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The Logbooks of the Lady Nelson by Ida Lee

Part 2 out of 5

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miles farther up the river in the course of which we met with many rapids
which obliged us to get out and drag the boats up. We had hitherto seen
none of the natives, but discovered places where they had been by the
marks of their fires. We now descried some of them at a distance, who
fled on our approach. We came to a spot which they had just quitted and
observed the marks of children's feet. The ground was covered with
freshwater shells of the sort found in the rivers of England and Scotland
and called the horse mussel, having sometimes small pearls in them.

"We ascended two heights which commanded views of the country for several
miles on every side. To one, Colonel Paterson gave the name of Ann's
Mountain after Mrs. King, the other he called Elizabeth's Mountain, that
being the Christian name of Mrs. Paterson. We now found that we had got
behind the range of mountains extending along the coast to the south and
west. We likewise saw the coast of Port Stephens and the chain of hills
inland stretching in a direction towards the north-east. Between us and
the hills was a space perfectly level for many miles, and to appearance
swampy. The land on the south side of the river was interspersed with
lagoons on which we killed some ducks but found them very shy. The
country seemed not to be destitute of inhabitants, some of whom we
descried at a distance. The river here meandered so greatly that to have
pursued its course the boats must have been pulled a whole day to have
gained a direct distance of four or five miles from our present station.

"The time limited for our departure for Sydney approaching very fast and
the survey still to be made not being less than 70 miles up the river, it
was judged prudent not to proceed any further. Passing the night upon the
banks of the river we descended it the next day to our former rendezvous,
Schanck Forest, Pasture Plains, where preparations were made for a
general embarkation.

"The next morning I left Colonel Paterson in company of Mr. Barrallier,
who then proceeded on the survey of the river. On our passage down it, we
saw several natives with their canoes...In many of them we saw fires, and
in some of them observed that kind of eatable to which they give the name
of cabra.* (* Teredo.) It appears to be abominably filthy; however, when
dressed, it is not disagreeable to the taste. The cabra is a species of
worm which breeds in the wood that happens to be immersed in water, and
are found in such parts of the river wherein trees have fallen. They grow
to a great size and soon reduce timber to the appearance of a honeycomb.
They are of a glutinous substance, and after being put on the fire harden
to the consistence of the spinal marrow of animals. When fire is not at
hand, the natives eat them raw; some of them being found at a fire near
one of the canoes, I tasted them on the recommendation of one of my men
and found them not unpalatable...

"We saw several natives at a small distance; one of them looked earnestly
at us and seemed to be waiting our approach. One of my men called to him
in his own language to stop, but at length he got behind a tree whence he
presented only his head and shoulders, brandishing a fish-gig in his
hand. He waited our landing, and seeing we were unarmed threw down his
muton (so they named the fish-gig) and came readily to us. For what
reason I know not (for we appeared without any marks of distinction) he
addressed himself first to me, and taking from his forehead a small net
which their women weave from the fur of the opossum he bound it round
mine. In my turn I took out my pocket handkerchief and bound it round his
head which pleased him very much, and we became from the moment the best
of friends. I invited him on board the boat, and he readily accepted my
invitation. When on board he was called to from the woods on the opposite
shore by a number of voices which surprised us a little as we did not
expect they were in such numbers. My new acquaintance called out in his
turn to those on shore, and their cries immediately ceased. I have reason
to think...that he assured them he had nothing to fear, which quieted
their alarm.

"Proceeding further we saw a flock of ducks and I ordered one of the
people to fire which he did and was lucky enough to kill two. Never did I
witness stronger marks of surprise than were depicted on the stranger's
countenance when he heard the report of the gun and saw the two ducks
fall into the water. His astonishment was increased when he got on board
the vessel; everything...seemed to fill him with wonder and amazement.
During the time he stayed on board he never quitted my side, and at the
hour of rest he laid himself down near my bed place. I presented him with
a small tomahawk which pleased him very much and he pronounced with much
earnestness the word...'Mogo.' He readily ate of whatever was set before
him; spirits he would not touch, but sugar he took freely. He endeavoured
to repeat our words after us; and was infinitely more tractable than the
native last described. He was an elderly man, short in stature but well
made; his arms and legs were long in proportion to his body which was
slender and straight. Having occasion to despatch my first mate in a boat
to Colonel Paterson I took that opportunity of sending off my New
Hollander with directions that he should be landed on the precise spot
from whence he was taken...When the first mate was returning he was
surprised to find his passenger of the day before on the banks, who
begged to be permitted to return to the vessel with him; he had a young
lad with him whom he desired might accompany him and they were both
brought on board. This lad made me understand that he wished to have a
mogo and I soon found that I could not make a more acceptable present to
a native...

"On the 19th we were rejoined by Colonel Paterson with the whole of his
party. The Colonel had explored a branch of the river on the banks of
which he found a species of flax growing which he thought was valuable.
He had collected specimens of many rare and uncommon plants particularly
some varieties of fern, but unfortunately was deprived of the fruits of
his industry. His servant had made use of the bundle of plants as a
pillow and having placed it too near the fire it was soon in a blaze, and
he was awaked only in time to save his face from being scorched...

"We were now growing short of provisions and no vessel arriving from
Sydney we set about making preparations for our return thither. There was
now a small establishment made for the colliers.* (* At Collier's Point.)
I had built them a convenient hut to shelter them. I left them a boat and
seine with what provisions I was able to spare. We took our departure for
Sydney on the 22nd of July 1801, and arrived there on the 25th."

Six weeks after his return to port, Grant sent in his resignation on the
ground that he had so "little knowledge of nautical surveying." The
resignation was accepted by King, who wrote in reply: "I should have been
glad if your ability as a surveyor or being able to determine the
longitude of the different places you might visit was in anyway equal to
your ability as an officer or a seaman."

A very slight perusal of Grant's narrative of his voyage enables us to
grasp the state of his feelings when he sent in his resignation. It is
evident that he thought he had not been treated fairly, and was glad to
quit New South Wales. He writes of his departure: "The mortifications and
disappointments I met with...induced me to seize the first opportunity of
leaving the country." And it seems possible that when he told King that
he had no knowledge of "nautical surveying," he said so because he knew
King thought he had not, and it looks as if the admission was made as a
pretext to obtain his passage to England, rather than for the purpose of
belittling his own capabilities. That Grant was a fine seaman goes
without saying. That he was personally courageous, his subsequent naval
services proved. He seems to have handled his ship at all times with
extraordinary care, and it may have been that he had studied marine
surveying with less assiduity than seamanship, for the chart that he made
must be admitted to be very imperfect.

Murray, his successor in the command of the brig, is best remembered as
the discoverer of Victoria, and "yet," writes Rusden, "he (Murray) merely
obeyed a distinct order in going thither to trace the coast between Point
Schanck and Cape Albany Otway noticing the soundings and everything
remarkable." Rusden might have added, that Murray probably received some
benefit from Grant's experiences, for at that time he was equally
incompetent as a marine surveyor. It is Flinders who has credited Grant
with the discovery of the coast of Victoria "as far as Cape Schanck," and
Flinders was most competent to judge as to whom the honour should belong.
On the great seaman's chart published in 1814 (Terra Australis, by M.
Flinders, South Coast, Sheet 5) is inscribed, "Coast as far as Cape
Schanck discovered by Captain James Grant, 1800," in which track, of
course, is included the entrance to Port Phillip, although Flinders knew
that Grant had not penetrated to the bay itself.

Grant sailed from Sydney in the Anna Josepha, Captain Maclean, an old
Spanish brig, belonging to Mr. Simeon Lord. She had been taken off the
coast of Peru by the Betsy whaler, and on her arrival at Sydney was
renamed Anna Josepha in honour of the Governor's wife. Loaded with coals
and spars, the ship left Port Jackson for the Cape of Good Hope on
November 9th, 1801. She steered southward of New Zealand, made Cape Horn,
and then sailed to the Falklands. Grant quitted her when she reached
Tristan D'Acunha and obtained a passage in the Ocean as far as Table Bay.
There he shipped on April 12th, 1802, in H.M.S. Imperieuse for England,
where he arrived safely, and, in due course, reported himself to the

Three years later he obtained his rank of Commander on January 12th,
1805, with a pension for gallantry in a spirited action off Holland, when
in command of the Hawke cutter he was badly wounded. He subsequently
commanded the Raven and Thracian and died at St. Servan in 1833, aged 61.



On Grant's resigning the command of the Lady Nelson, Governor King
appointed John Murray to succeed him. As has been told Murray had
formerly been Master's mate of the Porpoise and had accompanied Grant
when he went for the second time to try and explore Governor King's Bay,
and the Governor apparently thought him a capable officer. His
appointment is dated September 3rd, 1801, so that he seems to have taken
over the new post about two months before his predecessor finally left

When, however, the Lady Nelson sailed to the Hawkesbury in September to
load the settlers' grain and to bring it to Sydney, Grant appears to have
been still on board her, as he was enjoined to ensure her safety at that
place by Governor King. "You are not to leave the vessel yourself or
suffer any other person to leave her while in the river nor let any
strangers or visitors go on board...Your board netting is to be kept up
while in the river." King evidently was determined to guard against the
capture of the brig by runaway convicts, a fate which had overtaken the
Norfolk. Murray succeeded to the command of the brig on her return from
this Hawkesbury trip. His first voyage was to Norfolk Island, when he
carried orders and instructions from the Governor of New South Wales to
Major Foveaux, the Lieutenant-Governor. Before leaving Sydney, Captain
Abbott, Ensign Piper and Mr. John Roberts (surgeon's mate) were embarked
as passengers on board the Lady Nelson, and in the afternoon of October
1st she set sail for her destination. The following account of her voyage
is extracted from the log:--


From Port Jackson to Norfolk Island.

"October 2nd, 1801. At 3 P.M. got under weigh and stood out of ye Heads.
Observed ye Porpoise to be in the offing. At 5 P.M. passed under the
stern of the Porpoise and Mr. Murray went on board and waited on ye
Commander of that vessel. At 6 Lieutenant Murray returned on board,
hoisted in our gig and gave the Porpoise three cheers, which was
returned--made sail at half-past 6 P.M.--ye North Head of Port Jackson
bore to west by north distant 6 miles, the South Head of Broken Bay bore
north by west distance 6 leagues.

"Saturday, October 3rd. Fresh winds and clear. About half-past 4 P.M. the
wind shifted to north-west with light rain and thunder and lightning. At
8 A.M. the wind rather took off and we had clear weather, but with a very
heavy sea on. At noon we had a strong gale with a high sea on, our
Latitude 33 degrees 55 minutes south.

"Sunday, October 4th. Strong gale with heavy squalls at intervals with a
very high sea running. Very heavy squall attended with thunder and
lightning, large hail stones at ye same time. At 10 A.M. Mustered ye
Ship's Company and read the articles of war being the first Sunday of ye

"Monday, October 5th. Fresh breezes and heavy squalls with flying showers
of rain and heavy sea running. At 4 P.M. saw Lord Howe Island bearing
north-east distant 16 or 17 leagues. At 10 P.M. when it cleared saw Balls
Pyramid bearing north by west distant 6 or 9 miles: at 12 had another
sight of it on our larboard quarter--at daylight again saw the Pyramid
distant 10 or 12 leagues...At noon lost sight of Island.

"Tuesday, October 6th. Fresh breezes and clear--squally. At noon light

"Wednesday, October 7th. Light airs and inclinable to calm.

"Thursday, 8th October. Fresh wind and clear high sea. Keeping good look
out for Island of Norfolk. At 4 A.M. made sail--at 6 A.M. saw Norfolk and
Phillip Islands distant 12 leagues--at noon, being 9 or 10 miles off ye
town, fired a gun and hoisted signal for pilot.

"Friday, 9th October. Moderate weather--at half-past 2 P.M. fired a 2nd
gun for pilot--at half-past 3 seeing no boat and judging of the
appearance of the sea there was no landing at Sydney Bay,* (* Sydney,
Norfolk Island.) bore on for Cascade, and by 5 got in sight of ye
Storehouse--fired another gun--at 7 P.M. John Drumond, pilot, came on
board, took charge as pilot--sent our boatswain's mate on shore in
pilot's boat with letter to Lieutenant Governor--kept standing off all
night--at daylight the Storehouse distant 3 miles--at 6 A.M. landed
Captain E. Abbott, Ensign Piper and Mr. John Roberts--at 9 A.M. boat
returned bringing with them ye pilot's assistant who told us ye landing
was good at Sydney--bore up for Sydney. By 11 got round and a boat coming
off we discharged a number of articles into her belonging to the
different officers. At noon they went on shore.

"Saturday, 10th October. Observed the flag for indifferent landing--hove
up, put ye vessel under snug sail and stood off and on during night--at 4
P.M. Phillip's Island bore north distant 6 miles. A boat came along, into
which we delivered a part of the officers' baggage.

"Sunday, 11th October. Moderate winds and weather--a confused sea. P.M. A
boat came off--sent in her ye officers' baggage--at 6 P.M. the weather
looking rather unfavourable ran the vessel into Hunsons Bay--stood off
and on during night--at daylight went round to Sydney Harbour.

"Monday, 12th October. Variable winds, fine weather. P.M. a 2nd boat came
with Ensign Baillie's baggage. Stood off and on during night--in the
morning went into Sydney Bay--a boat came off with Mr. Baillie's baggage,
also received for boat 4 rough spars for sweeps.

"Tuesday, 13th October. Standing off and on Cascade Bay--at 4 the
vessel's signal for a boat was made from ye shore--lowered down our gig
and sent the boatswain on shore in her. In a little time he returned and
informed me it was the Lieutenant-Governor's orders that I should stand
to sea and await boat--made all sail and stood to sea till sundown, when
seeing no signs of a boat made sail for ye island. Saw a large ship in
the offing, she proved to be the Earl Cornwallis from Sydney.

"Wednesday, 14th October. A.M. Seeing no signs of a boat went around to
Sydney Bay and observed Cornwallis lying to off Northern Island.

"Thursday, 15th October. At 5 P.M. Ensign Bayley embarked on boat and the
boat brought remainder of his baggage--all the other passengers came on
board--discharged the pilot. At 6 made sail--at 7 P.M. Mount Pitt bore
north-east by east distant 4 leagues--at sundown ye Earl Cornwallis out
of sight.

"Friday, 16th October. Fresh gales--cloudy and rain--a high sea
running--strong gales. The vessel laboured a great deal.


"Tuesday, 27th October. Fresh winds and hazy--at 2 A.M. saw land
north-west 10 or 11 miles--at 8 A.M. south head of Broken Bay bore to
north-west 6 miles--at noon fine--got within Heads and made all sail.



On his return to Sydney on the completion of the voyage Murray was
ordered by Governor King to proceed in the Lady Nelson and finish the
exploration of the south coast, which Grant had not been able to
complete. The instructions issued by Governor King were very precise.

"You will proceed without loss of time to Basses Straights and observe
the following directions for prosecuting discoveries in those straights
on the south-west coast of this country...When you are between Ram Head
and Western Port you will proceed to Kent's Group and ascertain the size
of those islands (particularly the easternmost)...From Kent's Group you
will run on a straight course to Wilson's Promontory noticing the course
and distance, soundings and quality of the bottom...From Wilson's
Promontory you will trace the coast between Point Schanck and Cape Albany
Otway...From thence you will run to Harbinger Rock lying off the
north-west point of King's Island...You will make the circuit of that
island or islands in addition to the King's instructions respecting new
discoveries...You will carefully examine...all within 6 miles round the
island to ascertain whether a vessel may anchor. Having completed the
survey...you will ascertain the time of bearing...between the south
westernmost point and Albatross Islands, the northernmost of Hunter's
Islands and the Pyramid. Having completed...your survey thus far you will
ascertain to what distance soundings may be got to the westward of the
Norfolk's and Lady Nelson's passages taking care to traverse across to
the latitude of 42 degrees on the south side and within sight of land on
the north side or coast of New Holland (Van Dieman's Land) until between
38 and 42 degrees...As you stand in on the New Holland side you will
examine the coast between Cape Albany Otway and Cape Solicitor which
Lieutenant Grant named Portland Bay the bottom of which he did not see.
Should you have time I would wish you to run due south from Cape
Solicitor as far as 40 degrees and work back again to Cape
Bridgewater...you will employ another month...in tracing the coast from
Cape Banks...In returning to this port you will deliver all such journals
and charts as may have been completed...during your intended voyage.

"Should you fall in with H.M.S. Investigator you will communicate these
instructions to the Commander...and put yourself under his command. And
in case you fall in and are come up with by the Naturaliste and
Geographe, French vessels on discovery, you will produce your passport
from His Grace the Duke of Portland to the Commander of that expedition.


"SYDNEY, October 31st, 1801."



The Lady Nelson set forth from Sydney on her mission on November 12th,
1801. Obeying Governor King's orders, Murray steered first towards the
Kent Group.* (* The Kent Group was discovered by Lieutenant Matthew
Flinders in the Francis, and named by him in honour of Captain William
Kent of H.M.S. Supply. The group was subsequently visited by Mr.
Rushworth and other sailors.) His log shows how he mistook other islands,
probably the Sisters* (* The Sisters Islands were so named by Captain
Furneaux in 1773 from the resemblance they bore to each other. Peron
calls them two small islands escarpes.) at the northern extremity of the
Furneaux Group, for his place of destination and how, when 25 miles to
the northward of Cape Barren, on seeing smoke rising from an island, he
sent a boat ashore and found living there two men, a woman and a child,
the men, Chase and Beven, being sealers in the employ of Messrs. Kable &
Underwood, of Sydney. The Lady Nelson was then brought to and moored in
Diana Bay, a well-known anchorage in Furneaux Islands.

Murray, at this time, seems to have been much farther southward than
Governor King intended him to go, for the island which he writes of as
Grand Capshine was undoubtedly the Grand Capuchin, the largest island of
the Furneaux Group, now known as Flinders Island.* (* Named Flinders
Island by Captain Flinders in honour of his brother, Lieutenant Samuel
Flinders, R.N.)

Diana Bay, the bay in which the Lady Nelson stayed for some days, was
formed by the shores of the Grand Capuchin and Storehouse and Cat
Islands, the last named islands being the Babel Islands of Flinders. In
very early days this bay was much frequented by sealing vessels and in
1801 gained its name from the ship Diana, a small vessel belonging to
Messrs. Kable & Underwood, of Sydney, which afterwards stranded on the
Grand Capuchin and which had a curious history. A French schooner named
L'Entreprise of Bordeaux, under the command of Captain Le Corre, last
from the Isle of France, while sealing in these waters was also wrecked
about a year later off one of the Sisters, 30 miles to the northward of
where the Diana went ashore. Le Corre and two-thirds of his crew
perished. The supercargo whose name, according to Peron, was Coxwell, but
which the Sydney Gazette prints as Coggeshall, was among the saved and
was brought with the other rescued men to Sydney. Coggeshall returned
with Mr. Underwood to endeavour to save the hull of the vessel, and
though they failed to float L'Entreprise, they were more successful as
regards the Diana which was repaired and renamed the Surprise, the name
by which the lost French schooner had been known by the English from
Governor King downwards. In order to pay expenses she was put up to
public auction in Sydney and purchased by one of the officers of
L'Entreprise for 117 guineas, but was afterwards resold to her original
owners, Messrs. Kable & Underwood.* (* See Sydney Gazettes, March 12th
and March 19th, 1803.)

Murray did not name the Grand Capuchin, for it was so called before the
time of his visit. Nor did Flinders or Bass give it that name, which was
probably derived from the cowled peak of a mountain on it, one of three
christened by Flinders the Patriarchs, combined with the fact that
Furneaux had already named some black rocky islands that lay off the
entrance to Storm Bay Passage, The Friars.* (* The Boreels Eylander of
Tasman.) It seems likely that Barrallier in the Lady Nelson's previous
voyage or some French sailor bestowed the name Capuchin upon Flinders
Island, and Murray wrote it on his chart, although it was afterwards
erased from the maps and replaced at first by the name of Great Island
and later by that of Flinders Island.* (* The Sydney Gazette of March
31st, 1831, in giving the names of the Furneaux Group transfers the name
to Babel Islands, i.e. "Babel Islands or Capisheens as called by the
sealers," but, as Murray's Chart, page 146, and Sydney Gazettes of an
earlier period will show, at first Flinders Island alone was called

Leaving Diana Bay on November 25th Murray saw the easternmost members of
the Kent Group and steered through the passage which separates the
principal islands and which was named in his honour, Murray's Passage.
Flinders had passed through the same passage, when he discovered the
group, in the Francis in 1798, and named a rock to the south of it the
Judgment Rock "from its resemblance to an elevated seat."* (* The
Australian Sailing Directory, Admiralty.)

After surveying the Kent Group, Murray started to carry out his survey of
Western Port and Port Phillip. On December 5th he sighted Sir Roger
Curtis's Island and on the 7th reached Western Port where he was detained
by bad weather until the first week in January. On January 5th* (* The
logbooks were kept in nautical fashion, the day beginning at noon before
the civil reckoning, so that Port Phillip was really discovered on the
afternoon of Monday, January 4th, 1802. According to the Admiralty
librarian the change from nautical to civil reckoning in the logs did not
take place until 1805.) as the vessel ran along the Victorian coast
towards Port Phillip dense smoke from native fires hid the land from
view. At 3 P.M. the smoke had cleared away and Bowen, who was at the
masthead, espied an opening in the land ahead which "had the appearance
of a harbour." Keeping close in for it Murray saw inside a fine smooth
sheet of water. An island lay at the entrance but the waves were breaking
high on the rocks so the brig was hauled off and taken out to sea. Murray
then steered to King Island deciding to return again later to explore the
newly discovered harbour. He surveyed the east coast of King Island from
Cape Farewell to Seal Bay. Some sea elephants were lying on the beach of
the bay that he first entered, and this was named Sea Elephant Bay.* (*
Murray's survey of King Island was an important one and Governor King
refers to it as "giving to the British priority of discovery over the
French ships" when eleven months afterwards Baudin came to the island.)
The following pages describe Murray's exploration of King Island and of
his first sight of Port Phillip.



Sydney Cove to Bass Strait.

"Thursday, 12th November 1801. Working out of ye Heads at 1 P.M.--at 2
P.M. ye South Head of Port Jackson bore north-north-west 11 miles. At 4
P.M. ye weather began to look squally and black from ye south-west with
now and then lightning...At 5 it thundered and the lightning
increased...During night fresh winds and a heavy sea up; in the morning
no land in sight.

"Friday, 13th November. Fresh winds and clear with heavy tumbling
sea...At sundown Mount Dromedary 9 or 10 leagues N.W.W. During night
unsettled weather and a confused sea. At noon Cape How bore West distance
7 or 8 leagues.

"Saturday, 14th November. Light airs inclinable to calm, a very heavy sea
from south-west. At sundown Cape How bore north-west distant about 7
leagues...We hauled in for the land this morning, the Longitude by
Governor King's timekeeper was 149 degrees 30 minutes 45 seconds east,
Latitude by anticipation 38 degrees 00 minutes 00 seconds south. At noon
calm fine weather. Latitude observed 38 degrees 06 minutes 43 seconds

"Sunday, 15th November. Moderate fine weather and smooth water...At 9
A.M. we had a curious squall at every point of the compass, it did not
blow very hard and seemed to settle in the south-east quarter.

"Monday, 16th November. At half-past 5 P.M. saw a thunder squall rising
in western quarter. The squall passed over the land and thundered a good
deal with much lightning, at half-past 7 it took a north-west turn and at
8 P.M. passed over our heads, though with no great deal of wind...In the
morning made sail...Latitude 38 degrees 32 minutes south.

"Thursday, 19th November. Moderate and hazy. At 6 A.M. saw Kent's Group
bearing south-west distances 8 or 9 leagues--their appearance was like a
great number of small islands being nearly south-east and north-west; at
8 A.M. the easternmost island of Kent's Group and the largest bore
south-south-west distance 7 or 8 leagues. At 9 A.M. the whole chain of
islands, 13 in number, bore from south by west to west the large island
as above.

"Friday, 20th November. Light variable winds and fine weather. Kept
working up to the land but were surprised to find that instead of being a
small group of islands, ye body of the land was very large and whatever
appeared as islands began to connect itself into one island, the latitude
not agreeing with Lieutenant Flinders, concluded it could not be Kent's
Group. Kept working up to it and by daylight was within 5 miles of ye
northernmost island, passed close to it and seeing an immense number of
birds on it sent the boat on shore to procure some; in a short time after
this I saw a smoke arise from the small island just passed, sent ye boat
and ye first mate there where they found two men, one woman and a child,
of Henry Kable's employ; assisted them as well as we could--by noon
worked into a good harbour and moored between Storehouse and Cat
Island--got the Latitude by going on shore 39 degrees 57 minutes 46
seconds south. When moored, the Grand Capshine bore west-north-west
distant 1/2 mile--Cat Island bore north by east 1/4 mile and Storehouse
Island south-east quarter of a mile. Cape Barren the east point south 1/2
east distant 25 miles.

"Saturday, 21st November. Employed taking on stone for ballast. Carpenter
fitting places for sweeps to row in and on the longboat. P.M. Broke
Farmer Barnes for contempt and disobedience of orders. Rated Robert
Warren boatswain's mate in his room. A.M. Sent the first mate and a party
of hands (with one of the people found here) and some dogs to get
kangaroo being informed that great plenty was to be found in the country.

"Sunday, 22nd November. The first officer and his party returned on
board; they shot 2 wambucks,* (* Presumably wombats.) a kangaroo, a
porcupine, a swan and some birds--in the evening sent the second mate and
some hands on shore to get mutton-birds, and eggs. On account of the
great plenty of fresh provisions served no salt meat this day. I went and
measured a base line from the south end of Storehouse Island due East and
West 2 miles to a point on ye Grand Capshine and from thence surveyed
this harbour more for the sake of practice than any use it could be, this
place being well-known by the name Diana Bay.

"Monday, 23rd November. At 6 P.M. sent party on shore with the first mate
to procure mutton-birds for officers and people. At 9 P.M. the officer
and party returned on board, having got near 100 birds and some eggs. As
I was at supper, I received the following note from R.B. Wood my clerk:

"'SIR,--Under the unfortunate situation in which I am placed as a
prisoner and a convict it may appear strange my presumption in observing
that something serious I wish to communicate to you. Pardon me saying
that secrecy is requisite--and that after you have supped and alone will
be best. I am, Sir, Your humble servant,

"'R.B. WOOD.'

"On receiving this, a little time after, I sent for him and he informed
me that he had seen Mark Clark, soldier, and Robert Warren, who was only
two days ago rated boatswain's mate, pumping off spirits from a cask in
the hold; that he suspected this business had been carried on for some
time and believed more than those might be concerned. In addition John
Johnston, cabin servant, informed me that he had seen a number of the
people at different times half drunk when on their watch below; in
consequence of these circumstances I turned the hands on deck and read
the Articles of War to them, put Mark Clark, Robert Warren and Farmer
Barnes in irons, he being drunk; and in the morning I hoisted on deck all
the casks of spirits, overhauled them and found one with the bung just
out and about 4 1/2 inches dry in it; nailed lead over the bung and
tossed them below again. On questioning Clark on this affair he confessed
that he and Warren had pumped spirits out of the cask last night, and
George Yates informed me that Warren had made a practice of it for some
time back. On investigating the matter closer it appeared that Barnes had
nothing to do with it. I accordingly released Barnes and again rated him
boatswain's mate--turned the hands up and punished Robert Warren with
four dozen lashes for robbery, drunkenness, etc., and Mark Clark with one
dozen lashes only as it appeared that he had been prompted to this when

"Tuesday, 24th November. First and middle parts fine weather and mostly
calm, latter hazy. Half-past 9 anchor and made sail out between the Grand
Capshine and Cat Island, hoisted up our gig and stowe her. At 10 A.M. Cat
Island bore south-east distant 5 miles and the peak of the Grand Capshine
south-south-east distant 6 miles. At noon the Grand Capshine bore
south-east distant 16 or 17 miles and the west end of ye Sisters west by
south distant 8 or 9 miles. The harbour we have just left is formed by
the Grand Capshine Island, Cat Island and Storehouse Island. Between the
Grand Capshine and Cat Island is a narrow channel with deep water through
which we came to-day--it lies about north-west by north a few hundred
yards. Between Cat Island and Storehouse Island is a two-fathom channel,
one-sixth of a mile broad through which Kable's schooner has passed to
the South. The harbour is very open and a good deal of sea heaves in, but
small vessels can up anchor and just run round to the opposite side of
Cat Island--there is a snug cove entirely secure from all southerly winds
where they may anchor, taking care to be off from this last place, if the
wind comes from the northward. From the Grand Capshine the land trends
away in a south-east and south direction as far as Cape Barren; from
where we lay the Bay of Shoals bore south by west distant 15 miles. A
vessel of a large draught would have to lie a good deal further out in
the Bay than we, as we rode in one quarter less than 3 fathoms.

"Wednesday, 25th November. Fresh breezes and hazy weather. At half-past 3
saw a single rock bearing south-south-west distance 9 or 10 miles, and an
island on our beam south-east...haze very thick and scud flying thick. At
4 P.M. saw a rock lying to north of Kent's Group about 3 miles...At
half-past 4 saw easternmost island of Kent's Group bearing west by south
distance 8 miles, by half-past 5 P.M. having come nearly up with the
land, passed in between the group and a rock that lies to the north and
by 6 opened the Sound that passes through the Islands...As we approached
the first cove saw a large part of the island on fire from which we
conceived there might be people on shore--kept standing up the Sound and
had furious gusts of wind at every point of the compass. We proceeded up
with sails, sweeps and boat till we opened the second cove but found it
impossible to get to anchorage in it as violent gusts constantly came
down it. At 7 P.M. bore away for the cove on the west side and at
half-past 7 P.M. came to anchor in 7 fathoms.

"Thursday, 26th November. Moderately fine weather in general. At 2 P.M.
the officer and his
party returned on board having found no water--every part of the cove was
overhauled and only rainwater could be found here, the rocks being
strongly marked with the stream of water that will naturally fall from
such a high land in heavy rain. From the mate's finding a small quantity
of Queyha rope in this cove, and seeing a dog dead on the beach, I fancy
the Harrington must have been here, the dog being much like one of Mr.
Cumming's. In the afternoon I sent the first mate to the second cove on
the east side to overhaul it for water, but on the strictest search they
found nothing, but a brackish kind of spring...they however shot and
caught three kangaroos.

"Friday, 27th November. Sounded the channel that divided this group right
through...At the southernmost end lies a bank of 10 fathoms. As you
approach the East Cove the water gradually shoals from 30 to 40
fathoms...and as you advance on West Cove the water suddenly falls from
30 to 16-14-12-10-8-7-6-5-4 and 3 fathoms, close to the beach the bottom
consists of sand mixed with small shells and stones--the East Cove the
same and small seaweed, the West Cove is strong, coarse sand and where we
anchored quite covered with black kelp so much so that at first I was not
clear but it might be rock...

"Saturday, 28th November. Measured a base line of 324 fathoms in length
from one point of the cove we lay in to the other, it was measured with
small line and every five fathoms of it was a chip of light wood in
length 120 fathoms. We had the boats employed in this business;
alternately anchored them till we got across to the southern end of the
point of the cove; and as the water was smooth I fancy the length of base
line to be correct. I then surveyed the eastern side of the Sound and
Cove. Sent the first mate and some hands to the north-east cove to cut
some of ye wood growing there...I sent the carpenter with him--overhauled
our bread and found...some had got damp and mouldy, got it out from the
rest, but owing to the bad weather could not air it on deck...

"Sunday, 29th November. Hard gales and gloomy weather throughout with a
swell heaving in through the northern entrance of ye sound. P.M. The
first mate returned on board having cut down two spars...The party with
the dog caught two large and 3 small kangaroos. At 8 P.M. as usual set a
third watch with an officer. A.M. I went over to Harrington (or East)
Cove,* (* Named after Captain Campbell's ship the Harrington to whose
presence in these waters Murray often refers.) measured a base line and
surveyed the western side of this sound. I also overhauled every part of
the Rocks all round the cove and without it examined every drain that I
fell in with and although I saw at different parts of the under rocks and
in holes perhaps enough water to keep a few men alive yet no quantity
that could be much use to a ship's company. In East Cove there is a good
anchorage all over it for ships of any size, and they may exactly choose
what water to be in from 3 fathoms close in to ye beach to 14 in ye mouth
of it. I sounded every part of it and ye bottom is sand with small stones
and shells much covered with black seaweed that might at first be thought
to be rocks...West Cove is almost the same...East Cove is ye best to lie
in as it entirely shuts in sea gates and moreover has little ground swell
to which both other coves are subject. With respect to the tide in the
coves little can be perceived, the perpendicular rise at full moon may be
10 or 11 feet, with us it sometimes was 8 or 9 feet, and that in ye
course of ye hour...At all times it is imprudent to carry sail on a boat
in this sound; the puffs come so violent that before anybody could take
in her sail she would to a certainty be overset; even ships, in my
opinion, would do well before they enter this sound to take in all their
small sails and keep all hands at the braces fore and aft as well as
hands by the top-sail halyards, and it is necessary to handle the yards
quick otherwise a large vessel will be sure to rub sides with ye rocks if
it has blown fresh outside all day...The kangaroo seems to be most
plentiful at this time in the north-eastern cove owing, I fancy, to their
being less disturbed there than in the other coves, but with good dogs
and a little trouble they may be had on the hills in the vicinity of
either cove. Wood is plentiful and no trouble in getting it.

"Monday, 30th November. Hard gales, hazy weather with rain throughout.
The soil throughout this sound is nothing but sand a good way up the
hills and after that you chiefly find rocks with here and there a shott
of grass. The hills are covered very thick with brushwood, a great part
of which is decayed and rotten and renders it a business of labour to
ascend any of them. They are also very high--we have seen nothing new on
them. A few parrots are to be seen and now and then a snake of a large
size, these with kangaroos, gulls, redbills, form the inhabitants of
these islands, sometimes a seal comes in shore but very seldom and with
much care.

"Thursday, 3rd December. Warped a little way out and finding could get no
more of the warp sent hands in the gig to stand by...she drove and we
were obliged to let go small bower again. At this time wind increased to
a gale...P.M. Got altitudes for Governor King's chronometer. A.M. Sent
the first mate and a party to get kangaroos to the opposite or west side
of the land from the cove we lay in and for fresh water.

"Friday, 4th December. At sundown party returned--reported no fresh water
to be found on that side of island, got 3 kangaroos, some shell-fish, and
knocked down 2 seals. A.M. Hove up our B.B.* (* Best bower, that is the
starboard bower.) At 11 weighed and made sail through sound, at quarter
past 11 clear through, strong wind at east. Got sight of rock laying off
this island. At noon bore up to survey small island.

"Saturday, 5th December. Strong winds, hazy. At 1 P.M. hove to...At 3
P.M. body of Kent's Group bore east by south distance 15 or 16 miles. At
half-past 4 the five Seal Islands bore north-north-east distance 8 or 9
miles...Saw Sir R. Curtis's Island west by south 10 miles. At 7 P.M. saw
Wilson's Promontory bearing west-north-west 13 or 14 miles...Stood on
till 9 P.M. when it being thick and almost calm hauled close to ye wind
off and on...At 4 A.M. the Promontory bore west 7 or 8 miles. Made all
sail at 8 A.M. rounded and intending to run between the mainland and ye
islands having a fine breeze was surprised to lose all ye wind in an
instant as we stood in under ye land--although we were not less than 3 or
4 miles from ye mainland it fell calm...Put the helm a starboard, put
sweeps on her, and pulled her out into ye wind again...At 10 A.M. passed
a remarkable rock with a hole in it. Latitude 39 degrees 10 minutes 0
seconds south.

"Sunday, 6th December. At 3 P.M. saw Cape Liptrap bearing
north-north-west distance 6 or 7 miles...Stood in round Phillip Island
and by 8 A.M. got close up with Grant's Point and Seal Island.

"Monday, 7th December. At 5 P.M. a breeze sprung up at south-west. Stood
in for the entrance with all sail and the sweeps. At 6 P.M. gained
entrance and passed between Grant's Point and Seal Island which island
seemed as full of seals as when we were last there, a circumstance that
almost made me conclude that neither the Harrington or Mr. Rushford* (*
Presumably Mr. Rushworth.) had been here. Kept standing up the harbour
with a south-west wind, at 7 came to anchor in Elizabeth's Cove in 6
fathoms water with the small bower; lowered down the gig and I went on
shore to observe if any signs of strangers were to be seen. Saw nothing
to make me think the cove had been visited since we left in May last, in
short the only difference was that the land appeared in a higher state of
verdure now than it was at that time. At 4 A.M. out launch and sent the
first officer and five armed men to the river for fresh water...at 10
A.M. stood further up the harbour.

"Tuesday, 8th December. At 4 P.M. came to an anchor off Lady Nelson's
Point and I went on shore and shot a few birds. At 2 P.M. came on board;
up anchor and ran over into 2 fathoms water as near the mouth of river as
possible. A.M. I went in the gig to Churchill's Island and there found
everything as we left it--I mean the remains of our fires and huts; the
wheat and corn that Lieutenant Grant had sown in April last was in full
vigour, 6 ft. high and almost ripe--the onions also were grown into seed;
the potatoes have disappeared--I fancy that the different animals that
inhabit the island must have eaten or otherwise destroyed them. I regret
not having time or men to spare to clear a large spot and sow the wheat
already grown, as the next crop would be large. I never saw finer wheat
or corn in my life, the straw being very near as large as young

"Wednesday, 9th December. At 1 P.M. the first officer in the launch
returned on board with a load of water; on his examining the river he
reported that everything seemed the same as when we left it--a strong
presumption that no vessel had been there, as naturally they would have
replaced their water. The river has been flooded since last April, as a
temporary hut we built was found with part of the bank washed away; the
banks of the river were found all in a high state of verdure and in many
places the view is truly romantic and wild. No signs of native canoes or
huts have been discovered, indeed, there is less appearance of natives
now than when we were here last; for then many remains of huts, part of a
canoe and their beaten tracks were to be found on all parts of the banks
of this little river, all of which have vanished. The party caught and
shot 5 pairs of swans, out of which 3 pairs were young, and brought on
board alive, the others were old and we made some fresh meals from them;
they also brought on board a pair of young geese which however are very
scarce, but few parrots--the ducks are as shy as ever...At 3 P.M. sent
the second mate to Churchill's Island to cut down the wheat on purpose to
feed the young swans with it, at sundown they returned on board with it
in the whole perhaps a bushel in quantity with a good deal mixed with
oats and barley all fine of their kind--some potatoes were also found and
2 onions. At 8 A.M. the launch returned with a load of water, the officer
reported that George Yates had gone to sleep on watch, left the launch
deep loaded in imminent danger of being swamped as the tide rose, and
moreover the whole boat's crew in danger of being surprised by natives if
any should be about, for which crimes I punished him with two dozen
lashes this being an old offence of his--I pardoned him three different
times some time back for sleeping on his watch at Sydney...

"Friday, 11th December. The very favourable weather we have had since our
arrival here is to be thanked for enabling us to so soon fill our water
as I expected this business would have detained me 9 or 10 days. At noon
ran over to Lady Nelson's Point and there anchored in the mouth of Salt
Water Lagoon--7 fathoms.

"Saturday, 12th December. Sent the first mate up Salt Water Lagoon to get
swans; he, however, found none but in afternoon and evening shot two
large ones at Lady Nelson's Point. P.M. Having discovered that Robert
Warren had laid an infamous plan to get the first mate, Mr. Bowen, broke
and otherwise disgraced by acquainting me and all the company belonging
to the vessel that he was a notorious thief and embezzler of King's
stores, I, upon the fullest and clearest investigation of the matter,
finding it to be a most diabolical falsehood put Warren in double irons
intending to deliver him up to the rigour of the civil law on our arrival
at Sydney should a speedier way of sending him not occur during the
cruise. A.M. Sent the first mate to the north-west Branch in the gig to
look for water swans and birds.

"Sunday, 13th December. At 8 A.M. the first mate returned in the gig
having shot 9 large and small swans, the large ones when fit for use
weighed 8 and 9 pounds each. At sunset native fires on ye distant hills.

"Monday, 14th December. Sent the first mate and party in a launch to
overhaul the back of Tortoise Point.

"Tuesday, 15th December. A.M. Hove up and ran over into Elizabeth's Cove
where we anchored. Sent first mate and boat's crew down to Seal Island to
procure some skins...

"Wednesday, 16th December. I walked along the beach 6 or 7 miles, but saw
no signs of any strangers being here since we left this place.

"At 4 P.M. I returned on board, the launch also came on board, they
knocked down a few seals but there was too much surf, in consequence the
officer returned, he reported that no person could have visited that
island since we left this harbour as the seals were as plentiful as ever
and several thousand pups lying on shore. As it continued calm all night,
and seeing we could proceed to sea this day; I again sent him with a
party to Seal Island to get some of the skins both as specimens for
Government and for our own uses as several of the people were without
hats or shoes...Served out fishing line and 4 hooks to each mess, the
crew of the launch having yesterday caught several rock fish at Grant's

"Thursday, 17th December. Making ready for sea. Observed that for these
several days past the native fires had advanced nearer to us, and this
day saw one fire that could be no more than 4 or 5 miles inland.

"Friday, 18th December. At 2 P.M. the first mate and party returned from
Seal Island with some skins which run very small...This time the officer
found remains of fires and a number of bamboo pegs, also a club. The
Harrington must have been here, but where she could have lain at anchor
we could not discover; if any place along this beach, it is curious that
not the least signs of her are to be found--as I walked down from one end
almost to the other. P.M. I sent Bond and Missing, two soldiers, to cut
some more wood, doing which they were fortunate enough to discover a
spring of water...I went on shore and found on clearing it with our hands
that at once we got 100 gallons of very good water...In the morning a
spring was found that proved equal to the watering in a few days a line
of battleships. Pleased with this circumstance took a gang of hands on
shore and made a good road to it, we also cleared the spring of all the
dirt, roots and boughs of fallen and decayed trees that had got into
it...we bailed out of it at least 2 or 3 tons of water and found the
bottom to be a rock of very large stones collected together...in half an
hour after it was entirely empty it was again quite full of clear good
water. We now filled all our empty casks and everything on board that
would hold water intending to go to sea when the wind would permit. As in
this cove wood is in plenty, and the water is not above 50 yards from the
seaside; a vessel of any size may be wooded and watered in two or three
days and ride secure from all wind either close in or further out. It is
the best place in the harbour for any vessel to lay in whether her stay
is short or long...The soil of this island as far as we have penetrated
is very sandy; no black mould is seen, the trees are very small and very
decayed, nor does the small shrubbery grow with much vigour although
pleasing to the eye; in short this cove and island can supply a ship in
abundance with what is generally considered the greatest of her wants yet
I fancy it would poorly pay a settler. To-day we saw a fire which I fancy
could not have been more than 4 miles from Tortoise Point and perhaps 7
from the vessel.

"Saturday, 19th December. Finished the pathway to watering-place, having
made it level and fit
to roll butts on. At 5 P.M. saw a large fire lighted on the opposite
beach nearer the entrance of the harbour, it might be 6 or 7 miles from
the vessel, and in a little time it was left, and nearer to us, at a
little distance from the beach, another very large fire was made.
Expecting from this that in the morning I should be able to speak to them
I made a large fire abreast of where we lay, the natives could not miss
seeing it. In the morning no fires were to be seen which was rather odd,
as besides this nearest fire, last night there were several others in
sight...A.M. I got a large board hung up at the entrance of the road to
the well or spring on which was painted, in oil colours, directions for
any stranger how to get to the watering-place...

"Friday, 25th December. At noon suddenly taken with most violent squall
at West...this hurricane of wind increased so rapidly and with such fury
that we were obliged to let go the best bower and till all 3 anchors bore
the strain she dragged a little, struck top-gallant-mast. This squall
continued for 4 hours, then settled into a westerly gale with constant
thunder and lightning and at intervals very hard rain and also more sea
than I supposed possible in this cove. At 11 P.M. parted our warp, my
uneasiness at this was not a little however the S.B.* (* Small bower,
that is the port bower.) a little relieved by best bower held on at

"Saturday, 26th December. From noon till 3 P.M. the gale continued to
increase and a sea got up still higher than it had yet been at any time
since the gale began...Made all as snug as possible for riding out the
gale, the hardest by far I ever saw in this country, and as it blew dead
on the shore outside nothing less than the greatest providence could have
saved us had we got to sea either of the times I attempted it. At
half-past 6 P.M. a lull with the appearance of good weather...7 P.M. the
weather looking very bad, made a run for Lady Nelson's Point, the gale
following us as hard as ever, at half-past 9 came to an anchor off Lady
Nelson's Point--at noon gale continued, however, we felt little here as
we lay right under the land.

"Sunday, 27th December. Between hours of 12 and 2 A.M. having caught
Henry Willis and John
Missing asleep in their watch, put both in irons.. 8 A.M. vessel
drove...she tailed in on a
mudbank, which obliged us to weight the best bower and with the long boat
lay it ahead to heave her off. At noon hove into 1/2 2 fathoms.

"Monday, 28th December. Wind at south-west at 3 P.M...up anchor and ran
to leeward of Lady Nelson's Point.

"Tuesday, 29th December. Winds at south-west. Shifted to north-west and
freshened into a gale with cloudy weather: thus has this kind of weather
bound us here this last 12 days...Sent the first mate and a party to see
and shoot some birds.

"Wednesday, 30th December. First part the wind veered to south-west and
blew so hard that we were obliged to give her the long service of the
cable although we lay under the land and not half a mile from it. No
fires have been seen these last three or four days.

"Thursday, 21st December. First and middle parts fine weather--at 3 P.M.
seeing a number of swans near Churchill's Island, sent the First Mate in
the boat to see and get some of them; he was lucky enough to catch
six...Up anchor and run down into Elizabeth's Cove. At half-past 6 P.M.
came to an anchor in 7 fathoms. By half-past 7 P.M. got on board two or
300 gallons of water and some wood. The well was in fine order,
overflowed and water clear. We here discovered another spring the banks
of which were covered with water-cresses and wild blackberries, got some
of both on board. I had intended going inland on the island some way,
this was baffled by a strong wind coming from west-north-west which threw
the sea into the cove--not at all pleasant. I therefore up anchor and
again ran up under Lady Nelson's Point.

"Friday, 1st January 1802. All this 24 hours it has been blowing a hard
gale...The New Year was ushered in with us splicing the main brace and
three cheers; by the weather with a black squall of wind and rain.
Released Robert Warren.

"Saturday, 2nd January. Strong gales with hard squalls, later cloudy. New
slung our two Nun buoys; sent officer and some hands to cut wood.
Observed fire a long way off in north-east Branch.

"Sunday, January 3rd. P.M. Sent the 1st Mate with 4 hands in launch to
the River to try for some birds.

"Monday, 4th January. Variable weather. At 2 P.M. the launch returned. We
have got at last some knowledge of the natives of this part of the
country. The following is the substance of the report of Mr. Bowen, 1st

"At 7 A.M. left the head of Fresh Water River having in vain looked for
some of the crowned birds, and having been able to shoot nothing (a few
ducks excepted), having proceeded down the river, and being nearly
half-way on board he observed a fire lighted on the beach between
Crownhead and the entrance of the River and thinking it could be nothing
but natives he immediately put back to prove this. As the boat approached
the beach these blacks were perceived sitting in the same form as those
of Sydney, and each of them had a bundle of spears in their hands. Our
people hallowed them which they instantly answered and did not seem at
all alarmed on the nearer approach of the boat, three boys made their
appearance. As between the beach and the boat there lay a bank of mud
about 200 yards across, Mr. Bowen could not get quite so close as he
could wish, however, he singly got out and began to walk towards them,
which when they perceived, they jumped upon their feet and it was now
perceived that one of them was a very old man with a large bushy beard
and the rest of his face besmeared with red ochre. The others were young
men. They were all clothed with the skins of oppossums as far as their
middle, and this old man seemed to have command over the others. As Mr.
Bowen advanced they all pulled off their dress and made signs to the
officer that before he came any nearer he must do the same; this was
immediately complied with.

"They then all sat down again and Mr. Bowen, plucking a root of fern,
advanced pretty close to them holding it up; they seemed to understand it
as it was meant. When he got within a few yards of this party the old man
seemed rather uneasy and began to handle his spears. Mr. Bowen then threw
them a tomahawk, and one of the young men picked it up; on Mr. Bowen
beckoning them to sit down, he doing the same, they again threw him back
the tomahawk, and all except the old man sat down. Mr. Bowen then broke a
piece of stick and cut it with the tomahawk and tyed a handkerchief to it
and again reached it to them; on this, one of the young men ventured to
reach his hand and take it out of the officer's but would by no means be
so familiar as to shake hands. Mr. Bowen then ate some bread and then
gave them some which they did not eat, but carefully laid it by under
some fern roots or leaves; on getting some ducks they took no other
notice of them than to examine in what manner they were killed, what
their ideas on that head were we know not as they did not take the least
notice of our firearms even when, towards the latter end of the parley,
it was found necessary to point one at the breast of the old man who all
along was very suspicious of our designs.

"All this time they expressed a good deal of wonder at the colour of Mr.
Bowen's skin, and one of the young men made very significant signs to him
that he must have washed himself very hard. They now made signs for Mr.
Bowen to go back to the boat and pointed down along the beach to Crown
Head. Mr. Bowen accordingly went into the boat and pulled down as they
walked, after pulling about 1 1/2 miles they stopped and beckoned for the
boat to come in--here 3 women made their appearance each with a child at
her back. Mr. Bowen went on shore here, little passed on either side
further than on Mr. Bowen asking for fire to warm himself. They pointed
to the boat and made signs for him to go there and get it the women
sometimes shook their hands to him, and the boys laughing and hooping. A
few more trifles were here given to them. A little before this all our
people got out of the boat stark naked as was desired and walked somewhat
near the natives, on which the old man sent the boys away to the women,
and he, after having been in a great passion, made signs for us to go to
the boat, began to retire with his face to us and brandishing his spear
as that everyone thought he would heave it, when our people turned their
backs the young men seemed more quiet. As we saw that all hope of further
intercourse for the present was at an end Mr. Bowen ordered Bond to fire
his piece over their heads in order to make good his retreat to the boat.
This had the desired effect, as they one and all were out of sight in an
instant. Before this they must have taken the musket for nothing but a
stick. All the weapons they possessed were their spears (of a small size)
and a stone tomahawk along with the wumera they throw with. With respect
to their size the young men were much the same as those of Sydney or
Jarvis Bay. They were not deficient in making out our signs, and we were
easy able to understand from their motions what they would be at. From
there being but little food for them on the beaches here, and their being
clothed in the skins of the oppossums, I presume they are Bush natives,
the women, I forgot to mention, appeared to be middling well shaped, and
good-looking children, they were, however, always at some distance.

"Mr. Bowen and the people having joined the boat came on board. Observed
all the remainder of the day they retired back into the woods and about 6
P.M. dous'd their fire at once although it must have covered an acre of
ground. At 4 A.M. a light wind sprung up at east, got our kedge hove
short, loosed sails and hove up--made sail for Elizabeth's Cove..."

"Tuesday, 5th January. Winds from south-east to east with cloudy weather.
At quarter past 1 P.M. Cape Shank bore north-east by north 9 miles. Kept
running down along the land steering west and west by north in order to
traverse the whole of this land, found it impossible to survey any part
of the coast as yet from the numerous native fires which covered this low
shore in one volume of smoke. At 3 P.M.* (* i.e. 3 P.M. on January 4th by
the civil reckoning. See above note.) we saw ahead land bearing
west-north-west distant 12 miles, and an opening in the land that had the
appearance of a harbour north-west 10 or 12 miles, bore away for this
last it having the appearance of fine steady weather...Accordingly kept
standing down for this entrance which every minute from its appearance
made us sure it was a good harbour.* (* The entrance to Port Phillip;
Murray returned here January 30th.) At 5 P.M. saw a small island in the
entrance and observed that between it and the main lay a reef...the 1st
Mate and the the Boatswain's Mate at the masthead looking out. At this
time I suppose we were within 1 1/2 miles of the entrance...and I
perceived that the sea broke short and was withal heavy--hove the lead
and found only 10 fathoms water...Astonished at this, I hauled our wind
and called out to them at the masthead to know if they saw any danger,
but none was seen. I bore away and deepened into 11 fathoms when Mr.
Bowen called out "Rocks ahead," immediately hauled our wind and stood
off...going often to the masthead I saw that the reef did nearly stretch
across the whole way, but inside saw a sheet of smooth water of great
extent. From the wind blowing dead on this shore, I was obliged to haul
off to clear the land, but with a determination to overhaul it as no
doubt it has a channel into it and is apparently a fine harbour of large
extent. Kept pressing sail and by 8 P.M. the extremes of land bore from
north-west to west distance 20 miles...the wind blew about as much as our
vessel likes and I am convinced that no vessel would have done more--I
wish I could say as much for her in light winds...At daylight the haze
over the land at east, and east-north-east with a heavy sea. I did not
like to bear down on a lee shore and so kept our wind stretching for the
westernmost side of the bay...no part of this bay as yet has been
surveyed owing to the sea, wind and the before-mentioned numerous fires
of the natives, but as our courses and distance were all with a free wind
till we hauled off...there will be no great mistake found in that part of
this bay laid down. Till 8 P.M. from our run from Western Port the soil
of all the land from abreast of Elizabeth's Cove to Cape Shanks is
excellent; after you round Cape Shanks and stand to west the land is
invariably low and sandy with little hummocks here and there of grass and
small bushes till you get down as far as this supposed harbour; on the
opposite side the land gently rises a little for about 10 or 12 miles,
seemingly good ground, it then sweeps away in a long bight of low land
which we could just perceive at sundown...At noon saw the distant
appearance of land on our larboard beam and from latitude observed 38
degrees 48 minutes 14 seconds, I take it to be somewhere near about Cape
Shanks; bore away for Cape Albany Otway. Altitudes for Time-keeper one
giving Longitude 144 degrees 35 minutes 00 seconds and the second
Longitude 144 degrees 35 minutes 45 seconds east. All these 24 hours
sound ground from 45 to 33 fathoms. Sand mixed with shells and brown

"Wednesday, 6th January. Kept running for Cape Albany and by 7 P.M.
having nearly run into its latitude stood off and on during night. In the
morning it was very hazy otherwise would have seen the land. At half-past
9 A.M. saw Cape Albany, bearing west-north-west 10 or 12 miles distance
and Cape Danger north-west 16 or 17 miles; both these capes marked with
white sandy front and middling high, all the land between is sandy hills
and long sandy beach, as also what part of the land we saw stretching
into Portland Bay. Ground invariably mixed with shells and brown specks,
sometimes a little gravel, till the last time when we had 24 fathoms fine
sand. At the time Cape Albany bore 26 or 27 miles. At noon hauled our
wind for Harmingar Rock* (* Harbinger.) but owing to heavy sea and wind
did not make better than south-east course--the vessel labouring and
pitching a great deal.

"Thursday, 7th January. From noon till 5 P.M. strong winds at
north-north-east and a confused heavy sea...This weather settled into
hard gale at south-west by 7 a tumultuous sea up and we laboured much and
lurched very heavy. At 6 A.M. it cleared--set sails, out all reefs
intending to make Governor King's Island while this clear weather
continued; as it will be seen, unfavourable winds and weather has
prevented me either tracing coast from Cape Shanks to Cape Albany, as
after making Cape Albany from being able to run a straight course to
Harminger Rock; both of these points will be attempted.

"Friday, 8th January. Altitude 145 degrees 07 minutes 15 seconds--this
confirmed me that we must have been driven eastward.

"Saturday, 9th January. Saw the loom of the land from the masthead which
I take to be Governor King's Island--its southernmost point bore S.W.S.
distant 16 miles. We could only see it now and then as the squalls passed
over. Kept working to this land which I rather think is part of the same
that on the 6th I saw and supposed it to be the northernmost cape, Cape
Danger, and another Cape Albany. I...will in making circuit easily know
them, both being sandy bluffs.

"Sunday, 10th January. Kept all night working up to land and by 7 A.M.
got within 6 miles of the body of the island; kept edging down along it a
4 or 5 miles distance; the land in general high and covered with brush
and now and then spots of large trees very tall. At 8 A.M. we saw two
rocks we had passed at 7 A.M.--make out exactly like 2 boats under sail,
they are both very near the land...As we kept running down along the land
I saw a low point of rock make out with a good deal of surf and the land
lay so far back that I concluded at least a deep bight must be
there--this proved true, as we rounded it the swell of the sea which
before was high greatly took off and although the wind blew hard yet as
it was off shore...lowered the boat and sent Mr. Bowen and two good hands
in her on shore...At half-past 11 the weather looking worse instead of
better made a signal for our boat which they noticed and came off--by
noon they got on board, and Mr. Bowen reported that wood and excellent
water was in abundance, that safe anchorage and good ground was close
into the beach--the soil is middling good, in short, it is an excellent
place to take shelter in from all worst winds that blow in this
country...Latitude of this bight is 40 degrees 00 minutes 09 seconds
south and Longitude 143 degrees 57 minutes 45 seconds east.

"Monday, 11th January. Running along shore at a distance of 4 miles at 1
P.M. Saw a rock bearing west distant 10 miles and a low point
north-north-west 9 or 10 miles--as we run down, this point still making
out made us begin to think that we should here find a bay or harbour. By
2 P.M. we completely opened it and saw it was a bay of large extent and
fine shelter...where we came to anchor. Found the tide of flood running
to the Westward nearly done (4 P.M.)--the different parts of the bay bore
as follows: Elephant Rock* (* (Note in log.) So named from resemblance to
that animal.) north by east distant at 5 miles north part of the bay
north 1/2 west distant 6 miles--the bottom of bay west-north-west 2 1/2
miles distant and the south point of ditto south-south-east, or 4 miles.
I now went on shore, found a good deal of surf on the beach till we got
on the southern side...here we landed and the first thing we saw was a
number of sea elephants* (* The Phoca proboscidea of Peron.) of an
immense size lying asleep on the beach, each of them, Barnes the
boatswain's mate told me, would make 8 or 9 barrels of oil; as we rowed
down the shore we took them to be bluish rocks. We found along this beach
two freshwater lagoons full of those animals which made it taste
brackish...We could not get near the upper part of them on account of the
number of elephants playing in them both. I named the bay Elephant Bay
from this circumstance.

"Tuesday, 12th January. Boat returned on board, they caught 4 badgers and
saw several kangaroos, but were not able to get any from the thickness of
the brush--they also found feathers of emus and a dead one. Snakes are
here, as the skin of one was found. We got several gallons of elephant
oil out to-day as a specimen to Government and for our own use...some
wood growing here reported different to any seen before...

"Wednesday, 13th January. Received some specimens of wood and some water.
At half-past 10 up and run out of bay, hoisted in gig, running down
shore; surveyed as well as weather would permit.

"Thursday, 14th January. Fair wind and cloudy. Running along shore 3 or 4
miles off and surveying it. At 4 P.M. having run as far as North-West
Point, and seeing a number of breakers ahead, hove to. We could have done
nothing by standing on in such weather. At 5 P.M. dropped kedge with the
warp to see if that would ride her and found she would ride by it very
well, furled sail and pointed yards. The land from Elephant Bay to here
is rather low of sandy soil and a very long white sandy beach all this
distance. The two sandy capes or rather bluffs are about 20 miles from
Elephant Bay and are so remarkable that I think no person could be well
mistaken in them. The course to Elephant Bay is nearly south-east by
compass; no person need mistake the bay as Elephant Rock lies in the
mouth of it about 3 miles from its north part. The bottom is sand gravel
mixed with broken shells...At 7 A.M. got nearly as far as the second
rocks and breakers, found a very high sea up. At this time saw an island
bearing south-west by south. The island presents a bold rocky front to
the sea and foul ground--breakers and rocks lie off from it a long way.
Not less than 10 miles from here, on looking to the southward, a low
island is seen and due south the furthest point of land--it appears
altogether rather a dangerous place unless a vessel has a good breeze
that can be depended on. A calm with such a current as we found here
might chance to run her upon one rock or another...

"Friday, 15th January. Moderate fair weather. At 3 P.M. tacked in shore
and at 4 P.M. shortened sail and stood off and on within 2 or 3 miles of
the sand bluffs; lowered gig and sent the First Mate in her on shore to
examine this part of the island, found the variation to be 8 degrees 54
minutes east. At half-past 6 P.M. the boat got on board. Mr. Bowen told
me that there was a very high surf on the beach, that those bluffs were
entirely sand, no shells were on the beach--inland he said the soil was
good--he found no water here, some kangaroo were seen but could not be
got at, the officer shot one but it got away; he said that on going up
one of the trees he perceived inland a large sheet of water which he
thinks must have some entrance into it from the other side of the island.
I rather think it a lagoon or swamp, nevertheless we will give the other
side of the island a strict search when wind and weather will permit us
to go round.

"Saturday, 16th January. At quarter past 4 A.M. breeze from north-east,
hazy weather and rain, stood in for Elephant Rock. At half-past 5 A.M.
made sail down the coast of island to the southward, surveying it and
sounding every half-hour...From 10 to 11 A.M. standing in for land. The
weather at this time cleared a little and from the masthead a low point
seemed to form a kind of entrance...into a deep bight or bay, a reef of
rocks was also seen to the westward of it. Stood in pretty close along
the edge of the reef and sent Mr. Bowen in the gig to overhaul the place.
Observed the rocks of this reef to be full of seals, sea horses and
elephants. The appearance of this place being favourable...stood further
in and perceived it was a deep bay.

"Sunday, 17th January. At 1 P.M. came to anchor--the bottom coarse
sand--from where we lay East point of land bore east-north-east distant
10 miles, the Seal Reef south by east 3 or 4 miles...we sounded every
part of this place where a vessel would most likely anchor and found it
14 to 7 fathoms. At 2 P.M. Mr. Bowen came off, he brought on board 3
seals with hair of prime fur and told me there was a vast quantity on
shore. Elephants are also in abundance and the woods full of kangaroo,
emus, badgers, etc., some few shells were found, no water seen as yet.
After dinner I went on shore: the brush is very thick which rendered it
impossible to get any way in, there is little doubt of plenty of water
being here as we in our search started 15 or 20 kangaroo from 30 to 40
pounds weight. An emu was caught by the dog about 50 pounds weight and
surprising fat. At one place on this beach an acre of ground at least was
covered with elephants of a most amazing size and several were all along
the beach and playing in the water. At 7 P.M. I came on board. A sea
watch with the proper officer had been set as has been usual ever since
we made this island...At midnight the wind increasing made sail out of
the bay as I preferred riding out the gale in Elephant Bay. At 11 A.M.
came to anchor in Elephant Bay. We have now overhauled and surveyed this
island from its north-west and west points to its south-west points being
in length about 55 or 60 miles, and although westerly winds that have
blown for such a length of time have retarded our voyage yet they have
enabled me to strictly search every part of the island between
aforementioned points, and should a north-east wind come and remain
steady for a few days we will be able to overhaul the remaining part of
the island with equal accuracy. Of the advantages to be derived from this
fine island I shall say but little, the plain truth is to be seen in this
journal. It contains plenty of wood and water, the woods are full of
animals and excellent of their kind, the shores are lined with fine oil
(if I may be allowed the expression) and this part of the island has two
good bays in it well sheltered from all the dangerous winds. A vessel may
anchor as I did unless the wind blows from the east, south-east or
north-east or north points of the compass. I named this last discovery
the Bay of Seals from the number of these animals on the shores of it,
and the rocks outside the bay Seal Rocks.

"Monday, 18th January. First and middle parts it blew a gale but with
long lulls at times, latter a harder gale with much heavier squalls than
I have yet seen in this country (the Western Port gale excepted) and it
is with great satisfaction that I am able to say that our little vessel
has rode it out as yet with one anchor and half a cable--a proof of the
goodness of the holding ground...At 8 the boat brought on board a turn of
water and 2 kangaroo were caught--the increase of the gale hindered the
boat from returning on shore.

"Tuesday, 19th January. From noon till 4 P.M. the gale continued. By
sundown it was moderate weather; the boat returned on board...a wambuck
was caught, served it, a swan and a kangaroo to ship's company.

"Thursday, 21st January. A.M. Sent Mr. Bowen in the gig to Elephant Rock
with directions to sound all the parts of this bay we did not run over in
the vessel.

"Friday, 22nd January. P.M. The boat returned on board. Mr. Bowen found
the soundings all the distance from the vessel from 9 to 10 and 11
fathoms and good ground. Close to the Elephant Rock there are 10 fathoms.
This rock is about 1 1/2 miles in circumference and it is entirely
covered with seals of prime fur some of which the officer brought, there
might be 6 or 7,000 seals of different sizes on shore. A.M. Sent boat to
Elephant Rock for skins and another for wood and water.

"Saturday, January 23rd. P.M. The launch returned with some sealskins of
prime fur and I was told that the Rock was full of mutton-birds, in
consequence of this I had the boat on shore and procured 80 or 90 of
them, served ditto to the people.

"Sunday, January 24th. Throughout this 24 hours the weather has been
remarkably thick and hazy...stood off and on till 4 P.M...then we made
some sail to get sight of land if possible before dark and by 8 P.M. saw
the north-west point of the Bay of Seals being north by west distant 5
miles, 2 Seal Rocks distant 6 miles north by east...at 2 A.M. found the
vessel close to the breakers and a strong ripple of a current with a very
confused jump of a sea. Tacked and stood off till daylight. By 6 A.M. we
saw the distant looming of the land, bearing north-west, and perceived
that all round us...lay rocks and dangerous breakers, one bore south-west
(a large rock 3 miles) another south-south-west 3 1/2 another south 4
miles and one west 5 miles, that one which bore south-south-west, John
Johnson told me he thought it Harbinger Rock, having seen it when with
Mr. Black, commander of the Harbinger. At 8 A.M. made sail to the
north-east...At noon strong winds at south hauled her off East.

"Before I close this log it may be proper to observe that from the very
long run of bad weather we have had and being so often baffled in our
attempts to get round the end of the island which is full of danger and
moreover have seen all the land that lies between its north-west and west
points to its south-west points from which these dangerous rocks and
breakers lie about 7 or 8 miles I now determined to stand off to
Albatross Island in a straight line for this reef for we could not
venture too close unto land it having every appearance of a gale from
south or south-east either of which blow in on the shore. This reef I
named Lady Nelson Reef from our so narrowly escaping being on shore on
it, this however is only to distinguish it from others for I have not the
least doubt but it is what Mr. Bass gave me a sketch of, the latitude and
longitude so well correspond with his. I fancy also it is what was seen
in the Martha schooner in 1799 along with the land, all of which is one
island...Thus we took leave of this large and fine island where the
benevolent hand of Providence has fixed the chief necessaries of life and
the means to procure some of its luxuries. We kept on East expecting it
would soon blow a gale and a heavy sea up. I much lament not having as
yet had it in my power from the series of unfavourable weather we have
had so exactly to comply with the Commander-in-Chief's orders as I could
have wished.

"Monday, January 25th. From noon till half-past 1 P.M. we run due east 8
miles, we then saw from masthead Hunter's Islands bearing (the middle of
them) south-south-east distant 5 or 6 leagues...Under the lee of Three
Hummock Island in smooth water we laid under easy sail off and on all
night--found the tides here to run very strong. In the morning I sent
boat on shore with the First Mate and 2 hands, by noon they returned
having shot 2 ducks and found a spring of water, some small kangaroo were
seen but not worth shooting even could they have been got at. The
footsteps of a man were seen on shore, perhaps one of the Harrington's
Lascars as the foot was measured and found very small. The shores of this
island are bold rock and some dangerous reefs lie off it, one of which (a
sunken one) we did not escape by 10 yards...Lady Nelson's Reef is
east-south-east and west-north-west distance about 30 miles in Latitude
40 degrees 20 minutes 30 seconds south and Longitude by Time-keeper 145
degrees 40 minutes 53 seconds, it has many sandy bights in it where I
would not scruple to anchor in south-south-west, south-east and east

"Tuesday, January 26th. At half-past 12 bore away for Elephant Rock. At 5
P.M. the south extreme of Three Hummock Island bore south by east
distance 19 or 20 miles...At sundown extremes of Governor King's Island
bore south-west to west by north distance 11 or 12 miles. At 8 P.M.
shortened sail and threw her head off shore intending to have lain off
and on all night, this was done. At 4 A.M. made sail for land and we
exactly made Elephant Rock right ahead therefore the distance between
Three Hummock Island and Elephant Rock is north 65 west distance 44 miles
true by compass north-west by west. We then stood on for the sandy capes
or bluffs and by half-past 9 A.M. the largest and perpendicular one bore
south by west distant 8 or 9 miles, this I named Cape Farewell. I took a
departure from it intending to run to Cape Albany (Otway); the wind from
4 A.M. has blown at east-north-east and from that to north-east with its
usual hazy dirty weather, in consequence of which we kept our wind till
noon to be certain of clearing the shoals and breakers lying off this end
of the island. At noon saw the looming of the western end of the island
bearing distant perhaps 12 miles, the direct distance from Mid Hummock of
that island to Cape Farewell is north 51 degrees west distance 56 miles
true but by compass north-west a little westerly."



On leaving King Island, Murray, on January 30th (civil time),* (* In this
chapter civil time is given in the author's observations. The time in the
logs throughout is according to nautical reckoning, i.e. the day
beginning at noon before the civil reckoning.) returned again to Western
Port and next day, at 4 A.M. he sent Mr. Bowen with 5 men in the launch
to examine the harbour to the westward which is now known as Port Phillip
and at the head of which stands the city of Melbourne. On Wednesday the
launch returned and the first mate reported that he had found a good
channel into the harbour which was "a most noble sheet of water." He also
reported that he saw no natives but only their huts. Shortly afterwards
Murray himself entered the newly discovered Port in the Lady Nelson.

Murray arrived there on February 14th and anchored at 3.30 P.M. in a
sandy cove off a point of the shore which lay distant a quarter of a mile
to the south-west. He named a high mountain Arthur's Seat; a cluster of
islands where black swans were plentiful Swan Isles; a bold rocky point
to the east-south-east Point Paterson and a long sandy point Point

The chart of Port Phillip (Illustration 11) is possibly a reproduction of
the track of the Lady Nelson's boat when the bay was explored for the
first time. Arthur's Seat and Watering Place apparently are the only
names placed on it by Murray* (* It is preserved at the Admiralty.) as
Swan Pond and "Point Repear" are in a different handwriting. At "Point
Repear" the long boat of the Lady Nelson may have been repaired or the
name may have been written in mistake for Point Nepean, also named by

The following entries describe his coming to Port Phillip.

"Wednesday, January 27th. From noon till 8 P.M. variable winds, hot
sultry weather, dull fiery sky and so thick that we could not see above a
mile ahead; kept making for Cape Albany (Otway). At 8 short sail and hove
to...at 4 A.M. the wind settled into a westerly gale attended with heavy
squalls and rain. By 9 A.M. it turned into a clear gale and a very high
sea up which makes us labour a good deal. Had altitude longitude by then
143 degrees 13 minutes 40 seconds, these agree with the dead reckoning
within 3 or 4 miles. Latitude 39 degrees 12 minutes 33 seconds. This
weather has again rendered abortive my plan of getting the direct line of
bearing and distance between Cape Farewell and Cape Albany Otway. I shall
only observe that I never experienced such length of bad weather at any
time of year or in any country since I sailed the seas.

"Saturday, January 30th. At half-past 9 A.M. the north point of land bore
north distant 12 miles--made sail for it. At 10 A.M. perceived with
surprise that it was Cape Shanks and Grant's Point instead of Cape
Albany. I now judged it prudent to send our boat down to overhaul for a
channel into the harbour mentioned in the Log of the 5th of this month,
accordingly stood in for it and by noon Cape Shanks bore north-west
distant 6 or 7 miles and Grant's Point north-east by east 10 or 11 miles.
We had a very heavy swell and perceived the surf about Seal Islands
breaking in a fearful manner; sounded every hour.

"Sunday, January 31st. At 2 P.M. passed Seal Island. Observed the long
range of breakers on the western side of the Port: several of them had
shifted their berths nearer to mid channel...the whole of them for
several miles broke incessantly and remarkable lofty--we passed within 2
miles of them. The reefs on the eastern side also broke much further out.
In short the mid channel up this port has (by the immense run of bad
weather) been made narrower. By 5 P.M. got to anchor in Elizabeth's
Cove...out boats. Got the launch ready for sailing in the morning to
explore the channel of the western harbour before mentioned. I went on
shore in the gig. Found the well as we left it full of fine clear water
and our board of directions hanging at the entrance of the pathway. At 4
A.M.* (* It will be seen that Bowen left to explore Port Phillip at 4
A.M. of January 31st and not on February 1st.) I sent the launch with Mr.
Bowen and 5 men armed with 14 days' provisions and water down to the
westward giving him particular instructions how to act both with respect
to the harbour and natives should he fall in with any, the substance of
which was that in finding a channel into the Port he would take marks
proper for coming in with the vessel and immediately return to me and at
all times to deal friendly with the natives. It may now be proper to
observe that my intentions are that if a passage into that harbour is
found I will take the vessel down into it and survey it as speedily as
circumstances will allow, from that trace the coast to Cape Albany, from
Cape Albany run strait to Cape Farewell and Harbinger Rocks, and if time,
after that follow up the remainder of my orders.

"Monday, February 1st...A.M. I walked along the beach for 8 miles up to
Lady Nelson's Point and observed that a great variety of birds were in
the brush and their notes very different; flights of white cockatoos of
perhaps 100 were often seen. At Lady Nelson's Point we saw 20 or 30 swans
in the salt-water lagoon...one and all of the birds we have seen were so
shy that...we did not shoot one (a single pigeon excepted). The trees
also were all in bloom. I am apt to think that summer does not begin in
this part till January. On penetrating further into this island the soil
was found to be good.

"Tuesday, February 2nd. P.M. I sent a hand on shore to the well in order
to see if any birds were to be got by his sitting there a few hours
steady as numbers towards sundown came in to drink. The plan had the
desired effect, 4 pigeons were shot, a dozen of parrots; these latter
were common, I dined on them, the pigeons were preserved. On opening them
all were found to feed on seeds of various kinds.

"Wednesday, February 3rd. P.M. As I was walking along the pathway to the
well I nearly trod on a snake about 6 feet long, the first we have seen
on the island. It made its way into the brush.

"Thursday, February 4th. Throughout these 24 hours we have had calms with
hot sickly weather and thick fiery haze. At half-past 9 P.M. the launch
returned on board, all well. Mr. Bowen reported that a good channel was
found into this new harbour, water from 10 fathoms to 6 and about a mile
and a half broad, and according to his accounts it is A MOST NOBLE SHEET
OF WATER larger even than Western Port, with many fine coves and
entrances in it and the appearance and probability of rivers, a number of
shells were found on its beaches--swans, pelicans and birds of various
sorts were seen in great numbers. The boat's crew lived on swans all the
time they were away.

"No water was as yet found--the officer having no time to spare, nor no
natives seen but numbers of their huts, in short from such a report as I
have received and of the truth of which I have no doubt (as the attention
and care of this officer has always been conspicuous) it would be
unpardonable in me not to give this new harbour a strict overhaul, in the
meantime as it was calm and no appearance of getting out, at 8 A.M. hove
up and towed the vessel up to Lady Nelson's Point in order to send the
boat up the river for birds such plenty of various kinds being on this
island. At noon dropped our anchor in 6 fathoms, Lady Nelson's Point
bearing west by south half a mile and Crown Head 9 miles north-east by
east and Margaret Island north-east 1/2 north 7 or 8 miles--moored with

"Friday, February 5th. Variable flaws of wind all round the compass this
last 24 hours and hot sultry weather. Employed overhauling our bread
which we found in good order. A.M. Sent the launch with the First Mate
and 4 hands armed up the river to try and shoot some birds, it ought to
be observed that the past two or three days we were here numbers of
native fires were seen on the coast and up both arms, since then they
have disappeared.

"Monday, February 8th. At 3 P.M. the launch returned, all well, having
got a live swan, some dead ones and 4 crowned parrots, a single duck was
shot. No fresh water was to be got even at dead low water and up as far
as the boat could be pushed between the boughs of the fallen trees. At
A.M. took up our kedge, weighed our anchor, made sail for Elizabeth's
Cove and at half-past 6 A.M. came to anchor...sent empty cask on shore to
complete our water--also a party to cut wood, we filled our casks from
this excellent spring. Longitude by chronometer 145 degrees 13 minutes 53

"Tuesday, February 9th. Calm weather, constant thick fiery haze, very
close and sultry. By 3 P.M. secured everything for sea intending to sail
in the morning, took a haul of our seine, caught one whiting only and two
remarkable curious fish.

"Wednesday, February 10th. P.M. Sighted our Bower anchor suspecting it to
be foul, found it so. Having found a quantity of oysters, mussels and
shellfish at low water to-day gave the shore a strict search at low water
and plainly perceived that a company of 6 or 8 men would not run any
hazard of being starved here for several months from the vast quantity of
shellfish to be found. We also have these some days past found feeding on
seaweed many hundreds of a very handsome shell very scarce where we were
in April last.

"Thursday, February 11th. This evening a snake 6 feet long was killed in
the road to the well.

"Friday, February 12th. A.M. Hoisted in launch, took up kedge intending
to sail if wind came to anything, it however kept constantly falling calm
and then a light air would spring up for a few minutes; this kind of
weather obliged me to keep fast. At noon heard distant thunder around us.

"Saturday, February 13th. From 7 P.M. till 10 P.M. constant loud thunder,
vivid lightning and very hard rain later part, till 9 A.M. Was calm then.
A breeze sprung up at east. Hove up our B.* (* Bower, that is anchor.)
and hung by the kedge, by this time it fell calm and our hopes of getting
to sea vanished, needless to observe this kind of weather is as
destructive to the intent of this cruise as gales at sea. I took a walk
along the beach far enough to see all the entrances to this port and by
ascending an eminence was confirmed in my opinion that several of those
dangerous sand rollers had shifted their berths and by so doing had
rendered the channel narrower than hithertofore.

"Sunday, February 14th...At 5 A.M. weighed and made all sail down the
port, by 8 A.M. Grant's Point bore east by north distant 10 miles and
Cape Shanks north-west distant 7 miles; kept running down the land. A.M.
At half-past 10 South Head of the new Harbour or Port north by east 8
miles distant; by noon the island at entrance of harbour bore north half
a mile distant. At this time we had a view of this part of the spacious
harbour, its entrance is wide enough to work any vessel in, but, in 10
fathoms. Bar stretches itself a good way across, and, with a strong tide
out and wind in, the ripple is such as to cause a stranger to suspect
rock or shoals ahead. We carried in with us water from 14 to 16 fathoms.
Kept standing up the port with all sail set.

"Monday, February 15th. P.M. Working up, the port with a very strong ebb
against us, we however gained ground. The southern shore of this noble
harbour is bold high land in general and not clothed as all the land at
Western Point is with thick brush but with stout trees of various kinds
and in some places falls nothing short, in beauty and appearance, of
Greenwich Park. Away to the eastward at the distance of 20 miles the land
is mountainous, in particular there is one very high mountain which in
the meantime I named Arthur's Seat from its resemblance to a mountain of
that name a few miles from Edinburgh...to the north-east by north, about
5 miles from the south shore lies a cluster of small rocky islands and
all round them a shoal of sand; plenty of swans and pelicans were found
on them when the boat was down, from which I named them Swan Isles. To
the north-east by east there is an opening, and from our masthead no land
could be seen in it. The northern shores are low with a sandy beach all
along. At half-past 3 P.M. we got to anchor in a sandy cove in 7 fathoms
water, bottom fine sand--Swan Isles bearing north-east by north distance
5 miles, a bold rocky point which I named Point Paterson east-south-east
1 1/2 miles, a long sandy point named Point Palmer west, 1 1/2 miles, and
the nearest point of the shore south-west 1/2 of a mile distant.

"I went on shore and walked through the woods a couple of miles. The
ground was hard and pleasant to walk on. The trees are at a good distance
from each other and no brush intercepts you. The soil is good as far as
we may be judges. I saw several native huts and very likely they have
burnt off several hundred acres of ground. Young grass we found springing
up over all the ground we walked; the only birds we saw were a few
parrots. We found some shells on the beach and returned on board. I have
named this harbour Port King* (* Governor King afterwards renamed the
harbour Port Phillip in honour of the first Governor of New South Wales.)
in honour of Governor P.G. King under whose orders I act. Set a third
watch of the people with an officer. In the morning sent the gig to Swan
isles for swans and on board we caught a few rock fish. At noon the gig
returned with 3 live and 4 dead swans.

"Tuesday, February 16th. After dinner I took a walk through the woods of
this part of the country, attended by one soldier and our carpenter to
examine the wood. To describe this part I walked through is simply to say
that it nearly resembles a walk on Blackheath and the Park if we set out
of question the houses and gardens of the latter. The hills and valleys
rise and fall with inexpressible elegance. We discovered no water nor any
new wood of consequence, but it is impossible that a great want of water
can be here from the number of native huts and fires we fell in with in
our march. From the top of a high hill I ascended and casting my eyes to
the north-east a large sheet of water was seen which I am inclined to
think is either a harbour or large river; we also perceived that this
port trained away under Cape Shanks.

"On our return to the boat Andrew Luck found a perfect nautilus shell; he
made me a present of it, indeed it is but common justice to observe that
the invariable good, attentive and decent behaviour of this old man ever
since he joined this vessel renders him a fit object of mercy. This day a
few snappers were caught and some rock fish. At sundown a native fire was
seen about a mile inland, in the morning early I sent Mr. Bowen and Bond
armed to speak them, neither fell in with them. At 9 A.M. hove up our
Bower with a light air at north-east and dropped a few miles further up
the Port. We now saw the same fire just lighted by the natives and
presently perceived several of them come out of the Bush, but the moment
they saw the vessel they sprang into the wood out of sight. At 11 A.M. we
came to an anchor in 5 fathoms water, handed sails, etc., as there was a
native fire burning a little way inland.

"I sent the launch with Mr. Bowen and 4 hands armed to see if any natives
were here, and before the boat was half-way on shore we had the
satisfaction of seeing 18 or 20 men and boys come out of the wood and
seat themselves down on a green bank waiting the approach of our boat
with which I had sent some shirts and other trifles to give them; the
boat accordingly landed in the midst of them and a friendly intercourse
took place with dancing on both sides--in an hour the boat returned. Mr.
Bowen had dressed them in our white shirts and invited them on board,
this however they declined, but exchanged for all this. Got a basket of
straw neatly enough made. They were all clothed in the skins of opossums
and each had a bundle of spears, a stone mogo and one basket. They wished
much to know what our arms were and their use and did not seem entirely
to believe Mr. Bowen that they were only walking sticks--no women were
amongst them. I sent the boat again with some bread, looking-glasses,
tomahawk and a picture as presents to induce them to part with their
weapons and dresses as also to inform us where there was water. This day
all hands put upon two-thirds allowance of bread.

"Wednesday, February 17th. Fresh light airs inclinable to calm throughout
this 24 hours. The boat (as mentioned in latter part of yesterday's log)
proceeded to the shore and was as before received in a friendly manner by
the natives, all of whom were seated in a circle on a beautiful spot of
grass near a high point of land. Mr. Bowen and all the crew consisting of
5 men and the boy, Mr. Brabyn, went up with their dinners in their hands
and sat down in the midst of them (18 in number) and began to eat showing
the natives how to eat bread, etc., and gave them anything they chose to
ask for. Mr. Bowen gave them all the things I had sent as well as several
of his own things--stripping himself almost naked to comply with their
wishes, and his example was followed by the whole of the boat's crew. As
there was two fine-looking boys amongst them I sent Mr. Brabyn on shore
purposely to see and gain their confidence by his attention to their
youngsters, both of whom he dressed in his shirts, handkerchiefs,
trowsers, etc.

"All matters continued in this state while our people had anything to
give and all we got was 2 spears, a basket and a mogo and even these they
again took from the seamen that had them in keeping, this however the
officer took no offence at being determined if at all possible to keep on
friendly terms with them. It was in vain that the officer and crew tryed
by signs too significant not to be understood to gain intelligence where
water was to be found or on what beaches shells were most plentiful, to
all such enquiries they turned a deaf ear and only seemed intent on
getting what our people had even to the last shirt; by this time our
people had nearly finished their dinners and Isaac Moss having the boat
in charge got up and was walking slowly down to her. At this time the Boy
Brabyn happened to turn his head towards the wood and saw a man in the
very act of throwing a spear at Moss as well as a large body (not before
seen) behind a large fallen tree with their spears all in readiness for
throwing. The boy immediately cried out to Mr. Bowen who was at that very
time in the act of serving out bread to all the party he was sitting
among that he would be speared, but before the words were out of his
mouth, a spear of a most dangerous kind, was thrown at and did not escape
Moss by a yard and in an instant the whole of the treacherous body that
Mr. Bowen and 4 of our people were sitting in the midst of opened out to
the right and left and at once left them all open to the party in ambush
who immediately were on their feet and began to throw spears; still such
was the forbearance of the officer that only one piece was fired over
their heads but this was found only to create a small panic, and our
party were obliged to teach them by fatal experience the effect of our
walking sticks.

"The first fire made them run and one received two balls between his
shoulders, still some of them made a stop to heave; the second fire they
all set off with astonishing speed and most likely one received a mortal
wound. Before another piece was fired Mr. Bowen laid hold of one of their
number and held on till three of our people came up and also grappled
him, strange to tell he made such violent struggles as to get away from
them all nor did the contents of the officer's piece bring him up
although one ball passed through his arm and the other in the side--he
was traced a good distance by his blood--the remaining pieces were by
this time fired and our party gave chase to them all.

"On board I kept a strict look-out with the glass and we lay only a
little more than a quarter of a mile off the point where they were seated
on. I plainly saw the natives running through the wood which was by no
means thick--one fellow in particular had been dressed in one of my white
shirts and the officer had tyed the wrists of it with string, which
hindered his getting it off--him we plainly saw from the vessel pass the
roots of black trees with such speed as more to resemble a large white
bird flying than a man. To increase their panic as they passed along I
gave them a discharge of our guns loaded with round and grape but am
almost certain that they did them no damage; by this time our people
returned from the chase, having found on the way back a number of spears,
dresses and baskets, etc. Made the boat signal and they came off.

"Thus did this treachery and unprovoked attack meet with its just
punishment and at the same time taught us a useful lesson to be more
cautious in future. With respect to the size of these natives they are
much the same as at Sydney, their understanding better though, for they
easily made out our signs when it answered their purposes or inclination.
When it did not they could be dull enough. They were all clothed in
opossum skins and in each basket a certain quantity of gum was found. Not
the least sign of a canoe has been seen. I conclude they live entirely
inland, and if we may judge from the number of their fires and other
marks this part of the country is not thin of inhabitants. Their spears
are of various kinds and all of them more dangerous than any I have yet
seen. The workmanship of their dresses, their lines and baskets are far
from despicable, their mogo or stone axes are such as common at Sydney.

"In the afternoon the boat went to Swan Isles and caught three live swans
of a large size, and in the morning the launch went with Mr. Power and a
party well armed to sound for a channel round which the vessel might sail
in order to survey the port. Usefully employed on board. Latitude 38
degrees 20 minutes south.

"Thursday, February 18th. Pleasant weather throughout. The launch
returned having been fortunate enough to discover...fresh water and a
channel all round this part of the Port from 10 to 14 fathoms. I took a
long range through the woods attended with an armed party. We discovered
nothing new but found several of the things we gave the natives which in
their fright they had dropped. The ground we walked over was open and the
same as before described, with good soil. The tide where we lie flows
full and changes at 3 hours in the afternoon, and its perpendicular rise
is about 6 feet up and down.

"Friday, February 19th. Another overhaul of the woods took place but
nothing (not before mentioned) was found. Numbers of native tracks, fires
and huts were seen. One native fire in sight on Arthur's Seat distant
about 10 miles.

"Saturday, February 20th. Sent an armed party and our carpenter a long
range through the woods to try the different kinds of wood, none however
was found of use, the trees being almost invariably oak and other wood
quite common at Sydney. A red waistcoat of Mr. Brabyn's was found with
some bread in each pocket, in this he had dressed one of the native boys,
who in his fear left it I fancy, as soon as he had found how to get it
off, for it was buttoned on him.

"Sunday, February 21st. Finding we could not move higher up the port with
the vessel I sent the launch over the western side to examine the passage
into a harbour or river I saw from the hill on 16th inst.

"Monday, February 22nd. At noon the launch returned, having found an
entrance into the sheet of water they were sent to overhaul, but only at
high water, 7 or 8 feet of it, consequently no harbour for shipping. The
boat proceeded a mile and a half, and, in running that, caught 20 swans
of a large size without wasting one charge of shot, which by-the-bye is
now become a scarce article, not above 3 or 4 pounds being in the vessel;
however from the report made of this place it may lead to something of
more consequence. I shall after the survey of the Port is completed give
it a good overhaul. I must mention here that both our boats are now in
such a state of decay from age and constant mending and patching that
they both keep a hand constantly bailing when pulling or sailing, this
circumstance it is needless to mention in a certain degree retards our

"Tuesday, February 23rd. I went in the launch and sounded a few miles of
the Port up towards the watering place. The soundings were 9 feet to 6
fathoms, bottom fine sand, further out perhaps a deeper channel may exist
(this will be ascertained in the survey). Afterwards we walked through
the country some distance, found the soil invariably good, the ground
almost clear and the ranges of trees as regular as they are in general in
the Park, with fine strong short grass underfoot.

"Wednesday, February 24th. First part of these 24 hours had a great deal
of thunder and lightning and rain, middle and latter parts it blew a hard
gale at south-west with squalls at intervals. We held on although all
ataunto with the small bower and one-third of a cable out, a proof of the
goodness of the holding ground.

"Thursday, February 25th. First part the gale continued, latter fair
winds. Observed several very large native fires at the foot of Arthur's
Seat and on the western side of the port, hauled our seine several times
along the shore nearest us but caught no fish owing probably to there
being flats of sand lying off them to the distance of 200 yards.

"Friday, February 26th. Examined the beach and land for about 8 miles.
A.M. Sent our long boat on shore, turned her up and set our carpenter to
work on her, she leaking so much as to keep a hand constantly bailing,
and our small boat is so bad as to render it hazardous to go any distance
from the vessel in her.

"Saturday, February 27th. Fine weather and moderate winds. Both boats
sounding and on survey of harbour. A number of very large native fires on
the hills round the eastern and western shores of the Port have been seen
these two days past. Sent Mr. Bowen and Mr. Brabyn in the gig to get the
Latitude of the north end of Swan Isles and at noon I got the Latitude of
a point about 7 miles North and South of them from which a base line was
got for the survey of the harbour.

"Sunday, February 28th. Gave some of the people liberty on shore.

"Monday, March 1st. At 5 A.M. took up our kedge, hove short, loosed sails
and sheeted home the top-sails, weighed and made sail up the port,
intending to run as high as the watering place. The wind in a little time
flied away and the tide ran so rapid as to sweep the vessel on a shoal of
sand with only 5 feet of water on it, as it was perfectly smooth we
immediately hove her off without her sustaining the least damage and
dropped back into our old berth between Point Paterson and Bowen's Point
so named from Mr. Bowen's skirmish with the natives in it. The flies are
now so troublesome as to almost hinder a person from sitting a moment in
one place.

"Tuesday, March 2nd. Employed getting on board stones for ballast and
stowing them away. At 4 A.M. sent the longboat for a turn of water and to
sound that part of the harbour between the vessel and it; by noon she
returned on board with a turn of water, it was found that a bank of sand
lay from shore to the distance of a mile or a mile and a quarter with
only, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 feet on it at low water and it extends nearly 4
miles along shore. When you have passed this there is from 5 to 9 fathoms
water abreast of the watering place, there is however little doubt of a
deep channel being outside of this shoal, and this point will be
ascertained in the course of to-morrow.

"Thursday, March 4th. P.M. The launch returned on board with a turn of
water but had not been able to find a channel for vessel of any draught
of water though she stood well out from the shore to at best 3 miles.
This bank has only from 4 to 8 feet water on it and in many places is not
above a hundred yards broad.

"Friday, March 5th. I went in the launch in search of a channel by which
vessels of a larger draught than ours might be got up abreast of the
watering place and was fortunate enough to find one a mile at least in
breadth lying off the southern shores of this Port about 3 miles and
having from 16 to 6 fathoms water in at low water and neap tides; and in
this water a vessel of any draught may be secure from all winds at about
a mile and a half from the spring at which to-day I loaded the boat with
water and examined it. As far as we are judges it is most excellent water
as clear as crystal--lies from the beach about 10 or a dozen yards and
plenty of it to water the Grand Fleet of England; it is nearer the
entrance than the foot of Arthur's Seat by about 2 miles, and can easily
be found out by the land which for a few miles before you come to it is
low whereas all the other land on both sides is high with bold points; if
a boat then East or east by south from Point Paterson 9 miles puts into
the shore they will not be far off it, there is plenty of duck about it,
but so shy that only two have been shot, a circumstance we did not a
little regret as they exceed in flavour any I ever eat. We are now
complete in water and will soon be wooded.

"Saturday, March 5th. Employed on board fitting new waist-cloths, the
others being decayed and her sides and bends being very bare I gave them
a coat of red (the only colour we had on board) and blacked the bends and
upper works. A.M. I went in the launch over to the sheet of water* (*
Mentioned on 22nd.) (as I intended) with an armed boat's crew and by noon
got to its entrance. This day has been so clear that we are able to see
the land all round the Port and in many places very high headlands. In
those low places, where we could not be certain of the land by the eye
there were numerous native fires and some of them very large.

"Sunday, March 7th. By one P.M. I got into the sheet of water and by
pulling all round it found it to be very extensive but, in no place more
than 6 feet water and the greatest part of it so shoal as to ground the
boat. In the entrance at one place there is a small channel of about 50
or 60 feet in breadth with 9 feet to 2 1/2 fathoms water in, but of no
use as it shoals to a couple of feet before you get in. The soil of the
land all round the extensive place is good and its appearance exceeds in
beauty even the southern shores. The number of large swans seen almost
exceeds belief, but by this time most of them could fly, we caught 11--10
of which were large. All of us slept this night on a pleasant little
island with a few handsome trees on it, soil good and so clear as to be
fit for the hoe at once, I named it Maria Isle after a sister I lost some
years past.

"Monday, March 8th. As we now intended sailing in a few days I judged it
consistent with His Majesty's instructions (a copy of which I was
furnished with from the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of New South
Wales) to take possession of this port in the form and manner laid down
by the said instructions, and accordingly at 8 o'clock in the morning the
United Colours of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were hoisted
on board and on Point Paterson, and at one o'clock under a discharge of 3
volleys of small arms and artillery the Port was taken possession of in
the name of his Sacred Majesty George the Third of Great Britain and
Ireland, King, etc., etc. Served double allowance of grog. In the
afternoon I went on shore attended with an armed party and passed the
remainder of the day about and under the colours flying on shore, at
sundown hauled down the colours on board and ashore.

"Tuesday, March 9th. Employed getting ready for sea. Overhauled our keels
fore and aft, cleaned them. We have now expended 19 weeks and one day's
provisions out of 24 weeks. We were victualled for commencing on 27th
October 1801 and owing to the quantity of bread decayed, along with what
the swans and other birds have eaten, we are rather short, even what we
have left is very bad, therefore it will not be in my power at this time
to prosecute the object of our cruise much further. It is in vain I
regret so little being done in such a length of time, the weather and
other circumstances have been rather against us the whole cruise, however
the little that is performed of the original instructions is pretty
accurate and I trust will give the Commander-in-Chief some satisfaction.

"Wednesday, March 10th. For these last two or three days great numbers of
native fires have been seen all round the Port except between Arthur's
Seat and Point Palmer.

"Thursday, March 11th. At 7 weighed and made sail down the port by 8 A.M.
with a strong tide of ebb running out we got into the entrance carrying
all the way from 9 to 16 fathoms water, we then fell into such a ripple
that we expected every minute it would break on board--got clear and by
half-past the point of entrance bore north-east by east 4 miles and a
remarkably high nob of land (if not an island) west-north-west 4 or 5
miles, by noon the entrance north-east by west 9 or 10 miles.


Wednesday, March 24th. Fine weather though inclined to calm. At half-past
3 P.M. South Head bore south-south-west the North distant 4 or 5 miles.
At 4 P.M. passed Bradley's Head, at 6 passed Garden Island and by
half-past 6 P.M. came to an anchor in Sydney Cove with the best bower,
moored with the kedge. The Commander waited on His Excellency the
Governor and Commander-in-Chief."

Murray's voyage ended on March 24th, and on the same day he waited on
Governor King at Sydney, with the news that his orders had been carried
out. The Governor must have been greatly pleased, and the more so because
only a month later the French ship Naturaliste put into Port Jackson.* (*
The French ships Geographe and Naturaliste had left France in October
1800 on a voyage of discovery.) Hamelin, who commanded her, was, however,
in sore straits. He had parted from Commodore Baudin in a gale off Van
Dieman's Land and had traversed the whole of Bass Strait without meeting
the Geographe, his boats having visited Western Port* only a month after
Murray had left there. (* French Island preserves the memory of their
visit, but Murray's Chart shows that the English (contrary to Peron's
assertions) knew that this island was separated from the mainland before
the coming of the French.) Finding his provisions exhausted, in his
extremity the French Commander, although he knew that France and England
were at war, steered to Sydney. The English, we are told, received him
with noble and large-minded (grande et Loyale) liberality, and the sick
French sailors were received at the Government Hospital. Hamelin was
busily engaged in replenishing his ship when Captain Matthew Flinders
arrived in H.M.S. Investigator on May 9th and was able to give him news
of his consort which he had met in Encounter Bay. Flinders also informed
Captain Hamelin that Baudin had said that it was his intention to proceed
to the Isle of France. The Naturaliste therefore, hastened her
preparations and sailed from Sydney on May 18th.

In the meantime the Lady Nelson had been to the Hawkesbury and back
again, arriving on April 21st and bringing a cargo of wheat and some
cedar logs. The remarks in the log may prove of value to those who study
the early history of the Colony, for Murray gives the names of the
different reaches in the river, and it would be interesting to know
whether these old place-names are still used. Murray does not tell us of
the arrival of the Naturaliste, though he must have been in Sydney then,
but various entries show that the brig conveyed the Governor and his
party to the Naturaliste's anchorage in Neutral Bay to visit Captain
Hamelin and brought them to Sydney again.

Another voyage to the Hawkesbury River was carried out, and then the ship
was put into preparation for a voyage of exploration, in company with the
Investigator, to the North coast.


Sydney Cove to the Hawkesbury.

"Thursday, April 1st. Fine weather. Getting ready for sea. At half-past 5
A.M. up kedge and weighed and turned out of ye cove. The Cumberland got
under way and proceeded down the harbour. At 8 A.M. (We having the
Cumberland in company) cleared the heads of Port Jackson, and at
half-past 8 parted with Cumberland, leaving her with a fine moderate
breeze at south-south-east, and by half-past 9 she bore Sydney 4 or 5
miles. By 11 A.M. got abreast of Barren Jowie* (* Barrenjoey.) and by
noon passed Pittwater, here we found at anchor Mr. Commissary Palmer's
vessel the George.

"Friday, April 2nd. Proceeding up Harbour and by 2 P.M. came to anchor
under Mullet Island, in the evening Raby's boat passed us, and in a
little time after we hailed and brought alongside a fishing boat with
three soldiers in her, at 8 P.M. she left us. A.M. Got under way and at
the end of tide came to in the westernmost end of Spectacle Reach.

"Saturday, April 3rd. At 3 P.M. got under weigh and proceeded up the
river--came to in Mangrove Reach, set as usual an armed watch with an
officer and proceeded up the river and at noon came to in Milkmaid Reach.

"Sunday, April 4th. At 6 A.M. got under weigh and proceeded up the river
as far as the first branch and there from the darkness of the night came
to. At 5 A.M. up anchor and by 11 got as far as Shot Snake Reach.

"Monday, April 5th. Fine weather. At 8 A.M. got under weigh
and...proceeded up the River, by 11 A.M. passed the upper branch and by
noon gained two following Reaches. Latitude observed 33 degrees 28
minutes 26 seconds south.

"Tuesday, April 6th. Fine weather throughout. At 4 P.M. came to in
Belloe's Reach and at half-past 9 P.M. got under weigh and gained
Portland Reach. At 10 A.M. got under weigh and by noon got one reach
above Portland Reach--as yet we have not seen one log of cedar.

"Wednesday, April 7th. Proceeding up the river--by 4 P.M. came to in the
Reach above the first settlers--fired a gun.

"Sunday, April 11th. At half-past 12 hauled the vessel in close to
Government House and began to take in wheat and by sundown got in 311
bushels. At daylight again began to receive grain and by noon received on
board to the amount of wheat 774 bushels.

The Hawkesbury to Sydney Cove.

"Monday, April 12th. Preparing to drop down the river. At 6 A.M. made the
signal for sailing with a gun.

Hawkesbury River to Sydney Cove.

"Tuesday, April 13th. At 9 A.M. hauled up to get down the river but the
wind blew so strong in our teeth that we were obliged to come to a few
hundred yards below Government House.

"Wednesday, April 14th. At half-past 12 P.M. the tide having made down
hove up and began to tow down the river and by 5 P.M. got down to the
lowest settlers. At 8 P.M. fired a gun and set an armed watch; at 9 P.M.
having a fair breeze of wind, got under weigh and by noon cleared Lover's
Leap Reach.

"Thursday, April 15th. At 5 P.M. from the strength of the wind were
obliged to come to in the upper end of Sackville Reach.

"Friday, April 16th. At one P.M. a short lull taking place, hove up and
tried to tow down but immediately obliged to bring up from wind blowing
so strong as to render our getting down the river an entire

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