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The Life of Jesus Christ for the Young by Richard Newton

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"Why no, I'd like to go, in course."

"I have brought you a message from a Friend, who has loved you all
your life long. He wants you to trust him, and to go and live with
him. He will love you always, and you will always be happy."

Then the lady read Tiny's text, "_Suffer the little children to come
unto me, and forbid them not._" She told him how Jesus had died, and
then had risen again, and had gone to heaven, to prepare a place for
_him_, and for many other children. She told him how Jesus is still
saying "Come," and his hand is still held out to bless.

So Willie turned to the Good Shepherd, and was no longer afraid. A
few days afterwards he whispered--"Lord Jesus, I am coming;" and he
died with Tiny's text in his hand.

That little girl used the talent that was given her, and it helped
to bring a soul to Jesus.


"Though little I bring,
Said the tiny spring,
As it burst from the mighty hill,
'Tis pleasant to know,
Wherever I flow,
The pastures are greener still.

"And the drops of rain
As they fall on the plain,
When parched by the summer heat,
Refresh the sweet flowers
Which droop in the bowers,
And hang down their heads at our feet.

"May we strive to fulfill
All His righteous will,
Who formed the whole earth by His word!
Creator Divine!
We would ever be Thine,
And serve Thee--our God, and our Lord!"

Let us never forget this third lesson from Olivet, the lesson
about,--the talents.

_The fourth, and last lesson from Olivet is the lesson about_--THE

The parable tells us that when the Master came back, and reckoned
with his servants, he said to each of those who had made a right use
of his talents:--"Well done, good and faithful servant, thou hast
been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many
things; enter thou into the joy of thy lord." In the parable in St.
Luke we are told that the servant who had gained ten pounds was made
ruler over ten cities; and he who had gained five pounds was made
ruler over five cities. This shows us that God will reward his
people, hereafter, according to the degree of faithfulness with which
each one shall have used the talents given to him. And this is the
lesson which the apostle Paul teaches us when he says that, "Every
man shall receive _his own reward_ according to _his own labor."_ I.
Cor. iii: 8.

All the willing, loving servants of God will receive a crown of life
when Jesus comes to reckon with them. But those crowns will not be
all alike. They are spoken of as "crowns of gold:" Rev. iv: 4; as
"crowns of glory:" I. Peter v: 4, and as "crowns of life:" Rev. iii:
11. But still there will be very great differences between these
crowns. Some will be simply crowns of gold, or of glory, without any
gems or jewels to ornament them. Some will have two or three small
jewels shining in them. But, others again will be full of the most
beautiful jewels, all glittering and sparkling with glory. And this
will all depend upon the way in which those who wear these crowns
used their talents while they were on earth, and the amount of work
they did for Jesus. There is an incident mentioned in Roman history
about a soldier, which illustrates this part of our subject very

"The Faithful Soldier and His Rewards." This man had served forty
years in the cause of his country--of these, ten years had been spent
as a private soldier, and thirty as an officer. He had been present
in one hundred and twenty battles, and had been severely wounded
forty-five times. He had received fourteen civic crowns, for having
saved the lives of so many Roman citizens; three mural crowns, for
having been the first to mount the breach when attacking a fortress;
and eight golden crowns, for having, on so many occasions, rescued
the standard of a Roman legion from the hands of the enemy. He had in
his house eighty-three gold chains, sixty bracelets, eighteen golden
spears, and twenty-three horse trappings,--the rewards for his many
faithful services as a soldier. And when his friends looked at all
those honors and treasures which he had received, from time to time,
how well they might have said as they pointed to those numerous
prizes--that he had "received _his own reward_, according to _his own
labor_," and faithfulness! And so it will be with the soldiers of the
cross, who are faithful in using the talents given them by their
heavenly Master.

"A Great Harvest from a Little Seed," Some years ago there was a
celebrated artist in Paris whose name was Ary Scheffer. On one
occasion he wished to introduce a beggar into a certain picture he
was painting. Baron Rothschild, the famous banker, and one of the
richest men in the world, was a particular friend of this artist. He
happened to come into his studio at the very time he was trying to
get a beggar to be the model of one which he desired to put into his

"Wait till to-morrow," said Mr. Rothschild, "and I will dress myself
up as a beggar, and make you an excellent model."

"Very well," said the artist, who was pleased with the strangeness of
the proposal. The next day the rich banker appeared, dressed up as a
beggar, and a very sorry looking beggar he was. While the artist was
engaged in painting him, another friend of his came into the studio.
He was a kind-hearted, generous man. As he looked on the model
beggar, he was touched by his wretched appearance, and as he passed
him, he slipped a louis d'or--a French gold coin, worth about five
dollars of our money--into his hand. The pretended beggar took the
coin, and put it in his pocket.

Ten years after this, the gentleman who gave this piece of money
received an order on the bank of the Rothschilds for ten thousand
francs. This was enclosed in a letter which read as follows:

"Sir: You one day gave a louis d'or to Baron Rothschild, in the
studio of Ary Scheffer. He has invested it, and made good use of it,
and to-day he sends you the capital you entrusted to him, together
with the interest it has gained. A good action is always followed by
a good reward.


In those few years that one gold coin, of twenty francs, had
increased to ten thousand francs. And this illustrates the way in
which Jesus the heavenly Master rewards those who use their talents
for him. See how he teaches this lesson, when he says--"Whosoever
shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold
water only in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall
in _no wise lose his reward_." St. Matt, x: 42. And in another place
we are told that the reward shall be "an hundred fold," and shall run
on into "everlasting life." St. Matt, xix: 29. How sweetly some one
has thus written about


"Light after darkness, gain after loss,
Strength after weariness, crown after cross;
Sweet after bitter, song after sigh,
Home after wandering, praise after cry;
Sheaves after sowing, sun after rain,
Light after mystery, peace after pain;
Joy after sorrow, calm after blast,
Rest after weariness, sweet rest at last;
Near after distant, gleam after gloom,
Love after loneliness, life after tomb.
After long agony, rapture of bliss,
Christ is the pathway leading to this!"

The last lesson from Olivet is the lesson about the rewards. And
taking these lessons together, let us remember that they are--the
lesson _about the Master_: the lesson _about the servants_: the
lesson _about the talents_: and the lesson _about the rewards_.

The Collect for the thirteenth Sunday after Trinity is a very
suitable prayer to offer after meditating on the lessons from Olivet:

"Almighty and merciful God, of whose only gift it cometh that thy
faithful people do unto thee true and laudable service: Grant, we
beseech thee, that we may so faithfully serve thee in this life, that
we fail not finally to attain thy heavenly promises; which exceed all
that we can desire; through the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord.


We are approaching now the end of our Saviour's life. The last week
has come, and we are in the midst of it. This is called Passion week.
We commonly use this word _passion_ to denote anger. But the first
and true meaning of the word, and of the Latin word from which it
comes, is--suffering. And this is the sense in which we find the word
used in Acts i: 3. There, St. Luke, who wrote the Acts, is speaking
of Christ's appearing to the apostles, after his resurrection, and he
uses this language: "To whom he showed himself alive, after his
_passion_;" or after his suffering and death.

In the midst of this last week--this passion week--one of the
interesting things that Jesus did was to keep the Jewish Passover for
the last time with his disciples. This Passover feast had been kept
by the Jews every year for nearly fifteen hundred years. It was the
most solemn religious service they had. It was first observed by
them in the night on which their nation was delivered from the
bondage of Egypt and began their march towards the promised land of
Canaan. We read about the establishment of this solemn service in
Exodus, twelfth chapter. The first Passover took place on the
fourteenth day of the month Nisan. This had been the seventh month of
the year with the Jews. But God directed them to take it for their
first month ever afterwards. They were to begin their year with that
month. Every family was to choose out a lamb for themselves, on the
tenth day of the month. They were to keep it to the fourteenth day of
the month. On the evening of that day, they were to kill the lamb.
The blood of the lamb was to be sprinkled on the two side-posts and
upper lintels of every door. They were to roast the lamb and eat it,
with solemn religious services. And, while they were doing this, the
angel of the Lord was to pass over all the land of Egypt, and, with
his unseen sword, to smite and kill the first-born, or eldest child,
in every family, from Pharaoh on his throne to the poorest beggar in
the land. But the blood, sprinkled on the door-posts of the houses in
which the Israelites dwelt, was to save them from the stroke of the
angel of death as he passed over the land. And so it came to pass.
The solemn hour of midnight arrived. The angel went on his way. He
gave one stroke with his dreadful sword--and there was a death in
every Egyptian family. But in the blood-sprinkled dwellings of the
Israelites, there was no one dead. What a wonderful night that was!
Nothing like it was ever known in the history of our world. It is not
surprising that the children of Israel, through all their
generations, should have kept that Passover feast with great
interest--an interest that never died out, from age to age. Nor do we
wonder that our blessed Saviour looked forward longingly to the
occasion when, for the last time, he was to celebrate this Passover
with his disciples. As they began the feast he said to them, "With
desire I have desired" that is, I have earnestly, or heartily desired
"to eat this passover with you before I suffer," St. Luke xxii: 15.
It is easy to think of many reasons why Jesus should have felt this
strong desire. Without attempting to tell what all those reasons
were, we can readily think of some things which would lead him, very
naturally, to have this feeling. It was the last time he was to eat
this Passover with them on earth. This showed that his public work,
for which he came into the world, was done. He had only now to suffer
and die; to rise from the dead, and then go home to his Father in

This Passover had been one of the services established and kept for
the purpose of pointing the attention of men to himself as the Lamb
of God who was to take away the sins of the world. And now, the time
had come when all that had thus been pointed out concerning him, for
so many hundred years, was about to be fulfilled. He, the one true
Lamb of God, had come. He was about to die for the sins of the world.
Then the Jewish church would pass away, and the Christian church
would take its place. And then the blessings of true religion,
instead of being confined to one single nation, would be freely
offered to all nations; and Jews and Gentiles alike, would be at
liberty to come to Christ, and to receive from him pardon, and grace,
and salvation, and every blessing.

There was enough in thoughts like these to make Jesus long to eat
this last Passover with his disciples. In each of the four gospels we
have an account of what took place when the time came for keeping
this Passover. What is said concerning it we find in the following
places: St. Matt xxi: 17-30, St. Mark xiv: 12-26, St. Luke xxii:
7-39. St. John begins with the thirteenth chapter, and ends his
account at the close of the seventeenth chapter. He is the only one
of the four evangelists who gives a full and particular account of
the wonderful sayings of our Lord in connection with this last
passover, and of the great prayer that he offered for all his

Here is a brief outline of these different accounts. When the time
came to keep the Passover, Jesus sent two of his disciples from
Bethany, where he was then staying, to Jerusalem. He told them, that,
when they entered the city, they would meet a man bearing a pitcher
of water. They were to ask him to show them the guest-chamber, where
he and his disciples might eat the Passover together. There were
always great crowds of strangers in Jerusalem at the time of this
festival; and many furnished chambers were kept ready to be hired to
those who wished them, for celebrating the Passover. This man, of
whom our Saviour spoke, was probably a friend of his, and according
to our Lord's word, he showed the disciples such a room as they
needed. Then they made the necessary preparations; and, when the
evening came, Jesus and his disciples met there to keep this solemn

Many of the pictures that we see of this last Supper, represent the
company as seated round a table, very much in the way in which we are
accustomed to sit ourselves. But this is not correct. The people in
those Eastern countries were not accustomed to sit as we do. On this
occasion the roasted lamb, with the bread and wine to be used at the
feast, was placed on a table, and the guests reclined on couches
round the table, each man leaning on his left arm, and helping
himself to what he needed with his right hand.

Various incidents took place in connection with this last Supper. The
disciples had a contest among themselves about which of them should
be greatest. This led Jesus, in the course of the evening, to give
them the lesson of humility, by washing his disciples' feet, of which
we have already spoken. Then he told them how sorrowfully he was
feeling. He said they would all forsake him, and one of them would
betray him that very night. This made them feel very sad. Each of
them suspected himself--and asked sorrowfully--"Lord, is it I?" They
did not suspect each other; and none of them seems to have suspected
Judas Iscariot at all. Then Peter whispered to John, who was leaning
on the bosom of Jesus, to ask who it was that was to do this? In
answer to John's question, Jesus said it was the one to whom he
should give a piece of bread when he had dipped it in the dish. Then
he dipped the sop and gave it to Judas.

After this, we are told that Satan entered into him, and he went out
and made preparation for doing the most dreadful thing that ever was
done from the beginning of the world--and that was the betrayal of
his great, and good, and holy Master, into the hands of his enemies.
When Judas was gone, and before the Passover feast was finished,
making use of some of the materials before him, Jesus established one
of the two great sacraments to be observed in his church to the end
of the world--the sacrament of the Lord's Supper--or the holy

This is St. Luke's account of the way in which it was done, chapter
xxii: 19, 20--"And he took the bread, and gave thanks, and brake it,
and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you:
this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper,
saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood, which is shed for
you." St. Matthew adds, and--"for many."

Such is the account we have of the first establishment of the Lord's
Supper. It was to take the place of the Jewish Passover, and to be
observed by the followers of Christ all over the earth, until the
time when he shall come again into our world.

And this solemn sacrament--this holy communion--this Supper of our
Lord, ought to be observed, or kept, by all who love him, for three
reasons: these are its connection with _the word of his command--the
memory of his sufferings--and the hope of his glory_.

Jesus connected this sacrament with _the word of his command_ when he
said--"_This do_ in remembrance of me." St. Luke xxii: 19. This is
the _command_ of Christ. It is a plain, positive command. Jesus did
not give this command to the apostles only, or to his ministers, or
to any particular class of his followers, but to all of them. It was
given first to his apostles, but it was not intended to be confined
to them. Jesus does not say--"This do," ye who are my apostles; or,
ye who are my ministers. He does not say--"This do," ye old men, or
ye rich men, or ye great men; but simply, "This do." And the meaning
of what he here says, is--"This do," all ye who profess to be my
followers, all over the world, and through all ages. And the words
that he spake on another occasion come in very well here: "If ye love
me, keep my commandments." And _this_ is one of the commandments that
he expects all his people to keep. He points to his holy sacrament,
which he has ordained in his church, and then to each one of his
people he says--"This do." No matter whether we wish to do it or not;
here are our master's words--"This do." No matter whether we see the
use of it, or not; Jesus says--"This do." It is enough for each
follower of Jesus to say, "here is my Lord's command; I _must_ obey

In an army, if the general issues an order, it is expected that every
soldier will obey it. And no matter how important, or useful, in
itself considered, any work may be, that is done by one of those
soldiers, yet, if it be done while he is neglecting the general's
order, instead of gaining for that soldier the praise of the general,
or of securing a reward from him, it will only excite his
displeasure:--he will order that soldier to be punished.

But the church of Christ is compared in the Bible to an army. He is
the Captain or Leader of this army. And one of the most important
orders he has issued for his soldiers is--"This do in remembrance of
me." If we profess to be the soldiers of Christ, and are enlisted in
his army, and yet are neglecting this order, he never can be pleased
with anything we may do while this order is neglected. We seem to see
him pointing to this neglected order, and saying to each of us, as he
said to Saul, the first king of Israel, by the prophet Samuel:
--"Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice: and to hearken, than the
fat of rams." I. Sam. xv: 22.

No age is fixed in the New Testament at which young people may be
allowed to come to the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. But, as soon
as they have learned to know and love Christ and are really trying to
serve him, they ought to be allowed to come. And yet ministers and
parents sometimes keep them back, and tell them they must wait, and
be tried a little longer, before they receive the help and comfort of
this ordinance of Christ, even when their conduct shows they are
sincerely trying to love and serve the blessed Saviour.

If a farmer should send his servant out into the field, when winter
was approaching, telling him to put the sheep into the fold, that
they might be protected from the wolves, and from the cold, it would
be thought a strange thing if he should allow him to bring the sheep
into the shelter of the fold, and leave the little lambs outside.
This is a good illustration to show the importance of taking care of
the lambs. But it fails at one point. The shelter of the fold is
absolutely necessary for the protection of the farmer's lambs. They
could not live without it. If left outside of the fold they would
certainly perish. But there is not the same necessity for admitting
young people to the Lord's Supper. They are not left out in the cold,
like the lambs in the field, even when not admitted to this holy
ordinance. They are already under the care and protection of the good
Shepherd. He can guard them, and keep them, and cause them to grow in
grace, even though, for awhile, they do not have the help and comfort
of this sacrament. And, if they are kept back through the fault or
mistake of others, he will do so. This sacrament, like that of
baptism, is, as the catechism says, "_generally_ necessary to
salvation." This means that it is important "where it may be had."
But, if circumstances beyond our control should prevent us from
partaking of it, we may be saved without it. Still, I think that
young people who give satisfactory evidence that they know and love
the Saviour, and are trying to serve him, ought to be allowed to come
forward to this holy sacrament.

Some people when urged to come to the Lord's Supper excuse
themselves, by saying that--"they are not prepared to come."

But this will not release any one from the command of Christ--"This

What the preparation is that we need in order that we may come, in a
proper way, to this holy sacrament, is clearly pointed out in the
exhortation that occurs in the communion service of our church. Here
the minister says--"Ye who do truly and earnestly repent of your
sins, and are in love and charity with your neighbors, and intend to
lead a new life, following the commandments of God, and walking from
henceforth in his holy ways: draw near with faith, and take this holy
sacrament to your comfort." And there is no excuse for persons not
being in the state these words describe: for this is just what God's
word, and our own duty and interest require of us. If we have not
yet done what these words require, we ought to do it at once; and
then there will be nothing in the way of our obeying the command of
Christ, when he says--"This do, in remembrance of me," By all the
authority which belongs to him our Saviour _commands_ us to keep this
holy feast. And the first reason why we ought to "do this," is
because of its connection with the word of his command.

_The second reason why we ought to "do this"--is because of its
connection with the memory of his sufferings_.

We are taught this by the word _remembrance_, which our Saviour here
uses. He says, "This do in remembrance of me." This means in
remembrance of my sufferings for you. And _this_ is the most
important word used by him when he established this sacrament. It is
the governing word in the whole service. It is the word by which we
must be guided in trying to understand what our Lord meant to teach
us by all he did and said on this occasion.

You know how it is when we are trying to understand the music to
which a particular tune has been set. There is always one special
note in a tune, which is called the _key-note_. The leader of a
choir, when they are going to sing, will strike one of the keys of
the organ, or the melodeon they are using, so as to give to each
member of the choir the proper key-note of the piece of music they
are to sing. It is very important for them to have this key-note,
because they cannot have a proper understanding of what they are to
do without it. This holy sacrament of the Lord's Supper is like a
solemn song. And the key-note of the music to which the song is set
is this word--_remembrance_. It teaches us that the sacrament of the
Lord's Supper is a _memorial_ service. And, in going through the
music to which the song of this service has been set, every note that
we use must be a memorial note. And the language used by our blessed
Lord when he established this Supper, or sacrament, must be explained
in this way. When he broke the bread and gave it to his disciples,
saying--"This is my body, which is given for you: this do in
remembrance of me," he meant that we should understand him as
saying--"This is the _memorial_ of my body." And when he gave them
the cup, and said--"This is my blood of the New Testament," he meant
that we should understand him as saying--"This is the _memorial_ of
my blood." And we are sure that this was the meaning, for two

One reason for believing this is that _this was the way in which
similar words had been used in the Jewish Passover, which Jesus and
his disciples were then keeping_.

In the Passover service, when the head of the family distributed the
bread, he always said--"This is the bread of affliction." When he
distributed the flesh of the lamb, roasted for the occasion, he used
to say--"This is the body of the Passover."

But every one knows, and every one admits, that the Jewish Passover
was a _memorial_ service. It was kept in memory of the wonderful
deliverance of their forefathers from the bitter bondage of Egypt.
And the words used at that service were memorial words. And so, when
Jesus, a little while before, had given to his disciples the Passover
bread, saying--"This is the bread of affliction:" he did not mean to
say that _that_ was the very same bread which their forefathers had
eaten, in the time of their affliction in Egypt. What he meant to say
was--this is the bread which you are to eat in _memory_ of your
forefathers' trial and deliverance. And when he gave to each of them
a piece of the sacrificial lamb, saying, "This is the body of the
Passover;" he did not mean that in any mysterious, or supernatural
sense, _that_ was the very lamb of which their forefathers had eaten
on the solemn night of the Passover; he only meant that it was the
body of which they were to eat in memory of the Passover. The
Passover was a memorial service; and the words used at the Passover
were memorial words.

And so, when Jesus went on, from the last Passover of the Jewish
church, to the first sacramental feast of the Christian church, and
began by saying, "This do in _remembrance_ of me," what else could
the apostles possibly have thought, but that he intended this new
service of the Christian church to be a memorial service, just as the
old festival of the Jewish church had been? When he gave them the
broken bread, and said, "This is my body;" they could only have
understood him as meaning this is the memorial of my body. And when
he gave them the cup into which he had just poured the wine, and
said: "This is my blood;" they could only understand him as meaning
this is the memorial of my blood. And so, the sense in which he had
just before used the words employed in the Jewish festival must have
led the disciples to understand them in the same way when he used
similar words in the Christian sacrament. This is a good, strong
reason for thinking of this sacramental feast as a memorial service.

There is indeed, one point of difference between the Jewish Passover
and the Christian sacrament, when we think of them as memorial
services. The Jews kept their solemn festival in memory of a _dead_
lamb--the Passover lamb that was put to death for them, but never
came to life again. We keep our Christian sacrament in memory of the
Lamb of God, who died for us indeed, but who rose from the dead, and
is alive forevermore. As we keep this solemn festival, we may lift up
our adoring hearts to him and say for ourselves personally,

"O, the Lamb! the loving Lamb!
The Lamb of Calvary!
The Lamb that was slain, but liveth again,
And intercedes for me!"

And though they are both memorial services, yet this one thought
makes a world-wide difference between them. The bread and meat which
the pious Jew ate, when he kept the Passover, and the wine which he
drank on that occasion, would strengthen his body, but there was
nothing connected with those material substances that would do any
special good to his soul. It is different, however, with our
Christian festival of the Lord's Supper. And this difference is
clearly brought out in what we find in the catechism of our church on
this subject. In speaking of this holy sacrament, the question is
asked--"What are the benefits whereof we are partakers thereby?" And
the answer to this question is--"The strengthening and refreshing of
our souls, by the body and blood of Christ, as our bodies are by the
bread and wine."

Here we see that while the Lord's Supper is a memorial service
indeed, it is at the same time something more than that.

_And then, the actual bodily presence of Christ with them must have
compelled the apostles to understand the words he used on that
occasion, in this memorial sense_.

They could not possibly have considered him as meaning that the bread
and wine which he gave them at that solemn service did, in any
mysterious and supernatural way, become his actual flesh and blood;
because, these were already before them in the form of his own body.
And they could not be in his body and in the bread and wine, at the
same time. The sense in which Jesus first used these words--"my body"
and "my blood," was clearly the memorial sense. He meant his
disciples to understand him as saying "Take this bread in remembrance
of my body, which is to be crucified for you;" and "Take this wine in
remembrance of my blood which is to be shed for you."

This was what he taught the apostles when he first used these words
among them; and this was all he taught them; and we have no right to
use these words in any other sense till our blessed Lord himself
shall give us authority to do so.

Let us never forget the word--_remembrance_, as used by our Saviour
here. It is the root out of which the whole tree of this solemn
service grows. Let us hold on to this root word, and it will save us
from the errors into which many have fallen in reference to this

And, surely, there is nothing so precious for us to store away in our
memories as the thought of Christ in the amazing sufferings he once
bore for us, in the great work he is now doing for us, and in the
saving truth he embodies in his own glorious character. The story is
told of Alexander the Great, that when he conquered King Darius he
found among his treasures a very valuable box or cabinet. It was made
of gold and silver, and inlaid with precious jewels. After thinking
for awhile what to do with it, he finally concluded to use it as his
choicest treasury, or cabinet, in which to keep the books of the poet
Homer, which he was very fond of reading. Now, if we use our memory
aright, it will be to us a treasury far more valuable than that
jeweled box of the great conqueror. And the thought of Christ, not in
his sufferings only, but in his work, and in his character, is the
most precious thing to lay up in our memory. And if we keep this
remembrance continually before us it will be the greatest help we can
have in trying to love and serve him better.

Here is an illustration of what I mean, in a touching story. We may
call it:

"Love Stronger than Death." Some years ago there was a great fire in
one of our Western cities that stood in the midst of a prairie. A
mother escaped from her burning dwelling. Her husband was away from
home. She took her infant in her arms, and wrapped a heavy shawl
round herself and the baby. Her little girl clung to the dress of
her mother, and they went out into the prairie, to get away from the
flames of the burning buildings. It was a wild and stormy winter's
night and intensely cold. She tried to run; but burdened as she was
that was impossible. Presently she found that the tall dry grass of
the prairie had caught fire. It was spreading on every side. A great
circle of flame was gathering round her.

A little way off she saw a clump of trees on a piece of rising
ground. Towards that spot she directed her steps, and strained every
nerve to reach it. At last she succeeded in doing so.

For a moment the poor mother and her child were comparatively safe.
But, on looking around, she saw that the flames were approaching her
from opposite directions. Escape was impossible. Death--a terrible
death by fire, seemed to be the only thing before her. She might wrap
herself in that great shawl, and perhaps live through it. But, there
were the children. Of course a mother could not hesitate a moment
what to do under such circumstances. Wrapping the baby round and
round in the folds of the shawl, she laid it carefully down, at the
foot of one of the trees. Then, taking off her outer clothing, she
covered the other child with it. She laid her down beside the baby,
and then stretched herself across them. In a few moments the helpless
little ones were sound asleep. The long hours of the night passed.
The raging flames licked up the withered foliage about that clump of
trees, and then left their blackened trunks to the keenness of the
wind and frost.

The next day the heart-broken husband and father returned to find his
home burnt, and his family gone--he knew not whither. He set out to
search for his lost treasures. He found them by that clump of trees.
There lay his wife--her hair and eyebrows, her face and neck scorched
and blackened by the fire--but her body frozen stiff. Whether she
perished by the flames or the frost no one ever knew. But, on lifting
her burnt form they found, warm and cozy beneath, her two sleeping
children. The elder child as they roused her, opened her eyes
exclaiming, "Mamma, is it morning?" Yes: it was morning with that
faithful mother, in the bright world to which she had gone!

Now, suppose that those children, as they grew up, should have had
preserved among their treasures a piece of the burnt dress, or a lock
of the scorched hair, of their devoted mother. As they looked at it,
every day, it would be in _remembrance_ of her. How touchingly it
would tell of her great love for them, in being willing to lay down
her life to save theirs! And how that thought would thrill their
hearts and make them anxious to do all they could to show their
respect and love for such a mother!

And so the broken bread and the poured out wine of this solemn
sacrament should melt our hearts in the remembrance of the wonderful
love of Christ to us, and should lead us to show our love to him by
keeping his commandments.

And as we keep this solemn memorial service, how well we may say, in
the words of the hymn:

"According to thy gracious word,
In meek humility,
This will we do, our dying Lord,
We will remember thee.
Thy body, broken for our sake,
Our bread from heaven shall be:
Thy sacramental cup we take,
And thus remember thee.

"Can we Gethsemane forget?
Or there thy conflict see,
Thine agony and bloody sweat,
And not remember thee?
When to the cross we turn our eyes,
And rest on Calvary,
O Lamb of God, our sacrifice,
We must remember thee."

_But Jesus has connected this blessed sacrament with the hope of his
glory_--as well as with the word of his command and the memory of his

He made this connection very clear when he said at the institution of
this solemn service--"I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of
the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's
kingdom." St. Matt, xxvi: 29. And the apostle Paul pointed out the
same connection when he said, "As often as ye eat this bread, and
drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death, _till he come_." I. Cor.
xi: 26. This sacrament of the Lord's Supper is the point of meeting
between the sufferings of Christ and the glory that is to
follow--between his cross, with all its shame and anguish, and his
kingdom, with all its honor and blessedness.

We have sometimes heard or read of magicians who have pretended to
have wonderful mirrors into which persons might look and see all that
was before them in this life. If there were such a mirror, it would
be a strange thing indeed to look into it and find out what was going
to happen to-morrow, or next month, or next year, or twenty years
hence. But, there never was any such mirror. As the apostle says,
"We know not what shall be on the morrow." No mortal man can tell
what will happen to him as he takes the very next step in life.

Yet, this solemn sacrament is like such a magical mirror. We can look
into it and see, clearly represented there, what will happen to us in
the future, not of _this_ life indeed, but of the life to come. It
leads our minds on to the marriage supper of the Lamb. And a voice
from heaven declares--"Blessed are they who are called to the
marriage supper of the Lamb." Rev. xix: 9. That marriage supper
represents the highest joys of heaven. It gathers into itself all the
glory and happiness that await us in the heavenly kingdom. And this
sacramental service is the type or shadow of all the bliss connected
with that great event in the future. If we are true and faithful
partakers of this solemn sacrament--this memorial feast, we shall
certainly be among the number of those whose unspeakable privilege it
will be to sit down at the marriage supper of the Lamb, in heaven.
There we shall be in the personal presence of Jesus, our glorified
Lord. Our eyes "shall see the King in his beauty." And we shall see
all his people too in the perfection of glory that will mark them
there. And in happy intercourse with that blessed company we shall
find all "the exceeding great and precious promises" of God's word
fulfilled in our own personal experience.

And then there is nothing that can sustain and comfort us under the
many trials of this mortal life like the hope of sharing this joy
with our blessed Lord, when he shall come in the glory of his
heavenly kingdom.

"The Hope of Glory." A Christian gentleman was in the habit of
visiting, from time to time, a poor afflicted widow woman who lived
in his neighborhood. She had once been very well off, and was the
wife of a well-known and apparently successful merchant. But finally
he failed in business and died soon after, leaving her alone in the
world, and without anything to live on but what she could earn by her
own labor.

After awhile her health failed, and then she was entirely dependent
for her support on the kindness of her Christian friends. But she was
always cheerful and happy. "On going in to see her one day," says
this gentleman, "I found, on talking with her, that she was feeling
very comfortable in her mind.

"'Tell me, my friend,' I asked, 'have you always felt as bright and
cheerful as you seem to feel now?'

"'O, no,' she replied, 'very far from it. When my husband died, and
I was left alone in the world, I used to feel very sad and
rebellious. Many a time I was so sorrowful and despairing as to be
tempted to take away my own life. But, in the good providence of God,
I was led to read the Bible, and to pray for help from above. I
became a member of the church. But, for a while, I did not find much
comfort in my religion. And the reason of it was that I did not have
very clear views of Christ as my Saviour, and of the wonderful things
he has promised to do for his people in the future.

"'But, on one communion occasion, my minister preached on the
words--"_Christ in you the hope of glory_." That was a blessed
communion to me. I saw then, as I had never seen before, how that
sacred and solemn service was intended by him to be to all his
people, at one and the same time, the means of preserving in their
minds the remembrance of the sufferings he has borne for them in the
past, and also of keeping alive in their hearts the hope of sharing
in the glory which he has prepared for them in the future. And I have
never had any trouble in my mind since then. My communion seasons
were always bright and blessed seasons to me as long as I was able
to go to church. And though I can no longer go up to the sanctuary
and partake of the bread and wine, "the outward and visible signs"
made use of in the heavenly feast; yet, blessed be God's holy name, I
can, and do partake in a spiritual manner of that which those signs
represent. I feel and know what it is to have "Christ in me the hope
of glory." And this "satisfies my longing, as nothing else can do." I
find peace and comfort in simply "looking unto Jesus." I have had
much outward trouble and affliction since then. I live alone. There
is no one here to help me. Sometimes I have nothing to eat, and but
little to keep me warm. You see me _sitting_ here now. Thus I have to
spend my nights. My complaint is the dropsy, and this prevents me
from lying down. _But I would not exchange my place as a forgiven
sinner, with "Christ in me the hope of glory," for all the wealth and
the honor that Queen Victoria could bestow upon me!_'"

What a blessed Saviour Jesus is, who can thus spread the sunshine of
his peace and hope through the hearts and homes of the poorest and
most afflicted in the land!

And thus, we have spoken of three good reasons, why all who love our
Lord Jesus Christ should keep this solemn sacrament which he has
ordained; we should do it because we see in it--_the word of his
command--the memorial of his sufferings--and the hope of his glory_.

And when we partake of this solemn ordinance ourselves, or see others
partaking of it, how well we may say in the beautiful lines of
Havergal, the English poetess:

"Thou art coming! At thy table
We are witnesses for this,
While remembering hearts thou meetest,
In communion closest, sweetest,
Earnest of our coming bliss.
Showing not thy death alone,
And thy love exceeding great,
But thy coming, and thy throne,
All for which we long and wait.

"O the joy to see thee reigning,
Thee, our own beloved Lord;
Every tongue thy name confessing,
Worship, honor, glory, blessing,
Brought to thee with glad accord,
Thee our master and our Friend,
Vindicated and enthroned;
Unto earth's remotest end,
Glorified, adored, and owned."




Then Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and
Sidon. And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts,
and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, _thou_ son of
David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil. But he answered
her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send
her away; for she crieth after us. But he answered and said, I am not
sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Then came she
and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me. But he answered and said,
It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast _it_ to
dogs. And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which
fall from their masters' table. Then Jesus answered and said unto
her, O woman, great _is_ thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou
wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour.--_St.
Matt. xv: 21-28_.

* * * * *


_The picture illustrates the scenery and gardens in the neighborhood
of Beyrout, which lies on the coast at the foot of Lebanon and within
the Syro-Phoenician border._


When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his
disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? And they
said, Some _say that thou art_ John the Baptist: some, Elias; and
others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. He saith unto them, But
whom say ye that I am? And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art
the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answered and said
unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath
not revealed _it_ unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I
say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will
build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and
whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and
whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Then
charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was
Jesus the Christ.--_St. Matt, xvi: 13-20_.

* * * * *


_The site of Caesarea Philippi is one of the loveliest spots in
Northern Palestine. On ground carpeted with an infinite variety of
wild flowers, the traveller rests in the grateful shade of oak and
mulberry, olive and fig tree. The sound of many waters is heard on
all sides as they hasten from the adjacent slopes of Herman to join
the head waters of Jordan, bursting in strength from a cavern at the
foot of a mighty cliff. Hither, with his handful of followers, came
Jesus, weary and in deep depression of spirit, a fugitive from his
own people, who had finally rejected him; and here, in reply to
searching and anxious enquiry, "Whom say ye that I am?" he received
from Simon Peter the memorable confession, "Thou art the Christ, the
Son of the living God_."


And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother,
and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart. And was
transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his
raiment was white as the light. And, behold, there appeared unto them
Moses and Elias talking with him. Then answered Peter, and said unto
Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make
here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for
Elias. While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them:
and behold a voice out of the cloud which said, This is my beloved
Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him. And when the disciples
heard _it_, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. And Jesus
came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid. And when
they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus
only.--_St. Matt, xvii: 1--8_.

* * * * *


_From the days of St. Jerome, when pilgrims first began the attempt
to identify sites hallowed by sacred events, Mount Tabor has, until
recent years, been regarded as the Mount of the Transfiguration. But
closer examination of the text and comparison of dates, and the fact
that Tabor itself was at that time the site of a fortified town
containing a Roman garrison, combine in this instance to discredit
tradition. One of the spurs of Herman must therefore be the
alternative and more probable scene of the Transfiguration; the
seclusion of this district of mountain, valley, and woodland
providing opportunity for contemplation, and preparation for the end
which was now imminent, "the decease which Jesus was to accomplish at


And it came to pass, that on the next day, when they were come down
from the hill, much people met him. And, behold, a man of the company
cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he
is mine only child. And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly
crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising
him hardly departeth from him. And I besought thy disciples to cast
him out; and they could not. And Jesus answering said, O faithless
and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you, and suffer
you? Bring thy son hither. And as he was yet a coming, the devil
threw him down, and tare _him_. And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit,
and healed the child, and delivered him again to his father.--_St.
Luke ix: 37-42_.

* * * * *


_The picture gives an average representation of the outskirts of a
village in Northern Palestine, with its sordid, untidy, mud-built
houses, on the roofs of which are seen the reed booths or_ Succoth,
_occupied by the inhabitants during the oppressive heats of summer.
The snow-capped ridge of Hermon is indicated in the distance_.


Now about the midst of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and
taught. And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters,
having never learned? Jesus answered them, and said, My doctrine is
not mine, but his that sent me. And the scribes and Pharisees brought
unto him a woman ...; and when they had set her in the midst. They
say unto him, ... Moses in the law commanded us, that such should be
stoned: but what sayest thou? This they said, tempting him, that they
might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with _his_
finger wrote on the ground, _as though he heard them not_. So when
they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them,
He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.
And again he stooped down, and wrote on the ground. And they which
heard _it_, being convicted by _their own_ conscience, went out one
by one, beginning at the eldest, _even_ unto the last: and Jesus was
left alone, and the woman standing in the midst. When Jesus had
lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her,
Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee?
She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn
thee: go, and sin no more.--_St. John vii: 14-16; viii: 3-11._

* * * * *


_The scene is represented as taking place in one of the great
cloisters or porticoes which surrounded the Temple courts, and which
like the Forum of Rome, and "Paul's Wall" in Elizabethan, London,
served the purpose of a public promenade and place of meeting. These
porticoes were of magnificent construction and proportions, the Stoa
Basilica alone, upon the south side, with its quadruple colonnade of
one hundred and sixty-two pillars, covering a great area. The Eastern
Cloister, known as "Solomon's Porch," was probably so-called as
having been erected upon the site of a similar construction in the
first Temple_.


And it came to pass, as he went to Jerusalem, that he passed through
the midst of Samaria and Galilee. And as he entered into a certain
village, there met him ten men that were lepers, which stood afar
off. And they lifted up _their_ voices, and said, Jesus, Master, have
mercy on us. And when he saw _them_, he said unto them, Go shew
yourselves unto the priests. And it came to pass, that, as they went,
they were cleansed. And one of them, when he saw that he was healed,
turned back, and with a loud voice glorified God. And fell down on
_his_ face at his feet, giving him thanks: and he was a Samaritan.
And Jesus answering said, Were there not ten cleansed? but where
_are_ the nine? There are not found that returned to give glory to
God, save this stranger. And he said unto him, Arise, go thy way: thy
faith hath made thee whole.--_St. Luke xvii: II--19._

* * * * *


_The town of Cana in Galilee, with its background of low hills, as
seen from the Nazareth Road, supplies a landscape setting for this
picture. The ingratitude of the nine lepers no doubt added to our
Lord's sorrow just now at the growing influence of the opposition of
his enemies_.


Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain
village: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her
house. And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus'
feet, and heard his word. But Martha was cumbered about much serving,
and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister
hath left me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me. And
Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful
and troubled about many things. But one thing is needful: and Mary
hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from
her.--_St. Luke x: 38-42._

* * * * *


_Bethany is situated on the southern slope of the Mount of Olives,
about two miles from Jerusalem. The house of his friends, Martha,
Mary, and Lazarus, the only place which, during the latter part of
his ministry, Jesus could call a home, was probably that of people in
easy circumstances, and as such is here represented. In the vineyards
of Palestine the vine is cultivated bushlike on the ground; but in
gardens, the plant is occasionally trained erect, as in Europe and
America, or, as in the present instance, for the purposes of shade,
upon a pergola. In the middle of the village of Bethany are the ruins
of an important house. Here some years ago a French explorer
discovered on the base the remains of an ancient chapel This seems to
point with probability to a valid tradition of the site of the house
of Martha, Mary, and Lazarus_.


And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them:
and _his_ disciples rebuked those that brought _them_. But when Jesus
saw _it_, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the
little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is
the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not
receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter
therein. And he took them up in his arms, put _his_ hands upon them,
and blessed them.--_St. Mark x: 13-16._

* * * * *


_In the Hebrew Bible--the Talmud--it is stated that, according to
pious custom, parents brought their little children to the synagogue
that they might receive the benefit of the prayers and blessings of
the elders. Rabbis also, of recognized sanctity, were frequently
appealed to in a like manner; and his fame as a prophet and
benefactor having preceded him into Peraea, infants were now brought
to Jesus, that he might lay his hands upon them in supplication and
blessing. The architectural setting of the picture is adapted from
that of a small square near the Damascus Gate of Jerusalem. This
kindly and gentle act of our Lord has been of incalculable
consequence to the life of children in the development of Christian


Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. And I am glad for
your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe;
nevertheless let us go unto him. Jesus therefore again groaning in
himself cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it.
Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that
was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath
been _dead_ four days. Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee,
that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?
Then they took away the stone _from the place_ where the dead was
laid. And Jesus lifted up _his_ eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee
that thou hast heard me. And I knew that thou hearest me always: but
because of the people which stand by I said _it_, that they may
believe that thou hast sent me. And when he thus had spoken, he cried
with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. And he that was dead came
forth.--_St. John xi: 14., 15,38-44._

* * * * *


_The painting illustrates a form of rock-cut tomb which, though not
so common as others in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, is nevertheless
selected as being in accordance with the description of what took
place in the present instance. It is obviously the type of tomb which
is referred to on a subsequent occasion, and explains the meaning of
"the stone rolled away from the sepulchre" The entrance of the tomb
is at the bottom of a flight of steps, and is covered by a
disc-shaped stone, like a mill-stone, which can be rolled back into a
slot cut in the rock for its reception. (The kneeling man in the
background has apparently just performed this duty?) The entrance is
closed by rolling the stone forward, dropping a small block behind it
to prevent its recession, and finally by covering the
before-mentioned slot with a slab, which, being cemented down, the
tomb is "sealed."_


And _Jesus_ entered and passed through Jericho. And, behold, _there
was_ a man named Zacchaeus, which was the chief among the publicans,
and he was rich. And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not
for the press, because he was little of stature. And he ran before,
and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was to pass
that _way_. And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and saw
him, and said unto him, Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; for to
day I must abide at thy house. And he made haste, and came down, and
received him joyfully. And when they saw _it_, they all murmured,
saying, That he was gone to be guest with a man that is a sinner. And
Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord: Behold, Lord, the half of my
goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man
by false accusation, I restore _him_ fourfold. And Jesus said unto
him, This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also
is a son of Abraham. For the Son of man is come to seek and to save
that which was lost.--_St. Luke xix: 1-10_.

* * * * *


_The sycomore tree referred to in the text is a species of fig
bearing small, coarse fruit, which is used as food only in cases of
necessity. Although occasionally of great size, the tree is easily
climbed, as the trunk is short, and the branches are numerous and
wide spreading. Jericho, rebuilt by Herod, was a somewhat fashionable
town. To signalize the despised tax-gatherer in such a way was to
teach a permanent lesson of absolute unworldliness_.


And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his
disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimaeus, the son of
Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging. And when he heard that it
was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, _thou_
son of David, have mercy on me. And many charged him that he should
hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, _Thou_ son of
David, have mercy on me. And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to
be called. And they called the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good
comfort, rise; he calleth thee. And he, casting away his garment,
rose, and came to Jesus. And Jesus answered and said unto him, What
wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him,
Lord, that I might receive my sight. And Jesus said unto him, Go thy
way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his
sight, and followed Jesus in the way.--_St. Mark x: 4.6--52._

* * * * *


_The site of Jericho is still an oasis in the surrounding desert, but
neither its fertility nor its dimensions bear comparison with those
which it attained in former days; and hardly a tree remains of the
celebrated groves of balsam, spice, and fruit-bearing trees, and the
palms which earned for Jericho the title of "The City of the Palm
Trees," and which made its neighboring plain the garden of
Palestine--the "divine district" as Joseph us calls it. This
fertility was owing entirely to skilful irrigation, traces of no less
than twelve aqueducts having been discovered. No class of sufferers
more frequently claimed and obtained from Jesus the exercise of his
compassion and healing power than that represented by blind
Bartimaus. The malady of blindness is grievously common in Palestine,
the proportion of those thus afflicted being one in every hundred of
the population, whereas in Europe the proportion is only one in a


And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage,
unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples. Saying unto
them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall
find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose _them_, and bring _them_
unto me. And if any _man_ say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord
hath need of them; and straightway he will send them. All this was
done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet. And
the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them. And brought the
ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set _him_
thereon. And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way;
others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed _them_ in the
way. And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried,
saying, Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed _is_ he that cometh in
the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. And when he was come
into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? And the
multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of
Galilee.--_St. Matt, xxi: 1-4., 6-11_.

* * * * *


_Had Jesus omitted to command to bring its mother along with the
colt, upon which he elected to ride, his disciples would probably
have brought her as a matter of course. It is the custom of the
country; and as journeys are accomplished at a walking pace, mares
and she-asses are frequently accompanied by their foals. It may be
noted that in this picture one of the gates of Hebron does duty for
that through which Jesus makes his triumphal entry into Jerusalem;
the former being suggestive of far greater antiquity than any which
are to be found at the present day in Jerusalem itself_.


And he taught daily in the temple. But the chief priests and the
scribes and the chief of the people sought to destroy him. And could
not find what they might do: for all the people were very attentive
to hear him. And it came to pass, _that_ on one of those days, as he
taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief
priests and the scribes came upon _him_ with the elders. And spake
unto him, saying, Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things?
or who is he that gave thee this authority? And he answered and said
unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me: The baptism
of John, was it from heaven, or of men? And they reasoned with
themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why
then believed ye him not? But and if we say, Of men; all the people
will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet. And
they answered, that they could not tell whence _it was_. And Jesus
said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these
things.--_St. Luke xix: 47, 48; xx: 1-8._

* * * * *


_The occasion on which Jesus encountered for the last time the
opposition of his priestly enemies to his teaching, and when, in the
presence of the assembled multitudes, he exposed and denounced their
hypocrisy, is supposed to take place in one of the great outer courts
of the Temple, the buildings of which, although begun forty-six years
previously, were at this time still unfinished, and were indeed never
fully completed in accordance with their original design_.


And in the day time he was teaching in the temple; and at night he
went out, and abode in the mount that is called _the mount_ of
Olives.--_St. Luke xxi: 37._

* * * * *


_As we ascend towards sunset the slopes of Olivet, and pause to gaze
on the scenes beneath, the panorama of the city presented to view is
in its leading features essentially similar to that upon which the
eyes of Jesus rested, when "at night he went out, and abode in the
mount that is called the Mount of Olives" Yonder stands a temple
within that sacred enclosure which, for well-nigh three thousand
years, save for the period during which, "the abomination of
desolation spoken of by Daniel the prophet stood in the Holy place,"
has been dedicated to the worship of Jehovah. The citadel of
Jerusalem breaks the skyline where stood the tower of Hippicus, and
to the left, against the setting sun, the cypresses in a monastery
garden mark the spot once covered by the gardens of the palace of
Herod. Siloam stands as of old on the hither side, overlooking the
valleys of Hinnom and Kidron; while to-day, as in former times, the
olive yards beneath and the trees around, might well give the name
which it bears to the hill on which we stand._


Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour
was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father,
having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the
end. And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart
of Judas Iscariot, Simon's _son_, to betray him. Jesus knowing that
the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come
from God, and went to God. He riseth from supper, and laid aside his
garments; and took a towel, and girded himself. After that he poureth
water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to
wipe _them_ with the towel wherewith he was girded. Then cometh he to
Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet?
Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but
thou shalt know hereafter. Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never
wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no
part with me. Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but
also _my_ hands and _my_ head. Jesus saith to him, He that is washed
needeth not save to wash _his_ feet, but is clean every whit: and ye
are clean, but not all.--_St. John xiii: 1-10._

* * * * *


_A dwelling house, claiming to be one of the most ancient in
Jerusalem, supplied materials for the study of the "large upper
room," represented in this and some other of the paintings. The
general features of the chamber, with its arched ceiling and
flattened dome, its_ leewans _(raised platform) and the
entrance-passage of colored stones, where guests leave their
foot-gear before stepping upon the mat-covered floor of the room,
may, for the reasons adduced elsewhere, be accepted as typical of
similar apartments of the period under consideration._


When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified,
and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall
betray me. Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom
he spake. Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples,
whom Jesus loved. Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he
should ask who it should be of whom he spake. He then lying on Jesus'
breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it? Jesus answered, He it is, to
whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped _it_. And when he had
dipped the sop, he gave _it_ to Judas Iscariot, _the son_ of Simon.
And after the sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him,
That thou doest, do quickly. Now no man at the table knew for what
intent he spake this unto him. For some _of them_ thought, because
Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy _those things_
that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give
something to the poor. He then having received the sop went
immediately out: and it was night.--_St. John xiii: 21-30._

* * * * *


_Comment has already been made upon the custom prevailing at this
time of reclining at meat. We are aware, from other sources of
information, that in partaking of the Passover, the attitude of
standing had, as a point of ritual, long been abandoned in favor of
the recumbent posture, and this is directly evidenced by the words of
the text (v: 23 and 25), which are only compatible with the
supposition that on the present occasion the guest-chamber was
furnished with couches which ran around the three sides of the table
in the usual manner. Authorities differ as to which was regarded as
the "highest seat" some maintaining that this was the outermost place
on the right-hand couch; others, again, preferring the arrangement
followed in the painting, where Jesus occupies the centre_.


Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith
unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder. And he
took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be
sorrowful and very heavy. Then saith he unto them, My soul is
exceeding sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with
me. And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed,
saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me:
nevertheless not as I will, but as thou _wilt_. And he cometh unto
the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, What,
could ye not watch with me one hour? Watch and pray, that ye enter
not into temptation: the spirit indeed _is_ willing, but the flesh
_is_ weak. He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O
my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it,
thy will be done. And he came and found them asleep again: for their
eyes were heavy. And he left them, and went away again, and prayed
the third time, saying the same words. Then cometh he to his
disciples, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take _your_ rest:
behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the
hands of sinners. Rise, let us be going: behold, he is at hand that
doth betray me.--_St. Matt, xxvi: 36-46._

* * * * *


_As the word Gethsemane means the "oil press" the "Garden" was in all
probability an olive yard, whose actual site, though it cannot be
determined with certainty, must have been in the immediate vicinity
at least of the spot which age-long tradition indicates as the scene
of the Agony. The great age of the trees in this enclosure has been
urged in favor of the tradition, but it is fatal to their claim as
witnesses, that Titus is known to have cut down, for military
purposes, all the trees in the neighborhood of the besieged city.
This site is now owned by the Russians who have turned it into a neat
and trim garden, and built a bright new white church on the upper
level with five large gilded bulbous domes_.


Judas then, having received a band _of men_ and officers from the
chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches
and weapons. Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come
upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye? They answered
him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am _he_. And Judas
also, which betrayed him, stood with them. As soon then as he had
said unto them, I am _he_, they went backward, and fell to the
ground.--Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying,
Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast. And
forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master; and kissed him.
And Jesus said unto him, Friend, wherefore art thou come? Then came
they, and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. And, behold, one of them
which were with Jesus stretched out _his_ hand, and drew his sword,
and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear.
Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for
all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Thinkest
thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give
me more than twelve legions of angels? But how then shall the
scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be? In that same hour said
Jesus to the multitudes, Are ye come out as against a thief with
swords and staves for to take me? I sat daily with you teaching in
the temple, and ye laid no hold on me. But all this was done, that
the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. Then all the
disciples forsook him, and fled.--_St. John xviii: 3-6; St. Matt,
xxvi: 48-56._

* * * * *


_Cunningly conceived indeed was that signal of the kiss; for in the
very act of betrayal, Judas thus covered his own treachery; and, had
the plot failed, it would even have appeared as if, when "all the
disciples forsook him and fled" Judas alone had courage, in the hour
of danger, to stand by and openly to acknowledge Jesus as his


And they that had laid hold on Jesus led _him_ away to Caiaphas the
high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. But
Peter followed him afar off unto the high priest's palace, and went
in, and sat with the servants, to see the end. Now the chief priests,
and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus,
to put him to death. But found none: yea, though many false witnesses
came, _yet_ found they none. At the last came two false witnesses,
And said, This _fellow_ said, I am able to destroy the temple of God,
and to build it in three days. And the high priest arose, and said
unto him, Answerest thou nothing? what _is it which_ these witness
against thee? But Jesus held his peace. And the high priest answered
and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us
whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God. Jesus saith unto him,
Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see
the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the
clouds of heaven. Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He
hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses?
behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy. What think ye? They answered
and said, He is guilty of death.--_St. Matt, xxvi: 57--66._

* * * * *


_The outward ceremonial of the hastily convoked and Irregular
tribunal before which Jesus underwent the mockery of a trial was
similar to that of the ancient Sanhedrim. The members sat on a
semi-circular divan, the president in the centre, and a scribe at
each extremity, who recorded the evidence and the decisions of the
court. It may be noted, that while laws had been carefully formulated
for the conduct of such trials, almost every one of them was
flagrantly violated on the present occasion in order to ensure a
pre-arranged condemnation. For example, these rules provided that
witnesses should be summoned, and that an advocate should plead on
behalf of the accused; and they forbade that criminal trials should
be conducted at night, that condemnation should be pronounced on the
day of trial or on a holy day; and, if the crime were capital, that
execution should follow on the day of sentence_.


Now Peter sat without in the palace: and a damsel came unto him,
saying, Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. But he denied before
_them_ all, saying, I know not what thou sayest. And when he was gone
out into the porch, another _maid_ saw him, and said unto them that
were there, This _fellow_ was also with Jesus of Nazareth. And again
he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. And after a while came
unto _him_ they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou also
art _one_ of them; for thy speech betrayeth thee. Then began he to
curse and to swear, _saying_, I know not the man. And immediately the
cock crew. And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter
remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the
cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept
bitterly.--_St. Matt, xxvi: 69-74.; St. Luke xxii: 61, 62_.

* * * * *


_In the East, the houses of the great and official residences usually
consist of a group of separate yet connected buildings, surrounding a
quadrangular paved court planted with trees and flowering shrubs, and
furnished in the centre with an open cistern or fountain. Such was
probably the construction of the palace of the High Priest
(Caiaphas), and, apparently, this open court, across which Jesus
would be conducted to or from the hall of trial, was the place where
bitterness was added to his sorrow in hearing himself denied by his
friend--and that man who had been the first to profess belief in his
Messiahship, and who, but a few brief hours before, had stoutly sworn
to stand by him, even unto death_.

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