
Versuchsanstalten, I, 1897.

Verfahren zur Pruefung v. Metallen und Legierungen, von
hydraulischen Bindemitteln, von Holz, von Ton-, Steinzeug- und
Zementroehren. Empfohlen v. dem in Bruessel v. 3-6, IX, 1906,
abgeh. IV. Kongress des internationalen Verbandes f. die
Materialpruefungen der Technik. Wien, 1907.

WARREN, W.H.: Australian timbers. Sydney, 1892.

----: The strength, elasticity, and other properties of New
South Wales hardwood timbers. Sydney, 1911.

----: The strength, elasticity, and other properties of New
South Wales hardwood timbers. Proc. Int. Assn. Test. Mat., 1912,
XXIII_{6}, pp. 9.

----: The properties of New South Wales hardwood timbers.
Builder, London, Nov. 1, 1912.

----: The hardwood timbers of New South Wales, Australia. Jour.
Soc. of Arts, London, Dec. 6, 1912.

WELLINGTON, A.M.: Experiments on impregnated timber. Railroad
Gazette, 1880.

WIJKANDER, ----: Untersuchung der Festigkeitseigenschaften
schwedischer Holzarten in der Materialpruefungsanstalt des
Chalmers'schen Institutes ausgefuehrt. 1897.

WING, CHARLES B.: Transverse strength of the Douglas fir. Eng.
News, Vol. XXXIII, Mch. 14, 1895.

PART III. PUBLICATIONS OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT ON THE MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES OF WOOD, AND TIMBER TESTING

MISCELLANEOUS

House Misc. Doc. 42, pt. 9, 47th Cong., 2d sess., 1884. (Vol.
IX, Tenth Census report.) Report on the forests of North America
(exclusive of Mexico). Part II, The Woods of the United States.

House Report No. 1442, 53d Cong., 2d sess. Investigations and
tests of American timber. 1894, pp. 4.

War Dept. Doc. 1. Resolutions of the conventions held at Munich,
Dresden, Berlin, and Vienna, for the purpose of adopting uniform
methods for testing construction materials with regard to their
mechanical properties. By J. Bauschinger. Translated by O.M.
Carter and E.A. Gieseler. 1896, pp. 44.

War Dept. Doc. 11. On tests of construction materials.
Translations from the French and from the German. By O.M. Carter
and E.A. Gieseler. 1896, pp. 84.

House Doc. No. 181, 55th Cong., 3d sess. Report upon the
forestry investigations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
1877-1898. By B.E. Fernow, 1899, pp. 401. Contains chapter on
The work in timber physics in the Division of Forestry, by
Filibert Roth, pp. 330-395.

FOREST SERVICE

Cir. 7--The Government timber tests [189-], pp. 4.

Cir. 8--Strength of "boxed" or "turpentine" timber. 1892, pp. 4.

Bul. 6--Timber Physics. Pt. I. Preliminary report. 1. Need of
the investigation. 2. Scope and historical development of the
science of "timber physics." 3. Organization and methods of
timber examinations in the Division of Forestry. By B.E. Fernow,
1892, pp. 57.

Unnumbered Cir.--Instructions for the collection of test pieces
of pines for timber investigations [1893], pp. 4.

Cir. 9--Effect of turpentine gathering on the timber of longleaf
pine. By B.E. Fernow [1893], p. 1.

Bul. 8--Timber physics. Pt. II. Progress report. Results of
investigations on longleaf pine. 1893, pp. 92.

Bul. 10--Timber: an elementary discussion of the characteristics
and properties of wood. By Filibert Roth. 1895, pp. 88.

Bul. 12--Economical designing of timber trestle bridges. By A.L.
Johnson, 1896, pp. 57.

Cir. 12--Southern pine, mechanical and physical properties.
1896, pp. 12.

Cir. 15--Summary of mechanical tests on thirty-two species of
American woods. 1897, pp. 12.

Cir. 18--Progress in timber physics. 1898, pp. 20.

Cir. 19--Progress in timber physics: Bald cypress (_Taxodium
distichum_). By Filibert Roth, 1898, pp. 24.

Y.B. Extr. 288--Tests on the physical properties of woods. By
F.E. Olmstead, 1902, pp. 533-538.

Unnumbered Cir.--Timber tests. [1903], pp. 15.

Unnumbered Cir.--Timber preservation and timber testing at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 1904, pp. 6.

Cir. 32--Progress report on the strength of structural timber.
By W.K. Hatt, 1904, pp. 28.

Bul. 58--The red gum. By Alfred Chittenden. Includes a
discussion of The mechanical properties of red gum wood, by W.K.
Hatt. 1905, pp. 56.

Cir. 38--Instructions to engineers of timber tests. By W.K.
Hatt, 1906, pp. 55. Revised edition, 1909, pp. 56.

Cir. 39--Experiments on the strength of treated timber. By W.K.
Hatt, 1906, pp. 31. Revised edition, 1908.

Bul. 70--Effect of moisture upon the strength and stiffness of
wood. By H.D. Tiemann, 1906, pp. 144.

Cir. 46--Holding force of railroad spikes in wooden ties. By
W.K. Hatt, 1906, pp. 7.

Cir. 47--Strength of packing boxes of various woods. By W.K.
Hatt, 1906, pp. 7.

Cir. 108--The strength of wood as influenced by moisture. By
H.D. Tiemann, 1907, pp. 42.

Cir. 115--Second progress report on the strength of structural
timber. By W.K. Hatt, 1907, pp. 39.

Cir. 142--Tests of vehicle and implement woods. By H.B. Holroyd
and H.S. Betts, 1908, pp. 29.

Cir. 146--Experiments with railway cross-ties. By H.B. Eastman,
1908, pp. 32.

Cir. 179--Utilization of California eucalypts. By H.S. Betts and
C. Stowell Smith, 1910, pp. 30.

Bul. 75--California tanbark oak. Part II, Utilization of the
wood of tanbark oak, by H.S. Betts, 1911, pp. 24-32.

Bul. 88--Properties and uses of Douglas fir. By McGarvey Cline
and J.B. Knapp, 1911, pp. 75.

Cir. 189--Strength values for structural timbers. By McGarvey
Cline, 1912, pp. 8.

Cir. 193--Mechanical properties of redwood. By A.L. Heim, 1912,
pp. 32.

Bul. 108--Tests of structural timbers. By McGarvey Cline and
A.L. Heim, 1912, pp. 1231.

Bul. 112--Fire-killed Douglas fir: a study of its rate of
deterioration, usability, and strength. By J.B. Knapp, 1912, pp.
18.

Bul. 115--Mechanical properties of western hemlock. By O.P.M.
Goss, 1913, pp. 45.

Bul. 122--Mechanical properties of western larch. By O.P.M.
Goss, 1913, pp. 45.

Cir. 213--Mechanical properties of woods grown in the United
States. 1913, pp. 4.

Cir. 214--Tests of packing boxes of various forms. By John A.
Newlin, 1913, pp. 23.

Review Forest Service Investigations. 1913. [Outline of
investigations.] Vol. I, pp. 17-21. A microscopic study of the
mechanical failure of wood, by Warren D. Brush. Vol. II, pp.
33-38.

Bul. 67, U.S.D.A.--Tests of Rocky Mountain woods for telephone
poles. By Norman deW. Betts and A.L. Heim, 1914, pp. 28.

Bul. 77, U.S.D.A.--Rocky Mountain mine timbers. By Norman deW.
Betts, 1914, pp. 34.

Bul. 86, U.S.D.A.--Tests of wooden barrels. By J.A. Newlin,
1914, pp. 12.

REPORTS OF TESTS ON THE STRENGTH OF STRUCTURAL MATERIAL, MADE AT
THE WATERTOWN ARSENAL, MASS.

House Ex. Doc. No. 12, 47th Cong., 1st sess., 1882. Strength of
wood grown on the Pacific slope, pp. 19-93.

Senate Ex. Doc. No. 1, 47th Cong., 2d sess., 1883. Resistance of
white and yellow pines to forces of compression in the direction
of the fibers, as used for columns, or posts, pp. 239-395.

Senate Ex. Doc. No. 5, 48th Cong., 1st sess., 1884. Tests of
California laurel wood by compression, indentation, shearing,
transverse tension, pp. 223-236. Tests of North American woods
(under supervision of Prof. C.S. Sargent in charge of the
forestry division of the Tenth Census), with 16 photographs of
fractures of American woods, pp. 237-347.

Senate Ex. Doc. No. 35, 49th Cong., 1st sess., 1885. Adhesion of
nails, spikes, and screws in various woods. Experiments on the
resistance of cut nails, wire nails (steel), wood screws, lag
screws in white pine, yellow pine, chestnut, white oak, and
laurel, pp. 448-471.

House Ex. Doc. No. 14, 51st Cong., 1st sess., 1890. Adhesion of
spikes and bolts in railroad ties, pp. 595-617.

House Ex. Doc. No. 161, 52d Cong., 1st sess., 1892. Adhesion of
nails in wood, pp. 744-745.

House Ex. Doc. No. 92, 53d Cong., 3d sess., 1895.
Woods--compression tests (endwise compression), pp. 471-476.

House Doc. No. 54, 54th Cong., 1st sess., 1896. Compression
tests on Douglas fir wood, pp. 536-563. Expansion and
contraction of oak and pine wood, pp. 567-574.

House Doc. No. 164, 55th Cong., 2d sess., 1898. Compression
tests of timber posts, pp. 405-411. New posts of yellow pine and
spruce, pp. 413-450; Old yellow pine posts from Boston Fire
Brick Co. building, No. 394 Federal St., Boston, Mass., pp.
451-473.

House Doc. No. 143, 55th Cong., 3d sess., 1899. Fire-proofed
wood (endwise and transverse tests), pp. 676-681.

House Doc. No. 190, 56th Cong., 2d sess., 1901. Cypress wood for
United States Engineer Corps; compression and transverse tests,
pp. 1121-1126. Old white pine and red oak from roof trusses of
Old South Church, Boston, Mass., pp. 1127-1130. Compression of
rubber, balata, and wood buffers, pp. 1149-1158.

House Doc. No. 335, 57th Cong., 2d sess., 1903. Douglas fir and
white oak woods. Transverse and shearing tests; also
observations on heat conductivity of sticks over wood fires and
a stick exposed to low temperature. Expansion crosswise the
grain of wood after submersion, pp. 519-561. Adhesion of lag
screws and bolts in wood, pp. 563-578.

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