Part 7 out of 7
Now Mariamne's sons inherited their mother's hate; and when they
considered the greatness of Herod's crime toward her, they were as
suspicious of their father as of an enemy. This state of theirs increased
as they grew to be men. And when Herod had been poisoned with calumnies
against them, he recalled Antipater, his son by Doris, from exile as a
defence against his other sons, and began to treat him in every way with
more distinction than them. But these sons were not able to bear this
change, for when they saw Antipater, who was the son of a private woman,
advanced, the nobility of their own birth made them unable to restrain
their indignation. For Antipater was already publicly named in his
father's will as his successor. The two weapons which he employed against
his brothers were flattery and calumny, whereby he brought matters
privately to such a point that the king thought of putting his sons to
death. So Herod dragged Alexander with him as far as Rome and charged him
before Augustus with attempting to poison him, but Alexander very ably
cleared himself of the calumnies laid against him and brought Augustus to
the point of rejecting the accusation and of reconciling Herod to his sons
at once. After this the king returned from Rome and seemed to have
acquitted his sons of these charges, but still he was not without some
suspicion of them, for Antipater, who was the cause of the hatred,
accompanied them. But he did not openly show his enmity toward them, for
he stood in awe of the one who had reconciled them. But the dissensions
between the brothers still accompanied them, and the suspicions they had
of one another grew worse.
[Sidenote: Jos. Jew. War, I, 24:1a, 27:1, 2a, 6b]
Alexander and Aristobulus were much vexed that the privilege of the
first-born was confirmed to Antipater, and Antipater was very angry
because his brothers were to succeed him. Moreover, Salome incited Herod's
cruelty against his sons, for Aristobulus was desirous of bringing her who
was his mother-in-law and aunt into the same dangers as himself. So he
sent to her to advise her to save herself, and told her that the king was
preparing to put her to death. Then Salome came running to the king and
informed him of the warning. Thereupon Herod could restrain himself no
longer, but caused both of his sons to be bound, and kept them apart from
one another, and speedily sent to Augustus written charges against them.
Augustus was greatly troubled in regard to the young men, but he did not
think he ought to take from a father the power over his sons. So he wrote
back to him, and gave him full authority over his sons, and said he would
do well to make an examination of the plot by means of a common council
consisting of his own kinsmen and the governors of his province, and if
his sons were found guilty to put them to death. With these directions
Herod complied. Then he sent his sons to Sebaste and ordered them there to
be strangled, and his orders being executed immediately, he commanded
their bodies to be brought to the fortress of Alexandrium.
[Sidenote: Jos. Jew. War, I, 28:1a, 29:2c]
But an unconquerable hatred against Antipater rose up in the nation now
that he had an indisputable title to the succession, because they well
knew that he was the person who had contrived all the calumnies against
his brothers. Later he secured permission by means of his Italian friends
to go and live at Rome. For when they wrote that it was proper for
Antipater to be sent to Augustus after some time, Herod made no delay but
sent him with a splendid retinue and a large amount of money, and gave him
his testament to carry in which Antipater was inscribed as king.
[Sidenote: Jos. Jew. War, I, 30:5a, 31:1a]
And after the death of Herod's brother Pheroras, the king devoted himself
to examining his son Antipater's steward; and upon torturing him he
learned that Antipater had sent for a potion of deadly poison for him from
Egypt, and that the uncle of Antipater had received it from him and
delivered it to Pheroras, for Antipater had charged him to destroy his
father the king, while [Antipater] was at Rome, and so free him from the
suspicion of doing it himself. Antipater's freedman was also brought to
trial, and he was the concluding proof of Antipater's designs. This man
came and brought another deadly potion of the poison of asps and of other
serpents, that if the first potion did not accomplish its end, Pheroras
and his wife might be armed with this also against the king.
[Sidenote: Jos. Jew. War, I, 33:1, 7, 8a]
Now Herod's illness became more and more severe because his various
ailments attacked him in his old age and when he was in a melancholy
state, for he was already almost seventy years of age and was depressed by
the calamities that had happened to him in connection with his children,
so that he had no pleasure in life even when he was in health. The fact
that Antipater was still alive aggravated his disease, and he preferred to
destroy him, not incidentally but by crushing him completely. When letters
came from his ambassadors at Rome containing the information that
Antipater was condemned to death, Herod for a little while was restored to
cheerfulness; but presently being overcome by his pains, he endeavored to
anticipate destiny, and this because he was weakened by want of food and
by a convulsive cough. Accordingly he took an apple and asked for a knife,
for he used to pare his apples before eating them. He then looked around
to see that there was no one to hinder him and lifted up his right hand as
if to stab himself. But Achiabus, his cousin, ran up to him and, holding
his hand, hindered him from so doing. Immediately a great lamentation was
raised in the palace, as if the king was dying, and as soon as Antipater
heard that, he took courage and with joy in his looks besought his keepers
for a sum of money to loose him and let him go. But the head keeper of the
prison not only prevented that but also ran and told the king what his
design was. Thereupon the king cried louder than his disease could well
bear, and immediately sent some of his body-guards and had Antipater
slain. He also gave orders to have him buried at Hyrcanium, and altered
his testament again and therein made Archelaus, his eldest son, and the
brother of Antipas, his successor, and made Antipas tetrarch. Herod, after
surviving the death of his son only five days, died, having reigned
thirty-four years, since he had obtained control of affairs; but it was
thirty-seven years since he had been made king by the Romans.
I. Herod's Character. The character of Herod is comparatively easy to
understand, for it is elemental and one that constantly recurs in history.
We in America are familiar with this type which is represented by our
unscrupulous captains of industry or political bosses--energetic,
physically strong, shrewd, relentless toward all who threaten to thwart
their plans, skilful in organization, not troubled about the rightness of
their methods, provided they escape the toils of the law, able to command
men and successfully to carry through large policies. They are not without
their personal attractions, for it is instinctive to admire that which is
big and able to achieve. Many of them also make permanent contributions to
the upbuilding of the nation. Oriental history is also full of analogies:
Nebuchadrezzar, Cyrus, Alexander, and in more recent times Mohammed Ali of
Egypt. Herod was largely the product of his inheritance and training. His
father, Antipater, had taught him to regard the Jews with secret but
well-concealed contempt, and to hate Aristobulus and his ambitious sons.
His religion was loyalty to Rome, for this meant wealth and success. He
delighted in public approval, and his ambition was to be known as a great
builder. As is true with this type of man, he was a natural tyrant. Power
was his ruling passion, and he regarded with extreme suspicion any who
might take it from him. In this respect the contemporary rulers of the
Roman Empire set an example which he was not slow to follow. His Idumean
and Arabian blood coursed hot and fierce through his veins. It was an age
when moral standards were exceedingly low, and Herod never learned to rule
his passions. The Oriental institution of the harem gave him full license,
and he lived and loved as he fought and reigned--vehemently. Such a man is
especially susceptible to the weaknesses and crimes that come from
jealousy, and the influences of his family and court intensified these
Herod is not without his attractive qualities. A man who is able to
execute on a large scale and win the title Great is never commonplace.
In giving Palestine the benefits of a strong and stable government he
performed a real service. In his love for Mariamne and for the sons she
bore him he was mastered by a passion that for a time ennobled him.
Like every man, moreover, who fails to taste the joys of disinterested
service for his fellow-men, Herod paid the bitter penalty for his own
unrestrained selfishness. He awakes pity rather than denunciation. He
never found life, because he never learned to lose his life in the service
of his people.
II. His Attitude toward Rome. Herod's policy was loyalty at any cost to
the man who at the moment ruled Rome. During the first part of his reign
Antony's power on the eastern Mediterranean was still in the ascendancy.
Notwithstanding the powerful intrigues of Cleopatra, Herod succeeded in
retaining the favor of his patron. When the battle of Actium in 32 B.C.
revealed Antony's weakness, Herod forthwith cast off his allegiance, and
his treachery was one of the chief forces that drove Antony to suicide.
Octavian, who henceforth under the title of Augustus attained to the
complete control of Rome, recognized in Herod a valuable servant. Herod's
title as king of the Jews was confirmed, and Augustus gradually increased
his territory until it included practically all of Palestine with the
exception of certain Greek cities along the coast and east of the Jordan.
Herod's task was to preserve peace in the land thus intrusted to him and
to guard the eastern border of the empire against its Parthian foes. This
task he faithfully performed.
III. His Building Activity. The spirit and policy of Augustus were
clearly reflected in Herod's court and kingdom. When his position was
firmly established, Herod devoted himself to magnificent building
enterprises. In Antioch, Athens, and Rhodes, he reared great public
buildings. Jerusalem, his capital, was provided with a theatre and
amphitheatre, and other buildings that characterize the Graeco-Roman
cities of the period. The two crowning achievements of Herod's reign were
the rebuilding of Samaria and Caesarea, as its port on the Mediterranean
coast. Both of these cities were renamed in honor of his patron Augustus.
On the acropolis of Samaria he built a huge Roman temple, the foundations
of which have recently been uncovered by the American excavators. The city
itself was encircled by a colonnade, over a mile long, consisting of
pillars sixteen feet in height. Caesarea, like Samaria, was adorned with
magnificent public buildings, including a temple, a theatre, a palace, and
an amphitheatre. The great breakwater two hundred feet wide that ran out
into the open sea was one of the greatest achievements of that building
age. By these acts Herod won still further the favor of Augustus and the
admiration of the Eastern world.
IV. His Attitude toward His Subjects. The peace which Herod brought to
Palestine was won at the point of the sword. The fear which he felt for
his subjects was surpassed only by the fear which he inspired in them. He
was unscrupulous and merciless in cutting down all possible rivals. The
treacherous murder of Aristobulus III, the grandson of Hyrcanus, and last
of all the murder of the inoffensive and maimed Hyrcanus, are among the
darkest deeds in Herod's bloody reign. The power of the sanhedrin, the
Jewish national representative body, was almost completely crushed.
Following the policy of Augustus, Herod developed a complex system of
spies, or espionage, so that, like an Oriental tyrant, he ruled his
subjects by means of two armies, the spies who watched in secret and the
soldiers who guarded them openly. His lavish building enterprises led him
to load his people with an almost intolerable burden of taxation, and yet
for the common people Herod's reign was one of comparative peace and
prosperity. At last they were delivered from destructive wars and free to
develop the great agricultural and commercial resources of the land. While
outside of Judea Herod built heathen temples, he faithfully guarded the
temple of Jerusalem, and was careful not to override the religious
prejudices of his subjects. His measures to relieve their suffering in
time of famine reveal a generosity which under better environment and
training might have made him a benign ruler.
V. The Tragedy of His Domestic Life. The weakness of Herod's character
is most glaringly revealed in his domestic life. Undoubtedly he loved the
beautiful Maccabean princess, Mariamne, with all the passion of his
violent nature. It was a type of love, however, which passes over easily
into insensate jealousy. Accordingly, when he left Judea just before the
battle of Actium, and later when he went to meet Octavian, he had his wife
Mariamne shut up in a strong fortress. Unfortunately Herod, like most
despots, was unable to command the services of loyal followers. The
discovery of Herod's suspicions toward her aroused the imperious spirit of
Mariamne. She was also the victim of the plots of his jealous family.
Human history presents no greater tragedy than that of Herod putting to
death the one woman whom he truly loved, and later a victim of his own
suspicions and of the intrigues of his son Antipater, finally obtaining
royal permission to put to death the two noble sons whom Mariamne had
borne to him. It is difficult to find in all history a more pitiable sight
than Herod in his old age, hated by most of his subjects, misled by the
members of his own family, the murderer of those whom he loved best,
finding his sole satisfaction in putting to death his son Antipater, who
had betrayed him, and in planning in his last hours how he might by the
murder of hundreds of his subjects arouse wide-spread lamentation.
VI. Effects of Herod's Reign. One of the chief results of Herod's policy
and reign was the complete extinction of the Maccabean house. Herod's
motive and method were thoroughly base, but for the Jewish people the
result was beneficial, for it removed one of the most active causes of
those suicidal rebellions that had resulted disastrously for the Jews and
brought them under the suspicion and iron rule of Rome. With his heavy
hand Herod also put a stop to the party strife that had undermined the
native Jewish kingdom and brought loss and suffering to thousands of Jews.
The Pharisees and Sadducees at last were taught the lesson of not
resorting to arms, however widely they might differ. By removing the
Pharisees from public life Herod directed their energies to developing
their ceremonial regulations and to instructing the people. Thus the
influence of the Pharisees became paramount with the great majority of the
Jews. As Herod extended his rule over all Palestine, he brought into close
relations the Jews scattered throughout its territory and so strengthened
the bonds of race and religion. In building the temples he also emphasized
the ceremonial side of their religious life and centralized it so that
even the Jews of the dispersion henceforth paid their yearly temple tax,
made frequent pilgrimages to Jerusalem, and regarded themselves as a part
of the nation. Furthermore, Herod brought peace and prosperity to his
people and gave the Jews an honorable place in the role of nations. Thus,
while his career is marked by many unpardonable crimes, he proved on the
whole an upbuilder and a friend rather than a foe of the Jews.
Section CXIX. HEROD'S TEMPLE
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:1a]
Now Herod, in the eighteenth year of his reign, undertook a very great
work, that is, to rebuild the temple of God at his own expense, and to
make it larger in circumference and to raise it to a more magnificent
height. He thought rightly that to bring the temple to perfection would be
the most glorious of all his works, and that it would suffice as an
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:2c]
So he prepared a thousand wagons to bring stones, chose ten thousand of
the most skilful workmen, bought a thousand priestly garments for as many
of the priests, and had some of them taught how to work as builders, and
others as carpenters. Then he began to build, but not until everything
was well prepared for the work.
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:3a-c]
And Herod took up the old foundations, and laid others. He erected a
temple upon these foundations: its length was one hundred cubits and its
height twenty additional cubits. Now the temple was built of stones that
were white and strong. Each was about twenty-five cubits long, eight
cubits high, and twelve cubits wide. The whole temple enclosure on the
sides was on much lower ground, as were also the royal colonnades; but the
temple itself was much higher, being visible for many furlongs in the
country round about. It had doors at its entrance as high as the temple
itself with lintels over them. These doors were adorned with variegated
veils, into which were interwoven pillars and purple flowers. Over these,
but under the crown-work, was spread out a golden vine, with its branches
hanging far down, the great size and fine workmanship of which was a
marvel to those who saw it.
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:3f-l]
Herod also built very large colonnades all around the temple, making them
in proportion. He exceeded all who had gone before him in his lavish
expenditure of money. There was a large wall about the colonnades. The
hill, on which the temple stood, was rocky, ascending gradually toward
the east of the city to its highest point. At the bottom, which was
surrounded by a deep valley, he laid rocks that were bound together with
lead. He also cut away some of the inner parts, carrying the wall to a
great height, until the size and height of the square construction was
immense, and until the great size of the stones in front were visible on
the outside. The inward parts were fastened together with iron and the
joints were preserved immovable for all time. When this work was joined
together to the very top of the hill, he finished off its upper surface
and filled up the hollow places about the wall and made it level and
smooth on top. Within this wall, on the very top, was another wall of
stone that had on the east a double colonnade of the same length as the
wall. Inside was the temple itself. This colonnade faced the door of the
temple and had been decorated by many kings before. Around about the
entire temple were fixed the spoils taken from the barbarous nations. All
these were dedicated to the temple by Herod, who added those that had been
taken from the Arabians.
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:4a, d]
Now in an angle on the north side of the temple was built a citadel, well
fortified and of extraordinary strength. This citadel had been built
before Herod by the kings and high priests of the Hasmonean race, and
they called it the Tower. In it were deposited the garments of the high
priest, which he put on only at the time when he was to offer sacrifice.
Herod fortified this tower more strongly than before, in order to guard
the temple securely, and gave the tower the name of Antonia to gratify
Antony, who was his friend and a Roman ruler.
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:5a-g]
In the western side of the temple enclosure were four gates; one led to
the king's palace, two others led to the suburbs of the city, and the
fourth led by many steps down into the valley and up on the other side to
the entrance to the other part of the city. The fourth front of the
temple, that on the south, had gates in the middle; before this front were
the three royal colonnades, which reached from the valley on the east to
that on the west. These colonnades were especially remarkable for their
great height, which seemed more because the hill at their base dropped
abruptly into a very deep valley. There were four rows of pillars, placed
side by side. The fourth was built into the stone wall. Each pillar was
about twenty-seven feet high, with a double spiral at the base, and was so
thick that three men joining hands could just reach around it. The number
of the pillars was one hundred and sixty-two. The columns had Corinthian
capitals, which aroused great admiration in those who saw them because of
their beauty. These four rows of pillars made three parallel spaces for
walking. Two of these parallel walks were thirty feet wide, six hundred
and six feet in length, and fifty feet in height, while the middle walk
was half as wide again and twice as high. The roofs were adorned with
deep sculptures in wood, representing many different things; the middle
was much higher than the rest, and the front wall, which was of polished
stone, was adorned with beams set into the stone on pillars.
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:5h, i]
The second enclosure, which was reached by ascending a few steps, was not
very far within the first. This inner enclosure had a stone wall for a
partition. Upon this wall it was forbidden any foreigner to enter under
penalty of death. This inner enclosure had on its northern and southern
sides three gates at intervals from each other. On the east, however,
there was one large gate, through which those of us who were ceremonially
pure could enter with our wives. Within this enclosure was another
forbidden to women. Still further in there was a third court, into which
only the priest could go. Within this court was the temple itself; before
that was the altar, upon which we offer sacrifices and burnt-offerings to
[Sidenote: Jos. Ant. XV, 11:5k, 6]
Herod himself took charge of the work upon the colonnades and outer
enclosures; these he built in eight years. But the temple itself was
built by the priest in a year and five months. Thereupon all the people
were filled with joy and returned thanks, in the first place to God for
the speed with which it was finished, and in the second place for the
zeal which the king had shown. They feasted and celebrated this rebuilding
of the temple; the king sacrificed three hundred oxen to God, as did the
others, each according to his ability. The time of this celebration of the
work about the temple also fell upon the day of the king's inauguration,
which the people customarily observed as a festival. The coincidence of
these anniversaries made the festival most notable.
I. Herod's Motives. It is not difficult to appreciate the reasons which
influenced Herod to begin the rebuilding of the temple. Chief among these
was doubtless the desire to win still further the approval of his master
Augustus. It is also a characteristic of a man of Herod's type to seek to
gain popular approval by the munificence of his public gifts. Throughout
his reign he was painfully aware of the suspicions of his Jewish subjects.
He trusted, and the event proved the wisdom of his judgment, that he might
conciliate them by giving them that about which their interest most
naturally gathered. The methods which he employed in building the temple
clearly indicate that this was one of his leading motives. He also
gratified that love of construction which had found expression in many of
the cities of Palestine and the eastern Mediterranean. He desired to rear
a great memorial for himself, and in this hope he was not disappointed,
for later generations continued to think of him with gratitude because of
the temple which bore his name.
II. Preparations for the Rebuilding of the Temple. Herod's temple was
begun in 20 or 19 B.C. and was not entirely completed until a few years
before its destruction in 70 A.D. The task in itself was a difficult one,
for on the north the city prevented the extension of the temple area, and
on the south the hill rapidly descended toward the juncture of the
Tyropoean and Kidron valleys. Herod met the difficulty by filling in to
the south with vast stone constructions which rose to the height of
seventy to ninety feet above the virgin rock. To economize building
materials he built the huge underground vaults and arches known to-day
as Solomon's Stables. Thus with a vast expense of labor and wealth he
extended the temple area to the south until it was double that which
surrounded Solomon's temple. It was also important to regard in every
detail the ceremonial scruples of the Jews. To this end a small army of
priests were trained as masons and carpenters in order to do the work in
the immediate proximity of the temple. To bring the ancient temple into
proportions with the rest of his buildings, a huge porch or facade was
reared in front of it on the east, rising, according to Josephus, to the
height of one hundred and twenty feet. For the roof that covered the
porches he apparently brought cedar from the distant Lebanons. Only with
all the resources of the kingdom at his command was it possible to carry
through this vast enterprise.
III. The Approaches to the Temple. The entire temple area was
rectangular in form, about twelve hundred feet in length and six hundred
feet wide. Its chief approaches were on the south and west. A small gate
through which sacrificial animals were introduced immediately into the
temple precincts opened from the north. The one gate on the east, which
opened into the Kidron Valley, was apparently opposite the eastern
entrance to the temple. The two gates on the south opened toward the City
of David. The one was a double gate with an incline leading into the
temple area, and the other farther to the east was a triple gate. The main
approaches were from the west. The southern of these was a low viaduct
spanning the Kidron Valley and thence by steps or inclined approach
ascending to the temple area. Remnants of the arches that spanned the
valley at this point and a little farther north are still traceable on the
present walls of the temple area far down in the Tyropoean Valley. The
third approach farther to the north was probably also a viaduct leading
directly into the temple area, while the extreme northern approach,
according to Josephus, led from the palace of Herod directly to the
temple. The entire temple area was encircled by a colonnade. One row of
pillars was built into the high wall that surrounded the area. On the
south was found the royal porch with its four rows of columns, the first
and second about thirty feet apart, the second and third forty-five, and
the third and fourth thirty. The pillars on the sides were about
twenty-seven feet in height, while the two rows in the middle were double
this height. Each of these colonnades was covered with a richly ornamented
cedar roof, thus affording grateful shelter from the sun and storm. The
great space at the south of the temple area was the Court of the Gentiles,
the common park of the city where all classes of its population freely
gathered. The colonnade on the east of the temple area bore the name of
Solomon's Porch, and from it the steps led up to the raised platform of
native rock twenty or more feet above the Court of the Gentiles. Somewhere
to the east of the temple was found the famous Beautiful Gate. The series
of steps led into the so-called Court of the Women. West of this was the
Court of the Israelites, to which only men were admitted. Thence a broad,
high door led to the open space before the temple. Surrounding the altar
and cutting off approach to the temple proper was a stone balustrade.
The space within this was known as the Court of the Priests. Here no
laymen were admitted except as the ritual of private sacrifice required.
These inner courts were surrounded by a high wall and adjoining chambers
for the storing of the paraphernalia used in connection with the
sacrifice and for the residence of the priests. On the southern side of
the temple was the room where the national council, the sanhedrin, held
its public meetings. Four gates on the north and four gates on the
south led from the temple court to the lower Court of the Gentiles.
IV. The Organization of the Temple Service. At the head of the temple
organization was the high priest. Since the deposition of the ill-fated
Hyrcanus the high priests had been appointed by Herod, for to them was
intrusted large civil as well as religious authority. The one duty which
the high priests could not neglect, unless prevented by illness, was to
perform the sacrifice in behalf of the people and to enter the Holy of
Holies on the day of atonement. Frequently he also offered the sacrifice
or presided at the special services on the sabbath, the new moons, or at
the great annual festivals. Otherwise the temple duties were performed by
the army of priests and assistants who were associated with the temple.
According to Josephus there were twenty thousand priests. They were
divided into twenty-four courses. Each course included certain priestly
families to which were intrusted for a week the performing of the
sacrifices. Corresponding to the twenty-four courses of the priests were
the courses of the people, who were represented by certain of their number
at each of the important services. The priests not only performed the
sacrifices but also guarded the temple treasures and the private wealth
placed in their keeping. The Levites attended to the more menial duties in
connection with the temple service. They aided the priests in preparing
the sacrifices and in caring for the utensils that were used in connection
with the sacrifice. Some of them were doorkeepers. Probably from the
Levites were drafted the temple police at whose head was the captain of
the temple. Their task was to preserve order and to prevent Gentiles from
entering the sacred precincts of the temple. The singers constituted a
third group of Levites.
Two public services were held each day, the first, at sunrise, consisted
in the offering of a sacrificial ram with the accompaniment of prayer
and song. The same rites were repeated at sunset. After the morning
sacrifice the private offerings were presented. On the sabbaths, new
moons, and great festivals, the number of sacrifices was greatly increased
and the ritual made more elaborate. Upon the Jews, instructed in the
synagogue in the details of the law and taught to regard the temple and
its services with deepest reverence, the elaborate ceremonies of this
great and magnificent sanctuary must have made a profound impression.
As the people streamed up to Jerusalem by thousands at the great feasts,
their attention was fixed more and more upon the ritual and the truths
which it symbolized. Herod's temple also strengthened the authority of the
Jewish hierarchy with the people, and gave the scribes and Pharisees the
commanding position which they later occupied in the life and thought of
Section CXX. THE MESSIANIC HOPES AND THE RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF JUDAISM
[Sidenote: Sibyl. Oracles, III 767-784]
Then a kingdom over all mankind for all times shall God raise up, who once
gave the holy law to the pious, for whom he pledged to open every land,
the world and the portals of the blessed, and all joys, and an eternal,
immortal spirit and a joyous heart. And out of every land they shall bring
frankincense and gifts to the house of the great God. And to men there
shall be no other house where men may learn of the world to be than that
which God hath given for faithful men to honor; for mortals shall call it
the temple of the mighty God. And all pathways of the plain and rough
hills and high mountains and wild waves of the deep shall be easy in those
days for crossing and sailing; for perfect peace for the good shall come
on earth. And the prophets of the mighty God shall remove the sword; for
they are the rulers of mortals and the righteous kings. And there shall be
righteous wealth among mankind; for this is the judgment and rule of the
[Sidenote: Ps. Sol. 7:23-35a]
Behold, O Lord, and raise up to them their king, the son of David, in the
time which thou, O God, knowest, that he may reign over Israel thy
servant; and gird him with strength that he may break in pieces those who
rule unjustly. Purge Jerusalem with wisdom and with righteousness, from
the heathen who trample her down to destroy her. He shall thrust out the
sinners from the inheritance, utterly destroy the proud spirit of the
sinners, and as potters' vessels he shall break in pieces with a rod of
iron all their substance. He shall destroy the ungodly nations with the
word of his mouth, so that at his rebuke the nations will flee before him,
and he shall convict the sinners in the thoughts of their hearts. And he
shall gather together a holy people, whom he shall lead in righteousness;
and shall judge the tribes of the people that has been sanctified by the
Lord his God. And he shall not suffer iniquity to lodge in their midst;
and none that knoweth wickedness shall dwell with them. For he shall take
knowledge of them, that they are all the sons of their God, and shall
divide them upon earth according to their tribes, and the sojourner and
the stranger shall dwell with them no more. He shall judge the nations and
the peoples with the wisdom of his righteousness. And he shall possess the
nations of the heathen to serve him beneath his yoke; and he shall glorify
the Lord in a place to be seen by the whole earth; and he shall purge
Jerusalem and make it holy, even as it was in the days of old.
[Sidenote: Ps. Sol. 7:35b-46]
And a righteous king and taught of God is he who reigneth over them; and
there shall be no iniquity in his days in their midst, for all shall be
holy and their king is the Lord Messiah. For he shall not put his trust in
horse and rider and bow, nor shall he multiply unto himself gold and
silver for war, nor by ships shall he gather confidence for the day of
battle. The Lord himself is his King, and the hope of him who is strong in
the hope of God. And he shall have mercy upon all the nations that come
before him in fear. For he shall smite the earth with the word of his
mouth, even for evermore. He shall bless the people of the Lord with
wisdom and gladness. He himself also is pure from sin, so that he may rule
a mighty people, and rebuke princes and overthrow sinners by the might of
his word. And he shall not faint all his days, because he leaneth
upon his God; for God shall cause him to be mighty through the spirit
of holiness, and wise through the counsel of understanding, with might and
righteousness. And the blessing of the Lord is with him in might, and his
hope in the Lord shall not faint. And who can stand up against him; he is
mighty in his works and strong in the fear of God, tending the flock of
the Lord with faith and righteousness. And he shall allow none of them to
faint in their pasture. In holiness shall he lead them all, and there
shall be no pride among them that any should be oppressed.
[Sidenote: Enoch 46:1-3]
And there I saw One who had a head of days, and his head was white like
wool, and with him was another being whose countenance had the appearance
of a man, and his face was full of graciousness, like one of the holy
angels. And I asked the angel who went with me and showed me all the
hidden things, concerning that Son of Man, who he was, and whence he was,
and why he went with the Head of Days? And he answered and said to me,
"This is the Son of Man who hath righteousness, with whom dwelleth
righteousness, and who reveals all the treasures of that which is hidden,
because the Lord of Spirits hath chosen him, and his lot before the Lord
of Spirits hath surpassed everything in uprightness for ever."
[Sidenote: Enoch 48:3-6]
Before the sun and the signs were created, before the stars of the heaven
were made, his name was named before the Lord of Spirits. He will be a
staff to the righteous on which they will support themselves and not fall,
and he will be the light of the Gentiles, and the hope of those whose
hearts are troubled. All who dwell on earth will fall down and bow the
knee before him and will bless and laud and magnify with song the Lord of
Spirits. And for this reason hath he been chosen and hidden before him
before the creation of the world and for evermore.
[Sidenote: Enoch 49:27-29]
And he sat on the throne of his glory, and the sum of judgment was
committed to him, and the Son of Man caused the sinners and those who have
led the world astray to pass away and be destroyed from off the face of
the earth. With chains they shall be bound, and in their assembling-place
of destruction shall they be imprisoned, and all their works will vanish
from the face of the earth. And henceforth there will be nothing that is
corruptible; for the Son of Man hath appeared and sitteth on the throne of
his glory, and all evil will pass away before his face and depart; but the
word of the Son of Man will be strong before the Lord of Spirits.
[Sidenote: Enoch 51:1, 2]
And in those days will the earth also give back those who are treasured up
within it, and Sheol also will give back that which it has received, and
hell will give back that which it owes. And he will choose the righteous
and holy from among them; for the day of their redemption is at hand.
I. The Growth of Israel's Messianic Hopes. Eternal hopefulness is a
marked characteristic of the Hebrew race. Throughout most of their history
the greater the calamities that overtook them the greater was their
assurance that these were but the prelude to a glorious vindication and
deliverance. This hopefulness was not merely the result of their natural
optimism, but of the belief, formed by their experiences in many a
national crisis, that a God of justice was overruling the events of
history, and that he was working not for man's destruction but for his
highest happiness and well-being. It was their insight into the divine
purpose that led the Hebrew prophets to break away from the popular
traditions that projected backward to the beginnings of history the
realization of man's fondest hopes. Instead they proclaimed that the
golden era lay in the future rather than the past. The hopes of Israel's
prophets regarding that future took many different forms. Often the form
was determined by the earlier experiences of the nation. At many periods
the people looked for a revival of the glories of the days of David. In
later days, when they were oppressed by cruel persecutions, they revived
in modified form the dreams that had been current in the childhood of the
Semitic race, and thought of a supernatural kingdom that was to be
inaugurated after Jehovah and his attendant angels, like Marduk in the old
Babylonian tradition of the creation, had overcome Satan and the fallen
angels. Israel's messianic hopes were also shaped and broadened by the
teachings of the great ethical prophets. A growing realization of the
imperfections of the existing order led them to look ever more expectantly
to the time when the prophetic ideals of justice and mercy would be
realized in society, as well as in the character of the individual. These
different expectations regarding the future are broadly designated as
messianic prophecies. The word "messianic," like its counterpart "Messiah"
(Greek, "Christ"), comes from the Hebrew word meaning to smear or to
anoint. It designated in ancient times the weapons consecrated for battle
or the king chosen and thus symbolically set aside to lead the people as
Jehovah's representative, or a priest called to represent the people in
the ceremonial worship. The common underlying idea in the word is that of
consecration to a divine purpose. In its narrower application it describes
simply the agent who is to realize God's purpose in history, but in its
broader and prevailing usage it designates all prophecies that described
the ideal which Jehovah is seeking to perfect in the life of Israel and of
humanity, and the agents or agencies, whether individual or national,
material or spiritual, natural or supernatural, by which he is to realize
II. The Kingly, Nationalistic Type of Messianic Hope. The messianic
prophecies of the Old Testament seem only confusing and contradictory
until the three distinct types are recognized. These different types of
messianic prophecy naturally shade into each other, and yet they are
fundamentally distinct and were represented throughout Israel's history by
different classes of thinkers. The first is the kingly, nationalistic type
of hope. It came into existence as soon as Israel became a nation, and may
be traced in the Balaam oracles in Numbers 24:17-19, where the seer is
represented as beholding Israel's victorious king smiting its foes, the
Moabites and Edomites, and ruling gloriously over a triumphant people. It
is echoed in II Samuel 7:10-16 in the promise that the house of David
should rule peacefully and uninterruptedly through succeeding generations.
Ezekiel, in his picture of the restored nation in 37:21-28, declares in
the name of Jehovah that "my servant David shall be king over them and
they shall dwell in the land that I have given to my servant Jacob wherein
their fathers dwelt, and they shall dwell therein, they and their sons
forever, and David my servant shall be their prince forever." In such
passages as Isaiah 9 and 11 the Davidic ruler is represented as reigning
not despotically or selfishly, but in accordance with the principles of
justice and mercy, bringing peace to all his subjects. As has already been
noted, in the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah and in connection with
the rebuilding of the second temple Israel's kingly, nationalistic hope
reached its culmination, but through the victories of Darius was rudely
cast to the ground (Section XCV:vi). For the next three centuries and a
half, throughout the Persian and Greek periods, this type of Israel's
messianic hope was apparently silenced. The Maccabean struggles and
victories, however, and the oppressive rule of Rome stirred this
smouldering hope into a flame and gave it wide currency among the people
at the beginning of the Christian era. Again the nation came to the
forefront. In the beautiful prophecy of Zechariah 9:9, 10, which
apparently comes from the earlier part of the Maccabean era, is found the
noble picture of a peasant king, humble yet victorious, establishing with
the sword a world-wide kingdom. Memories of the glorious achievements of
the Maccabean leaders kindled the popular imagination. When in 63 B.C.
Rome's iron hand closed upon Palestine, the eyes of the Jews looked
expectantly for the advent of a champion like David of old, who would
crush the heathen, convict the sinful Jews, and gather the faithful
people, ruling over them in justice and with tender care. These hopes are
most plainly expressed in the Psalms of Solomon, which were written near
the beginning of the Roman period. These expectations in their more
material form inspired the party of the Zelots during the earlier part of
the first Christian century repeatedly to unsheathe the sword in the vain
effort to overthrow Rome and to establish at once the rule of the Messiah.
It was because this type of hope was so strong in the minds of the common
people that the false messiahs who rose from time to time were able
quickly to gather thousands about them in the vain expectation that the
moment of deliverance had at last arrived.
III. The Apocalyptic, Catastrophic Type of Messianic Hope. Another class
of thinkers in Israel looked not for a temporal but for a supernatural
kingdom. It is usually described in the symbolic language of the
apocalypse. The inauguration of this kingdom was not dependent upon man's
activity but solely upon the will of God. The exact time and manner of its
institution was clothed in mystery. Traces of this belief are found in
the references in Amos to the popular expectations regarding the day of
Jehovah. Evidently the Northern Israelites lived in anticipation of a
great universal judgment day, in which their heathen foes would be
suddenly destroyed and they themselves would be exalted. It was a belief
which Amos and the ethical prophets who followed him strongly combated,
for they were fully aware of the fundamental weakness in the apocalyptic
or catastrophic type of prophecy: it took away from the nation and
individual all personal responsibility. Furthermore, its roots went back
to the old Semitic mythology. This type of hope, however, was too firmly
fixed in the popular mind to be dispelled even by the preaching of
Israel's greatest prophets. As a result of the calamities that gathered
about the fall of the Hebrew state it was revived. It is found in Ezekiel,
Zechariah, and Joel. Each of these prophets looked forward to the time
when Jehovah would miraculously overthrow their heathen foes, restore his
scattered people, and establish for them a world-wide, eternal kingdom. In
the closing chapters of the book of Daniel this form of belief attains its
fullest expression in the Old Testament. In the Similitudes of Enoch
(37-71), which come either from the latter part of the Maccabean era or
else from the days of Herod, these messianic hopes are still further
developed. Instead of Israel's guardian angel Michael, represented as
coming on the clouds from heaven and in appearance like a son of man, a
heavenly Messiah is introduced. He is known by the title of the Messiah,
the Elect One, and the Son of Man (probably taken from the book of
Daniel). In Enoch the term Son of Man has evidently become, as in IV
Esdras, the title of a personal Messiah. He is described as pre-existent
and gifted with the divine authority. When he appears, the dead are to
rise, and angels, as well as men, are to be tried before his tribunal. The
sinners and the fallen angels he will condemn to eternal punishment. All
sin and wrong shall be driven from the earth. Heaven and earth shall be
transformed, and an eternal kingdom shall be established in which all the
righteous, whether dead or living, shall participate. This was evidently
the type of messianic hope held by the Pharisees as well as the Essenes.
As the result of the teaching of the Pharisees it was held widely by the
Jews of the first Christian century. It was clearly in the minds of Jesus'
disciples when he made his last journey to Jerusalem. It was both the
background and the barrier to all his work. It is the key to the
interpretation of Paul's conception of the Christ, or the Messiah, for he
had been educated a Pharisee. This apocalyptic type of messianic hope
powerfully influenced the life and thought of the early Christian Church
and even permeated the Gospel narratives. The question of how far Jesus
himself was influenced by it is one of the most vital and difficult
problems of early Christian history.
IV. The Ethical and Universalistic Type of Messianic Prophecy.
Far removed from the kingly, messianic hopes of the people and the
supernatural visions of the apocalypses were the plain, direct, practical
ideals of Israel's great ethical prophets. Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and
Jeremiah all united in declaring that the realization of Jehovah's purpose
in history depended primarily upon the response of his people. They
regarded the kingdom of God as a natural growth. It represented the
gradual transformation of the characters of men under the influence
of God's truth and spirit working in their minds. They hoped and labored
to see the nation Israel living in full accord with the demands of
justice, mercy, and service. The II Isaiah, under the influences which
grew out of the destruction of the temple and the closer contact with the
heathen world, voiced this type of messianic hope in its broadest and
most spiritualized form. He declared that the Israelites had been called
and trained for a unique service and that that service was to be performed
by them quietly and unostentatiously, as prophets and teachers of men. He
also presented most clearly Israel's missionary ideal, and showed that its
task was not to destroy but to bring light to the Gentile world. He and
the more enlightened prophets who followed him saw an ever-widening
kingdom established without the aid of the sword and freed from all racial
barriers--the eternal, universal, spiritual kingdom of God on earth. It is
evident that in contrast to the other types of messianic prophecy this
form was comprehensible, practicable, and alone capable of realization.
V. The Messianic Hopes of Judaism at the Beginning of the Christian Era.
Unfortunately, as a result of the varied experiences through which Judaism
passed in the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era, its
ethical and universal messianic hopes were largely eclipsed. The ideal of
the suffering servant appears to have been almost forgotten. As the later
Jews read the earlier scriptures of their race in order to determine what
the future held in store for them, they fixed their eyes upon the
kingly and apocalyptic prophecies. Regarding all scriptures as equally
authoritative, they attempted the impossible task of blending these
fundamentally different types of prophecy. The result was that their
beliefs became, indeed, a complex labyrinth with paths leading in opposite
directions. Later events have proved beyond question that these popular
types were the dreams of religious enthusiasts rather than true pictures
of the way in which the divine purpose was to be perfected in human
history, and yet the apocalyptic type of prophecy was not without its
significance. It tended to correct the narrow national hopes of the Jews
and to lift them to the consideration of that which was spiritual and
eternal. It also led them to appreciate the unity of all history, and in
times of distress it kept alive their faith in a God who was wisely
guiding their destinies. Underlying all these different types of prophecy
is the appreciation of the broad truth that God was working out in the
lives of men and nations a definite purpose, and that that purpose was
good, and that the God back of all history was a God not only of power but
also of love. It was inevitable that the ethical and more spiritual
expectations of the early Hebrew prophets should find the fullest response
in the heart and life of the Great Teacher. In the face of opposition from
the leaders of his race, from the multitudes that gathered about him, and
even from the disciples who loved and followed him, he proclaimed that the
kingdom of God would not come by observation, but that its growth would be
natural and gradual like that of the mustard seed, that it was not
external but within the hearts of men, that membership in that kingdom
depended not upon the arbitrary will of God, but upon men's acting in
accord with that will in the every-day relations of life. Thus Jesus
prepared the way for the complete fulfillment of all that was noblest and
best in Israel's messianic hopes, and in his character and teachings far
surpassed the highest expectations of the inspired teachers of his race.
A PRACTICAL REFERENCE LIBRARY
Books for Constant Reference. The complete text of the biblical writings
of the post-exilic period are found in Volumes II to VI of the _Student's
Old Testament_. A careful, thorough resume of the history is contained in
Riggs's _History of the Jewish People during the Maccabean and Roman
Periods_. Professor Bevan, in his _Jerusalem Under the High Priests_,
presents, especially from the ecclesiastical point of view, a fresh
survey of the history during the Greek and Maccabean periods. The
geographical background may be studied either in George Adam Smith's
_Historical Geography of the Holy Land_ or in Kent's _Biblical Geography
Additional Books of Reference: Introductions and Commentaries. In
addition to the standard Old Testament introductions by McFadyen, Cornill,
and Driver, the collection of monographs in Professor Torrey's _Ezra
Studies_ will be found especially valuable. The introduction, as well as
the critical notes, in the brief yet scholarly volumes of the _New Century
Bible_ are exceedingly useful for the general reader. More fundamental are
the volumes in the _International Critical Commentary._ The introductions
to the different books in Hastings' _Dictionary of the Bible_ and the
_Encyclopedia Biblica_ are clear, concise, and written from the modern
point of view.
Jewish and Contemporary History. The thorough student of this period
will find a wealth of suggestive material in Smith's _Old Testament
History_ and in Schuerer's monumental work, _A History of the Jewish People
in the Time of Jesus Christ_. The later development of Israel's religion
is presented in Marti's _Religion of the Old Testament_, in the first part
of Toy's _Judaism and Christianity_, in Bousset's _Judaism_, and in
Charles's _Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish and Christian_. An excellent survey
of the contemporary history of the period is to be found in the _History
of the Ancient World_ by Goodspeed or in Meyer's _Ancient History._ A more
detailed treatment of the contemporary history will be found in the
_History of Greece_ by Curtius or by Holm. The _History of Rome_ is fully
traced in the monumental works of Mommsen or Gibbon or the more recent
study in _The Greatness and Decline of Rome_ by Ferrero. Briefer but
equally reliable histories of Rome are those by Botsford, Horton, and
GENERAL QUESTIONS AND SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH
The General Questions, as in the preceding volumes, follow the main
divisions of the book, and are intended to guide the student in
collecting and co-ordinating the more important facts presented in the
biblical text or in the notes.
The Subjects for Special Research are intended to guide the reader to
further study in related lines, and, by means of detailed references, to
introduce him to the most helpful passages in the best English books of
reference. In class-room work many of these topics may be profitably
assigned for personal research and report. The references are to pages,
unless otherwise indicated. Ordinarily, several parallel references are
given that the student may be able to utilize the book at hand. More
detailed classified bibliographies will be found in the appendices of
Volumes II-VI of the author's _Student's Old Testament_.
THE EXILE AND REVIVAL OF THE JUDEAN COMMUNITY
Section XCI. The Jews in Palestine and Egypt. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. What did the final destruction of Jerusalem in 586 mean to the
Jewish people? 2. Describe the structure and contents of the book of
Lamentations. 3. Its probable authorship and date. 4. Its theme and
historical value. 5. The condition of the Jews who were left in Palestine.
6. The numbers of the Jews in Egypt. 7. The life of the Jewish colony at
Elephantine. 8. The character and service of the
temple of Jahu.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The literary history of the book of
Lamentations. McFadyen, _Introd._, 294-7; Driver, _Lit. of the O.T._,
456-65. 2. History of Egypt from 600 to 560 B.C. Breasted, _Hist, of the
Ancient Egyptians_, 404-18. 3. The discoveries at Elephantine. Sayce and
Cowley, _Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan_; Sachau, _Drei aramaeische
Papyrururkunden aus Elephantine_.
Section XCII. Ezekiel's Message to His Scattered Countrymen. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the situation of the Jewish colony in Babylon.
2. Their opportunities and occupations. 3. Their religious life. 4. The
prophecies of Ezekiel after the destruction of Jerusalem. 5. Meaning of
his description of the valley of dry bones in chapter 37. 6. His
conception of the way in which the scattered exiles were to be restored.
7. His plan of the restored temple. 8. The meaning and significance of
this detailed plan.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Babylon under Nebuchadrezzar.
Goodspeed, _Hist. of Babs. and Assyrs_., 336-50; _En. Bib_., III,
3369-71. 2. The religious institutions of the Babylonians. Goodspeed,
_Hist. of Babs. and Assyrs._, 351-66; Jastrow, _Relig. of Bab. and
Assyr._; Johns, _Bab. and Assyr. Laws, Letters, and Contracts_, 208-17.
3. Influence of Babylonian institutions upon Ezekiel. Toy, _Ezek._
Section XCIII. The Closing Years of the Babylonian Rule. GENERAL
QUESTIONS. 1. Describe the different influences that transformed the Jews
into a literary people. 2. The nature of their literary activity.
3. The Old Testament books that were written or re-edited during this
period. 4. The general character of the Holiness Code. 5. The national
hopes inspired by the liberation of Jehoiachin. 6. The character of
Nabonidus. 7. The effects of his rule. 8. The early conquests of Cyrus.
9. His capture of Babylon. 10. His policy toward conquered peoples.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contents and history of the Holiness
Code. _St. O.T._, IV, 36-42; McFadyen, _Introd. to O.T._, 31-4. 2. The
last decade of Babylonian history. Goodspeed, _Hist. of Babs. and
Assyrs._, 367-76; Kent, _Hist. J.P._, 66-77. 3. Character and reign
of Cyrus. Herodotus, I, 95, 108-30, 177-214; Hastings, _D.B._, I,
541-2; Rawlinson, _Anc. Monarchies_, IV, VII; Duncker, _Hist. of
Section XCIV. The Rebuilding of the Temple. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
Describe the contents and literary history of the books of Ezra and
Nehemiah. 2. Their authorship. 3. The Chronicler's peculiar ideas
regarding the restoration. 4. Revolutions in the Persian Empire that
aroused the Jews to action. 5. Haggai's appeal to the Judean community.
6. Measures taken to stop the rebuilding of the temple. 7. Meaning of the
rebuilding of the temple to the Jewish race.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The historical value of Ezra
and Nehemiah. Torrey, _Composition and Historical Value of Ezra and
Nehemiah,_ or _Ezra Studies_, 62-251. 2. The first two decades of Persian
history. Goodspeed, _Hist. of Ancient World_, 60-2; Ragozin, _The Story
of Media_, II; Meyer, _Anc. Hist_., 88-93. 3. Evidence that there was
no general return of the Jews in 536 B.C. Kent, _Hist. J.P._, 126-36;
Torrey, _Ezra Studies_, 297-307.
Section XCV. Zechariah's Visions and Encouraging Addresses. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the evidence that Zechariah wrote from the point
of view of a priest. 2. The structure and contents of his book. 3. The
problems of the Judean community. 4. Their hopes of a national revival.
5. Zechariah's assurances. 6. The steps that were taken to make Zerubbabel
king. 7. Evidence that the popular kingly hopes were disappointed.
8. The content of Zechariah's later sermons. 9. The hopes which he
inspired in his fellow-countrymen.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Origin of the apocalyptic type of
prophecy. _Jewish Encyc._, I, 669-73; _St. O.T._, Ill, 42-3; Hastings,
_D. B., I_, 109-10. 2. The popular messianic hopes of the period. _St.
O.T._, III, 44-5, 472-86. 3. The establishment of Darius' authority.
Herodotus, II, 67-86; Ragozin, _Media_, XIII; Hastings, _D. B._, I, 558.
Section XCVI. Israel's Training and Destiny. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the conditions in the Judean community during the seventy
years following the rebuilding of the temple. 2. The forces that kept
alive the spiritual life of the Jews. 3. The indications that Isaiah 40-66
were written in Palestine. 4. The probable date of these chapters.
5. Their distinctive literary characteristics. 6. The purpose for which
they were written.
SUBJECTS FOE SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The organization of the Persian
Empire under Darius. Goodspeed, _Hist, of Anc. World_, 62-3; Ragozin,
_Media_, 384-91; Sayce, _Anc. Empires_, 247-50; _En. Bib_., I, 1016-7.
2. The Persian invasions of Europe. Goodspeed, _Anc. Hist._, 122-8;
Herodotus, IV, 1-142; Ragozin, _Media_, 412-29; Bury, _Hist. of Greece_,
265-96; Botsford, _Hist. of Greece_, 127-36. 3. Contents and literary
characteristics of Isaiah 40-48. _St. O. T_., Ill, 27-30; Cobb, in
_Jour, of Bib. Lit_., XXVII, 48-64; Box, _Isaiah_, 179-237.
Section XCVII. Conditions and Problems in the Jewish Community.
GENERAL QUESTIONS: I. What is the probable date of the book of
Malachi? 2. Describe its teachings regarding the temple service.
3. The need of a great moral awakening. 4. The doubts expressed by the
faithful in the community. 5. The encouraging promises held out to them.
6. Presentation of the problem of the faithful in the psalms of the
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contemporary Greek history and
literature. Goodspeed, _Anc. Hist._, 159-96; Bury, _Hist. of Greece_,
507-90; Jebb, _Greek Lit._, 109-20. 2. The earliest psalms. Briggs,
_Psalms_, I, LXXXIX-XCII; Cobb, _Bk. of Pss._, XI-XIV; Driver, _Lit.
of the O.T._, 371-2; McFadyen, _Introd. to O.T._, 238-50. 3. Psalm
literature among contemporary peoples. Breasted, _Hist. of Anc.
Egyptians_, 273-7; Jastrow, _Relig. of Bab. and Assyr._, 294-327.
Section XCVIII. The Problems and Teachings of the Book of Job.
GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the structure of the book of Job.
2. The different literary units which have entered into it. 3. The
probable dates of these different sections. 4. Contents of the original
prose story. 5. The theme and contents of the great poem in 3-31,
38:1-42:6. 6. The different lines of progress in Job's thought. 7. The
meaning of the speeches of Jehovah. 8. The contribution of the book to the
solution of the problem of evil.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The Babylonian prototype of Job.
Jastrow, in _Jour. of Bib. Lit._, XXV, Pt. II, 135-91. 2. Comparison of
Job with other great skeptical dramas. Owen, _The Five Great Skeptical
Dramas of History_. 3. The modern explanations of the problem of evil.
Royce, _Studies of Good and Evil_.
Section XCIX. The Training and Mission of the True Servant of Jehovah.
GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the different characteristics of
Jehovah's servant in Isaiah 49-53. 2. What was the prophet's purpose in
presenting this vivid portrait of Jehovah's ideal servant? 3. Describe the
class to whom the prophet appealed. 4. His interpretation of the task of
the servant. 5. His training. 6. The different methods whereby he was to
accomplish his mission. 7. Did the prophet have in mind an individual, a
class, or simply an ideal character? 8. In what ways were his predictions
fulfilled? 9. In what sense is his ideal of service of present-day
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The meaning and history of the
different messianic titles. _St. O.T._, III, 39, 47; _En. Bib._, III,
3057-61. 2. Contents and unity of Isaiah 49-55. _St. O.T._, III, 28-30;
Box, _Isaiah_, 238-83. 3. How far was Jesus influenced by the ideal of the
Section C. Nehemiah's Work in Rebuilding the Walls of Jerusalem.
GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. What is the historical value of Nehemiah's
memoirs? 2. In what way was he informed of conditions in Jerusalem?
3. How did he secure permission to go to Jerusalem? 4. Describe the
obstacles that there confronted him. 5. His plan of work. 6. His
diplomacy in dealing with his opponents. 7. The task of rebuilding
the walls. 8. Their dedication. 9. The significance of the rebuilding
of the walls.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contemporary events in Greek history.
Goodspeed, _Anc. Hist._, 141-72; Bury, _Hist, of Greece_, 336-75;
Botsford, _Hist, of Greece_, 151-85. 2. The topography of Jerusalem.
Kent, _Sib. Geog. and Hist._, 64-72; Smith, _Jerusalem_, I, I-249;
Hastings, _D.B._, II, 591-6. 3. Recent excavations at Jerusalem.
_Jerusalem Vol. of P. E. F. Memoirs_; Bliss and Dickey, _Excavations at
Jerusalem_; Smith, _Jerusalem_, I.
Section CI. Nehemiah's Social and Religious Reforms. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the cruel oppression of the leaders of the Jewish
community. 2. The effect upon the mass of the people. 3. The way in which
Nehemiah corrected these evils. 4. The evidence for and against the
historical accuracy of Nehemiah 13. 5. Nehemiah's measures to improve the
temple service. 6. His emphasis upon Sabbath observance. 7. His opposition
to foreign marriages. 8. The importance of his work as a whole.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: I. In what respects was Nehemiah a worthy
successor of the earlier Hebrew prophets? 2. The later Jewish laws
regarding the Sabbath. _St. O.T._, IV, 263-4. 3. Regarding marriage with
foreigners. _St. O.T._, IV, 54-5.
Section CII. Traditional Account of the Adoption of the Priestly Law.
GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the present literary form of the
tradition regarding Ezra. 2. Its probable history. 3. Its historical
value. 4. The facts underlying it. 5. Origin of the later priestly laws.
6. Their general purpose. 7. Their more important regulations. 8. Their
transforming influence upon the Jewish community.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The difficulties in accepting the
Ezra narrative as strictly historical. Torrey, _Ezra Studies_, 208-78;
Smith, _O.T. Hist._, 390-8. 2. History of the later priestly codes. _St.
O.T._, IV, 43-8. 3. Income and duties of the priests and Levites according
to the late priestly codes. _St. O.T._, IV, 187-92, 197-202.
Section CIII. The Jewish State during the Last Century of Persian Rule.
GENERAL QUESTIONS: I. Describe the indications that the Judean community
enjoyed unusual prosperity during the half-century following the work of
Nehemiah. 2. The effect of this prosperity upon the intellectual life of
the Jews. 3. The growth of the Psalter during this period. 4. The date of
the prophecy of Joel. 5. Its theme. 6. The hopes of the Jews at this time.
7. Nature of the rule of the high priests. 8. The evidence regarding the
date of the Samaritan schism. 9. Its causes. 10. Its effect upon Judaism.
SUBJECTS FOB SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. History of the Persian Empire between
400 and 332 B.C. Cox, _The Greeks and the Persians_. 2. Contemporary
events in Greek history. Goodspeed, _Hist. of Anc. World_, 173-204; Meyer,
_Anc. Hist._, 244-74. 3. The history of the Samaritans. _En. Bib._, IV,
4256-64; Montgomery, _The Samaritans_.
THE GREEK AND MACCABEAN AGE
Section CIV. The Jews under Their Greek Rulers. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the character of the Jewish historian, Josephus. 2. The extent
of his histories. 3. Their historical value. 4. Alexander's Asiatic
conquests. 5. His attitude toward the Jews. 6. The Jews in Alexandria.
7. The general character of the rule of the Ptolemies. 8. Their policy in
the treatment of the Jews. 9. Fortunes of the Jews of Palestine during the
first century of Greek rule. 10. The Seleucid kingdom with its capital at
Antioch. 11. The subjugation of Palestine by the Seleucids.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Josephus's rank as a historian.
Hastings, _D.B._, extra Vol., 461-73. 2. Alexander the Great. Mahaffy,
_The Story of Alexander's Empire_, 1-11; Hogarth, _Philip and Alexander
of Macedon_; Wheeler, _Alexander the Great_. 3. Character of the
Ptolemaic rulers. Bevan, _Jerusalem under the High Priests_, 21-30;
Mahaffy, _The Ptolemaic Dynasty_, Vol. IV of Petrie's _Hist. of Egypt_.
Section CV. The Wise and Their Teachings. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the literary structure of the book of Proverbs. 2. The
evidence that it is the work of many different wise men. 3. The probable
date of the different collections. 4. The references to the wise in the
pre-exilic literature. 5. The influence of the Babylonian exile upon their
activity. 6. The reasons why they attained their greatest prominence in
the Greek period. 7. The character of the wise. 8. Their aims. 9. Their
methods. 10. Their important social and moral teachings.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The book of Proverbs. McFadyen,
_Introd. to O.T._, 256-63; Driver, _L. O.T._, 392-407; Toy, _Proverbs_,
Introd. 2. The sages of Egypt and Greece. The Wisdom of Ptah-hotep, in
the _Wisdom of the East Series_; Symonds, _Studies of the Greek Poets_, I,
161-273; Jebb, _Classical Greek Poetry_. 3. The social teachings of the
book of Proverbs. _St. O. T_., VI, _in loco_; Kent, _The Wise Men of
Ancient Israel and Their Proverbs_, 100-14, 158-75; Root, _The Profit of
the Many_, 17-126.
Section CVI. The Different Currents of Thought in Judaism during the
Greek Period. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Why were there many different
currents of thought in Judaism during this period? 2. Describe the
character and aims of the ritualists. 3. Of the legalists. 4. Of those who
laid especial emphasis upon the teaching of the earlier prophets. 5. The
evidence regarding the date of the book of Jonah. 6. The meaning of the
story. 7. Its teaching. 8. The history of the book of Ecclesiastes. 9. Its
point of view. 10. Its philosophy of life.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The Chronicler's conception of the
origin of Israel's institutions. Curtis, _Chronicles_, Introd.; Torrey,
_Ezra Studies_, 208-38; _St. O. T_., II, 22-8. 2. Greek myths parallel to
the story of Jonah. _En. Bib_., II, 2568-9; Taylor, _Primitive Culture_,
I, 306. 3. A comparison of Koheleth's philosophy and teaching with those
of the author of Omar Khayyam.
Section CVII. The Teachings of Jesus the Son of Sirach. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the evidence regarding the date of Jesus the son
of Sirach. 2. The character of the man. 3. The history of his writings.
4. The nature of the Greek translation. 5. The recovery of the Hebrew
original. 6. Its picture of the Jewish life of the period. 7. Its
description of the wise men and scribes. 8. Its social teachings.
9. Its religious teachings.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The Hebrew fragments of Ben Sira.
Cowley and Neubauer, _The Original Heb. of a Portion of Ecclus._;
Schechter and Taylor, _The Wisdom of Ben-Sira;_ Hastings, _D.B._, IV,
546-9; _En. Bib._, II, 1166-9. 2. The character of Ben Sira as revealed
in his writings. Hastings, _D.B._, IV, 550; _En. Bib._, II, 1175-8; Bevan,
_Jerusalem under the High Priests_, 49-51. 3. A comparison of the moral
and social teachings of Ben Sira with those of the book of Proverbs.
Bevan, _Jerusalem under the High Priests_, 52-68.
Section CVIII. The Causes of the Maccabean Struggle. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the general character of I Maccabees. 2. Its
historical value. 3. II Maccabees. 4. The attractive and aggressive
qualities in the contemporary Hellenic culture. 5. Its superiority to
the teachings of Judaism. 6. The elements in which Judaism was superior.
7. The conquest of Hellenism in the ranks of Judaism. 8. The influence of
the apostate Jewish high priests. 9. The history and character of
Antiochus Epiphanes. 10. Reasons why he attempted to hellenize the Jews.
11. The measures which he adopted.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The characteristics of Greek religion.
Gulick, _Life of the Ancient Greeks_, 262-83; Dyer, _The Gods in Greece_;
Goodspeed, _Hist. of Anc. World_, 148-51; Hastings, _D.B._, extra Vol.,
109-56. 2. The historical value of II Maccabees. Hastings, _D.B._, III,
189-92; _En. Bib._, III, 2869-79. 2. Contemporary portraits of Antiochus
Epiphanes. _Livy_, XLI-XLV; _Polybius_, XXVI-XXXI; _Appian, Syr._, 45, 66;
_Justin_, XXIV, 3.
Section CIX. The Effect of Persecution on the Jews. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the uprising led by Mattathias. 2. The methods adopted by the
rebels. 3. The origin and political principles of the Hasideans or Pious.
4. The evidence regarding the date of the visions in Daniel 7-12. 5. Their
literary character. 6. Their meaning and aims. 7. The identification of
the four heathen kingdoms. 8. The message of hope presented in these
chapters. 9. Its effect upon the persecuted Jews.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The town of Modein. Kent, _Bib. Geog.
and Hist._, 210-2; Smith, _Hist. Geog. of Holy Land_, 212. 2. Contents and
literary history of the book of Daniel. McFadyen, _Introd. to O.T._,
316-31; Driver, _L. O.T._, 438-515; Hastings, _D.B._, I, 552-7.
Section CX. The Victories that Gave the Jews Religious Liberty. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the characteristics that fitted Judas to be a
great political leader. 2. The odds against which he and the Jews
contended. 3. The physical contour of western Palestine. 4. The defeat of
Apollonius. 5. Of the Syrian army under Seron. 6. The details of the
battle of Emmaus. 7. The significance of the victory at Bethsura. 8. The
restoration of the temple service. 9. The effect of the persecutions upon
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Greek military equipment and methods
of warfare. Gulick, _Life of the Anc. Greeks_, 188-205. 2. The western
headlands of Judah. Kent, _Bib. Geog. and Hist._, 40-2; Smith, _Hist.
Geog. of Holy Land_, 286-320. 3. Comparison of Judas with other great
military commanders. Conder, _Judas Maccabaeus_; Bevan, _Jer. under the
High Priests_, 97-9; Smith, _O.T. Hist._, 465.
Section CXI. The Long Contest for Political Independence. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the attitude of the heathen nations toward the
Jews. 2. The political problems that confronted them. 3. The Jewish
attitude toward the heathen reflected in the book of Esther. 4, Judas's
east-Jordan campaign. 5. Results of the battle of Beth-zacharias. 6. The
re-establishment of Syrian authority. 7. The victories over Nicanor.
8. The causes which resulted in the death of Judas. 9. Conditions in the
Syrian court which gave the Jews their great opportunity. 10. The
character and policy of Jonathan. 11. The honors and authority granted him
by the rival Syrian kings.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The history and value of the book of
Esther. Paton, _Esther_; Hastings, _D. B., I_, 773-6; _En. Bib._, II,
1400-5. 2. The Syrian history of the period. Bevan, _Jer. under the High
Priests_, 100-6; Smith, _O.T. Hist._, 465-9. 3. The scenes of Judas's
east-Jordan campaign. Kent, _Bib. Geog. and Hist._, 214-7.
Section CXII. Peace and Prosperity under Simon. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the political intrigues which resulted in the death of
Jonathan. 2. The character and rule of Simon. 3. His extension of the
Jewish territory. 4. The authority granted him by the Jews. 5. His
development of the temple service. 6. The causes that led to the
completion of the Psalter. 7. The religious life and faith reflected in
the later psalms.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Compare the characters of the three
brothers, Judas, Jonathan, and Simon. 2. The guilds of temple singers.
Hastings, _D.B._, IV, 92-3; Wellhausen, _The Book of Psalms_ (in _S.B.
O.T._), 217-9. 3. The evidence that many of the psalms come from the
Maccabean period. Hastings, _D.B._, IV, 152-3; Cheyne, _Origin of the
Section CXIII. The Rule of John Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the intrigue that resulted in the death of Simon.
2. The Syrian invasion under Antiochus Sidetes. 3. The character of John
Hyrcanus. 4. His military policy. 5. His conquests in the north and
south. 6. The reasons why he lost the support of the Pharisees. 7. The
significant events in the reign of Aristobulus.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contemporary conditions in the Syrian
kingdom. _En. Bib._, IV, 4356-60; Gardner, _The Seleucid Kings of Syria_.
2. The history of the Idumeans. Hastings, _D.B._, I, 644-6; _En. Bib._,
II, 1181-8; Buhl, _Edomites._ 3. Compare the policy of John Hyrcanus with
that of David.
Section CXIV. The Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: I. Describe the influences that gave rise to the party of
the Pharisees. 2. Of the Sadducees. 3. The characteristics and beliefs
of the Pharisees. 4. Of the Sadducees. 5. The political influence of
these parties. 6. The characteristics of the sect of the Essenes.
7. Their beliefs.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The party of the Pharisees. Hastings,
_D.B._, III, 821-8; _En. Bib._, IV, 4321-9. 2. The Sadducees. Hastings,
_D.B._, IV, 349-51; _En. Bib._, IV, 4234-40. 3. The points of contact
between Essenism and Christianity. Hastings, _D.B._, I, 767-72; _En.
Bib._, II, 1396-1400; Thomson, _Books which Influenced Our Lord_, 75-122;
Cheyne, _Origin of the Psalter_, 418-21, 446-9.
Section CXV. The Life and Faith of the Jews of the Dispersion. GENERAL
QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the life of the Jews in Antioch and Asia Minor.
2. The privileges granted them by the Syrian king. 3. The number of the
Jews in Egypt. 4. The privileges granted them by the Ptolemies. 5. The
founding of the Jewish temple at Leontopolis. 6. Its significance. 7. The
occasion of the translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Greek. 8. The
important apologetic Jewish writings. 9. The theme and date of the Wisdom
of Solomon. 10. Its important teachings. 11. Its reflections of Greek and
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Characteristics and value of the Greek
translation of the Old Testament. Hastings, _D.B._, IV, 864-6; Swete,
_Introd. to the Old Testament in Greek_; _En. Bib._, IV, 5016-22. 2. The
history and contents of the Wisdom of Solomon. Hastings, _D.B._, IV,
928-31; _En. Bib._, IV, 5336-49; Deane, _The Book of Wisdom_, 1-41; Gregg,
_The Wisd. of Sol._
Section CXVI. The Decline of the Maccabean Kingdom. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the character of Alexander Janneus. 2. His military policy.
3. His treatment of his subjects. 4. The extension of Jewish territory.
5. The effects of his rule. 6. Alexandra's policy. 7. The fatal mistakes
of the Pharisees. 8. The suicidal quarrels between her sons, Hyrcanus and
Aristobulus. 9. The intrigues of Antipater. 10. The appeal to Rome.
11. Pompey's intervention and capture of Jerusalem. 12. The causes of the
fall of the Maccabean kingdom. 13. The political effects of the Maccabean
struggle. 14. The impression which it made upon Israel's faith. 15. The
new spirit that it inspired in the Jews.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Rome's policy and campaigns in the
East. Goodspeed, _Hist. of Anc. World_, 311-9; Seignobos, _Hist. of Rom.
People_, 126-30. 2. Rome's earlier relation to the Jewish kingdom. 3. The
character and career of Pompey. Goodspeed, _Hist. of Anc. World_, 343-9;
Botsford, _Hist. of Rome_, 175-80, 183-9; Morey, _Outlines of Roman
Hist._, ch. 20.
THE RULE OF ROME
Section CXVII. The Rise of the Herodian House. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the repeated rebellions against Rome that were instigated and
led by Aristobulus and his sons. 2. The reasons why the Jews rallied about
their standard. 3. Antipater's character and policy. 4. Herod's career
as governor of Galilee. 5. The Parthian conquest and the temporary
restoration of the Maccabean rule. 6. The immediate effect upon Herod and
his family. 7. Reasons why he was appointed king of the Jews by Antony and
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The fortresses of Alexandrium and
Macherus. Smith, _Hist. Geog. of the Holy Land_, 352-3, 569-71; Kent,
_Bib. Geog. and Hist._, 229, 244-5; Schurer, _H.J.P._, I, i, 250-1.
2. The history of Rome from 60 to 40 B.C. Botsford, _Hist. of Rome_,
183-97; Fowler, _Julius Caesar_; Mahaffy, _Gk. World under Roman Sway_,
ch. IV. 3. The Parthians. Hastings, _D.B._, III, 680-1.
Section CXVIII. Herod's Policy and Reign. GENERAL QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the strength and weakness of Herod's character. 2. The ways
in which he won the favor of Augustus. 3. His building activity within
his kingdom. 4. Outside of Palestine. 5. His treatment of his subjects.
6. His record as husband and father. 7. The effects of his reign.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Rome under Augustus. Botsford, _Hist.
of Rome_, 204-22; Bury, _Student's Rom. Emp._, chs. I-XIV; Capes, _Early
Empire_, chs. I-III, XII-XIX. 2. Herod's Caesarea. Smith, _Hist. Geog. of
the Holy Land_, 138-41; _En. Bib._, I, 617-8; Kent, _Bib. Geog. and
Hist._, 233. 3. The various sides of Herod's character. Hastings, _D.B._,
II, 356-7; _En. Bib._, II, 2025-9; Bevan, _Jer. under the High Priests_,
Section CXIX. Herod's Temple. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the
motives that inspired Herod to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem. 2. His
preparations for the work. 3. The extension of the temple area. 4. The
different gates leading to it. 5. The surrounding porches. 6. The temple
proper. 7. The temple officials. 8. The temple service.
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The detailed plan and dimensions of
Herod's temple. Hastings, _D.B._, IV, 711-6; _En Bib._, IV, 4943-7;
Warren, _The Temple and the Tomb_; Smith, _Jerusalem_, II, 499-520. 2. The
administration of the temple finances. Hastings, _D.B._, IV, 92-7; _En.
Bib._, IV, 4949-51; Smith, _Jerusalem_, I, 351-66. 3. The inscription
forbidding foreigners to enter the inner courts. Hastings, _D.B._, IV,
Section CXX. The Messianic Hopes and Religious Beliefs of Judaism.
GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the influences that determined the growth
of Israel's messianic hopes. 2. The different forms which these hopes
assumed. 3. The kingly nationalistic type of messianic hope. 4. The
characteristics and development of the apocalyptic, catastrophic type of
hope. 5. The type proclaimed by the great ethical prophets. 6. The
broadening and universalizing of Israel's messianic hopes. 7. The
influence of the Maccabean struggle upon Israel's messianic beliefs.
8. The messianic expectations of the Jews at the beginning of the
SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The origin of Israel's messianic
hopes. _St. O. T_., Ill, 39-48; Goodspeed, _Israel's Messianic Hope_;
Oesterley, _Evolution of the Messianic Idea_. 2. The Sibylline Oracles.
Deane, _Pseudepigrapha_; Hastings, _D.B._, extra vol., 66-8. 3. The Psalms
of Solomon. Ryle and James, _The Pss. of Sol._; Deane, _Pseudepigrapha_,