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The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator)

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John B. Hare and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team

The Mahabharata


Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa

Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text


Kisari Mohan Ganguli


Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003. Redaction at Distributed Proofing,
Juliet Sutherland, Project Manager. Additional proofing and formatting at
sacred-texts.com, by J. B. Hare. This text is in the public domain. These
files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of
attribution is left intact.


The object of a translator should ever be to hold the mirror upto his
author. That being so, his chief duty is to represent so far as
practicable the manner in which his author's ideas have been expressed,
retaining if possible at the sacrifice of idiom and taste all the
peculiarities of his author's imagery and of language as well. In regard
to translations from the Sanskrit, nothing is easier than to dish up Hindu
ideas, so as to make them agreeable to English taste. But the endeavour of
the present translator has been to give in the following pages as literal
a rendering as possible of the great work of Vyasa. To the purely English
reader there is much in the following pages that will strike as ridiculous.
Those unacquainted with any language but their own are generally very
exclusive in matters of taste. Having no knowledge of models other than
what they meet with in their own tongue, the standard they have formed of
purity and taste in composition must necessarily be a narrow one. The
translator, however, would ill-discharge his duty, if for the sake of
avoiding ridicule, he sacrificed fidelity to the original. He must
represent his author as he is, not as he should be to please the narrow
taste of those entirely unacquainted with him. Mr. Pickford, in the
preface to his English translation of the Mahavira Charita, ably defends a
close adherence to the original even at the sacrifice of idiom and taste
against the claims of what has been called 'Free Translation,' which means
dressing the author in an outlandish garb to please those to whom he is

In the preface to his classical translation of Bhartrihari's Niti Satakam
and Vairagya Satakam, Mr. C.H. Tawney says, "I am sensible that in the
present attempt I have retained much local colouring. For instance, the
ideas of worshipping the feet of a god of great men, though it frequently
occurs in Indian literature, will undoubtedly move the laughter of
Englishmen unacquainted with Sanskrit, especially if they happen to belong
to that class of readers who revel their attention on the accidental and
remain blind to the essential. But a certain measure of fidelity to the
original even at the risk of making oneself ridiculous, is better than the
studied dishonesty which characterises so many translations of oriental

We fully subscribe to the above although, it must be observed, the censure
conveyed to the class of translators last indicated is rather undeserved,
there being nothing like a 'studied dishonesty' in their efforts which
proceed only from a mistaken view of their duties and as such betray only
an error of the head but not of the heart. More than twelve years ago when
Babu Pratapa Chandra Roy, with Babu Durga Charan Banerjee, went to my
retreat at Seebpore, for engaging me to translate the Mahabharata into
English, I was amazed with the grandeur of the scheme. My first question
to him was,--whence was the money to come, supposing my competence for the
task. Pratapa then unfolded to me the details of his plan, the hopes he
could legitimately cherish of assistance from different quarters. He was
full of enthusiasm. He showed me Dr. Rost's letter, which, he said, had
suggested to him the undertaking. I had known Babu Durga Charan for many
years and I had the highest opinion of his scholarship and practical good
sense. When he warmly took Pratapa's side for convincing me of the
practicability of the scheme, I listened to him patiently. The two were
for completing all arrangements with me the very day. To this I did not
agree. I took a week's time to consider. I consulted some of my literary
friends, foremost among whom was the late lamented Dr. Sambhu C.
Mookherjee. The latter, I found, had been waited upon by Pratapa. Dr.
Mookherjee spoke to me of Pratapa as a man of indomitable energy and
perseverance. The result of my conference with Dr. Mookherjee was that I
wrote to Pratapa asking him to see me again. In this second interview
estimates were drawn up, and everything was arranged as far as my portion
of the work was concerned. My friend left with me a specimen of
translation which he had received from Professor Max Muller. This I began
to study, carefully comparing it sentence by sentence with the original.
About its literal character there could be no doubt, but it had no flow
and, therefore, could not be perused with pleasure by the general reader.
The translation had been executed thirty years ago by a young German
friend of the great Pundit. I had to touch up every sentence. This I did
without at all impairing faithfulness to the original. My first 'copy' was
set up in type and a dozen sheets were struck off. These were submitted to
the judgment of a number of eminent writers, European and native. All of
them, I was glad to see, approved of the specimen, and then the task of
translating the Mahabharata into English seriously began.

Before, however, the first fasciculus could be issued, the question as to
whether the authorship of the translation should be publicly owned, arose.
Babu Pratapa Chandra Roy was against anonymity. I was for it. The reasons
I adduced were chiefly founded upon the impossibility of one person
translating the whole of the gigantic work. Notwithstanding my resolve to
discharge to the fullest extent the duty that I took up, I might not live
to carry it out. It would take many years before the end could be reached.
Other circumstances than death might arise in consequence of which my
connection with the work might cease. It could not be desirable to issue
successive fasciculus with the names of a succession of translators
appearing on the title pages. These and other considerations convinced my
friend that, after all, my view was correct. It was, accordingly, resolved
to withhold the name of the translator. As a compromise, however, between
the two views, it was resolved to issue the first fasciculus with two
prefaces, one over the signature of the publisher and the other headed--
'Translator's Preface.' This, it was supposed, would effectually guard
against misconceptions of every kind. No careful reader would then
confound the publisher with the author.

Although this plan was adopted, yet before a fourth of the task had been
accomplished, an influential Indian journal came down upon poor Pratapa
Chandra Roy and accused him openly of being a party to a great literary
imposture, viz., of posing before the world as the translator of Vyasa's
work when, in fact, he was only the publisher. The charge came upon my
friend as a surprise, especially as he had never made a secret of the
authorship in his correspondence with Oriental scholars in every part of
the world. He promptly wrote to the journal in question, explaining the
reasons there were for anonymity, and pointing to the two prefaces with
which the first fasciculus had been given to the world. The editor readily
admitted his mistake and made a satisfactory apology.

Now that the translation has been completed, there can no longer be any
reason for withholding the name of the translator. The entire translation
is practically the work of one hand. In portions of the Adi and the Sabha
Parvas, I was assisted by Babu Charu Charan Mookerjee. About four forms of
the Sabha Parva were done by Professor Krishna Kamal Bhattacharya, and
about half a fasciculus during my illness, was done by another hand. I
should however state that before passing to the printer the copy received
from these gentlemen I carefully compared every sentence with the original,
making such alterations as were needed for securing a uniformity of style
with the rest of the work.

I should here observe that in rendering the Mahabharata into English I
have derived very little aid from the three Bengali versions that are
supposed to have been executed with care. Every one of these is full of
inaccuracies and blunders of every description. The Santi in particular
which is by far the most difficult of the eighteen Parvas, has been made a
mess of by the Pundits that attacked it. Hundreds of ridiculous blunders
can be pointed out in both the Rajadharma and the Mokshadharma sections.
Some of these I have pointed out in footnotes.

I cannot lay claim to infallibility. There are verses in the Mahabharata
that are exceedingly difficult to construe. I have derived much aid from
the great commentator Nilakantha. I know that Nilakantha's authority is
not incapable of being challenged. But when it is remembered that the
interpretations given by Nilakantha came down to him from preceptors of
olden days, one should think twice before rejecting Nilakantha as a guide.

About the readings I have adopted, I should say that as regards the first
half of the work, I have generally adhered to the Bengal texts; as regards
the latter half, to the printed Bombay edition. Sometimes individual
sections, as occurring in the Bengal editions, differ widely, in respect
of the order of the verses, from the corresponding ones in the Bombay
edition. In such cases I have adhered to the Bengal texts, convinced that
the sequence of ideas has been better preserved in the Bengal editions
than the Bombay one.

I should express my particular obligations to Pundit Ram Nath Tarkaratna,
the author of 'Vasudeva Vijayam' and other poems, Pundit Shyama Charan
Kaviratna, the learned editor of Kavyaprakasha with the commentary of
Professor Mahesh Chandra Nayaratna, and Babu Aghore Nath Banerjee, the
manager of the Bharata Karyalaya. All these scholars were my referees on
all points of difficulty. Pundit Ram Nath's solid scholarship is known to
them that have come in contact with him. I never referred to him a
difficulty that he could not clear up. Unfortunately, he was not always at
hand to consult. Pundit Shyama Charan Kaviratna, during my residence at
Seebpore, assisted me in going over the Mokshadharma sections of the Santi
Parva. Unostentatious in the extreme, Kaviratna is truly the type of a
learned Brahman of ancient India. Babu Aghore Nath Banerjee also has from
time to time, rendered me valuable assistance in clearing my difficulties.

Gigantic as the work is, it would have been exceedingly difficult for me
to go on with it if I had not been encouraged by Sir Stuart Bayley, Sir
Auckland Colvin, Sir Alfred Croft, and among Oriental scholars, by the
late lamented Dr. Reinhold Rost, and Mons. A. Barth of Paris. All these
eminent men know from the beginning that the translation was proceeding
from my pen. Notwithstanding the enthusiasm, with which my poor friend,
Pratapa Chandra Roy, always endeavoured to fill me. I am sure my energies
would have flagged and patience exhausted but for the encouraging words
which I always received from these patrons and friends of the enterprise.

Lastly, I should name my literary chief and friend, Dr. Sambhu C.
Mookherjee. The kind interest he took in my labours, the repeated
exhortations he addressed to me inculcating patience, the care with which
he read every fasciculus as it came out, marking all those passages which
threw light upon topics of antiquarian interest, and the words of praise
he uttered when any expression particularly happy met his eyes, served to
stimulate me more than anything else in going on with a task that
sometimes seemed to me endless.

Kisari Mohan Ganguli





Om! Having bowed down to Narayana and Nara, the most exalted male being,
and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.

Ugrasrava, the son of Lomaharshana, surnamed Sauti, well-versed in the
Puranas, bending with humility, one day approached the great sages of
rigid vows, sitting at their ease, who had attended the twelve years'
sacrifice of Saunaka, surnamed Kulapati, in the forest of Naimisha. Those
ascetics, wishing to hear his wonderful narrations, presently began to
address him who had thus arrived at that recluse abode of the inhabitants
of the forest of Naimisha. Having been entertained with due respect by
those holy men, he saluted those Munis (sages) with joined palms, even all
of them, and inquired about the progress of their asceticism. Then all the
ascetics being again seated, the son of Lomaharshana humbly occupied the
seat that was assigned to him. Seeing that he was comfortably seated, and
recovered from fatigue, one of the Rishis beginning the conversation,
asked him, 'Whence comest thou, O lotus-eyed Sauti, and where hast thou
spent the time? Tell me, who ask thee, in detail.'

Accomplished in speech, Sauti, thus questioned, gave in the midst of that
big assemblage of contemplative Munis a full and proper answer in words
consonant with their mode of life.

"Sauti said, 'Having heard the diverse sacred and wonderful stories which
were composed in his Mahabharata by Krishna-Dwaipayana, and which were
recited in full by Vaisampayana at the Snake-sacrifice of the high-souled
royal sage Janamejaya and in the presence also of that chief of Princes,
the son of Parikshit, and having wandered about, visiting many sacred
waters and holy shrines, I journeyed to the country venerated by the
Dwijas (twice-born) and called Samantapanchaka where formerly was fought
the battle between the children of Kuru and Pandu, and all the chiefs of
the land ranged on either side. Thence, anxious to see you, I am come into
your presence. Ye reverend sages, all of whom are to me as Brahma; ye
greatly blessed who shine in this place of sacrifice with the splendour of
the solar fire: ye who have concluded the silent meditations and have fed
the holy fire; and yet who are sitting--without care, what, O ye Dwijas
(twice-born), shall I repeat, shall I recount the sacred stories collected
in the Puranas containing precepts of religious duty and of worldly profit,
or the acts of illustrious saints and sovereigns of mankind?"

"The Rishi replied, 'The Purana, first promulgated by the great Rishi
Dwaipayana, and which after having been heard both by the gods and the
Brahmarshis was highly esteemed, being the most eminent narrative that
exists, diversified both in diction and division, possessing subtile
meanings logically combined, and gleaned from the Vedas, is a sacred work.
Composed in elegant language, it includeth the subjects of other books. It
is elucidated by other Shastras, and comprehendeth the sense of the four
Vedas. We are desirous of hearing that history also called Bharata, the
holy composition of the wonderful Vyasa, which dispelleth the fear of evil,
just as it was cheerfully recited by the Rishi Vaisampayana, under the
direction of Dwaipayana himself, at the snake-sacrifice of Raja

"Sauti then said, 'Having bowed down to the primordial being Isana, to
whom multitudes make offerings, and who is adored by the multitude; who is
the true incorruptible one, Brahma, perceptible, imperceptible, eternal;
who is both a non-existing and an existing-non-existing being; who is the
universe and also distinct from the existing and non-existing universe;
who is the creator of high and low; the ancient, exalted, inexhaustible
one; who is Vishnu, beneficent and the beneficence itself, worthy of all
preference, pure and immaculate; who is Hari, the ruler of the faculties,
the guide of all things moveable and immoveable; I will declare the sacred
thoughts of the illustrious sage Vyasa, of marvellous deeds and worshipped
here by all. Some bards have already published this history, some are now
teaching it, and others, in like manner, will hereafter promulgate it upon
the earth. It is a great source of knowledge, established throughout the
three regions of the world. It is possessed by the twice-born both in
detailed and compendious forms. It is the delight of the learned for being
embellished with elegant expressions, conversations human and divine, and
a variety of poetical measures.'"

In this world, when it was destitute of brightness and light, and
enveloped all around in total darkness, there came into being, as the
primal cause of creation, a mighty egg, the one inexhaustible seed of all
created beings. It is called Mahadivya, and was formed at the beginning of
the Yuga, in which we are told, was the true light Brahma, the eternal one,
the wonderful and inconceivable being present alike in all places; the
invisible and subtile cause, whose nature partaketh of entity and non-
entity. From this egg came out the lord Pitamaha Brahma, the one only
Prajapati; with Suraguru and Sthanu. Then appeared the twenty-one
Prajapatis, viz., Manu, Vasishtha and Parameshthi; ten Prachetas, Daksha,
and the seven sons of Daksha. Then appeared the man of inconceivable
nature whom all the Rishis know and so the Viswe-devas, the Adityas, the
Vasus, and the twin Aswins; the Yakshas, the Sadhyas, the Pisachas, the
Guhyakas, and the Pitris. After these were produced the wise and most holy
Brahmarshis, and the numerous Rajarshis distinguished by every noble
quality. So the water, the heavens, the earth, the air, the sky, the
points of the heavens, the years, the seasons, the months, the fortnights,
called Pakshas, with day and night in due succession. And thus were
produced all things which are known to mankind.

And what is seen in the universe, whether animate or inanimate, of created
things, will at the end of the world, and after the expiration of the Yuga,
be again confounded. And, at the commencement of other Yugas, all things
will be renovated, and, like the various fruits of the earth, succeed each
other in the due order of their seasons. Thus continueth perpetually to
revolve in the world, without beginning and without end, this wheel which
causeth the destruction of all things.

The generation of Devas, in brief, was thirty-three thousand, thirty-three
hundred and thirty-three. The sons of Div were Brihadbhanu, Chakshus, Atma
Vibhavasu, Savita, Richika, Arka, Bhanu, Asavaha, and Ravi. Of these
Vivaswans of old, Mahya was the youngest whose son was Deva-vrata. The
latter had for his son, Su-vrata who, we learn, had three sons,--Dasa-
jyoti, Sata-jyoti, and Sahasra-jyoti, each of them producing numerous
offspring. The illustrious Dasa-jyoti had ten thousand, Sata-jyoti ten
times that number, and Sahasra-jyoti ten times the number of Sata-jyoti's
offspring. From these are descended the family of the Kurus, of the Yadus,
and of Bharata; the family of Yayati and of Ikshwaku; also of all the
Rajarshis. Numerous also were the generations produced, and very abundant
were the creatures and their places of abode. The mystery which is
threefold--the Vedas, Yoga, and Vijnana Dharma, Artha, and Kama--also
various books upon the subject of Dharma, Artha, and Kama; also rules for
the conduct of mankind; also histories and discourses with various srutis;
all of which having been seen by the Rishi Vyasa are here in due order
mentioned as a specimen of the book.

The Rishi Vyasa published this mass of knowledge in both a detailed and an
abridged form. It is the wish of the learned in the world to possess the
details and the abridgement. Some read the Bharata beginning with the
initial mantra (invocation), others with the story of Astika, others with
Uparichara, while some Brahmanas study the whole. Men of learning display
their various knowledge of the institutes in commenting on the composition.
Some are skilful in explaining it, while others, in remembering its

The son of Satyavati having, by penance and meditation, analysed the
eternal Veda, afterwards composed this holy history, when that learned
Brahmarshi of strict vows, the noble Dwaipayana Vyasa, offspring of
Parasara, had finished this greatest of narrations, he began to consider
how he might teach it to his disciples. And the possessor of the six
attributes, Brahma, the world's preceptor, knowing of the anxiety of the
Rishi Dwaipayana, came in person to the place where the latter was, for
gratifying the saint, and benefiting the people. And when Vyasa,
surrounded by all the tribes of Munis, saw him, he was surprised; and,
standing with joined palms, he bowed and ordered a seat to be brought. And
Vyasa having gone round him who is called Hiranyagarbha seated on that
distinguished seat stood near it; and being commanded by Brahma
Parameshthi, he sat down near the seat, full of affection and smiling in
joy. Then the greatly glorious Vyasa, addressing Brahma Parameshthi, said,
"O divine Brahma, by me a poem hath been composed which is greatly
respected. The mystery of the Veda, and what other subjects have been
explained by me; the various rituals of the Upanishads with the Angas; the
compilation of the Puranas and history formed by me and named after the
three divisions of time, past, present, and future; the determination of
the nature of decay, fear, disease, existence, and non-existence, a
description of creeds and of the various modes of life; rule for the four
castes, and the import of all the Puranas; an account of asceticism and of
the duties of a religious student; the dimensions of the sun and moon, the
planets, constellations, and stars, together with the duration of the four
ages; the Rik, Sama and Yajur Vedas; also the Adhyatma; the sciences
called Nyaya, Orthoephy and Treatment of diseases; charity and
Pasupatadharma; birth celestial and human, for particular purposes; also a
description of places of pilgrimage and other holy places of rivers,
mountains,, forests, the ocean, of heavenly cities and the kalpas; the art
of war; the different kinds of nations and languages: the nature of the
manners of the people; and the all-pervading spirit;--all these have been
represented. But, after all, no writer of this work is to be found on

"Brahma said. 'I esteem thee for thy knowledge of divine mysteries, before
the whole body of celebrated Munis distinguished for the sanctity of their
lives. I know thou hast revealed the divine word, even from its first
utterance, in the language of truth. Thou hast called thy present work a
poem, wherefore it shall be a poem. There shall be no poets whose works
may equal the descriptions of this poem, even, as the three other modes
called Asrama are ever unequal in merit to the domestic Asrama. Let Ganesa
be thought of, O Muni, for the purpose of writing the poem.'

"Sauti said, 'Brahma having thus spoken to Vyasa, retired to his own abode.
Then Vyasa began to call to mind Ganesa. And Ganesa, obviator of obstacles,
ready to fulfil the desires of his votaries, was no sooner thought of,
than he repaired to the place where Vyasa was seated. And when he had been
saluted, and was seated, Vyasa addressed him thus, 'O guide of the Ganas!
be thou the writer of the Bharata which I have formed in my imagination,
and which I am about to repeat."

"Ganesa, upon hearing this address, thus answered, 'I will become the
writer of thy work, provided my pen do not for a moment cease writing."
And Vyasa said unto that divinity, 'Wherever there be anything thou dost
not comprehend, cease to continue writing.' Ganesa having signified his
assent, by repeating the word Om! proceeded to write; and Vyasa began; and
by way of diversion, he knit the knots of composition exceeding close; by
doing which, he dictated this work according to his engagement.

I am (continued Sauti) acquainted with eight thousand and eight hundred
verses, and so is Suka, and perhaps Sanjaya. From the mysteriousness of
their meaning, O Muni, no one is able, to this day, to penetrate those
closely knit difficult slokas. Even the omniscient Ganesa took a moment to
consider; while Vyasa, however, continued to compose other verses in great

The wisdom of this work, like unto an instrument of applying collyrium,
hath opened the eyes of the inquisitive world blinded by the darkness of
ignorance. As the sun dispelleth the darkness, so doth the Bharata by its
discourses on religion, profit, pleasure and final release, dispel the
ignorance of men. As the full-moon by its mild light expandeth the buds of
the water-lily, so this Purana, by exposing the light of the Sruti hath
expanded the human intellect. By the lamp of history, which destroyeth the
darkness of ignorance, the whole mansion of nature is properly and
completely illuminated.

This work is a tree, of which the chapter of contents is the seed; the
divisions called Pauloma and Astika are the root; the part called Sambhava
is the trunk; the books called Sabha and Aranya are the roosting perches;
the books called Arani is the knitting knots; the books called Virata and
Udyoga the pith; the book named Bhishma, the main branch; the book called
Drona, the leaves; the book called Karna, the fair flowers; the book named
Salya, their sweet smell; the books entitled Stri and Aishika, the
refreshing shade; the book called Santi, the mighty fruit; the book called
Aswamedha, the immortal sap; the denominated Asramavasika, the spot where
it groweth; and the book called Mausala, is an epitome of the Vedas and
held in great respect by the virtuous Brahmanas. The tree of the Bharata,
inexhaustible to mankind as the clouds, shall be as a source of livelihood
to all distinguished poets."

"Sauti continued, 'I will now speak of the undying flowery and fruitful
productions of this tree, possessed of pure and pleasant taste, and not to
be destroyed even by the immortals. Formerly, the spirited and virtuous
Krishna-Dwaipayana, by the injunctions of Bhishma, the wise son of Ganga
and of his own mother, became the father of three boys who were like the
three fires by the two wives of Vichitra-virya; and having thus raised up
Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura, he returned to his recluse abode to
prosecute his religious exercise.

It was not till after these were born, grown up, and departed on the
supreme journey, that the great Rishi Vyasa published the Bharata in this
region of mankind; when being solicited by Janamejaya and thousands of
Brahmanas, he instructed his disciple Vaisampayana, who was seated near
him; and he, sitting together with the Sadasyas, recited the Bharata,
during the intervals of the ceremonies of the sacrifice, being repeatedly
urged to proceed.

Vyasa hath fully represented the greatness of the house of Kuru, the
virtuous principles of Gandhari, the wisdom of Vidura, and the constancy
of Kunti. The noble Rishi hath also described the divinity of Vasudeva,
the rectitude of the sons of Pandu, and the evil practices of the sons and
partisans of Dhritarashtra.

Vyasa executed the compilation of the Bharata, exclusive of the episodes
originally in twenty-four thousand verses; and so much only is called by
the learned as the Bharata. Afterwards, he composed an epitome in one
hundred and fifty verses, consisting of the introduction with the chapter
of contents. This he first taught to his son Suka; and afterwards he gave
it to others of his disciples who were possessed of the same
qualifications. After that he executed another compilation, consisting of
six hundred thousand verses. Of those, thirty hundred thousand are known
in the world of the Devas; fifteen hundred thousand in the world of the
Pitris: fourteen hundred thousand among the Gandharvas, and one hundred
thousand in the regions of mankind. Narada recited them to the Devas,
Devala to the Pitris, and Suka published them to the Gandharvas, Yakshas,
and Rakshasas: and in this world they were recited by Vaisampayana, one of
the disciples of Vyasa, a man of just principles and the first among all
those acquainted with the Vedas. Know that I, Sauti, have also repeated
one hundred thousand verses.

Yudhishthira is a vast tree, formed of religion and virtue; Arjuna is its
trunk; Bhimasena, its branches; the two sons of Madri are its full-grown
fruit and flowers; and its roots are Krishna, Brahma, and the Brahmanas.

Pandu, after having subdued many countries by his wisdom and prowess, took
up his abode with the Munis in a certain forest as a sportsman, where he
brought upon himself a very severe misfortune for having killed a stag
coupling with its mate, which served as a warning for the conduct of the
princes of his house as long as they lived. Their mothers, in order that
the ordinances of the law might be fulfilled, admitted as substitutes to
their embraces the gods Dharma, Vayu, Sakra, and the divinities the twin
Aswins. And when their offspring grew up, under the care of their two
mothers, in the society of ascetics, in the midst of sacred groves and
holy recluse-abodes of religious men, they were conducted by Rishis into
the presence of Dhritarashtra and his sons, following as students in the
habit of Brahmacharis, having their hair tied in knots on their heads.
'These our pupils', said they, 'are as your sons, your brothers, and your
friends; they are Pandavas.' Saying this, the Munis disappeared.

When the Kauravas saw them introduced as the sons of Pandu, the
distinguished class of citizens shouted exceedingly for joy. Some, however,
said, they were not the sons of Pandu; others said, they were; while a few
asked how they could be his offspring, seeing he had been so long dead.
Still on all sides voices were heard crying, 'They are on all accounts
welcome! Through divine Providence we behold the family of Pandu! Let
their welcome be proclaimed!' As these acclamations ceased, the plaudits
of invisible spirits, causing every point of the heavens to resound, were
tremendous. There were showers of sweet-scented flowers, and the sound of
shells and kettle-drums. Such were the wonders that happened on the
arrival of the young princes. The joyful noise of all the citizens, in
expression of their satisfaction on the occasion, was so great that it
reached the very heavens in magnifying plaudits.

Having studied the whole of the Vedas and sundry other shastras, the
Pandavas resided there, respected by all and without apprehension from any

The principal men were pleased with the purity of Yudhishthira, the
courage of Arjuna, the submissive attention of Kunti to her superiors, and
the humility of the twins, Nakula and Sahadeva; and all the people
rejoiced in their heroic virtues.

After a while, Arjuna obtained the virgin Krishna at the swayamvara, in
the midst of a concourse of Rajas, by performing a very difficult feat of
archery. And from this time he became very much respected in this world
among all bowmen; and in fields of battle also, like the sun, he was hard
to behold by foe-men. And having vanquished all the neighbouring princes
and every considerable tribe, he accomplished all that was necessary for
the Raja (his eldest brother) to perform the great sacrifice called

Yudhishthira, after having, through the wise counsels of Vasudeva and by
the valour of Bhimasena and Arjuna, slain Jarasandha (the king of Magadha)
and the proud Chaidya, acquired the right to perform the grand sacrifice
of Rajasuya abounding in provisions and offering and fraught with
transcendent merits. And Duryodhana came to this sacrifice; and when he
beheld the vast wealth of the Pandavas scattered all around, the offerings,
the precious stones, gold and jewels; the wealth in cows, elephants, and
horses; the curious textures, garments, and mantles; the precious shawls
and furs and carpets made of the skin of the Ranku; he was filled with
envy and became exceedingly displeased. And when he beheld the hall of
assembly elegantly constructed by Maya (the Asura architect) after the
fashion of a celestial court, he was inflamed with rage. And having
started in confusion at certain architectural deceptions within this
building, he was derided by Bhimasena in the presence of Vasudeva, like
one of mean descent.

And it was represented to Dhritarashtra that his son, while partaking of
various objects of enjoyment and diverse precious things, was becoming
meagre, wan, and pale. And Dhritarashtra, some time after, out of
affection for his son, gave his consent to their playing (with the
Pandavas) at dice. And Vasudeva coming to know of this, became exceedingly
wroth. And being dissatisfied, he did nothing to prevent the disputes, but
overlooked the gaming and sundry other horried unjustifiable transactions
arising therefrom: and in spite of Vidura, Bhishma, Drona, and Kripa, the
son of Saradwan, he made the Kshatriyas kill each other in the terrific
war that ensued.'

"And Dhritarashtra hearing the ill news of the success of the Pandavas and
recollecting the resolutions of Duryodhana, Karna, and Sakuni, pondered for
a while and addressed to Sanjaya the following speech:--

'Attend, O Sanjaya, to all I am about to say, and it will not become thee
to treat me with contempt. Thou art well-versed in the shastras,
intelligent and endowed with wisdom. My inclination was never to war, not
did I delight in the destruction of my race. I made no distinction between
my own children and the children of Pandu. My own sons were prone to
wilfulness and despised me because I am old. Blind as I am, because of my
miserable plight and through paternal affection, I bore it all. I was
foolish after the thoughtless Duryodhana ever growing in folly. Having
been a spectator of the riches of the mighty sons of Pandu, my son was
derided for his awkwardness while ascending the hall. Unable to bear it
all and unable himself to overcome the sons of Pandu in the field, and
though a soldier, unwilling yet to obtain good fortune by his own exertion,
with the help of the king of Gandhara he concerted an unfair game at dice.

'Hear, O Sanjaya, all that happened thereupon and came to my knowledge.
And when thou hast heard all I say, recollecting everything as it fell out,
thou shall then know me for one with a prophetic eye. When I heard that
Arjuna, having bent the bow, had pierced the curious mark and brought it
down to the ground, and bore away in triumph the maiden Krishna, in the
sight of the assembled princes, then, O Sanjaya I had no hope of success.
When I heard that Subhadra of the race of Madhu had, after forcible
seizure been married by Arjuna in the city of Dwaraka, and that the two
heroes of the race of Vrishni (Krishna and Balarama the brothers of
Subhadra) without resenting it had entered Indraprastha as friends, then,
O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna, by his
celestial arrow preventing the downpour by Indra the king of the gods, had
gratified Agni by making over to him the forest of Khandava, then, O
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the five Pandavas
with their mother Kunti had escaped from the house of lac, and that Vidura
was engaged in the accomplishment of their designs, then, O Sanjaya, I had
no hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna, after having pierced the
mark in the arena had won Draupadi, and that the brave Panchalas had
joined the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I
heard that Jarasandha, the foremost of the royal line of Magadha, and
blazing in the midst of the Kshatriyas, had been slain by Bhima with his
bare arms alone, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard
that in their general campaign the sons of Pandu had conquered the chiefs
of the land and performed the grand sacrifice of the Rajasuya, then, O
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Draupadi, her voice
choked with tears and heart full of agony, in the season of impurity and
with but one raiment on, had been dragged into court and though she had
protectors, she had been treated as if she had none, then, O Sanjaya, I
had no hope of success. When I heard that the wicked wretch Duhsasana, was
striving to strip her of that single garment, had only drawn from her
person a large heap of cloth without being able to arrive at its end, then,
O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Yudhishthira,
beaten by Saubala at the game of dice and deprived of his kingdom as a
consequence thereof, had still been attended upon by his brothers of
incomparable prowess, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I
heard that the virtuous Pandavas weeping with affliction had followed
their elder brother to the wilderness and exerted themselves variously for
the mitigation of his discomforts, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of

'When I heard that Yudhishthira had been followed into the wilderness by
Snatakas and noble-minded Brahmanas who live upon alms, then, O Sanjaya, I
had no hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna, having, in combat,
pleased the god of gods, Tryambaka (the three-eyed) in the disguise of a
hunter, obtained the great weapon Pasupata, then O Sanjaya, I had no hope
of success. When I heard that the just and renowned Arjuna after having
been to the celestial regions, had there obtained celestial weapons from
Indra himself then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that
afterwards Arjuna had vanquished the Kalakeyas and the Paulomas proud with
the boon they had obtained and which had rendered them invulnerable even
to the celestials, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard
that Arjuna, the chastiser of enemies, having gone to the regions of Indra
for the destruction of the Asuras, had returned thence successful, then, O
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Bhima and the other
sons of Pritha (Kunti) accompanied by Vaisravana had arrived at that
country which is inaccessible to man then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that my sons, guided by the counsels of Karna, while
on their journey of Ghoshayatra, had been taken prisoners by the
Gandharvas and were set free by Arjuna, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that Dharma (the god of justice) having come under
the form of a Yaksha had proposed certain questions to Yudhishthira then,
O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that my sons had failed
to discover the Pandavas under their disguise while residing with Draupadi
in the dominions of Virata, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.
When I heard that the principal men of my side had all been vanquished by
the noble Arjuna with a single chariot while residing in the dominions of
Virata, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that
Vasudeva of the race of Madhu, who covered this whole earth by one foot,
was heartily interested in the welfare of the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I
had no hope of success. When I heard that the king of Matsya, had offered
his virtuous daughter Uttara to Arjuna and that Arjuna had accepted her
for his son, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that
Yudhishthira, beaten at dice, deprived of wealth, exiled and separated
from his connections, had assembled yet an army of seven Akshauhinis, then,
O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard Narada, declare that
Krishna and Arjuna were Nara and Narayana and he (Narada) had seen them
together in the regions of Brahma, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that Krishna, anxious to bring about peace, for the
welfare of mankind had repaired to the Kurus, and went away without having
been able to effect his purpose, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.
When I heard that Karna and Duryodhana resolved upon imprisoning Krishna
displayed in himself the whole universe, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. Then I heard that at the time of his departure, Pritha (Kunti)
standing, full of sorrow, near his chariot received consolation from
Krishna, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that
Vasudeva and Bhishma the son of Santanu were the counsellors of the
Pandavas and Drona the son of Bharadwaja pronounced blessings on them,
then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When Karna said unto Bhishma--I
will not fight when thou art fighting--and, quitting the army, went away,
then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Vasudeva and
Arjuna and the bow Gandiva of immeasurable prowess, these three of
dreadful energy had come together, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that upon Arjuna having been seized with compunction
on his chariot and ready to sink, Krishna showed him all the worlds within
his body, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that
Bhishma, the desolator of foes, killing ten thousand charioteers every day
in the field of battle, had not slain any amongst the Pandavas then, O
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Bhishma, the
righteous son of Ganga, had himself indicated the means of his defeat in
the field of battle and that the same were accomplished by the Pandavas
with joyfulness, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard
that Arjuna, having placed Sikhandin before himself in his chariot, had
wounded Bhishma of infinite courage and invincible in battle, then, O
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the aged hero Bhishma,
having reduced the numbers of the race of shomaka to a few, overcome with
various wounds was lying on a bed of arrows, then, O Sanjaya, I had no
hope of success. When I heard that upon Bhishma's lying on the ground with
thirst for water, Arjuna, being requested, had pierced the ground and
allayed his thirst, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When Bayu
together with Indra and Suryya united as allies for the success of the
sons of Kunti, and the beasts of prey (by their inauspicious presence)
were putting us in fear, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When
the wonderful warrior Drona, displaying various modes of fight in the
field, did not slay any of the superior Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had
no hope of success. When I heard that the Maharatha Sansaptakas of our
army appointed for the overthrow of Arjuna were all slain by Arjuna
himself, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that our
disposition of forces, impenetrable by others, and defended by Bharadwaja
himself well-armed, had been singly forced and entered by the brave son of
Subhadra, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that our
Maharathas, unable to overcome Arjuna, with jubilant faces after having
jointly surrounded and slain the boy Abhimanyu, then, O Sanjaya, I had no
hope of success. When I heard that the blind Kauravas were shouting for
joy after having slain Abhimanyu and that thereupon Arjuna in anger made
his celebrated speech referring to Saindhava, then, O Sanjaya, I had no
hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna had vowed the death of Saindhava
and fulfilled his vow in the presence of his enemies, then, O Sanjaya, I
had no hope of success. When I heard that upon the horses of Arjuna being
fatigued, Vasudeva releasing them made them drink water and bringing them
back and reharnessing them continued to guide them as before, then, O
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that while his horses were
fatigued, Arjuna staying in his chariot checked all his assailants, then,
O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Yuyudhana of the
race of Vrishni, after having thrown into confusion the army of Drona
rendered unbearable in prowess owing to the presence of elephants, retired
to where Krishna and Arjuna were, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that Karna even though he had got Bhima within his
power allowed him to escape after only addressing him in contemptuous
terms and dragging him with the end of his bow, then, O Sanjaya, I had no
hope of success. When I heard that Drona, Kritavarma, Kripa, Karna, the
son of Drona, and the valiant king of Madra (Salya) suffered Saindhava to
be slain, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the
celestial Sakti given by Indra (to Karna) was by Madhava's machinations
caused to be hurled upon Rakshasa Ghatotkacha of frightful countenance,
then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that in the
encounter between Karna and Ghatotkacha, that Sakti was hurled against
Ghatotkacha by Karna, the same which was certainly to have slain Arjuna in
battle, then, O Sanjaya. I had no hope of success. When I heard that
Dhristadyumna, transgressing the laws of battle, slew Drona while alone in
his chariot and resolved on death, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that Nakula. the son of Madri, having in the
presence of the whole army engaged in single combat with the son of Drona
and showing himself equal to him drove his chariot in circles around, then,
O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When upon the death of Drona, his son
misused the weapon called Narayana but failed to achieve the destruction
of the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard
that Bhimasena drank the blood of his brother Duhsasana in the field of
battle without anybody being able to prevent him, then, O Sanjaya, I had
no hope of success. When I heard that the infinitely brave Karna,
invincible in battle, was slain by Arjuna in that war of brothers
mysterious even to the gods, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.
When I heard that Yudhishthira, the Just, overcame the heroic son of Drona,
Duhsasana, and the fierce Kritavarman, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that the brave king of Madra who ever dared Krishna
in battle was slain by Yudhishthira, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard that the wicked Suvala of magic power, the root of
the gaming and the feud, was slain in battle by Sahadeva, the son of Pandu,
then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Duryodhana,
spent with fatigue, having gone to a lake and made a refuge for himself
within its waters, was lying there alone, his strength gone and without a
chariot, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the
Pandavas having gone to that lake accompanied by Vasudeva and standing on
its beach began to address contemptuously my son who was incapable of
putting up with affronts, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When
I heard that while, displaying in circles a variety of curious modes (of
attack and defence) in an encounter with clubs, he was unfairly slain
according to the counsels of Krishna, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of
success. When I heard the son of Drona and others by slaying the Panchalas
and the sons of Draupadi in their sleep, perpetrated a horrible and
infamous deed, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard
that Aswatthaman while being pursued by Bhimasena had discharged the first
of weapons called Aishika, by which the embryo in the womb (of Uttara) was
wounded, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the
weapon Brahmashira (discharged by Aswatthaman) was repelled by Arjuna with
another weapon over which he had pronounced the word "Sasti" and that
Aswatthaman had to give up the jewel-like excrescence on his head, then, O
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that upon the embryo in
the womb of Virata's daughter being wounded by Aswatthaman with a mighty
weapon, Dwaipayana and Krishna pronounced curses on him, then, O Sanjaya,
I had no hope of success.

'Alas! Gandhari, destitute of children, grand-children, parents, brothers,
and kindred, is to be pitied. Difficult is the task that hath been
performed by the Pandavas: by them hath a kingdom been recovered without a

'Alas! I have heard that the war hath left only ten alive: three of our
side, and the Pandavas, seven, in that dreadful conflict eighteen
Akshauhinis of Kshatriyas have been slain! All around me is utter darkness,
and a fit of swoon assaileth me: consciousness leaves me, O Suta, and my
mind is distracted."

"Sauti said, 'Dhritarashtra, bewailing his fate in these words, was
overcome with extreme anguish and for a time deprived of sense; but being
revived, he addressed Sanjaya in the following words.

"After what hath come to pass, O Sanjaya, I wish to put an end to my life
without delay; I do not find the least advantage in cherishing it any

"Sauti said, 'The wise son of Gavalgana (Sanjaya) then addressed the
distressed lord of Earth while thus talking and bewailing, sighing like a
serpent and repeatedly tainting, in words of deep import.

"Thou hast heard, O Raja, of the greatly powerful men of vast exertions,
spoken of by Vyasa and the wise Narada; men born of great royal families,
resplendent with worthy qualities, versed in the science of celestial arms,
and in glory emblems of Indra; men who having conquered the world by
justice and performed sacrifices with fit offerings (to the Brahmanas),
obtained renown in this world and at last succumbed to the sway of time.
Such were Saivya; the valiant Maharatha; Srinjaya, great amongst
conquerors. Suhotra; Rantideva, and Kakshivanta, great in glory; Valhika,
Damana, Saryati, Ajita, and Nala; Viswamitra the destroyer of foes;
Amvarisha, great in strength; Marutta, Manu, Ikshaku, Gaya, and Bharata;
Rama the son of Dasaratha; Sasavindu, and Bhagiratha; Kritavirya, the
greatly fortunate, and Janamejaya too; and Yayati of good deeds who
performed sacrifices, being assisted therein by the celestials themselves,
and by whose sacrificial altars and stakes this earth with her habited and
uninhabited regions hath been marked all over. These twenty-four Rajas
were formerly spoken of by the celestial Rishi Narada unto Saivya when
much afflicted for the loss of his children. Besides these, other Rajas
had gone before, still more powerful than they, mighty charioteers noble
in mind, and resplendent with every worthy quality. These were Puru, Kuru,
Yadu, Sura and Viswasrawa of great glory; Anuha, Yuvanaswu, Kakutstha,
Vikrami, and Raghu; Vijava, Virihorta, Anga, Bhava, Sweta, and Vripadguru;
Usinara, Sata-ratha, Kanka, Duliduha, and Druma; Dambhodbhava, Para, Vena,
Sagara, Sankriti, and Nimi; Ajeya, Parasu, Pundra, Sambhu, and holy Deva-
Vridha; Devahuya, Supratika, and Vrihad-ratha; Mahatsaha, Vinitatma,
Sukratu, and Nala, the king of the Nishadas; Satyavrata, Santabhaya,
Sumitra, and the chief Subala; Janujangha, Anaranya, Arka, Priyabhritya,
Chuchi-vrata, Balabandhu, Nirmardda, Ketusringa, and Brhidbala;
Dhrishtaketu, Brihatketu, Driptaketu, and Niramaya; Abikshit, Chapala,
Dhurta, Kritbandhu, and Dridhe-shudhi; Mahapurana-sambhavya, Pratyanga,
Paraha and Sruti. These, O chief, and other Rajas, we hear enumerated by
hundreds and by thousands, and still others by millions, princes of great
power and wisdom, quitting very abundant enjoyments met death as thy sons
have done! Their heavenly deeds, valour, and generosity, their magnanimity,
faith, truth, purity, simplicity and mercy, are published to the world in
the records of former times by sacred bards of great learning. Though
endued with every noble virtue, these have yielded up their lives. Thy
sons were malevolent, inflamed with passion, avaricious, and of very evil-
disposition. Thou art versed in the Sastras, O Bharata, and art
intelligent and wise; they never sink under misfortunes whose
understandings are guided by the Sastras. Thou art acquainted, O prince,
with the lenity and severity of fate; this anxiety therefore for the
safety of thy children is unbecoming. Moreover, it behoveth thee not to
grieve for that which must happen: for who can avert, by his wisdom, the
decrees of fate? No one can leave the way marked out for him by Providence.
Existence and non-existence, pleasure and pain all have Time for their
root. Time createth all things and Time destroyeth all creatures. It is
Time that burneth creatures and it is Time that extinguisheth the fire.
All states, the good and the evil, in the three worlds, are caused by Time.
Time cutteth short all things and createth them anew. Time alone is awake
when all things are asleep: indeed, Time is incapable of being overcome.
Time passeth over all things without being retarded. Knowing, as thou dost,
that all things past and future and all that exist at the present moment,
are the offspring of Time, it behoveth thee not to throw away thy reason.'

"Sauti said, 'The son of Gavalgana having in this manner administered
comfort to the royal Dhritarashtra overwhelmed with grief for his sons,
then restored his mind to peace. Taking these facts for his subject,
Dwaipayana composed a holy Upanishad that has been published to the world
by learned and sacred bards in the Puranas composed by them.

"The study of the Bharata is an act of piety. He that readeth even one
foot, with belief, hath his sins entirely purged away. Herein Devas,
Devarshis, and immaculate Brahmarshis of good deeds, have been spoken of;
and likewise Yakshas and great Uragas (Nagas). Herein also hath been
described the eternal Vasudeva possessing the six attributes. He is the
true and just, the pure and holy, the eternal Brahma, the supreme soul,
the true constant light, whose divine deeds wise and learned recount; from
whom hath proceeded the non-existent and existent-non-existent universe
with principles of generation and progression, and birth, death and re-
birth. That also hath been treated of which is called Adhyatma (the
superintending spirit of nature) that partaketh of the attributes of the
five elements. That also hath been described who is purusha being above
such epithets as 'undisplayed' and the like; also that which the foremost
yatis exempt from the common destiny and endued with the power of
meditation and Tapas behold dwelling in their hearts as a reflected image
in the mirror.

"The man of faith, devoted to piety, and constant in the exercise of
virtue, on reading this section is freed from sin. The believer that
constantly heareth recited this section of the Bharata, called the
Introduction, from the beginning, falleth not into difficulties. The man
repeating any part of the introduction in the two twilights is during such
act freed from the sins contracted during the day or the night. This
section, the body of the Bharata, is truth and nectar. As butter is in
curd, Brahmana among bipeds, the Aranyaka among the Vedas, and nectar
among medicines; as the sea is eminent among receptacles of water, and the
cow among quadrupeds; as are these (among the things mentioned) so is the
Bharata said to be among histories.

"He that causeth it, even a single foot thereof, to be recited to
Brahmanas during a Sradha, his offerings of food and drink to the manes of
his ancestors become inexhaustible.

"By the aid of history and the Puranas, the Veda may be expounded; but the
Veda is afraid of one of little information lest he should it. The learned
man who recites to other this Veda of Vyasa reapeth advantage. It may
without doubt destroy even the sin of killing the embryo and the like. He
that readeth this holy chapter of the moon, readeth the whole of the
Bharata, I ween. The man who with reverence daily listeneth to this sacred
work acquireth long life and renown and ascendeth to heaven.

"In former days, having placed the four Vedas on one side and the Bharata
on the other, these were weighed in the balance by the celestials
assembled for that purpose. And as the latter weighed heavier than the
four Vedas with their mysteries, from that period it hath been called in
the world Mahabharata (the great Bharata). Being esteemed superior both in
substance and gravity of import it is denominated Mahabharata on account
of such substance and gravity of import. He that knoweth its meaning is
saved from all his sins.

"'Tapa is innocent, study is harmless, the ordinance of the Vedas
prescribed for all the tribes are harmless, the acquisition of wealth by
exertion is harmless; but when they are abused in their practices it is
then that they become sources of evil.'"


"The Rishis said, 'O son of Suta, we wish to hear a full and
circumstantial account of the place mentioned by you as Samanta-panchaya.'

"Sauti said, 'Listen, O ye Brahmanas, to the sacred descriptions I utter O
ye best of men, ye deserve to hear of the place known as Samanta-panchaka.
In the interval between the Treta and Dwapara Yugas, Rama (the son of
Jamadagni) great among all who have borne arms, urged by impatience of
wrongs, repeatedly smote the noble race of Kshatriyas. And when that fiery
meteor, by his own valour, annihilated the entire tribe of the Kshatriyas,
he formed at Samanta-panchaka five lakes of blood. We are told that his
reason being overpowered by anger he offered oblations of blood to the
manes of his ancestors, standing in the midst of the sanguine waters of
those lakes. It was then that his forefathers of whom Richika was the
first having arrived there addressed him thus, 'O Rama, O blessed Rama, O
offspring of Bhrigu, we have been gratified with the reverence thou hast
shown for thy ancestors and with thy valour, O mighty one! Blessings be
upon thee. O thou illustrious one, ask the boon that thou mayst desire.'

"Rama said, 'If, O fathers, ye are favourably disposed towards me, the
boon I ask is that I may be absolved from the sins born of my having
annihilated the Kshatriyas in anger, and that the lakes I have formed may
become famous in the world as holy shrines.' The Pitris then said, 'So
shall it be. But be thou pacified.' And Rama was pacified accordingly. The
region that lieth near unto those lakes of gory water, from that time hath
been celebrated as Samanta-panchaka the holy. The wise have declared that
every country should be distinguished by a name significant of some
circumstance which may have rendered it famous. In the interval between
the Dwapara and the Kali Yugas there happened at Samanta-panchaka the
encounter between the armies of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. In that
holy region, without ruggedness of any kind, were assembled eighteen
Akshauhinis of soldiers eager for battle. And, O Brahmanas, having come
thereto, they were all slain on the spot. Thus the name of that region, O
Brahmanas, hath been explained, and the country described to you as a
sacred and delightful one. I have mentioned the whole of what relateth to
it as the region is celebrated throughout the three worlds.'

"The Rishis said, 'We have a desire to know, O son of Suta, what is
implied by the term Akshauhini that hath been used by thee. Tell us in
full what is the number of horse and foot, chariots and elephants, which
compose an Akshauhini for thou art fully informed.'

"Sauti said, 'One chariot, one elephant, five foot-soldiers, and three
horses form one Patti; three pattis make one Sena-mukha; three sena-mukhas
are called a Gulma; three gulmas, a Gana; three ganas, a Vahini; three
vahinis together are called a Pritana; three pritanas form a Chamu; three
chamus, one Anikini; and an anikini taken ten times forms, as it is styled
by those who know, an Akshauhini. O ye best of Brahmanas, arithmeticians
have calculated that the number of chariots in an Akshauhini is twenty-one
thousand eight hundred and seventy. The measure of elephants must be fixed
at the same number. O ye pure, you must know that the number of foot-
soldiers is one hundred and nine thousand, three hundred and fifty, the
number of horse is sixty-five thousand, six hundred and ten. These, O
Brahmanas, as fully explained by me, are the numbers of an Akshauhini as
said by those acquainted with the principles of numbers. O best of
Brahmanas, according to this calculation were composed the eighteen
Akshauhinis of the Kaurava and the Pandava army. Time, whose acts are
wonderful assembled them on that spot and having made the Kauravas the
cause, destroyed them all. Bhishma acquainted with choice of weapons,
fought for ten days. Drona protected the Kaurava Vahinis for five days.
Karna the desolator of hostile armies fought for two days; and Salya for
half a day. After that lasted for half a day the encounter with clubs
between Duryodhana and Bhima. At the close of that day, Aswatthaman and
Kripa destroyed the army of Yudishthira in the night while sleeping
without suspicion of danger.

"'O Saunaka, this best of narrations called Bharata which has begun to be
repeated at thy sacrifice, was formerly repeated at the sacrifice of
Janamejaya by an intelligent disciple of Vyasa. It is divided into several
sections; in the beginning are Paushya, Pauloma, and Astika parvas,
describing in full the valour and renown of kings. It is a work whose
description, diction, and sense are varied and wonderful. It contains an
account of various manners and rites. It is accepted by the wise, as the
state called Vairagya is by men desirous of final release. As Self among
things to be known, as life among things that are dear, so is this history
that furnisheth the means of arriving at the knowledge of Brahma the first
among all the sastras. There is not a story current in this world but doth
depend upon this history even as the body upon the foot that it taketh. As
masters of good lineage are ever attended upon by servants desirous of
preferment so is the Bharata cherished by all poets. As the words
constituting the several branches of knowledge appertaining to the world
and the Veda display only vowels and consonants, so this excellent history
displayeth only the highest wisdom.

"'Listen, O ye ascetics, to the outlines of the several divisions (parvas)
of this history called Bharata, endued with great wisdom, of sections and
feet that are wonderful and various, of subtile meanings and logical
connections, and embellished with the substance of the Vedas.

"'The first parva is called Anukramanika; the second, Sangraha; then
Paushya; then Pauloma; the Astika; then Adivansavatarana. Then comes the
Sambhava of wonderful and thrilling incidents. Then comes Jatugrihadaha
(setting fire to the house of lac) and then Hidimbabadha (the killing of
Hidimba) parvas; then comes Baka-badha (slaughter of Baka) and then
Chitraratha. The next is called Swayamvara (selection of husband by
Panchali), in which Arjuna by the exercise of Kshatriya virtues, won
Draupadi for wife. Then comes Vaivahika (marriage). Then comes
Viduragamana (advent of Vidura), Rajyalabha (acquirement of kingdom),
Arjuna-banavasa (exile of Arjuna) and Subhadra-harana (the carrying away
of Subhadra). After these come Harana-harika, Khandava-daha (the burning
of the Khandava forest) and Maya-darsana (meeting with Maya the Asura
architect). Then come Sabha, Mantra, Jarasandha, Digvijaya (general
campaign). After Digvijaya come Raja-suyaka, Arghyaviharana (the robbing
of the Arghya) and Sisupala-badha (the killing of Sisupala). After these,
Dyuta (gambling), Anudyuta (subsequent to gambling), Aranyaka, and Krimira-
badha (destruction of Krimira). The Arjuna-vigamana (the travels of
Arjuna), Kairati. In the last hath been described the battle between
Arjuna and Mahadeva in the guise of a hunter. After this Indra-
lokavigamana (the journey to the regions of Indra); then that mine of
religion and virtue, the highly pathetic Nalopakhyana (the story of Nala).
After this last, Tirtha-yatra or the pilgrimage of the wise prince of the
Kurus, the death of Jatasura, and the battle of the Yakshas. Then the
battle with the Nivata-kavachas, Ajagara, and Markandeya-Samasya (meeting
with Markandeya). Then the meeting of Draupadi and Satyabhama, Ghoshayatra,
Mirga-Swapna (dream of the deer). Then the story of Brihadaranyaka and
then Aindradrumna. Then Draupadi-harana (the abduction of Draupadi),
Jayadratha-bimoksana (the release of Jayadratha). Then the story of
'Savitri' illustrating the great merit of connubial chastity. After this
last, the story of 'Rama'. The parva that comes next is called 'Kundala-
harana' (the theft of the ear-rings). That which comes next is 'Aranya'
and then 'Vairata'. Then the entry of the Pandavas and the fulfilment of
their promise (of living unknown for one year). Then the destruction of
the 'Kichakas', then the attempt to take the kine (of Virata by the
Kauravas). The next is called the marriage of Abhimanyu with the daughter
of Virata. The next you must know is the most wonderful parva called
Udyoga. The next must be known by the name of 'Sanjaya-yana' (the arrival
of Sanjaya). Then comes 'Prajagara' (the sleeplessness of Dhritarashtra
owing to his anxiety). Then Sanatsujata, in which are the mysteries of
spiritual philosophy. Then 'Yanasaddhi', and then the arrival of Krishna.
Then the story of 'Matali' and then of 'Galava'. Then the stories of
'Savitri', 'Vamadeva', and 'Vainya'. Then the story of 'Jamadagnya and
Shodasarajika'. Then the arrival of Krishna at the court, and then
Bidulaputrasasana. Then the muster of troops and the story of Sheta. Then,
must you know, comes the quarrel of the high-souled Karna. Then the march
to the field of the troops of both sides. The next hath been called
numbering the Rathis and Atirathas. Then comes the arrival of the
messenger Uluka which kindled the wrath (of the Pandavas). The next that
comes, you must know, is the story of Amba. Then comes the thrilling story
of the installation of Bhishma as commander-in-chief. The next is called
the creation of the insular region Jambu; then Bhumi; then the account
about the formation of islands. Then comes the 'Bhagavat-gita'; and then
the death of Bhishma. Then the installation of Drona; then the destruction
of the 'Sansaptakas'. Then the death of Abhimanyu; and then the vow of
Arjuna (to slay Jayadratha). Then the death of Jayadratha, and then of
Ghatotkacha. Then, must you know, comes the story of the death of Drona of
surprising interest. The next that comes is called the discharge of the
weapon called Narayana. Then, you know, is Karna, and then Salya. Then
comes the immersion in the lake, and then the encounter (between Bhima and
Duryodhana) with clubs. Then comes Saraswata, and then the descriptions of
holy shrines, and then genealogies. Then comes Sauptika describing
incidents disgraceful (to the honour of the Kurus). Then comes the
'Aisika' of harrowing incidents. Then comes 'Jalapradana' oblations of
water to the manes of the deceased, and then the wailings of the women.
The next must be known as 'Sraddha' describing the funeral rites performed
for the slain Kauravas. Then comes the destruction of the Rakshasa
Charvaka who had assumed the disguise of a Brahmana (for deceiving
Yudhishthira). Then the coronation of the wise Yudhishthira. The next is
called the 'Grihapravibhaga'. Then comes 'Santi', then
'Rajadharmanusasana', then 'Apaddharma', then 'Mokshadharma'. Those that
follow are called respectively 'Suka-prasna-abhigamana', 'Brahma-
prasnanusana', the origin of 'Durvasa', the disputations with Maya. The
next is to be known as 'Anusasanika'. Then the ascension of Bhishma to
heaven. Then the horse-sacrifice, which when read purgeth all sins away.
The next must be known as the 'Anugita' in which are words of spiritual
philosophy. Those that follow are called 'Asramvasa', 'Puttradarshana'
(meeting with the spirits of the deceased sons), and the arrival of Narada.
The next is called 'Mausala' which abounds with terrible and cruel
incidents. Then comes 'Mahaprasthanika' and ascension to heaven. Then
comes the Purana which is called Khilvansa. In this last are contained
'Vishnuparva', Vishnu's frolics and feats as a child, the destruction of
'Kansa', and lastly, the very wonderful 'Bhavishyaparva' (in which there
are prophecies regarding the future).

The high-souled Vyasa composed these hundred parvas of which the above is
only an abridgement: having distributed them into eighteen, the son of
Suta recited them consecutively in the forest of Naimisha as follows:

'In the Adi parva are contained Paushya, Pauloma, Astika, Adivansavatara,
Samva, the burning of the house of lac, the slaying of Hidimba, the
destruction of the Asura Vaka, Chitraratha, the Swayamvara of Draupadi,
her marriage after the overthrow of rivals in war, the arrival of Vidura,
the restoration, Arjuna's exile, the abduction of Subhadra, the gift and
receipt of the marriage dower, the burning of the Khandava forest, and the
meeting with (the Asura-architect) Maya. The Paushya parva treats of the
greatness of Utanka, and the Pauloma, of the sons of Bhrigu. The Astika
describes the birth of Garuda and of the Nagas (snakes), the churning of
the ocean, the incidents relating to the birth of the celestial steed
Uchchaihsrava, and finally, the dynasty of Bharata, as described in the
Snake-sacrifice of king Janamejaya. The Sambhava parva narrates the birth
of various kings and heroes, and that of the sage, Krishna Dwaipayana: the
partial incarnations of deities, the generation of Danavas and Yakshas of
great prowess, and serpents, Gandharvas, birds, and of all creatures; and
lastly, of the life and adventures of king Bharata--the progenitor of the
line that goes by his name--the son born of Sakuntala in the hermitage of
the ascetic Kanwa. This parva also describes the greatness of Bhagirathi,
and the births of the Vasus in the house of Santanu and their ascension to
heaven. In this parva is also narrated the birth of Bhishma uniting in
himself portions of the energies of the other Vasus, his renunciation of
royalty and adoption of the Brahmacharya mode of life, his adherence to
his vows, his protection of Chitrangada, and after the death of
Chitrangada, his protection of his younger brother, Vichitravirya, and his
placing the latter on the throne: the birth of Dharma among men in
consequence of the curse of Animondavya; the births of Dhritarashtra and
Pandu through the potency of Vyasa's blessings (?) and also the birth of
the Pandavas; the plottings of Duryodhana to send the sons of Pandu to
Varanavata, and the other dark counsels of the sons of Dhritarashtra in
regard to the Pandavas; then the advice administered to Yudhishthira on
his way by that well-wisher of the Pandavas--Vidura--in the mlechchha
language--the digging of the hole, the burning of Purochana and the
sleeping woman of the fowler caste, with her five sons, in the house of
lac; the meeting of the Pandavas in the dreadful forest with Hidimba, and
the slaying of her brother Hidimba by Bhima of great prowess. The birth of
Ghatotkacha; the meeting of the Pandavas with Vyasa and in accordance with
his advice their stay in disguise in the house of a Brahmana in the city
of Ekachakra; the destruction of the Asura Vaka, and the amazement of the
populace at the sight; the extra-ordinary births of Krishna and
Dhrishtadyumna; the departure of the Pandavas for Panchala in obedience to
the injunction of Vyasa, and moved equally by the desire of winning the
hand of Draupadi on learning the tidings of the Swayamvara from the lips
of a Brahmana; victory of Arjuna over a Gandharva, called Angaraparna, on
the banks of the Bhagirathi, his contraction of friendship with his
adversary, and his hearing from the Gandharva the history of Tapati,
Vasishtha and Aurva. This parva treats of the journey of the Pandavas
towards Panchala, the acquisition of Draupadi in the midst of all the
Rajas, by Arjuna, after having successfully pierced the mark; and in the
ensuing fight, the defeat of Salya, Karna, and all the other crowned heads
at the hands of Bhima and Arjuna of great prowess; the ascertainment by
Balarama and Krishna, at the sight of these matchless exploits, that the
heroes were the Pandavas, and the arrival of the brothers at the house of
the potter where the Pandavas were staying; the dejection of Drupada on
learning that Draupadi was to be wedded to five husbands; the wonderful
story of the five Indras related in consequence; the extraordinary and
divinely-ordained wedding of Draupadi; the sending of Vidura by the sons
of Dhritarashtra as envoy to the Pandavas; the arrival of Vidura and his
sight to Krishna; the abode of the Pandavas in Khandava-prastha, and then
their rule over one half of the kingdom; the fixing of turns by the sons
of Pandu, in obedience to the injunction of Narada, for connubial
companionship with Krishna. In like manner hath the history of Sunda and
Upasunda been recited in this. This parva then treats of the departure of
Arjuna for the forest according to the vow, he having seen Draupadi and
Yudhishthira sitting together as he entered the chamber to take out arms
for delivering the kine of a certain Brahmana. This parva then describes
Arjuna's meeting on the way with Ulupi, the daughter of a Naga (serpent);
it then relates his visits to several sacred spots; the birth of
Vabhruvahana; the deliverance by Arjuna of the five celestial damsels who
had been turned into alligators by the imprecation of a Brahmana, the
meeting of Madhava and Arjuna on the holy spot called Prabhasa; the
carrying away of Subhadra by Arjuna, incited thereto by her brother
Krishna, in the wonderful car moving on land and water, and through mid-
air, according to the wish of the rider; the departure for Indraprastha,
with the dower; the conception in the womb of Subhadra of that prodigy of
prowess, Abhimanyu; Yajnaseni's giving birth to children; then follows the
pleasure-trip of Krishna and Arjuna to the banks of the Jamuna and the
acquisition by them of the discus and the celebrated bow Gandiva; the
burning of the forest of Khandava; the rescue of Maya by Arjuna, and the
escape of the serpent,--and the begetting of a son by that best of Rishis,
Mandapala, in the womb of the bird Sarngi. This parva is divided by Vyasa
into two hundred and twenty-seven chapters. These two hundred and twenty-
seven chapters contain eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-four slokas.

The second is the extensive parva called Sabha or the assembly, full of
matter. The subjects of this parva are the establishment of the grand hall
by the Pandavas; their review of their retainers; the description of the
lokapalas by Narada well-acquainted with the celestial regions; the
preparations for the Rajasuya sacrifice; the destruction of Jarasandha;
the deliverance by Vasudeva of the princes confined in the mountain-pass;
the campaign of universal conquest by the Pandavas; the arrival of the
princes at the Rajasuya sacrifice with tribute; the destruction of
Sisupala on the occasion of the sacrifice, in connection with offering of
arghya; Bhimasena's ridicule of Duryodhana in the assembly; Duryodhana's
sorrow and envy at the sight of the magnificent scale on which the
arrangements had been made; the indignation of Duryodhana in consequence,
and the preparations for the game of dice; the defeat of Yudhishthira at
play by the wily Sakuni; the deliverance by Dhritarashtra of his afflicted
daughter-in-law Draupadi plunged in the sea of distress caused by the
gambling, as of a boat tossed about by the tempestuous waves. The
endeavours of Duryodhana to engage Yudhishthira again in the game; and the
exile of the defeated Yudhishthira with his brothers. These constitute
what has been called by the great Vyasa the Sabha Parva. This parva is
divided into seventh-eight sections, O best of Brahmanas, of two thousand,
five hundred and seven slokas.

Then comes the third parva called Aranyaka (relating to the forest) This
parva treats of the wending of the Pandavas to the forest and the citizens,
following the wise Yudhishthira, Yudhishthira's adoration of the god of
day; according to the injunctions of Dhaumya, to be gifted with the power
of maintaining the dependent Brahmanas with food and drink: the creation
of food through the grace of the Sun: the expulsion by Dhritarashtra of
Vidura who always spoke for his master's good; Vidura's coming to the
Pandavas and his return to Dhritarashtra at the solicitation of the latter;
the wicked Duryodhana's plottings to destroy the forest-ranging Pandavas,
being incited thereto by Karna; the appearance of Vyasa and his dissuasion
of Duryodhana bent on going to the forest; the history of Surabhi; the
arrival of Maitreya; his laying down to Dhritarashtra the course of action;
and his curse on Duryodhana; Bhima's slaying of Kirmira in battle; the
coming of the Panchalas and the princes of the Vrishni race to
Yudhishthira on hearing of his defeat at the unfair gambling by Sakuni;
Dhananjaya's allaying the wrath of Krishna; Draupadi's lamentations before
Madhava; Krishna's cheering her; the fall of Sauva also has been here
described by the Rishi; also Krishna's bringing Subhadra with her son to
Dwaraka; and Dhrishtadyumna's bringing the son of Draupadi to Panchala;
the entrance of the sons of Pandu into the romantic Dwaita wood;
conversation of Bhima, Yudhishthira, and Draupadi; the coming of Vyasa to
the Pandavas and his endowing Yudhishthira with the power of Pratismriti;
then, after the departure of Vyasa, the removal of the Pandavas to the
forest of Kamyaka; the wanderings of Arjuna of immeasurable prowess in
search of weapons; his battle with Mahadeva in the guise of a hunter; his
meeting with the lokapalas and receipt of weapons from them; his journey
to the regions of Indra for arms and the consequent anxiety of
Dhritarashtra; the wailings and lamentations of Yudhishthira on the
occasion of his meeting with the worshipful great sage Brihadaswa. Here
occurs the holy and highly pathetic story of Nala illustrating the
patience of Damayanti and the character of Nala. Then the acquirement by
Yudhishthira of the mysteries of dice from the same great sage; then the
arrival of the Rishi Lomasa from the heavens to where the Pandavas were,
and the receipt by these high-souled dwellers in the woods of the
intelligence brought by the Rishi of their brother Arjuna staving in the
heavens; then the pilgrimage of the Pandavas to various sacred spots in
accordance with the message of Arjuna, and their attainment of great merit
and virtue consequent on such pilgrimage; then the pilgrimage of the great
sage Narada to the shrine Putasta; also the pilgrimage of the high-souled
Pandavas. Here is the deprivation of Karna of his ear-rings by Indra. Here
also is recited the sacrificial magnificence of Gaya; then the story of
Agastya in which the Rishi ate up the Asura Vatapi, and his connubial
connection with Lopamudra from the desire of offspring. Then the story of
Rishyasringa who adopted Brahmacharya mode of life from his very boyhood;
then the history of Rama of great prowess, the son of Jamadagni, in which
has been narrated the death of Kartavirya and the Haihayas; then the
meeting between the Pandavas and the Vrishnis in the sacred spot called
Prabhasa; then the story of Su-kanya in which Chyavana, the son of Bhrigu,
made the twins, Aswinis, drink, at the sacrifice of king Saryati, the Soma
juice (from which they had been excluded by the other gods), and in which
besides is shown how Chyavana himself acquired perpetual youth (as a boon
from the grateful Aswinis). Then hath been described the history of king
Mandhata; then the history of prince Jantu; and how king Somaka by
offering up his only son (Jantu) in sacrifice obtained a hundred others;
then the excellent history of the hawk and the pigeon; then the
examination of king Sivi by Indra, Agni, and Dharma; then the story of
Ashtavakra, in which occurs the disputation, at the sacrifice of Janaka,
between that Rishi and the first of logicians, Vandi, the son of Varuna;
the defeat of Vandi by the great Ashtavakra, and the release by the Rishi
of his father from the depths of the ocean. Then the story of Yavakrita,
and then that of the great Raivya: then the departure (of the Pandavas)
for Gandhamadana and their abode in the asylum called Narayana; then
Bhimasena's journey to Gandhamadana at the request of Draupadi (in search
of the sweet-scented flower). Bhima's meeting on his way, in a grove of
bananas, with Hanuman, the son of Pavana of great prowess; Bhima's bath in
the tank and the destruction of the flowers therein for obtaining the
sweet-scented flower (he was in search of); his consequent battle with the
mighty Rakshasas and the Yakshas of great prowess including Hanuman; the
destruction of the Asura Jata by Bhima; the meeting (of the Pandavas) with
the royal sage Vrishaparva; their departure for the asylum of Arshtishena
and abode therein: the incitement of Bhima (to acts of vengeance) by
Draupadi. Then is narrated the ascent on the hills of Kailasa by Bhimasena,
his terrific battle with the mighty Yakshas headed by Hanuman; then the
meeting of the Pandavas with Vaisravana (Kuvera), and the meeting with
Arjuna after he had obtained for the purpose of Yudhishthira many
celestial weapons; then Arjuna's terrible encounter with the
Nivatakavachas dwelling in Hiranyaparva, and also with the Paulomas, and
the Kalakeyas; their destruction at the hands of Arjuna; the commencement
of the display of the celestial weapons by Arjuna before Yudhishthira, the
prevention of the same by Narada; the descent of the Pandavas from
Gandhamadana; the seizure of Bhima in the forest by a mighty serpent huge
as the mountain; his release from the coils of the snake, upon
Yudhishthira's answering certain questions; the return of the Pandavas to
the Kamyaka woods. Here is described the reappearance of Vasudeva to see
the mighty sons of Pandu; the arrival of Markandeya, and various recitals,
the history of Prithu the son of Vena recited by the great Rishi; the
stories of Saraswati and the Rishi Tarkhya. After these, is the story of
Matsya; other old stories recited by Markandeya; the stories of
Indradyumna and Dhundhumara; then the history of the chaste wife; the
history of Angira, the meeting and conversation of Draupadi and Satyabhama;
the return of the Pandavas to the forest of Dwaita; then the procession to
see the calves and the captivity of Duryodhana; and when the wretch was
being carried off, his rescue by Arjuna; here is Yudhishthira's dream of
the deer; then the re-entry of the Pandavas into the Kamyaka forest, here
also is the long story of Vrihidraunika. Here also is recited the story of
Durvasa; then the abduction by Jayadratha of Draupadi from the asylum; the
pursuit of the ravisher by Bhima swift as the air and the ill-shaving of
Jayadratha's crown at Bhima's hand. Here is the long history of Rama in
which is shown how Rama by his prowess slew Ravana in battle. Here also is
narrated the story of Savitri; then Karna's deprivation by Indra of his
ear-rings; then the presentation to Karna by the gratified Indra of a
Sakti (missile weapon) which had the virtue of killing only one person
against whom it might be hurled; then the story called Aranya in which
Dharma (the god of justice) gave advice to his son (Yudhishthira); in
which, besides is recited how the Pandavas after having obtained a boon
went towards the west. These are all included in the third Parva called
Aranyaka, consisting of two hundred and sixty-nine sections. The number of
slokas is eleven thousand, six hundred and sixty-four.

"The extensive Parva that comes next is called Virata. The Pandavas
arriving at the dominions of Virata saw in a cemetery on the outskirts of
the city a large shami tree whereon they kept their weapons. Here hath
been recited their entry into the city and their stay there in disguise.
Then the slaying by Bhima of the wicked Kichaka who, senseless with lust,
had sought Draupadi; the appointment by prince Duryodhana of clever spies;
and their despatch to all sides for tracing the Pandavas; the failure of
these to discover the mighty sons of Pandu; the first seizure of Virata's
kine by the Trigartas and the terrific battle that ensued; the capture of
Virata by the enemy and his rescue by Bhimasena; the release also of the
kine by the Pandava (Bhima); the seizure of Virata's kine again by the
Kurus; the defeat in battle of all the Kurus by the single-handed Arjuna;
the release of the king's kine; the bestowal by Virata of his daughter
Uttara for Arjuna's acceptance on behalf of his son by Subhadra--Abhimanyu
--the destroyer of foes. These are the contents of the extensive fourth
Parva--the Virata. The great Rishi Vyasa has composed in these sixty-seven
sections. The number of slokas is two thousand and fifty.

"Listen then to (the contents of) the fifth Parva which must be known as
Udyoga. While the Pandavas, desirous of victory, were residing in the
place called Upaplavya, Duryodhana and Arjuna both went at the same time
to Vasudeva, and said, "You should render us assistance in this war." The
high-souled Krishna, upon these words being uttered, replied, "O ye first
of men, a counsellor in myself who will not fight and one Akshauhini of
troops, which of these shall I give to which of you?" Blind to his own
interests, the foolish Duryodhana asked for the troops; while Arjuna
solicited Krishna as an unfighting counsellor. Then is described how, when
the king of Madra was coming for the assistance of the Pandavas,
Duryodhana, having deceived him on the way by presents and hospitality,
induced him to grant a boon and then solicited his assistance in battle;
how Salya, having passed his word to Duryodhana, went to the Pandavas and
consoled them by reciting the history of Indra's victory (over Vritra).
Then comes the despatch by the Pandavas of their Purohita (priest) to the
Kauravas. Then is described how king Dhritarashtra of great prowess,
having heard the word of the purohita of the Pandavas and the story of
Indra's victory decided upon sending his purohita and ultimately
despatched Sanjaya as envoy to the Pandavas from desire for peace. Here
hath been described the sleeplessness of Dhritarashtra from anxiety upon
hearing all about the Pandavas and their friends, Vasudeva and others. It
was on this occasion that Vidura addressed to the wise king Dhritarashtra
various counsels that were full of wisdom. It was here also that Sanat-
sujata recited to the anxious and sorrowing monarch the excellent truths
of spiritual philosophy. On the next morning Sanjaya spoke, in the court
of the King, of the identity of Vasudeva and Arjuna. It was then that the
illustrious Krishna, moved by kindness and a desire for peace, went
himself to the Kaurava capital, Hastinapura, for bringing about peace.
Then comes the rejection by prince Duryodhana of the embassy of Krishna
who had come to solicit peace for the benefit of both parties. Here hath
been recited the story of Damvodvava; then the story of the high-souled
Matuli's search for a husband for his daughter: then the history of the
great sage Galava; then the story of the training and discipline of the
son of Bidula. Then the exhibition by Krishna, before the assembled Rajas,
of his Yoga powers upon learning the evil counsels of Duryodhana and Karna;
then Krishna's taking Karna in his chariot and his tendering to him of
advice, and Karna's rejection of the same from pride. Then the return of
Krishna, the chastiser of enemies from Hastinapura to Upaplavya, and his
narration to the Pandavas of all that had happened. It was then that those
oppressors of foes, the Pandavas, having heard all and consulted properly
with each other, made every preparation for war. Then comes the march from
Hastinapura, for battle, of foot-soldiers, horses, charioteers and
elephants. Then the tale of the troops by both parties. Then the despatch
by prince Duryodhana of Uluka as envoy to the Pandavas on the day previous
to the battle. Then the tale of charioteers of different classes. Then the
story of Amba. These all have been described in the fifth Parva called
Udyoga of the Bharata, abounding with incidents appertaining to war and
peace. O ye ascetics, the great Vyasa hath composed one hundred and eighty-
six sections in this Parva. The number of slokas also composed in this by
the great Rishi is six thousand, six hundred and ninety-eight.

"Then is recited the Bhishma Parva replete with wonderful incidents. In
this hath been narrated by Sanjaya the formation of the region known as
Jambu. Here hath been described the great depression of Yudhishthira's
army, and also a fierce fight for ten successive days. In this the high-
souled Vasudeva by reasons based on the philosophy of final release drove
away Arjuna's compunction springing from the latter's regard for his
kindred (whom he was on the eve of slaying). In this the magnanimous
Krishna, attentive to the welfare of Yudhishthira, seeing the loss
inflicted (on the Pandava army), descended swiftly from his chariot
himself and ran, with dauntless breast, his driving whip in hand, to
effect the death of Bhishma. In this, Krishna also smote with piercing
words Arjuna, the bearer of the Gandiva and the foremost in battle among
all wielders of weapons. In this, the foremost of bowmen, Arjuna, placing
Shikandin before him and piercing Bhishma with his sharpest arrows felled
him from his chariot. In this, Bhishma lay stretched on his bed of arrows.
This extensive Parva is known as the sixth in the Bharata. In this have
been composed one hundred and seventeen sections. The number of slokas is
five thousand, eight hundred and eighty-four as told by Vyasa conversant
with the Vedas.

"Then is recited the wonderful Parva called Drona full of incidents. First
comes the installation in the command of the army of the great instructor
in arms, Drona: then the vow made by that great master of weapons of
seizing the wise Yudhishthira in battle to please Duryodhana; then the
retreat of Arjuna from the field before the Sansaptakas, then the
overthrow of Bhagadatta like to a second Indra in the field, with the
elephant Supritika, by Arjuna; then the death of the hero Abhimanyu in his
teens, alone and unsupported, at the hands of many Maharathas including
Jayadratha; then after the death of Abhimanyu, the destruction by Arjuna,
in battle of seven Akshauhinis of troops and then of Jayadratha; then the
entry, by Bhima of mighty arms and by that foremost of warriors-in-chariot,
Satyaki, into the Kaurava ranks impenetrable even to the gods, in search
of Arjuna in obedience to the orders of Yudhishthira, and the destruction
of the remnant of the Sansaptakas. In the Drona Parva, is the death of
Alambusha, of Srutayus, of Jalasandha, of Shomadatta, of Virata, of the
great warrior-in-chariot Drupada, of Ghatotkacha and others; in this Parva,
Aswatthaman, excited beyond measure at the fall of his father in battle,
discharged the terrible weapon Narayana. Then the glory of Rudra in
connection with the burning (of the three cities). Then the arrival of
Vyasa and recital by him of the glory of Krishna and Arjuna. This is the
great seventh Parva of the Bharata in which all the heroic chiefs and
princes mentioned were sent to their account. The number of sections in
this is one hundred and seventy. The number of slokas as composed in the
Drona Parva by Rishi Vyasa, the son of Parasara and the possessor of true
knowledge after much meditation, is eight thousand, nine hundred and nine.

"Then comes the most wonderful Parva called Karna. In this is narrated the
appointment of the wise king of Madra as (Karna's) charioteer. Then the
history of the fall of the Asura Tripura. Then the application to each
other by Karna and Salya of harsh words on their setting out for the field,
then the story of the swan and the crow recited in insulting allusion:
then the death of Pandya at the hands of the high-souled Aswatthaman; then
the death of Dandasena; then that of Darda; then Yudhishthira's imminent
risk in single combat with Karna in the presence of all the warriors; then
the mutual wrath of Yudhishthira and Arjuna; then Krishna's pacification
of Arjuna. In this Parva, Bhima, in fulfilment of his vow, having ripped
open Dussasana's breast in battle drank the blood of his heart. Then
Arjuna slew the great Karna in single combat. Readers of the Bharata call
this the eighth Parva. The number of sections in this is sixty-nine and
the number of slokas is four thousand, nine hundred and sixty-tour.

"Then hath been recited the wonderful Parva called Salya. After all the
great warriors had been slain, the king of Madra became the leader of the
(Kaurava) army. The encounters one after another, of charioteers, have
been here described. Then comes the fall of the great Salya at the hands
of Yudhishthira, the Just. Here also is the death of Sakuni in battle at
the hands of Sahadeva. Upon only a small remnant of the troops remaining
alive after the immense slaughter, Duryodhana went to the lake and
creating for himself room within its waters lay stretched there for some
time. Then is narrated the receipt of this intelligence by Bhima from the
fowlers: then is narrated how, moved by the insulting speeches of the
intelligent Yudhishthira, Duryodhana ever unable to bear affronts, came
out of the waters. Then comes the encounter with clubs, between Duryodhana
and Bhima; then the arrival, at the time of such encounter, of Balarama:
then is described the sacredness of the Saraswati; then the progress of
the encounter with clubs; then the fracture of Duryodhana's thighs in
battle by Bhima with (a terrific hurl of) his mace. These all have been
described in the wonderful ninth Parva. In this the number of sections is
fifty-nine and the number of slokas composed by the great Vyasa--the
spreader of the fame of the Kauravas--is three thousand, two hundred and

"Then shall I describe the Parva called Sauptika of frightful incidents.
On the Pandavas having gone away, the mighty charioteers, Kritavarman,
Kripa, and the son of Drona, came to the field of battle in the evening
and there saw king Duryodhana lying on the ground, his thighs broken, and
himself covered with blood. Then the great charioteer, the son of Drona,
of terrible wrath, vowed, 'without killing all the Panchalas including
Drishtadyumna, and the Pandavas also with all their allies, I will not
take off armour.' Having spoken those words, the three warriors leaving
Duryodhana's side entered the great forest just as the sun was setting.
While sitting under a large banian tree in the night, they saw an owl
killing numerous crows one after another. At the sight of this,
Aswatthaman, his heart full of rage at the thought of his father's fate,
resolved to slay the slumbering Panchalas. And wending to the gate of the
camp, he saw there a Rakshasa of frightful visage, his head reaching to
the very heavens, guarding the entrance. And seeing that Rakshasa
obstructing all his weapons, the son of Drona speedily pacified by worship
the three-eyed Rudra. And then accompanied by Kritavarman and Kripa he
slew all the sons of Draupadi, all the Panchalas with Dhrishtadyumna and
others, together with their relatives, slumbering unsuspectingly in the
night. All perished on that fatal night except the five Pandavas and the
great warrior Satyaki. Those escaped owing to Krishna's counsels, then the
charioteer of Dhrishtadyumna brought to the Pandavas intelligence of the
slaughter of the slumbering Panchalas by the son of Drona. Then Draupadi
distressed at the death of her sons and brothers and father sat before her
lords resolved to kill herself by fasting. Then Bhima of terrible prowess,
moved by the words of Draupadi, resolved, to please her; and speedily
taking up his mace followed in wrath the son of his preceptor in arms. The
son of Drona from fear of Bhimasena and impelled by the fates and moved
also by anger discharged a celestial weapon saying, 'This is for the
destruction of all the Pandavas'; then Krishna saying. 'This shall not be',
neutralised Aswatthaman's speech. Then Arjuna neutralised that weapon by
one of his own. Seeing the wicked Aswatthaman's destructive intentions,
Dwaipayana and Krishna pronounced curses on him which the latter returned.
Pandava then deprived the mighty warrior-in-chariot Aswatthaman, of the
jewel on his head, and became exceedingly glad, and, boastful of their
success, made a present of it to the sorrowing Draupadi. Thus the tenth
Parva, called Sauptika, is recited. The great Vyasa hath composed this in
eighteen sections. The number of slokas also composed (in this) by the
great reciter of sacred truths is eight hundred and seventy. In this Parva
has been put together by the great Rishi the two Parvas called Sauptika
and Aishika.

"After this hath been recited the highly pathetic Parva called Stri,
Dhritarashtra of prophetic eye, afflicted at the death of his children,
and moved by enmity towards Bhima, broke into pieces a statue of hard iron
deftly placed before him by Krishna (as substitute of Bhima). Then Vidura,
removing the distressed Dhritarashtra's affection for worldly things by
reasons pointing to final release, consoled that wise monarch. Then hath
been described the wending of the distressed Dhritarashtra accompanied by
the ladies of his house to the field of battle of the Kauravas. Here
follow the pathetic wailings of the wives of the slain heroes. Then the
wrath of Gandhari and Dhritarashtra and their loss of consciousness. Then
the Kshatriya ladies saw those heroes,--their unreturning sons, brothers,
and fathers,--lying dead on the field. Then the pacification by Krishna of
the wrath of Gandhari distressed at the death of her sons and grandsons.
Then the cremation of the bodies of the deceased Rajas with due rites by
that monarch (Yudhishthira) of great wisdom and the foremost also of all
virtuous men. Then upon the presentation of water of the manes of the
deceased princes having commenced, the story of Kunti's acknowledgment of
Karna as her son born in secret. Those have all been described by the
great Rishi Vyasa in the highly pathetic eleventh Parva. Its perusal
moveth every feeling heart with sorrow and even draweth tears from the
eyes. The number of sections composed is twenty-seven. The number of
slokas is seven hundred and seventy-five.

"Twelfth in number cometh the Santi Parva, which increaseth the
understanding and in which is related the despondency of Yudhishthira on
his having slain his fathers, brothers, sons, maternal uncles and
matrimonial relations. In this Parva is described how from his bed of
arrows Bhishma expounded various systems of duties worth the study of
kings desirous of knowledge; this Parva expounded the duties relative to
emergencies, with full indications of time and reasons. By understanding
these, a person attaineth to consummate knowledge. The mysteries also of
final emancipation have been expatiated upon. This is the twelfth Parva
the favourite of the wise. It consists of three hundred and thirty-nine
sections, and contains fourteen thousand, seven hundred and thirty-two

"Next in order is the excellent Anusasana Parva. In it is described how
Yudhishthira, the king of the Kurus, was reconciled to himself on hearing
the exposition of duties by Bhishma, the son of Bhagirathi. This Parva
treats of rules in detail and of Dharma and Artha; then the rules of
charity and its merits; then the qualifications of donees, and the supreme
ride-regarding gifts. This Parva also describes the ceremonials of
individual duty, the rules of conduct and the matchless merit of truth.
This Parva showeth the great merit of Brahmanas and kine, and unraveleth
the mysteries of duties in relation to time and place. These are embodied
in the excellent Parva called Anusasana of varied incidents. In this hath
been described the ascension of Bhishma to Heaven. This is the thirteenth
Parva which hath laid down accurately the various duties of men. The
number of sections, in this is one hundred and forty-six. The number of
slokas is eight thousand.

"Then comes the fourteenth Parva Aswamedhika. In this is the excellent
story of Samvarta and Marutta. Then is described the discovery (by the
Pandavas) of golden treasuries; and then the birth of Parikshit who was
revived by Krishna after having been burnt by the (celestial) weapon of
Aswatthaman. The battles of Arjuna the son of Pandu, while following the
sacrificial horse let loose, with various princes who in wrath seized it.
Then is shown the great risk of Arjuna in his encounter with Vabhruvahana
the son of Chitrangada (by Arjuna) the appointed daughter of the chief of
Manipura. Then the story of the mongoose during the performance of the
horse-sacrifice. This is the most wonderful Parva called Aswamedhika. The
number of sections is one hundred and three. The number of slokas composed
(in this) by Vyasa of true knowledge is three thousand, three hundred and

"Then comes the fifteenth Parva called Asramvasika. In this, Dhritarashtra,
abdicating the kingdom, and accompanied by Gandhari and Vidura went to the
woods. Seeing this, the virtuous Pritha also, ever engaged in cherishing
her superiors, leaving the court of her sons, followed the old couple. In
this is described the wonderful meeting through the kindness of Vyasa of
the king (Dhritarashtra) with the spirits of his slain children, grand-
children, and other princes, returned from the other world. Then the
monarch abandoning his sorrows acquired with his wife the highest fruit of
his meritorious actions. In this Parva, Vidura after having leaned on
virtue all his life attaineth to the most meritorious state.

"The learned son of Gavalgana, Sanjaya, also of passions under full
control, and the foremost of ministers, attained, in the Parva, to the
blessed state. In this, Yudhishthira the just met Narada and heard from
him about the extinction of the race of Vrishnis. This is the very
wonderful Parva called Asramvasika. The number of sections in this is
forty-two, and the number of slokas composed by Vyasa cognisant of truth
is one thousand five hundred and six.

"After this, you know, comes the Maushala of painful incidents. In this,
those lion-hearted heroes (of the race of Vrishni) with the scars of many
a field on their bodies, oppressed with the curse of a Brahmana, while
deprived of reason from drink, impelled by the fates, slew each other on
the shores of the Salt Sea with the Eraka grass which (in their hands)
became (invested with the fatal attributes of the) thunder. In this, both
Balarama and Kesava (Krishna) after causing the extermination of their
race, their hour having come, themselves did not rise superior to the sway
of all-destroying Time. In this, Arjuna the foremost among men, going to
Dwaravati (Dwaraka) and seeing the city destitute of the Vrishnis was much
affected and became exceedingly sorry. Then after the funeral of his
maternal uncle Vasudeva the foremost among the Yadus (Vrishnis), he saw
the heroes of the Yadu race lying stretched in death on the spot where
they had been drinking. He then caused the cremation of the bodies of the
illustrious Krishna and Balarama and of the principal members of the
Vrishni race. Then as he was journeying from Dwaraka with the women and
children, the old and the decrepit--the remnants of the Yadu race--he was
met on the way by a heavy calamity. He witnessed also the disgrace of his
bow Gandiva and the unpropitiousness of his celestial weapons. Seeing all
this, Arjuna became despondent and, pursuant to Vyasa's advice, went to
Yudhishthira and solicited permission to adopt the Sannyasa mode of life.
This is the sixteenth Parva called Maushala. The number of sections is
eight and the number of slokas composed by Vyasa cognisant of truth is
three hundred and twenty.

"The next is Mahaprasthanika, the seventeenth Parva.

"In this, those foremost among men the Pandavas abdicating their kingdom
went with Draupadi on their great journey called Mahaprasthana. In this,
they came across Agni, having arrived on the shore of the sea of red
waters. In this, asked by Agni himself, Arjuna worshipped him duly,
returned to him the excellent celestial bow called Gandiva. In this,
leaving his brothers who dropped one after another and Draupadi also,
Yudhishthira went on his journey without once looking back on them. This
the seventeenth Parva is called Mahaprasthanika. The number of sections in
this is three. The number of slokas also composed by Vyasa cognisant of
truth is three hundred and twenty.

"The Parva that comes after this, you must know, is the extraordinary one
called Svarga of celestial incidents. Then seeing the celestial car come
to take him, Yudhishthira moved by kindness towards the dog that
accompanied him, refused to ascend it without his companion. Observing the
illustrious Yudhishthira's steady adherence to virtue, Dharma (the god of
justice) abandoning his canine form showed himself to the king. Then
Yudhishthira ascending to heaven felt much pain. The celestial messenger
showed him hell by an act of deception. Then Yudhishthira, the soul of
justice, heard the heart-rending lamentations of his brothers abiding in
that region under the discipline of Yama. Then Dharma and Indra showed
Yudhishthira the region appointed for sinners. Then Yudhishthira, after
leaving the human body by a plunge in the celestial Ganges, attained to
that region which his acts merited, and began to live in joy respected by
Indra and all other gods. This is the eighteenth Parva as narrated by the
illustrious Vyasa. The number of slokas composed, O ascetics, by the great
Rishi in this is two hundred and nine.

"The above are the contents of the Eighteen Parvas. In the appendix
(Khita) are the Harivansa and the Vavishya. The number of slokas contained
in the Harivansa is twelve thousand."

These are the contents of the section called Parva-sangraha. Sauti
continued, "Eighteen Akshauhinis of troops came together for battle. The
encounter that ensued was terrible and lasted for eighteen days. He who
knows the four Vedas with all the Angas and Upanishads, but does not know
this history (Bharata), cannot be regarded as wise. Vyasa of immeasurable
intelligence, has spoken of the Mahabharata as a treatise on Artha, on
Dharma, and on Kama. Those who have listened to his history can never bear
to listen to others, as, indeed, they who have listened to the sweet voice
of the male Kokila can never hear the dissonance of the crow's cawing. As
the formation of the three worlds proceedeth from the five elements, so do
the inspirations of all poets proceed from this excellent composition. O
ye Brahman, as the four kinds of creatures (viviparous, oviparous, born of
hot moisture and vegetables) are dependent on space for their existence,
so the Puranas depend upon this history. As all the senses depend for
their exercise upon the various modifications of the mind, so do all acts
(ceremonials) and moral qualities depend upon this treatise. There is not
a story current in the world but doth depend on this history, even as body
upon the food it taketh. All poets cherish the Bharata even as servants
desirous of preferment always attend upon masters of good lineage. Even as
the blessed domestic Asrama can never be surpassed by the three other
Asramas (modes of life) so no poets can surpass this poem.

"Ye ascetics, shake off all inaction. Let your hearts be fixed on virtue,
for virtue is the one only friend of him that has gone to the other world.
Even the most intelligent by cherishing wealth and wives can never make
these their own, nor are these possessions lasting. The Bharata uttered by
the lips of Dwaipayana is without a parallel; it is virtue itself and
sacred. It destroyeth sin and produceth good. He that listeneth to it
while it is being recited hath no need of a bath in the sacred waters of
Pushkara. A Brahmana, whatever sins he may commit during the day through
his senses, is freed from them all by reading the Bharata in the evening.
Whatever sins he may commit also in the night by deeds, words, or mind, he
is freed from them all by reading Bharata in the first twilight (morning).
He that giveth a hundred kine with horns mounted with gold to a Brahmana
well-posted up in the Vedas and all branches of learning, and he that
daily listeneth to the sacred narrations of the Bharata, acquireth equal
merit. As the wide ocean is easily passable by men having ships, so is
this extensive history of great excellence and deep import with the help
of this chapter called Parva sangraha."

Thus endeth the section called Parva-sangraha of the Adi Parva of the
blessed Mahabharata.


(Paushya Parva)

Sauti said, "Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, was, with his brothers,
attending his long sacrifice on the plains of Kurukshetra. His brothers
were three, Srutasena, Ugrasena, and Bhimasena. And as they were sitting
at the sacrifice, there arrived at the spot an offspring of Sarama (the
celestial bitch). And belaboured by the brothers of Janamejaya, he ran
away to his mother, crying in pain. And his mother seeing him crying
exceedingly asked him, 'Why criest thou so? Who hath beaten thee?' And
being thus questioned, he said unto his mother, 'I have been belaboured by
the brothers of Janamejaya.' And his mother replied, 'Thou hast committed
some fault for which hast thou been beaten!' He answered, 'I have not
committed any fault. I have not touched the sacrificial butter with my
tongue, nor have I even cast a look upon it.' His mother Sarama hearing
this and much distressed at the affliction of her son went to the place
where Janamejaya with his brothers was at his long-extending sacrifice.
And she addressed Janamejaya in anger, saying, 'This my son hath committed
no fault: he hath not looked upon your sacrificial butter, nor hath he
touched it with his tongue. Wherefore hath he been beaten?' They said not
a word in reply; whereupon she said, 'As ye have beaten my son who hath
committed no fault, therefore shall evil come upon ye, when ye least
expect it.'

"Janamejaya, thus addressed by the celestial bitch, Sarama, became
exceedingly alarmed and dejected. And after the sacrifice was concluded
returned to Hastinapura, and began to take great pains in searching for a
Purohita who could by procuring absolution for his sin, neutralise the
effect of the curse.

"One day Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, while a-hunting, observed in a
particular part of his dominions a hermitage where dwelt a certain Rishi
of fame, Srutasrava. He had a son named Somasrava deeply engaged in
ascetic devotions. Being desirous of appointing that son of the Rishi as
his Purohita, Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, saluted the Rishi and
addressed him, saying, 'O possessor of the six attributes, let this thy
son be my purohita.' The Rishi thus addressed, answered Janamejaya, 'O
Janamejaya, this my son, deep in ascetic devotions, accomplished in the
study of the Vedas, and endued with the full force of my asceticism, is
born of (the womb of) a she-snake that had drunk my vital fluid. He is
able to absolve thee from all offences save those committed against
Mahadeva. But he hath one particular habit, viz. he would grant to any
Brahmana whatever might be begged of him. If thou canst put up with it,
then thou take him.' Janamejaya thus addressed replied to the Rishi, 'It
shall be even so.' And accepting him for his Purohita, he returned to his
capital; and he then addressed his brothers saying, 'This is the person I
have chosen for my spiritual master; whatsoever he may say must be
complied with by you without examination.' And his brothers did as they
were directed. And giving these directions to his brothers, the king
marched towards Takshyashila and brought that country under his authority.

"About this time there was a Rishi, Ayoda-Dhaumya by name. And Ayoda-
Dhaumya had three disciples, Upamanyu, Aruni, and Veda. And the Rishi bade
one of these disciples, Aruni of Panchala, to go and stop up a breach in
the water-course of a certain field. And Aruni of Panchala, thus ordered
by his preceptor, repaired to the spot. And having gone there he saw that
he could not stop up the breach in the water-course by ordinary means. And
he was distressed because he could not do his preceptor's bidding. But at
length he saw a way and said, 'Well, I will do it in this way.' He then
went down into the breach and lay down himself there. And the water was
thus confined.

"And some time after, the preceptor Ayoda-Dhaumya asked his other
disciples where Aruni of Panchala was. And they answered, 'Sir, he hath
been sent by yourself saying, 'Go, stop up the breach in the water-course
of the field,' Thus reminded, Dhaumya, addressing his pupils, said, 'Then
let us all go to the place where he is.'

"And having arrived there, he shouted, 'Ho Aruni of Panchala! Where art
thou? Come hither, my child.' And Aruni hearing the voice of his preceptor
speedily came out of the water-course and stood before his preceptor. And
addressing the latter, Aruni said, 'Here I am in the breach of the water-
course. Not having been able to devise any other means, I entered myself
for the purpose of preventing the water running out. It is only upon
hearing thy voice that, having left it and allowed the waters to escape, I
have stood before thee. I salute thee, Master; tell me what I have to do.'

"The preceptor, thus addressed, replied, 'Because in getting up from the
ditch thou hast opened the water-course, thenceforth shalt thou be called
Uddalaka as a mark of thy preceptor's favour. And because my words have
been obeyed by thee, thou shalt obtain good fortune. And all the Vedas
shall shine in thee and all the Dharmasastras also.' And Aruni, thus
addressed by his preceptor, went to the country after his heart.

"The name of another of Ayoda-Dhaumya's disciples was Upamanyu. And
Dhaumya appointed him saying, 'Go, my child, Upamanyu, look after the kine.'
And according to his preceptor's orders, he went to tend the kine. And
having watched them all day, he returned in the evening to his preceptor's
house and standing before him he saluted him respectfully. And his
preceptor seeing him in good condition of body asked him, 'Upamanyu, my
child, upon what dost thou support thyself? Thou art exceedingly plump.'
And he answered, 'Sir, I support myself by begging.' And his preceptor
said, 'What is obtained in alms should not be used by thee without
offering it to me.' And Upamanyu, thus told, went away. And having
obtained alms, he offered the same to his preceptor. And his preceptor
took from him even the whole. And Upamanyu, thus treated, went to attend
the cattle. And having watched them all day, he returned in the evening to
his preceptor's abode. And he stood before his preceptor and saluted him
with respect. And his preceptor perceiving that he still continued to be
of good condition of body said unto him, 'Upamanyu, my child, I take from
thee even the whole of what thou obtainest in alms, without leaving
anything for thee. How then dost thou, at present, contrive to support
thyself?' And Upamanyu said unto his preceptor, 'Sir, having made over to
you all that I obtain in alms, I go a-begging a second time for supporting
myself.' And his preceptor then replied, 'This is not the way in which
thou shouldst obey the preceptor. By this thou art diminishing the support
of others that live by begging. Truly having supported thyself so, thou
hast proved thyself covetous.' And Upamanyu, having signified his assent
to all that his preceptor said, went away to attend the cattle. And having
watched them all day, he returned to his preceptor's house. And he stood
before his preceptor and saluted him respectfully. And his preceptor
observing that he was still fat, said again unto him, 'Upamanyu, my child,
I take from thee all thou obtainest in alms and thou dost not go a-begging
a second time, and yet art thou in healthy condition. How dost thou
support thyself?' And Upamanyu, thus questioned, answered, 'Sir, I now
live upon the milk of these cows.' And his preceptor thereupon told him,
'It is not lawful for thee to appropriate the milk without having first
obtained my consent.' And Upamanyu having assented to the justice of these
observations, went away to tend the kine. And when he returned to his
preceptor's abode, he stood before him and saluted him as usual. And his
preceptor seeing that he was still fat, said, 'Upamanyu, my child, thou
eatest no longer of alms, nor dost thou go a-begging a second time, not
even drinkest of the milk; yet art thou fat. By what means dost thou
contrive to live now? And Upamanyu replied, 'Sir, I now sip the froth that
these calves throw out, while sucking their mother's teats.' And the
preceptor said, 'These generous calves, I suppose, out of compassion for
thee, throw out large quantities of froth. Wouldst thou stand in the way
of their full meals by acting as thou hast done? Know that it is unlawful
for thee to drink the froth.' And Upamanyu, having signified his assent to
this, went as before to tend the cows. And restrained by his preceptor, he
feedeth not on alms, nor hath he anything else to eat; he drinketh not of
the milk, nor tasteth he of the froth!

"And Upamanyu, one day, oppressed by hunger, when in a forest, ate of the
leaves of the Arka (Asclepias gigantea). And his eyes being affected by
the pungent, acrimonious, crude, and saline properties of the leaves which
he had eaten, he became blind. And as he was crawling about, he fell into
a pit. And upon his not returning that day when the sun was sinking down
behind the summit of the western mountains, the preceptor observed to his
disciples that Upamanyu was not yet come. And they told him that he had
gone out with the cattle.

"The preceptor then said, 'Upamanyu being restrained by me from the use of
everything, is, of course, and therefore, doth not come home until it be
late. Let us then go in search of him.' And having said this, he went with
his disciples into the forest and began to shout, saying, 'Ho Upamanyu,
where art thou?' And Upamanyu hearing his preceptor's voice answered in a
loud tone, 'Here I am at the bottom of a well.' And his preceptor asked
him how he happened to be there. And Upamanyu replied, 'Having eaten of
the leaves of the Arka plant I became blind, and so have I fallen into
this well.' And his preceptor thereupon told him, 'Glorify the twin Aswins,
the joint physicians of the gods, and they will restore thee thy sight.'
And Upamanyu thus directed by his preceptor began to glorify the twin
Aswins, in the following words of the Rig Veda:

'Ye have existed before the creation! Ye first-born beings, ye are
displayed in this wondrous universe of five elements! I desire to obtain
you by the help of the knowledge derived from hearing, and of meditation,
for ye are Infinite! Ye are the course itself of Nature and intelligent
Soul that pervades that course! Ye are birds of beauteous feathers perched
on the body that is like to a tree! Ye are without the three common
attributes of every soul! Ye are incomparable! Ye, through your spirit in
every created thing, pervade the Universe!

'Ye are golden Eagles! Ye are the essence into which all things disappear!
Ye are free from error and know no deterioration! Ye are of beauteous
beaks that would not unjustly strike and are victorious in every
encounter! Ye certainly prevail over time! Having created the sun, ye
weave the wondrous cloth of the year by means of the white thread of the
day and the black thread of the night! And with the cloth so woven, ye
have established two courses of action appertaining respectively to the
Devas and the Pitris. The bird of Life seized by Time which represents the
strength of the Infinite soul, ye set free for delivering her unto great
happiness! They that are in deep ignorance, as long as they are under
delusions of their senses, suppose you, who are independent of the
attributes of matter, to be gifted with form! Three hundred and sixty cows
represented by three hundred and sixty days produce one calf between them
which is the year. That calf is the creator and destroyer of all. Seekers
of truth following different routes, draw the milk of true knowledge with
its help. Ye Aswins, ye are the creators of that calf!

'The year is but the nave of a wheel to which is attached seven hundred
and twenty spokes representing as many days and nights. The circumference
of this wheel represented by twelve months is without end. This wheel is
full of delusions and knows no deterioration. It affects all creatures
whether to this or of the other worlds. Ye Aswins, this wheel of time is
set in motion by you!

'The wheel of Time as represented by the year has a nave represented by
the six seasons. The number of spokes attached to that nave is twelve as
represented by the twelve signs of the Zodiac. This wheel of Time
manifests the fruits of the acts of all things. The presiding deities of
Time abide in that wheel. Subject as I am to its distressful influence, ye
Aswins, liberate me from that wheel of Time. Ye Aswins, ye are this
universe of five elements! Ye are the objects that are enjoyed in this and
in the other world! Make me independent of the five elements! And though
ye are the Supreme Brahma, yet ye move over the Earth in forms enjoying
the delights that the senses afford.

'In the beginning, ye created the ten points of the universe! Then have ye
placed the Sun and the Sky above! The Rishis, according to the course of
the same Sun, perform their sacrifices, and the gods and men, according to
what hath been appointed for them, perform their sacrifices also enjoying
the fruits of those acts!

'Mixing the three colours, ye have produced all the objects of sight! It
is from these objects that the Universe hath sprung whereon the gods and
men are engaged in their respective occupations, and, indeed, all
creatures endued with life!

'Ye Aswins, I adore you! I also adore the Sky which is your handiwork! Ye
are the ordainers of the fruits of all acts from which even the gods are
not free! Ye are yourselves free from the fruits of your acts!

'Ye are the parents of all! As males and females it is ye that swallow the
food which subsequently develops into the life creating fluid and blood!
The new-born infant sucks the teat of its mother. Indeed it is ye that
take the shape of the infant! Ye Aswins, grant me my sight to protect my

"The twin Aswins, thus invoked, appeared and said, 'We are satisfied. Here
is a cake for thee. Take and eat it.' And Upamanyu thus addressed, replied,
'Your words, O Aswins, have never proved untrue. But without first
offering this cake to my preceptor I dare not take it.' And the Aswins
thereupon told him, 'Formerly, thy preceptor had invoked us. We thereupon
gave him a cake like this; and he took it without offering it to his
master. Do thou do that which thy preceptor did.' Thus addressed, Upamanyu
again said unto them, 'O Aswins, I crave your pardon. Without offering it
to my preceptor I dare not apply this cake.' The Aswins then said, 'O, we
are pleased with this devotion of thine to thy preceptor. Thy master's
teeth are of black iron. Thine shall be of gold. Thou shall be restored to
sight and shall have good fortune.'

"Thus spoken to by the Aswins he recovered his sight, and having gone to
his preceptor's presence he saluted him and told him all. And his
preceptor was well-pleased with him and said unto him, 'Thou shalt obtain
prosperity even as the Aswins have said. All the Vedas shall shine in thee
and all the Dharma-sastras.' And this was the trial of Upamanyu.

"Then Veda the other disciple of Ayoda-Dhaumya was called. His preceptor
once addressed him, saying, 'Veda, my child, tarry some time in my house
and serve thy preceptor. It shall be to thy profit.' And Veda having
signified his assent tarried long in the family of his preceptor mindful
of serving him. Like an ox under the burthens of his master, he bore heat
and cold, hunger and thirst, at all times without a murmur. And it was not
long before his preceptor was satisfied. And as a consequence of that
satisfaction, Veda obtained good fortune and universal knowledge. And this
was the trial of Veda.

"And Veda, having received permission from his preceptor, and leaving the
latter's residence after the completion of his studies, entered the
domestic mode of life. And while living in his own house, he got three
pupils. And he never told them to perform any work or to obey implicitly
his own behests; for having himself experienced much woe while abiding in
the family of his preceptor, he liked not to treat them with severity.

"After a certain time, Janamejaya and Paushya, both of the order of
Kshatriyas, arriving at his residence appointed the Brahman, Veda, as
their spiritual guide (Upadhyaya). And one day while about to depart upon
some business related to a sacrifice, he employed one of his disciples,
Utanka, to take charge of his household. 'Utanka', said he, 'whatsoever
should have to be done in my house, let it be done by thee without neglect.'
And having given these orders to Utanka, he went on his journey.

"So Utanka always mindful of the injunction of his preceptor took up his
abode in the latter's house. And while Utanka was residing there, the
females of his preceptor's house having assembled addressed him and said,
'O Utanka, thy mistress is in that season when connubial connection might
be fruitful. The preceptor is absent; then stand thou in his place and do
the needful.' And Utanka, thus addressed, said unto those women, 'It is
not proper for me to do this at the bidding of women. I have not been
enjoined by my preceptor to do aught that is improper.'

"After a while, his preceptor returned from his journey. And his preceptor
having learnt all that had happened, became well-pleased and, addressing
Utanka, said, 'Utanka, my child, what favour shall I bestow on thee? I
have been served by thee duly; therefore hath our friendship for each
other increased. I therefore grant thee leave to depart. Go thou, and let
thy wishes be accomplished!'

"Utanka, thus addressed, replied, saying, 'Let me do something that you
wish, for it hath been said, "He who bestoweth instruction contrary to
usage and he who receiveth it contrary to usage, one of the two dieth, and
enmity springeth up between the two." I, therefore, who have received thy
leave to depart, am desirous of bringing thee some honorarium due to a
preceptor.' His master, upon hearing this, replied, 'Utanka, my child, wait
a while.' Sometime after, Utanka again addressed his preceptor, saying,
'Command me to bring that for honorarium, which you desire.' And his
preceptor then said, 'My dear Utanka, thou hast often told me of your
desire to bring something by way of acknowledgment for the instruction
thou hast received. Go then in and ask thy mistress what thou art to bring.
And bring thou that which she directs.' And thus directed by his preceptor
Utanka addressed his preceptress, saying, 'Madam, I have obtained my
master's leave to go home, and I am desirous of bringing something
agreeable to thee as honorarium for the instruction I have received, in
order that I may not depart as his debtor. Therefore, please command me
what I am to bring.' Thus addressed, his preceptress replied, 'Go unto
King Paushya and beg of him the pair of ear-rings worn by his Queen, and
bring them hither. The fourth day hence is a sacred day when I wish to
appear before the Brahmanas (who may dine at my house) decked with these
ear-rings. Then accomplish this, O Utanka! If thou shouldst succeed, good
fortune shall attend thee; if not, what good canst thou expect?'

"Utanka thus commanded, took his departure. And as he was passing along
the road he saw a bull of extraordinary size and a man of uncommon stature
mounted thereon. And that man addressed Utanka and said, 'Eat thou of the
dung of this bull.' Utanka, however, was unwilling to comply. The man said
again, 'O Utanka, eat of it without scrutiny. Thy master ate of it before.'
And Utanka signified his assent and ate of the dung and drank of the
urine of that bull, and rose respectfully, and washing his hands and mouth
went to where King Paushya was.

'On arriving at the palace, Utanka saw Paushya seated (on his throne). And
approaching him Utanka saluted the monarch by pronouncing blessings and
said, 'I am come as a petitioner to thee.' And King Paushya, having
returned Utanka's salutations, said, 'Sir, what shall I do for thee?' And
Utanka said, 'I came to beg of thee a pair of ear-rings as a present to my
preceptor. It behoveth thee to give me the ear-rings worn by the Queen.'

"King Paushya replied, 'Go, Utanka, into the female apartments where the
Queen is and demand them of her.' And Utanka went into the women's
apartments. But as he could not discover the Queen, he again addressed the
king, saying, 'It is not proper that I should be treated by thee with
deceit. Thy Queen is not in the private apartments, for I could not find
her.' The king thus addressed, considered for a while and replied,
'Recollect, Sir, with attention whether thou art not in a state of
defilement in consequence of contact with the impurities of a repast. My
Queen is a chaste wife and cannot be seen by any one who is impure owing

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