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The Making of Religion by Andrew Lang

Part 7 out of 7

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the sitting, Mr. Home went into a trance, and in that state was carried
out of the window in the room next to where we were, and was brought in
at our window. The distance between the windows was about seven feet six
inches, and there was not the slightest foothold between them, nor was
there more than a twelve-inch projection to each window, which served as
a ledge to put flowers on. _We heard the window in the next room lifted
up_, and almost immediately after we saw Home floating in the air outside
our window. The moon was shining full into the room; my back was to the
light, and I saw the shadow on the wall of the window sill, and Home's
feet about six inches above it. He remained in this position for a few
seconds, then raised the window and glided into the room feet foremost
and sat down.

'Lord Adare then went into the next room to look at the window from which
he had been carried. It was raised about eighteen inches, and he expressed
his wonder how Mr. Home had been taken through so narrow an aperture. Home
said, still entranced, "I will show you," and then with his back to the
window he leaned back and was shot out of the aperture, head first, with
the body rigid, and then returned quite quietly. The window is about
seventy feet from the ground.' The hypothesis of a mechanical arrangement
of ropes or supports outside has been suggested, but does not cover the
facts as described.

Mr. Podmore, who quotes this, offers the explanation that the witnesses
were excited, and that Home 'thrust his head and shoulders out of the
window.' But, if he did, they could not see him do it, for he was in the
next room. A brick wall was between them and him. Their first view of Home
was 'floating in the air outside our window.' It is not very easy to hold
that a belief to which the collective evidence is so large and universal,
as the belief in levitation, was caused by a series of saints, sorcerers,
and others thrusting their heads and, shoulders, out of windows where the
observers could not see them. Nor in Lord Crawford's case is it easy
to suppose that three educated men, if hallucinated, would all be
hallucinated in the same way.

The argument of excited expectation and consequent hallucination does not
apply to Mr. Hamilton Aide and M. Alphonse Karr, neither of whom was a man
of science. Both were extremely prejudiced against Home, and at Nice went
to see, and, if possible, to expose him. Home was a guest at a large
villa in Nice, M. Karr and Mr. Aide were two of a party in a spacious
brilliantly lighted salon, where Home received them. A large heavy table,
remote from their group, moved towards them. M. Karr then got under a
table which rose in air, and carefully examined the space beneath, while
Mr. Aide observed it from above. Neither of them could discover any
explanation of the phenomenon, and they walked away together, disgusted,
disappointed, and reviling Home.[7]

In this case there was neither excitement nor desire to believe, but a
strong wish to disbelieve and to expose Home. If two such witnesses could
be hallucinated, we must greatly extend our notion of the limits of the
capacity for entertaining hallucinations.

One singular phenomenon was reported in Home's case, which has, however,
little to do with any conceivable theory of spirits. He was said to become
elongated in trance.[8] Mr. Podmore explains that 'perhaps he really
stretched himself to his full height'--one of the easiest ways conceivable
of working a miracle, Iamblichus reports the same phenomenon in his
possessed men.[9] Iamblichus adds that they were sometimes broadened as
well as lengthened. Now, M. Fere observes that 'any part of the body of an
hysterical patient may change in volume, simply owing to the fact that the
patient's attention is fixed on that part.'[10] Conceivably the elongation
of Home and the ancient Egyptian mediums may have been an extreme case of
this 'change of volume.' Could this be proved by examples, Home's
elongation would cease to be a 'miracle.' But it would follow that in this
case observers were _not_ hallucinated, and the presumption would be
raised that they were not hallucinated in the other cases. Indeed, this
argument is of universal application.

There is another class of 'physical phenomena,' which has no direct
bearing on our subject. Many persons, in many ages, are said to have
handled or walked through fire, not only without suffering pain, but
without lesion of the skin. Iamblichus mentions this as among the
peculiarities of his 'possessed' men; and in 'Modern Mythology' (1897) I
have collected first-hand evidence for the feat in classical times, and in
India, Fiji, Bulgaria, Trinidad, the Straits Settlements, and many other
places. The evidence is that of travellers, officials, missionaries, and
others, and is backed (for what photographic testimony is worth) by
photographs of the performance. To hold glowing coals in his hand, and to
communicate the power of doing so to others, was in Home's _repertoire_.
Lord Crawford saw it done on eight occasions, and himself received from
Home's hand the glowing coal unharmed. A friend of my own, however, still
bears the blister of the hurt received in the process. Sir W. Crookes's
evidence follows:

'At Mr. Home's request, whilst he was entranced, I went with him to the
fireplace in the back drawing-room. He said, "We want you to notice
particularly what Dan is doing." Accordingly I stood close to the
fire, and stooped down to it when he put his hands in....

'Mr. Home then waved the handkerchief about in the air two or three times,
held it above his head, and then folded it up and laid it on his hand like
a cushion. Putting his other hand into the fire, he took out a large
lump of cinder, red-hot at the lower part, and placed the red part on the
handkerchief. Under ordinary circumstances it would have been in a blaze.
In about half a minute he took it off the handkerchief with his hand,
saying, "As the power is not strong, if we leave the coal longer it will
burn." He then put it on his hand, and brought it to the table in the
front room, where all but myself had remained seated.'

Mr. Podmore explains that only two candles and the fire gave light on one
occasion, and that 'possibly' Home's hands were protected by some
'non-conducting substance.' He does not explain how this substance was put
on Lord Crawford's hands, nor tell us what this valuable substance may be.
None is known to science, though it seems to be known to Fijians, Tongans,
Klings, and Bulgarians, who walk through fire unhurt.

It is not necessary to believe Sir W. Crookes's assertions that he saw
Home perform the fire-tricks, for we can fall back on the lack of light
(only two candles and the fire-light), as also on the law of hallucination
caused by excitement. But it _is_ necessary to believe this distinguished
authority's statement about his ignorance of 'some non-conducting

'Schoolboys' books and mediaeval tales describe how this can be done with
alum and other ingredients. It is possible that the skin may be so
hardened and thickened by such preparations that superficial charring
might take place without the pain becoming great; but the surface of the
skin would certainly suffer severely. After Home had recovered from the
trance, I examined his hand with care to see if there were any signs of
burning or of previous preparation. I could detect no trace or injury
to the skin, which was soft and delicate, like a woman's. Neither were
there signs of any preparation having been previously applied. I have
often seen conjurers and others handle red-hot coals and iron, but there
were always palpable signs of burning.'[11]

In September 1897 a crew of passengers went from New Zealand to see the
Fijian rites, which, as reported in the 'Fiji Times,' corresponded exactly
with the description published by Mr. Basil Thomson, himself a witness.
The interesting point, historically, is the combination in Home of all the
_repertoire_ of the possessed men in Iamblichus. We certainly cannot get
rid of the fire-trick by aid of a hypothetical 'non-conducting substance.'
Till the 'substance' is tested experimentally it is not a _vera causa_. We
might as well say 'spirits' at once. Both that 'substance' and those
'spirits' are equally 'in the air.' Yet Mr. Podmore's 'explanations' (not
satisfactory to himself) are conceived so thoroughly in the spirit of
popular science--one of them casually discovering a new psychological law,
a second contradicting the facts it seeks to account for, a third
generously inventing an unknown substance--that they ought to be welcomed
by reviewers and lecturers.

It seems wiser to admit our ignorance and suspend our belief.

Here closes the futile chapter of explanations. Fraud is a _vera causa_,
but an hypothesis difficult of application when it is admitted that the
effects could not be caused by ordinary mechanical means. Hallucination,
through excitement, is a _vera causa_, but its remarkable uniformity,
as described by witnesses from different lands and ages, knowing nothing
of each other, makes us hesitate to accept a sweeping hypothesis of
hallucination. The case for it is not confirmed, when we have the same
reports from witnesses certainly not excited.

This extraordinary bundle, then, of reports, practically identical, of
facts paralysing to belief, this bundle made up of statements from so many
ages and countries, can only be 'filed for reference.' But it is manifest
that any savage who shared the experiences of Sir W. Crookes, Lord
Crawford, Mr. Hamilton Aide, M. Robert de St. Victor at Cideville, and
Policeman Higgs at Worksop, would believe that a spirit might tenant a
stick or stone--so believing he would be a Fetishist. Thus even of
Fetishism the probable origin is in a region of which we know nothing--the
_X_ region.

[Footnote 1: A sketch of the history will be found in the author's _Cock
Lane and Common Sense_.]

[Footnote 2: The best source is his article on 'Poltergeists.'
_Proceedings_ xi. 45-116. See, too, his 'Poltergeists' in _Studies in
Psychical Research_.]

[Footnote 3: _Studies in Psychical Research_, p. 140.]

[Footnote 4: See Preface to this edition for correction.]

[Footnote 5: _Proceedings_, S.P.R. vii. 383-394.]

[Footnote 6: See Sir W. Crookes's _Researches in Spiritualism_.]

[Footnote 7: Mr. Aide has given me this information. He recorded the
circumstances in his Diary at the time.]

[Footnote 8: _Report of Dialectical Society_, p. 209.]

[Footnote 9: See Porphyry, in Parthey's edition (Berlin, 1857), iii. 4.]

[Footnote 10: _Bulletin de la Societe de Biologie_, 1880, p. 399.]

[Footnote 11: Crookes, _Proceedings_, ix. 308.]



Since the chapter on crystal-gazing was in type, a work by Dr. Pierre
Janet has appeared, styled 'Les Nevroses et les Idees Fixes.'[1] It
contains a chapter on crystal-gazing. The opinion of Dr. Janet, as that of
a savant familiar, at the Salpetriere, with 'neurotic' visionaries,
cannot but be interesting. Unluckily, the essay must be regarded as
seriously impaired in value by Dr. Janet's singular treatment of his
subject. Nothing is more necessary in these researches than accuracy of
statement. Now, Dr. Janet has taken a set of experiences, or experiments,
of Miss X.'s from that lady's interesting essay, already cited; has
attributed them, not to Miss X., but to various people--for example, to
_une jeune fille, une pauvre voyante, une personne un peu mystique_; has
altered the facts in the spirit of romance; and has triumphantly given
that explanation, revival of memory, which was assigned by Miss X.

Throughout his paper Dr. Janet appears as the calm man of science
pronouncing judgment on the visionary vagaries of 'haunted' young girls
and disappointed seeresses. No such persons were concerned; no such
hauntings, supposed premonitions, or 'disillusions' occurred; the romantic
and 'marvellous' circumstances are mythopoeic accretions due to Dr.
Janet's own memory or fancy; his scientific explanation is that given by
his trinity of _jeune fille, pauvre voyante_, and _personne un peu

Being much engaged in the study of 'neurotic' and hysterical patients, Dr.
Janet thinks that they are most apt to see crystal visions. Perhaps they
are; and one doubts if their descriptions are more to be trusted than
the romantic essay of their medical attendant. In citing Miss X.'s paper
(as he did), Dr. Janet ought to have reported her experiments correctly,
ought to have attributed them to herself, and should, decidedly, have
remarked that the explanation he offered was her own hypothesis, verified
by her own exertions.

Not having any acquaintances in neurotic circles, I am unable to say
whether such persons supply more cases of the faculty of crystal vision
than ordinary people; while their word, one would think, is much less to
be trusted than that of men and women in excellent health. The crystal
visions which I have cited from my own knowledge (and I could cite scores
of others) were beheld by men and women engaged in the ordinary duties
of life. Students, barristers, novelists, lawyers, school-masters,
school-mistresses, golfers--to all of whom the topic was perfectly
new--have all exhibited the faculty. It is curious that an Arabian author
of the thirteenth century, Ibn Khaldoun, cited by M. Lefebure, offers the
same account of _how_ the visions appear as that given by Miss Angus in
the _Journal_ of the S.P.R., April 1898. M. Lefebure's citation was sent
to me in a letter.

I append M. Lefebure's quotation from Ibn Khaldoun. The original is
translated in 'Notices et Extraits des MSS. de la Bibliotheque Imperiale,'
I. xix. p. 643-645.

'Ibn Kaldoun admet que certains hommes ont la faculte de deviner l'avenir.

'"Ceux, ajoute-t-il, qui regardent dans les corps diaphanes, tels que les
miroirs, les cuvettes remplies d'eau et les liquides; ceux qui inspectent
les coeurs, les foies et les os des animaux, ... tous ces gens-la
appartiennent aussi a la categorie des devins, mais, a cause de
l'imperfection de leur nature, ils y occupent un rang inferieur. Pour
ecarter le voile des sens, le vrai devin n'a pas besoin de grands efforts;
quant aux autres, ils tachent d'arriver au but en _essayant de concentrer
en un seul sens toutes leurs perceptions_. Comme la vue est le sens le
plus noble, ils lui donnent la preference; fixant leur regard sur on objet
a superficie unie, ils le considerent avec attention jusqu'a ce qu'ils y
apercoivent la chose qu'ils veulent annoncer. Quelques personnes croient
que l'image apercue de cette maniere se dessine sur la surface du miroir;
mais ils se trompent. Le devin regarde fixement cette surface jusqu'a ce
qu'elle disparaisse et qu'un rideau, semblable a un brouillard,
s'interpose entre lui et le miroir. Sur ce rideau se dessinent les choses
_qu'il desira apercevoir_, et cela lui permet de donner des indications
soit affirmatives, soit negatives, sur ce que l'on desire savoir. Il
raconte alors les perceptions telles qu'il les recoit. Les devins,
pendant qu'ils sont dans cet etat, n'apercoivent pas ce qui se voit
reellement dans le miroir; c'est un autre mode de perception qui nait
chez eux et qui s'opere, non pas au moyen de la vue, mais de l'ame. Il
est vrai que, _pour eux, les perceptions de l'ame ressemblent a celles
des sens au point de les tromper_; fait qui, du reste, est bien connu. La
meme chose arrive a ceux qui examinent les coeurs et les foies d'animaux.
Nous avons vu quelques-uns de ces individus _entraver l'operation des
sens_ par l'emploi de simples _fumigations_, puis se servir
d'_incantations_[2] afin de donner a l'ame la disposition requise; ensuite
ils racontent ce qu'ils ont apercu. Ces formes, disent-ils, se montrent
dans l'air et representent des personnages: elles leur apprennent, au
moyen d'emblemes et de signes, les choses qu'ils cherchent a savoir. Les
individus de cette classe se detachent moins de l'influence des sens que
ceux de la classe precedente."'

[Footnote 1: Lican, Paris, 1898.]

[Footnote 2: L'auteur arabe avait deja mentionne (p. 209) l'emploi des
incantations et indique qu'elles etuient un simple adjuvant physique
destine a donner a certains hommes une exaltation dont ils se servaient
pour tacher de decouvrir l'avenir.

'Pour arriver au plus haut degre d'inspiration dont il est capable, le
devin doit avoir recours a l'emploi de certaines phrases qui se
distinguent par _une cadence et un parallelisme particuliers_. Il
essaye ce moyen _afin de soustraire son ame aux influences des sens_ et
de lui donner assez de force pour se mettre dans un contact imparfait
avec le monde spirituel.[a] Cette agitation d'esprit, jointe a l'emploi
des moyens intrinseques dont nous avons parle, excite dans son coeur
des idees que cet organe exprime par le ministere de la langne. Les
paroles qu'il prononce sont tantot vraies, tantot fausses. En effet,
le devin, voulant suppleer a l'imperfection de son naturel, se sert de
moyens tout a fait etrangers a sa faculte perceptive et qui ne
s'accordent en aucune facon avec elle. Donc la verite et l'erreur se
presentent a lui en meme temps, aussi ne doit on mettre aucune
confiance en ses paroles. Quelquefois meme il a recours a des
suppositions et a des conjectures dans l'espoir de rencontrer la verite
et de tromper ceux qui l'interrogent.']

[Footnote a: Compare Tennyson's way of attaining a state of trance by
repeating to himself his own name.]



In the remarks on Australian religion, it is argued that chiefs in
Australia are, at most, very inconspicuous, and that a dead chief cannot
have thriven into a Supreme Being. Attention should be called, however, to
Mr. Howitt's remarks on Australian 'Head-men,' in his tract on 'The
Organisation of Australian Tribes' (pp. 103-113).

He attaches more of the idea of power to 'Head-men' than does Mr. Curr in
his work,' The Australian Race.' The Head-men, as a rule, arrive at such
influence as they possess by seniority, if accompanied by courage, wisdom,
and, in some cases, by magical acquirements. There are traces of a
tendency to keep the office (if it may be called one) in the same kinship.
'But Vich Ian Vohr or Chingahgook are not to be found in Australian
tribes' (p. 113). I do not observe that the manes or ghost of a dead
Head-man receives any worship or service calculated to fix him in the
tribal memory, and so lead to the evolution of a deity, though one
Head-man was potent through the whole Dieyri tribe over three hundred
miles of country. Such a person, if propitiated after death, might
conceivably develop into a hero, if not into a creative being. But we
must await evidence to the effect that any posthumous reverence was paid
to this man, Ialina Piramurane (New Moon). Mr. Howitt's essay is in the
'Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria for 1889.'


Academy of Medicine, Paris, inquiry into animal magnetism, 34

Achille, the case of, 134

Acosta, Pere, cited, 74, 244, 246

Adare, Lord, cited, 335

Addison, cited, 16

Africans, religious faiths of, 212, 218, 221, 222.
See under separate tribal names.

Ahone, North-American Indian god, 231-233, 241, 248, 258, 262, 280

Aide, Hamilton, cited, 336

Algonquins, the, 250

Allen, Grant, cited, 190

American Creators, 230;
parallel with African gods, 230;
savage gods of Virginia, 231;
the Ahone-Okeus creed, 231-233;
Pawnee tribal religions, 233-236;
Ti-ra-wa, the Spirit Father, 234, 235;
rite to the Morning Star, 234;
religion of the Blackfeet, 236;
Na-pi, 237-239;
one account of the Inca religion, 239-242;
Sun-worship, 239-241;
cult of Pachacamac, the Inca deity, 239-247;
another account of the Inca religion, 242-246;
hymns of the Zunis, 247;
_Awonawilona_, 247

Amoretti, Sig., cited, 30, 152

Ancestor, worship, 164-166, 178, 205, 212, 268, 271-277

Andamanese, the, religious beliefs of, 167, 194-197, 205, 208, 211,
249, 252, 256, 272
'Angus, Miss,' cases in her experience of crystal-gazing, 89-102, 341

Animal magnetism, inquiry into, 29, 34, 35

Animism, nature and influence of, 48, 49, 53, 58, 63, 129, 168, 190,
191, 206, 256, 264, 266, 268, 269, 303

Anthropology and hallucinations, 105;
sleeping and waking experience, 105, 106;
hallucinations in mentally sound people, 107;
ghosts, 107;
coincidence of hallucinations of the sane with death or other crisis of
person seen, 107;
morbid hallucinations and coincidental 'flukes,' 108;
connection of cause and effect, 108;
the emotional effect, 108;
illustrative coincidence, 108;
hallucinations of sight, 109;
causes of hallucinations, 110;
collective hallucinations, 110;
the properly receptive state, 110;
telepathy, 111;
phantasms of the living, 112;
Maori cases, 113-115;
evidence to be rejected, 116;
subjective hallucination caused by expectancy, 116;
puzzling nature of hallucinations shared by several people at once, 116,
hallucinations coincident with a death, 117;
apparitions and deaths connected in fact, 117;
Census of the Society for Psychical Research thereupon, 118;
number and character of the instances, 119;
weighing evidence, 119;
opinion of the Committee on Hallucinations, 121;
remoteness of occurrence of instances, 121;
want of documentary evidence, 121
non-coincidental hallucinations, 121;
telepathy existing between kinsfolk and friends, 122;
influence of anxiety, 123;
existence of illness known, 123;
mental and nervous conditions in connection with hallucinations, 134;
value of the statistics of the Census, 124;
anecdote of an English officer, 125

Anthropology and religion, 30;
early scientific prejudice against, 40;
evolution and evidence, 40;
testing of evidence, 41-43;
psychical research, 48;
origin of religion, 44;
inferences drawn from supernormal phenomena, 41, 53;
savage parallels of psychical phenomena, 45;
meanings of religion, 45, 40;
disproof of godless tribes, 47;
Animism, 48, 49;
limits of savage tongues, 49;
waking and sleeping hallucinations, 60;
crystal-gazing, 50;
the ghost-soul, 51;
savage abstract speculation, 52;
analogy of the ideas of children and primitive man, 53;
early man's conception of life, 32;
ghost-seers, 54;
psychical conditions in which savages differ from civilised men, 54;
power of producing non-normal psychological conditions, 55;
faculties of the lower animals, 56;
man's first conception of religion, 56;
the suggested hypnotic state, 57;
second-sight, 68;
savage names for the ghost-soul, 60;
the migratory spirit, 60-64

Anynrabia, South Guinea Creator, 220

Apaches, crystal-gazing by, 84, 85

Apollonius of Tyana, 66

Atua, the Tongan Elohim, 279

Aurora Borealis, savage ideas of the, 4, 262, 292

Australians, religious beliefs of, 50, 83, 118, 128, 165, 175-182, 185,
188, 190, 205, 208, 211, 215, 219, 224, 240, 249, 253, 266, 261-263

Automatism, 155

Awonawilona, Zuni deity, 248, 251

Ayinard, Jacques, case of, 150, 182

Aztecs, creed of, 104 _note_, 183, 233, 234, 255, 258, 263

Bealz, Dr., cited, 132

Baiame, deity, 189, 190, 191, 205, 261, 280

Baker, Sir Samuel, cited, 42, 211

Bakwains, the, 169

Balfour, A.J., quoted, 44, 57 _note_

Banks Islanders, their gods, 169, 197-198

Bantus, religious beliefs of, 176, 211, 220, 248

Barkworth, Mr., his opinion of Mrs. Piper, 140

Barrett, Professor, on the divining-rod, 162-154

Bostian, Adolf, cited, 6, 43

Baxter, cited, 15

Beaton, Cardinal, his mistress visualized, 97

Bell, John, cited, 149

Beni-Israel, 282

Berna, magnetiser, 34

Bernadette, case of, 117

Big Black Man, Fuegian deity, 258

Binet and Fere, quoted, 20, 76

Bissett, Mr. and Mrs., experiences of crystal-gazing, 99-102

Blackfeet, beliefs of, 230, 236

Blantyre region, religion in the, 217, 218

Bleck, Dr., cited, 194

Bobowissi, Gold Coast god, 225-227, 230-232

Bodinus, cited, 15

Book of the Dead, 286, 303

Bora, Australian mysteries, 176, 179, 190, 196, 260

Bosman, cited, 225

Bourget, Paul, his opinion of Mrs. Piper, 139, 140

Bourke, Captain J.G., cited, 83

Boyle, cited, 15

Braid, inventor of the word 'hypnotism,' 24, 35, 36

Brewster, Sir David, cited, 33

Brinton, Dr., cited, 67, 168, 232, 236, 254, 264, 290

Bristow, Mr., cited, 332

British Association decline to hear Braid's essay, 24
rejection of anthropological papers, 89

Brasses, de, cited, 149

Brown, General Mason, cited, 68, 67

Bunjil, deity, 189

Bushmen, religious beliefs of, 165, 198, 208, 211, 252

Button, Jemmy, the Faegian, case of, 116

Caon, Boshmon deity, 189, 193, 205

Callawoy, Dr., on Zulu beliefs, 72, 85, 106, 142, 151 207, 208

Cardan, cited, 15

Carpenter, Dr., cited, 324

Carver, Captain Jonathan, his instance of savage possession, 142
cited, 60, 144, 145

Charcot, Dr., on faith cures, 20-23, 24 _note_

Chevreul, M., cited, 152

Chinese, the, demon possession in, 181, 183
divining-rod, 154
religious beliefs, 237, 290, 291

Chonos, the, 176

Circumcision, 286

Clairvoyance (vue a distance), 65
'opening the Gates at Distance.' 65, 66
attested cases among savages, 66
conflict with the laws of exact science, 67
instances, 67
among the Zulus, 68-70
among the Lapps, 70
the Llarson case, 71
seers, 72
the element of trickery, 73
a Red Indian seeress, 73
Peruvian clairvoyants, 75
Professor Richet's case, 75
Mr. Dobbie's case, 76
Scottish tales of second-sight, 78-81
visions provoked by various methods, 81
See Crystal visions

Clodd, Edward, cited, 119, 120, 300

'Cockburn, Mrs.,' test of crystal-gazing, 99-101

Codrington, Dr., cited, 150, 169, 197-199

Coirin, Mlle., her miraculous cure, 20

Coleridge, cited, 9, 11, 12 _note_, 295, 296

Collins, cited, 179

Comanches, the, 250

Confucius, religious teaching of, 290, 291

Cook, Captain, cited, 271

Corpse-binding, 143, 144

Crawford, Lord, cited, 325, 334, 330, 387

Creeks, the, 143

Croesus, tests the Delphic Oracle, 14

Crookes, Sir William, cited, 325, 331, 333, 334, 337, 338

Crystal visions, 83
savage instances, 83-85
in later Europe, 85
nature of 'Miss X's' experiments, 85
attributed to 'dissociation,' 86
examples of 'thought-transference,' 87
arguments against accepting recognition of objects described by another
person, 87
coincidence of fact and fiction, 88
cases in the experience of 'Miss Angus,' 89-102
'Miss Rose's' experience, 91, 92
phenomena suggest the savage theory of the wandering soul, 103
cited, 7, 44, 50, 314-316, 340

Cumberland, Stuart, 72

Cures by suggestion, 20, 21

Curr, Mr., reports' godless' savages, 184 _note_

Dampier, cited, 176

Dancing sticks, 149-131

Darumulun, Australian Supreme Being, 178, 179, 183, 186, 191, 213, 240,
258-264, 280

Darwin, cited, 115, 149, 174 _note_, 324, 332

Death, savage ideas on, 187

Degeneration theory, the, 254
the powerful creative Being of lowest savages, 254
differences between the Supreme Being of higher and lower savages, 255
human sacrifice, 255
hungry, cruel gods degenerate from the Australian Father in Heaven, 256
savage Animism, 256
a pure religion forgotten, 257
an inconvenient moral Creator, 257
hankering after useful ghost-gods, 257
lowering of the ideal of a Creator, 257
maintenance of an immoral system in the interests of the State and the
clergy, 258
moral monotheism of the Hebrew religion, 258
degradation of Jehovah, 258
human sacrifice in ritual of Israel, 258
origin of conception of Jehovah, 258
Semitic gods, 259
status of Darumulun, 259
conception of Jehovah conditioned by space, 260
degeneration of deity in Africa, 260
political advance produces religious degeneration, 261
sacrificial ideas, 262
the savage Supreme Being on a higher plane than the Semitic and
Greek gods, 263
Animism full of the seeds of religions degeneration, 264
falling off in the theistic conception, 265
fetishism, 265
modus of degeneration by Animism supplanting Theism, 265
feeling after a God who needs not anything at man's hands, 267

Demoniacal possession, 128
the 'inspired' or 'possessed,' 129
'change of control,' 130
gift of eloquence and poetry, 131
instances in China, 131
attempted explanations of the phenomena, 132
'alternating personality,' 132
symptoms of possession, 132
evidence for, 133
scientific account of a demoniac and his cure, 134
inducing the 'possessed' state, 135
exhibition of abnormal knowledge by the possessed, 136
Scientific study of the phenomena, 136
details of the case of Mrs. Piper, 136-141
diagnosing and prescribing for patients, 142
Carver's example of savage possession, 142, 157
custom of binding the seer with bonds, 142, 145
corpse-binding, 143, 144

Dendid, Dinka Supreme Being, 211, 212, 258, 280

Deslon, M., disciple of Mesmer, 24

Dessoir, Dr. Max, quoted, 32, 33, 57

Dinkas, beliefs of the, 42, 211, 212, 256

Divining-rod, use of the, 30, 152-155

Dobbie, Mr., his case of clairvoyance, 76

Dorman, Mr., cited, 203

Dunbar, Mr., cited, 236

Du Pont, cited, 75

Du Prel, cited, 28

Dynois, Jonka, trance of, 65

Ebumtupism, second sight, 73

Egyptians, beliefs of, 83, 302

Elcho, Lord, cited, 334

Eleusinian mysteries, 196

Elliotson, Dr., cited, 24, 35, 37, 40

Ellis, Major, on Polynesian and African religions ideas, 83, 144, 222-228,
232, 251, 260, 272

Elohim, savage equivalents to the term, 277

Esemkofu, Zulu ghosts, 128, 129

Eskimo, religious beliefs of, 72, 113, 184

Faith-Cures, 20-22

Fenton, Francis Dart, on Maori ghost-seeing, 114

Ferrand, Mlle., on hallucinations, 32

Fetishism and Spiritualism, 147
the fetish, 147
sources super-normal to savages, 148
independent motion in inanimate objects, 149
comparison with physical phenomena of spiritualism, 149
Melanesian belief in sticks moved by spirits, 150
a sceptical Zulu, 150
a form of the pendulum experiment, 151
table-turning, 152
the divining-rod, 152
the civilised and savage practice of automatism, 156
dark room manifestations, 156
the disturbances in the house of M. Zoller, 156
consideration of physical phenomena, 158
instanced, 165, 225, 265, 266, 276, 324-339

Figuier, M., cited, 152

Fijians, religious beliefs of, 128, 136, 200, 248, 338

Finns, the, 58

Fire ceremony, the, 180 _note_

Fison, Mr., cited, 128

Fitzroy, Admiral, cited, 115, 173, 174

Flacourt, Sieur de, on crystal-gazing in Madagascar, 84

Flint, Professor, cited, 253

Francis, St., stigmata of, 22

Fuegians, beliefs and customs of, 115, 165, 173-175, 183, 187, 208,
211, 227, 258, 262, 272

Galton, Mr., cited, 12, 96, 107, 294, 295

Garcilasso de la Vega, on Inca beliefs, 239-244

'Gates of Distance, Opening the,' 65, 66, 68

Ghost-seers, 54, 63

Ghost-soul, the, 51
names for the, 60

Gibert, Dr., on 'willing' sleep, 36

Gibier, Dr., cited, 146

Gippsland tribes, 187

Glanvil, Rev. Joseph, his scientific investigations, 15

God, evolution of the idea of, 160
anthropological hypothesis, 160
primitive logic of the savage, 161
regarded as a spirit, 162
idea of spiritual beings framed on the human soul, 164
deified ancestors, 164
the Zulu first ancestor, 164
fetishes, 165
great gods in savage systems of religion, 165
the Lord of the Dead, 165
conception of an idealised divine First Ancestor, 188
hostile Good and Bad Beings, 166
the Supreme Being of savage creeds, 166
mediating 'Sons,' 167
Christian and Islamite influence on savage conceptions, 167
probable germs of the savage idea of a Supreme Being, 168
animistic conceptions, 168
ghosts, and Beings who never were human, 169
recognition by savages of our God in theirs, 169
the hypothesis of degeneracy, 170
the moral, friendly creative Being of low savage faith, 171
food offerings to a Universal Power, 171
the High Gods of low races, 173
intrusion of European ideas into savage religions, 173
the Fuegian Big Man, 174
ghosts of dead medicine man, 175
the Bora, or Australian tribal mysteries, 176, 177, 179
possible evolution of the Australian god, 178
mythology and theology of Darumulun, the highest Australian god, 178,
179, 183
religious sanction of morals, 179
selflessness the very essence of goodness, 180
precepts of Darumulan, 181, 182
argument from design, 184
Supreme Gods not necessarily developed out of 'spirits,' 185
distinction between deities and ghosts, 185
human beings adored as gods, 186
deathlessness of the Supreme Being of savage faith, 186, 188
idealisation of the savage himself, 187
negation of the ghost-theory, 188, 189
high creative gods never wore mortal men, 189
low savage distinction between gods, 189
propitiation by food and sacrifice, 190
'magnified non-natural men,' 190
gods to talk about, not to adore, 190
higher gods prior to the ghost theory, 191
See Supreme Beings; American Creators; Jehovah

Greeks, the, beliefs of, 302

Greenlanders, the, 144, 182

Gregory, Dr., cited, 86

Griesinger, Dr., cited, 132

Grinnell, Mr., on Pawnee beliefs, 234-237

Guiana Indians, religious beliefs of, 202-206, 256

Guinea, North and South, religious beliefs in, 220

Gurney, Mr., his experiments in hypnotism, 85, 86
cited, 107, 114, 117

Guyau, M., cited, 12, 24, 25

Hallucinations. See Anthropology and Hallucinations

Hamilton, Sir William, cited, 12

Hammond, Dr., on demoniacal possession, 131

Harteville, Madame, case of, 26

Hearne, on the Aurora Borealis, 3
on cure by suggestion, 21, 22

Hebrews. See Israelites

Hegel, cited, 30-34, 50, 56, 58, 78, 111, 152

Higgs, Police Constable, statement of, on the disturbances at Mr.
White's house, 326-328

Highland second-sight, 143-145

Hodgson, Dr., report on Mrs. Piper, 137, 140, 141
cited, 135, 325

Home, David Dunglas, his powers as a medium, 324, 325, 334-339

Howitt, Mr., cited, 128, 177-182

Hume, David, attitude towards miracles, 16
definition of a miracle, 16
self-contradictions, 17
refuses to examine miracle of the Abbe Paris, 18, 19, 22-25
alternative definition of a miracle, 25
cited, 297

Huxley, Professor, on savage religious cults, 42, 43, 48, 162, 163, 171,
176, 177, 182
on the evolution of Jehovah, 270, 271, 277, 279, 282, 286
cited, 17 _note_, 296, 324

Hypnotism, 6, 24, 29, 32, 34, 35, 37, 75, 76

Iamblichus, cited, 14, 336, 337, 339

Ibn Khaldoun, cited, 341

Im Thurn, on the religious ideas of the Indians of Guiana, 50, 160,
202-207, 256, 298

Incas, the, 85, 240-247, 258

Iroquois, the, 84, 85

Islam, influence of, on African beliefs, 221

Israelites, development of their religious ideas, 258, 260, 268-284, 302

James, Professor William, quoted, 23, 59, 73, 107, 110, 132, 137, 156,

Janet, Dr. Pierre, on 'willing' sleep, 36
on demoniacal possession, 134, 135
cited, 73, 294, 340, 341

Jeanne d'Arc, 34, 73, 115, 128, 276

Jehovah, theories of, 258, 260, 268
as a Moral Supreme Being, 268
anthropological theory of the origin of Jehovah-worship, 270
absence of ancestor-worship from the Hebrew tradition, 270-273
alleged evidence for ancestor-worship in Israel, 273-277
evolution from ghost-cult to the cult of Jehovah, 277
the term Elohim, 277
human shape assumed, 278
considered as a ghost-god, 279
sacrifices to, 280
suggestion of a Being not yet named Jehovah, 281
traditional emergence of Jehovah as the god of Israel, 281
as a deified ancestor, 282
moral element in the idea of Jehovah, 282, 286
a mere tribal god, 283
a Kenite god, 283, 284
inconsistencies of theorists concerning, 285
the moral element a survival of primitive ethics in the savage ancestors
of the Israelites, 287
verity of the Biblical account, 287
cited, 299

Jeraeil, mysteries of the Kurnai, 180

Jevons, Mr., cited, 186, 255, 300, 302

Jugglery, Pawnee, 235

Jung-Stilling, cited, 30, 63

Kaloc, Fijian name for gods, 200, 201

Kamschatkans, 166

Kant, inquires into Swedenborg's visions, 26, 59
disappointed with Swedenborg's 'Arcana Coelestia', 26, 27
on the metaphysics of 'spirits,' 27
discusses the subconscious, 28
cited, 125

Karens, beliefs of, 60, 73, 151

Karr, Alphonse, cited, 336

Kelvin, Lord, on hypnotism, 37

Kenites, the, 284

Kingsley, Miss, cited, 175, 211, 220, 328

Kirk, cited, 144

Kohl, cited, 148

Kulin, Australian tribe, 49

Kurnai, Australian tribe, their religious conceptions, 49, 180, 181, 187,
215, 262, 263, 287, 291

Laing, Mr. Samuel, cited, 12 _note_

Langlois, M., the case of, 75, 76

Lapps, beliefs of, 58, 71, 81

Latukas, the, 42

Laverterus, telepathic hypothesis of, 15

Le Loyer, cited, 15

Leaf, Mr., cited, 112 _note_

Leeward Isles, ideas of a god in, 251

Lefebure, M., cited, 84, 149, 341

Legge, Dr., on the teaching of Confucius, 290

Lejean, M., on the Dinkas, 212

Lejeaune, Pere, cited, 74, 83

Leng, Mr., cited, 133

Leon, Cieza de, cited, 241, 244

Leonie, the case of her hypnotisation, 75, 76

Leslie, David, on Zulu clairvoyance, 68
on ghosts, 128

Levitation, 334

Littre, M., cited, 136

Livingstone, Dr., cited, 6, 135, 170

Lloyd, Dr., cited, 327, 328

Loan-god, a, Tshi theory of, 222-229

Lourdes, cures at, 19

Lubbock, Sir John, cited, 42

Macalister, Professor, his opinion of Mrs. Piper, 140

MacCulloch, Dr., on second-sight, 58

Macdonald, Duff, cited, 150, 213, 215, 218

Macgregor, Dr. Alastair, gives instances of second-sight, 79-81

Madagascar, 84

Magnetism, 29, 34, 35

Malagasies, beliefs of, 84

Malays of Keeling Island, fetishism in, 141

Man, Mr., on Andamanese religion and mythology, 194, 195

Mans, magical rapport, 199, 200

Mandans, the, 188

Manganjah, practice of sorcery in, 149

Manning, Mr., cited, 146

Maoris, religious beliefs of, 83, 113-115, 118, 119, 150, 166, 188

Marawa, Banks Islands deity, 198, 199

Mariner, cited, 278

Markham, Mr., cited, 243, 246

Marson, Madame, case of, 71

Mason, Dr., on familiar spirits, 130

Mather, Cotton, cited, 16, 55

Maudsloy, Dr., cited, 23 _note_

Mani, Maori deity, 166, 188

Mayo, Dr., cited, 86

Medici, Catherine de', cited, 66

Medicine-men, 84

Mediums, 324-339

Melanesians, religious beliefs of, 150, 169, 189, 197, 199, 200

Menestrier, le Pere, uses the divining-rod, 154

Menzies, Professor, cited, 257

Mesmer, his theory of magnetism, 29, 34

Millar, cited, 40, 41

Miracles, regarded from the standpoint of science, 14
early tests, 14
and more modern research, 15
witchcraft, 15, 16
Hume's essay on, 16
and his definitions of a miracle, 16, 25
cures at the tomb of the Abbe Paris, 18-20, 23
Binet and Fere's explanation of these cures, 20
cures by suggestion, 20, 21
Dr. Charcot's views, 20
faith cures, 20-22
science opposed to systematic negation, 22
refusal to examine evidence, 23-25
'marvellous facts,' 24
suggestion a distance, 24
Kant's researches, 26-29
Swedenborg's clairvoyance, 26, 27
thought-transference and hypnotic sleep, 29, 30, 32, 35
water-finding, 39
phenomena of clairvoyance, 31
Hegel's 'magic tie,' 31
Dr. Max Dessoir's views, 31, 32
hallucinations, 32
animal magnetism, 34
hypnotism, 35
'willing,' 36
facts and phenomena confronting science, 37

'Miss X,' on crystal-gazing, 87, 315, 316, 340, 341

Mlungu, Central African deity, 213-218

Molina, Christoval de, on Inca beliefs, 242, 243

Moll, Herr, cited, 314

Montgeron, M., cited, 19, 20

More, Henry, cited, 15

Moses, founder of the Hebrew religion, 283-286

Mtanga, African deity, 213-217

Mueller, Max, cited, 41, 43, 46, 265, 266, 289

Mungan-ngaur, Kurnai Supreme Being, 181, 188, 190, 205, 217, 259

Mwetyi, Shekuni Great Spirit, 220

Myers, Frederic, on hypnotic slumber, 30, 33
cited, 15 _note_

Nana Nyankupon, Gold Coast Supreme Being, 225-228, 232, 280

Na-pi, American Indian deity, 237-239, 241

Ndengei, Fijian Supreme Being, 200-202, 228, 248

Nevius, Dr., on demoniacal possession, 131-135

Newbold, Professor W. Romaine, 135

Nezahuati, erects a bloodless fane to the Unknown God, 258

Nicaraguans, the, 60

North, Major, on Pawnee jugglery, 235, 236

Nzambi Mpungu, Bantu Supreme Being, 226, 228, 242

Okeus (Oki), American Indian deity, 231, 232

Okey, the sisters, case of, 37 _note_

Ombwiri, South Guinea god, 220

Orpen, Mr., cited, 193

Oxford, Rev. A.W., on ancient Israel, 275-277, 283-285

Pachacamac, Inca, Supreme Being, 230, 239-247, 258

Pachayachachi, Inca god, 242, 246

Paladino, Eusapia, case of, 325

Palmer, Mr., cited, 179

Paris, Abbe miracles wrought at his tomb, 18-20, 23

Parish, Herr, criticism of his reply to the arguments for telepathy,
cited, 8, 86, 107

Park, Mungo, on African beliefs, 221, 223

Pawnees, religious beliefs and practices of, 212, 224, 230, 233-236, 263

Payne, Mr., cited, 160, 161, 246

Peden, Rev. Mr., cited, 66

Pelippa, Captain, cited, 173

Pendulum experiment, a form of the, 151

Pepys, cited, 15

Peruvians, religious ideas and practices of, 75, 239-247

Phantasms of the Dead, 128

Phinuit, Dr. See Mrs. Piper

Piper, Mrs., the case of, 132, 136-141

Pliny, cited, 15

Plotinus, cited, 66

Plutarch, cited, 15

Podmore, Mr., on psychical research, 111, 325, 326, 328, 330-336, 338, 339

Poltergeist, the, and his explainers, 334-339

Polynesians, religious beliefs of, 7, 83, 251, 252, 256

Polytheism, 289, 291, 303

Porphyry, cited, 14

Powhattan, Virginian chief, 231, 232

Puluga, Andamanese Supreme Being, 195, 205, 228, 258, 262

Pundjel, Australian god, 258, 261, 262

Puysegur, de, his discovery of hypnotic sleep, 29,
cited, 76

Qat, Banks Islands deity, 189, 198, 199

Qing, Bushman, his ideas of the god Cang, 193, 196

Ravenwood, Master of, instanced, 126

Red Indians, beliefs and practices of, 3, 5, 6, 21, 22, 83, 104 _note_,
128, 142, 143, 203

Regnard, M., cited, 71

Renan, M., cited, 285

Revillo, M., cited, 291, 293

Reynolds, Dr. Russell, cited, 22

Rhombos, use of the, 84

Ribot, M., cited, 132

Richet, Professor Charles, hypnotises Leonie, 75, 76
cited, 64, 73, 82, 154, 294

Ritter, Dr., believes in Siderism, 29

Romans, religious ideas of, 302

'Rose, Miss,' her experience of crystal-gazing, 90,91

Rose, Eliza, the case of, 326-330

Roskoff, cited, 42

Rowley, Mr., cited, 149

Russegger, cited, 212

Salcamayhua, cited, 246

Samoyeds, 58, 72

Sand, George, cited, 86

Santos, cited, 214

Saul and the Witch of Endor, 14

Scheffer, cited, 66, 70, 71, 81

Schoolcraft, Mr., cited, 236

Schrenck-Notzing, von, cited, 55 _note_

Scot, Reginald, cited, 15

Scott, Rev. David Clement, cited, 49 _note_, 106, 217, 218

Scott, Sir Walter, his attitude towards clairvoyance, 27
cited, 121, 126

Sebituane, case of, 135, 136

Second-sight, 56, 66, 78-81

Seer-binding, 143

Seers, 72

Shang-ti, Chinese Supreme Being, 245, 290, 291

Shortland, Mr., quoted, 113

Sidgwick, Professor, cited, 318, 332

Sioux, the, 236

Skidi or Wolf Pawnees, the, 233, 234

Smith, Mrs. Erminie, on crystal-gazing, 84

Smith, historian of Virginia, cited, 231, 232

Smith, Robertson, cited, 259, 261, 262, 281 _note_, 298

Smyth, Brough, cited, 42, 178, 182, 293

Society for Psychical Research, 116, 118

Spencer, Herbert, on early religious ideas, 42, 43
ghosts, 47
Animism, 48 _note_, 53, 54
limits of savage language, 49
the Fuegian Big Man, 174
Australian marriage customs, 175
Australian religion, 182
men-gods, 186
religion of Bushmen, 193
ancestor-worship, 212, 213, 271-273
cited, 162, 167, 170, 216, 218, 292

Spiritualism, 324-339.
See Fetishism

Stade, Herr, cited, 276, 284, 285

Stanley, Hans, cited, 12

Starr, cited, 104 _note_

Stoll, cited, 72

Strachey, William, cited, 229-232

Suetonius, cited, 15

Sully, Mr., cited. 295

Sun-worship, 238-245

Supreme Beings of savages, regarded as eternal, moral, and powerful, 193
Cagn, the Bushman god, 193
Puluga, the Andamanese god, 195
savage mysteries and rites, 196
alliance of ethics with religion, 196
the Banks Islanders' belief in Tamate (ghosts) and Vui (Beings who never
had been human), 197
corporeal and incorporeal Vuis, 198
sacrificial offerings to ghosts and spirits, 199
the soul the complex of real bodiless after-images, 200
Fijian belief, 200
Ndengei, the Fijian chief god, 200, 201
the idea of primeval Eternal Beings, 202
the Great Spirit of North American tribes, 203
dream origin of the ghost theory, 203
Guiana Indian names indicating a belief in a Great Spirit, 203-206
the God-cult abandoned for the Ghost-cult, 205
Unkulunkulu, the Zulu Creator, 207-210
the notion of a dead Maker, 208
preference for serviceable family spirits, 209
the Dinka Creator, 211
African ancestor-worship, 212
Mlungu, a deity formed by aggregation of departed spirits, 213
ethical element in religious mysteries, 215
the position of Mtanga, 216
religious beliefs in the Blantyre region, 217, 218
negro tendency to monotheism, 218
beliefs in North and South Guinea, 220
Mungo Park's observation of African beliefs, 221
Islamic influence, 221
the Tshi theory of a loan-god,' borrowed from Europeans, 222-228
varieties of Tshi gods, 224, 225
fetishes, 225
Nana Nyankupon, the 'God of the Christians,' 225-229
American Creators (see under), 230-252
the Polynesian cult, 251, 252
Chinese conceptions, 290-292

Swedenborg, Emanuel, visions of, 26
recovers Mme. Harteville's receipt, 26
his 'Arcana Coelestia,' 27
noticed by Kant, 28, 29, 59

Taa-Roa, Polynesian deity, 251, 252, 256, 280, 308

Table-turning, 151

Tahitians, 251

Taine, M., cited, 57

Ta-li-y-Tooboo, Tongan deity, 278, 279, 282

Tamate, Banks Islands ghosts, 197-199

Tamoi, the 'ancient of heaven,' 188

Tando, Gold Coast god, 225

Tanner, John, case of, 57, 128

Teed, Esther, the Amherst mystery, 333

Telepathy, oppositions of science to, 307
hallucination of memory, 307
presentiments, 308
dreams, 308, 309, 312
veridical hallucinations, 309, 311
coincidence in S.P.R.'s Census cases, 310
non-coincidental cases, 311
condition to beget hallucination, 312
hallucinations mere dreams, 312
crystal-gazing, 314-316
number of coincidences no proof, 316
association of ideas, 316
coincidental collective hallucinations, 317-323
See Crystal visions

Thomson, Basil, cited, 200 _note_, 248, 249, 339

Thought-transference, 4, 29-32, 35
illustrative cases, 88-103

Thouvenel, M., cited, 152

Thyraeus on ghosts, 15

Tien, Chinese heaven, 290, 291

Ti-ra-wa, American Indian god, 234-236, 239

Tlapane, African wizard, 135

Tongans, religious beliefs of, 278-280

Tonkaways, American tribe, 233

Torfaeus, cited, 71

Totemism, 239, 241, 262, 263, 269, 270, 276

Tregear, Mr., on Maori ghost-seeing, 113

Tshi theory of a loan-god, 223-227

Tuckey, Dr. Lloyd, cited, 36

Tui Laga, Fijian deity, 249

Tundun, ancestor of the Kurnai, 181

Tylor, Mr., his test of recurrence, 41
on anthropological origin of religion, 43
on savage philosophy of super-normal phenomena, 45, 53
disproves the assertion about 'godless' tribes, 47
his term Animism, 48, 49
theory of metaphysical genius in low savages, 51
ghost-seers, 54
on psychical conditions of contemporary savages, 54-56
on the influence of Swedenborg, 59
savage names for the ghost-soul, 60
second-sight, 66
mediums, 73
dreams, 106
hallucinations, 110-113, 117, 118
demoniacal possession, 131
fetishism, 148, 149, 165
divining-rod, 153
evolution of gods from ghosts, 163, 164
fetish deities, 165
dualistic idea, 166
Supreme Being of savage creeds, 166, 167
the degeneration theory, 170, 254
confusion of thought upon religion, 182
list of first ancestors deified, 188
savage mysteries, 201
savage Animism, 204
Okeus and his rites, 231
Pachacamac, 245
Confucius's teaching, 290
the mystagogue Home, 325
levitation, 334
cited, 50, 52, 53, 58, 59, 61-63, 78, 151, 161, 162, 170, 173, 184, 185,
203, 231, 232, 246, 257, 293, 297

Tyndall, Professor, cited, 324

Uiracocha, Inca Creator, 242-246

Umabakulists, diviners by sticks, 151

Unkulunkulu, Zulu mythical first ancestor, 164, 168, 188, 202, 207, 220

Vincent, Mr., 29
on clairvoyance, 34, 36, 37

Virchow, cited, 19

Vui, non-ghost gods, 169, 197-200

Wabose, Catherine, Red Indian seeress, experience of, 73, 74

Waltz, cited, 177, 194 _note_, 218-220, 222, 243

Wallace, Alfred Basset, on Hume's theory of 'miracles,' 17, 18
on Ritter, 29
on clairvoyance, 31

Wayao, Supreme Being of the, 213, 214

Wellhausen, cited, 277, 283, 285, 286, 298

Welton, Thomas, on the divining-rod, 154

Wesley, John, cited, 16

White, Joseph, spirit manifestations at his house, 326-331

Wierus, cited, 15

Williams, Mr., cited, 201, 248

Wilson, Mr., cited, 50, 219, 220

Windward Isles, ideas of a God in, 251

Witch of Endor, the, 14, 277, 278

Witchcraft, 14-16

Wodrow, Mr., cited, 16

Wolf tribes, 233

Wynne, Captain, cited, 335

Yama, Vedic-Aryan ghost-god, 188

Yaos, religious beliefs of, 150, 213, 214-216

Yerri Yuppon, good spirit of the Chonos, 175

York, a Fuegian, cited, 174

Yuncus, a Peruvian race, worship of, 240, 246

Zarate, Augustin de, cited, 240

Zoller, M., disturbances in the house of, 156, 157

Zulus, religious beliefs and customs of, 65, 66, 68, 70, 72, 85, 128,
141, 142, 150, 152, 207-210

Zunis, hymns of the, 248, 251

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