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The Life of Horatio Lord Nelson by Robert Southey

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of his patron saint with devouter reverence. The undisguised and
romantic passion with which he regarded it amounted almost to
superstition; and when the portrait was now taken down in clearing for
action, he desired the men who removed it to "take care of his guardian
angel." In this manner he frequently spoke of it, as if he believed
there were a virtue in the image. He wore a miniature of her, also, next
his heart.

Blackwood went on board the VICTORY about six. He found him in good
spirits, but very calm; not in that exhilaration which he had felt upon
entering into battle at Aboukir and Copenhagen: he knew that his own
life would be particularly aimed at, and seems to have looked for death
with almost as sure an expectation as for victory. His whole attention
was fixed upon the enemy. They tacked to the northward, and formed their
line on the larboard tack; thus bringing the shoals of Trafalgar and St.
Pedro under the lee of the British, and keeping the port of Cadiz open
for themselves. This was judiciously done; and Nelson, aware of all the
advantages which it gave them. made signal to prepare to anchor.

Villeneuve was a skilful seaman: worthy of serving a better master,
and a better cause. His plan of defence was as well conceived, and as
original, as the plan of attack. He formed the fleet in a double line;
every alternate ship being about a cable's length to windward of her
second ahead and astern. Nelson, certain of a triumphant issue to the
day, asked Blackwood what he should consider as a victory. That officer
answered, that, considering the handsome way in which battle was offered
by the enemy, their apparent determination for a fair trial of strength,
and the situation of the land, he thought it would be a glorious result
if fourteen were captured. He replied: "I shall not be satisfied with
less than twenty." Soon afterwards he asked him if he did not think there
was a signal wanting. Captain Blackwood made answer, that he thought the
whole fleet seemed very clearly to understand what they were about.
These words were scarcely spoken before that signal was made, which will
be remembered as long as the language, or even the memory, of England
shall endure; Nelson's last signal:--"ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO
HIS DUTY!" It was received throughout the fleet with a shout of
answering acclamation, made sublime by the spirit which it breathed, and
the feeling which it expressed. "Now," said Lord Nelson, "I can do no
more. We must trust to the great Disposer of all events, and the justice
of our cause. I thank God for this great opportunity of doing my duty."

He wore that day, as usual, his admiral's frock-coat, bearing on the
left breast four stars, of the different orders with which he was
invested. Ornaments which rendered him so conspicuous a mark for the
enemy were beheld with ominous apprehensions by his officers. It was
known that there were riflemen on board the French ships, and it could
not be doubted but that his life would be particularly aimed at. They
communicated their fears to each other; and the surgeon, Mr. Beatty,
spoke to the chaplain Dr. Scott, and to Mr. Scott the public secretary,
desiring that some person would entreat him to change his dress, or
cover the stars; but they knew that such a request would highly
displease him. "In honour I gained them," he had said when such a thing
had been hinted to him formerly, "and in honour I will die with them."
Mr. Beatty, however, would not have been deterred by any fear of
exciting his displeasure from speaking to him himself upon a subject in
which the weal of England, as well as the life of Nelson, was concerned;
but he was ordered from the deck before he could find an opportunity.
This was a point upon which Nelson's officers knew that it was hopeless
to remonstrate or reason with him; but both Blackwood, and his own
captain, Hardy, represented to him how advantageous to the fleet it
would be for him to keep out of action as long as possible; and he
consented at last to let the LEVIATHAN and the TEMERAIRE, which were
sailing abreast of the VICTORY, be ordered to pass ahead. Yet even here
the last infirmity of this noble mind was indulged, for these ships
could not pass ahead if the VICTORY continued to carry all her sail; and
so far was Nelson from shortening sail, that it was evident he took
pleasure in pressing on, and rendering it impossible for them to obey
his own orders. A long swell was setting into the bay of Cadiz: our
ships, crowding all sail, moved majestically before it, with light winds
from the south-west. The sun shone on the sails of the enemy; and their
well-formed line, with their numerous three-deckers, made an appearance
which any other assailants would have thought formidable; but the
British sailors only admired the beauty and the splendour of the
spectacle; and in full confidence of winning what they saw, remarked to
each other what a fine sight yonder ships would make at Spithead!

The French admiral, from the BUCENTAURE, beheld the new manner in
which his enemy was advancing--Nelson and Collingwood each leading his
line; and pointing them out; to his officers, he is said to have
exclaimed that such conduct could not fail to be successful. Yet
Villeneuve had made his own dispositions with the utmost skill and the
fleets under his command waited for the attack with perfect coolness.
Ten minutes before twelve they opened their fire. Eight or nine of the
ships immediately ahead of the VICTORY, and across her bows, fired
single guns at her, to ascertain whether she was yet within their range.
As soon as Nelson perceived that their shot passed over him, he desired
Blackwood and Captain Prowse, of the SIRIUS, to repair to their
respective frigates; and, on their way, to tell all the captains of the
line-of-battle ships that he depended on their exertions; and that if,
by the prescribed mode of attack, they found it impracticable to get
into action immediately, they might adopt whatever they thought best,
provided it led them quickly and closely alongside an enemy. As they
were standing on the front of the poop, Blackwood took him by the hand,
saying, he hoped soon to return and find him in possession of twenty
prizes. He replied, "God bless you, Blackwood; I shall never see you

Nelson's column was steered about two points more to the north than
Collingwood's, in order to cut off the enemy's escape into Cadiz: the
lee line, therefore, was first engaged. "See," cried Nelson, pointing
to the ROYAL SOVEREIGN, as she steered right for the centre of the
enemy's line, cut through it astern of the SANTA ANNA three-decker, and
engaged her at the muzzle of her guns on the starboard side--"see how
that noble fellow, Collingwood, carries his ship into action!"
Collingwood, delighted at being first in the heat of the fire, and
knowing the feelings of his commander and old friend, turned to his
captain, and exclaimed: "Rotherham, what would Nelson give to be here?"
Both these brave officers, perhaps, at this moment, thought of Nelson
with gratitude, for a circumstance which had occurred on the preceding
day. Admiral Collingwood, with some of the captains, having gone on
board the VICTORY to receive instructions, Nelson inquired of him where
his captain was and was told, in reply, that they were not upon good
terms with each other. "Terms!" said Nelson,--"good terms with each
other!" Immediately he sent a boat for Captain Rotherham; led him, as
soon as he arrived, to Collingwood; and saying,"Look; yonder are the
enemy!" bade them shake hands like Englishmen.

The enemy continued to fire a gun at a time at the VICTORY, till they
saw that a shot had passed through her main-top-gallant sail; then they
opened their broadsides, aiming chiefly at her rigging, in the hope of
disabling her before she could close with them. Nelson, as usual, had
hoisted several flags, lest one should be shot away. The enemy showed no
colours till late in the action, when they began to feel the necessity
of having them to strike. For this reason, the SANTISSIMA TRINIDAD,
Nelson's old acquaintance, as he used to call her, was distinguishable
only by her four decks; and to the bow of this opponent he ordered the
VICTORY to be steered. Meantime an incessant raking fire was kept up
upon the VICTORY. The admiral's secretary was one of the first who fell;
he was killed by a cannon-shot while conversing with Hardy. Captain
Adair of the marines, with the help of a sailor, endeavoured to remove
the body from Nelson's sight, who had a great regard for Mr. Scott; but
he anxiously asked: "Is that poor Scott that's gone?" and being informed
that was indeed so, exclaimed: "Poor fellow!" Presently, a double-headed
shot struck a party of marines who were drawn up on the poop, and killed
eight of them; upon which Nelson immediately desired Captain Adair to
disperse his men round the ship, that they might not suffer so much from
being together. A few minutes afterwards a shot struck the four-brace
bits on the quarter-deck, and passed between Nelson and Hardy, a
splinter from the bit tearing off Hardy's buckle, and bruising his foot.
Both stopped, and looked anxiously at each other, each supposed the
other to be wounded. Nelson then smiled, and said, "This is too warm
work, Hardy, to last long."

The VICTORY had not yet returned a single gun: fifty of her men had
been by this time killed or wounded, and her main-top-mast, with all her
studding-sails and her booms, shot away. Nelson declared, that, in all
his battles, he had seen nothing which surpassed the cool courage of
his crew on this occasion. At four minutes after twelve she opened her
fire from both sides of her deck. It was not possible to break the
enemy's line without running on board one of their ships: Hardy informed
him of this, and asked him which he would prefer. Nelson replied: "Take
your choice, Hardy, it does not signify much." The master was ordered to
put the helm to port, and the VICTORY ran on board the REDOUTABLE, just
as her tiller ropes were shot away. The French ship received her with a
broadside; then instantly let down her lower-deck ports, for fear of
being bearded through them, and never afterwards fired a great gun
during the action. Her tops, like those of all the enemy's ships, were
filled with riflemen. Nelson never placed musketry in his tops; he had a
strong dislike to the practice; not merely because it endangers setting
fire to the sails, but also because it is a murderous sort of warfare,
by which individuals may suffer, and a commander now and then be picked
off; but which never can decide the fate of a general engagement.

Captain Harvey, in the TEMERAIRE, fell on board the REDOUTABLE on the
other side. Another enemy was in like manner on board the TEMERAIRE; so
that these four ships formed as compact a tier as if they had been
moored together, their heads lying all the same way. The lieutenants of
the VICTORY, seeing this, depressed their guns of the middle and lower
decks, and fired with a diminished charge, lest the shot should pass
through, and injure the TEMERAIRE. And because there was danger that the
REDOUBTABLE might take fire from the lower-deck guns, the muzzles of
which touched her side when they were run out, the fireman of each gun
stood ready with a bucket of water; which, as soon as the gun was
discharged, he dashed into the hole made by the shot. An incessant fire
was kept up from the VICTORY from both sides; her larboard guns playing

It had been part of Nelson's prayer that the British fleet might be
distinguished by humanity in the victory which he expected. Setting an
example himself, he twice gave orders to cease firing upon the
REDOUTABLE, supposing that she had struck, because her great guns were
silent; for as she carried no flag, there were no means of instantly
ascertaining the fact. From this ship, which he had thus twice spared,
he received his death. A ball fired from her mizzen-top, which, in the
then situation of the two vessels, was not more than fifteen yards from
that part of the deck where he was standing, struck the epaulette on his
left shoulder, about a quarter after one, just in the heat of action. He
fell upon his face, on the spot which was covered with his poor
secretary's blood. Hardy, who was a few steps from him, turning round,
saw three men raising him up.--"They have done for me at last, Hardy,"
said he.--"I hope not," cried Hardy.--"Yes!" he replied,"my back-bone is
shot through." Yet even now, not for a moment losing his presence of
mind, he observed, as they were carrying him down the ladder, that the
tiller ropes, which had been shot away, were not yet replaced, and
ordered that new ones should be rove immediately. Then, that he might
not be seen by the crew, he took out his handkerchief, and covered his
face and his stars. Had he but concealed these badges of honour from the
enemy, England, perhaps, would not have had cause to receive with sorrow
the news of the battle of Trafalgar. The cockpit was crowded with
wounded and dying men, over whose bodies he was with some difficulty
conveyed, and laid upon a pallet in the midshipmen's berth. It was soon
perceived, upon examination, that the wound was mortal. This, however,
was concealed from all except Captain Hardy, the chaplain, and the
medical attendants. He himself being certain, from the sensation in his
back, and the gush of blood he felt momently within his breast, that no
human care could avail him, insisted that the surgeon should leave him,
and attend to those to whom he might be useful; "For," said he, "you can
do nothing for me." All that could be done was to fan him with paper,
and frequently to give him lemonade to alleviate his intense thirst. He
was in great pain, and expressed much anxiety for the event of the
action, which now began to declare itself. As often as a ship struck,
the crew of the VICTORY hurrahed; and at every hurrah a visible expression
of joy gleamed in the eyes, and marked the countenance of the dying
hero. But he became impatient to see Captain Hardy; and as that officer,
though often sent for, could not leave the deck, Nelson feared that some
fatal cause prevented him, and repeatedly cried, "Will no one bring
Hardy to me? He must be killed! He is surely dead!" An hour and ten
minutes elapsed from the time when Nelson received his wound before
Hardy could come to him. They shook hands in silence, Hardy in vain
struggling to repress the feelings of that most painful and yet
sublimest moment. "Well, Hardy," said Nelson, "how goes the day with
us?"--"Very well," replied Hardy; "ten ships have struck, but five of
the van have tacked, and show an intention to bear down upon the
VICTORY, I have called two or three of our fresh ships round, and have
no doubt of giving them a drubbing."--"I hope," said Nelson, "none of
our ships have struck?" Hardy answered, "There was no fear of that."
Then, and not till then, Nelson spoke of himself. "I am a dead man,
Hardy," said he: "I am going fast: it will be all over with me soon.
Come nearer to me. Let my dear Lady Hamilton have my hair, and all other
things belonging to me." Hardy observed that he hoped Mr. Beatty could
yet hold out some prospect of life. "Oh, no!" he replied, "it is
impossible. My back is shot through. Beatty will tell you so." Captain
Hardy then, once more, shook hands with him; and, with a heart almost
bursting, hastened upon deck.

By this time all feeling below the breast was gone; and Nelson,
having made the surgeon ascertain this, said to him: "You know I am
gone, I know it. I feel something rising in my breast,"-- putting his
hand on his left side,--"which tells me so." And upon Beatty's inquiring
whether his pain was very great, he replied, "So great, that he wished
he was dead. Yet," said he, in a lower voice, "one would like to live a
little longer too!" And after a few minutes, in the same under tone, he
added--"What would become of poor Lady Hamilton, if she knew my
situation!" Next to his country she occupied his thoughts. Captain
Hardy, some fifty minutes after he had left the cockpit, returned; and,
again taking the hand of his dying friend and commander, congratulated
him on having gained a complete victory. How many of the enemy were
taken he did not know, as it was impossible to perceive them distinctly;
but fourteen or fifteen at least. "That's well," cried Nelson, "but I
bargained for twenty." And then, in a stronger voice, he said: "Anchor,
Hardy; anchor." Hardy, upon this, hinted that Admiral Collingwood would
take upon himself the direction of affairs. "Not while I live, Hardy,"
said the dying Nelson, ineffectually endeavouring to raise himself from
the bed: "Do you anchor." His previous order for preparing to anchor had
shown how clearly he foresaw the necessity of this. Presently, calling
Hardy back, he said to him in a low voice, "Don't throw me overboard:"
and he desired that he might be buried by his parents, unless it should
please the king to order otherwise. Then reverting to private feelings:
"Take care of my dear Lady Hamilton, Hardy take care of poor Lady
Hamilton. Kiss me, Hardy," said he. Hardy knelt down and kissed his
cheek; and Nelson: said, "Now I am satisfied. Thank God I have done my
duty." Hardy stood over him in silence for a moment or two, then knelt
again and kissed his forehead. "Who is that?" said Nelson; and being
informed, he replied, "God bless you, Hardy." And Hardy then left him
--for ever.

Nelson now desired to be turned upon his right side, and said, "I
wish I had not left the deck; for I shall soon be gone." Death was,
indeed, rapidly approaching. He said to the chaplain, "Doctor, I have
NOT been a GREAT sinner;" and after a short pause, "Remember that I
leave Lady Hamilton and my daughter Horatia as a legacy to my country."
His articulation now became difficult; but he was distinctly heard to
say, "Thank God I have done my duty." These words he repeatedly
pronounced; and they were the last words which he uttered. He expired
at thirty minutes after four--three hours and a quarter after he had
received his wound.

Within a quarter of an hour after Nelson was wounded, above fifty of
the VICTORY's men fell by the enemy's musketry. They, however, on their
part, were not idle; and it was not long before there were only two
Frenchmen left alive in the mizzen-top of the REDOUTABLE. One of them
was the man who had given the fatal wound: he did not live to boast of
what he had done. An old quarter-master had seen him fire; and easily
recognised him, because he wore a glazed cocked hat and a white frock.
This quarter-master and two midshipmen, Mr. Collingwood and Mr.
Pollard, were the only persons left in the VICTORY's poop; the two
midshipmen kept firing at the top, and he supplied them with cartridges.
One of the Frenchmen, attempting to make his escape down the rigging,
was shot by Mr. Pollard, and fell on the poop. But the old quarter-
master, as he cried out, "That's he, that's he," and pointed at the
other who was coming forward to fire again, received a shot in his
mouth, and fell dead. Both the midshipmen then fired at the same time,
and the fellow dropped in the top. When they took possession of the
prize, they went into the mizzen-top, and found him dead, with one ball
through his head, and another through his breast.

The REDOUTABLE struck within twenty minutes after the fatal shot had
been fired from her. During that time she had been twice on fire in her
fore-chains and in her forecastle. The French, as they had done in other
battles, made use in this, of fire-balls and other combustibles;
implements of destruction which other nations, from a sense of honour
and humanity, have laid aside; which add to the, sufferings of the
wounded, without determining the issue of the combat: which none but
the cruel would employ, and which never can be successful against the
brave. Once they succeeded in setting fire, from the REDOUTABLE, to some
ropes and canvas on the VICTORY's booms. The cry ran through the ship,
and reached the cockpit; but even this dreadful cry produced no
confusion: the men displayed that perfect self-possession in danger by
which English seamen are characterised; they extinguished the flames on
board their own ship, and then hastened to extinguish them in the enemy,
by throwing buckets of water from the gangway. When the REDOUTABLE had
struck, it was not practicable to board her from the VICTORY; for,
though the two ships touched, the upper works of both fell in so much,
that there was a great space between their gangways; and she could not
be boarded from the lower or middle decks because her ports were down.
Some of our men went to Lieutenant Quilliam, and offered to swim under
her bows, and get up there; but it was thought unfit to hazard brave
lives in this manner.

What our men would have done from gallantry, some of the crew of the
SANTISSIMA TRINIDAD did to save themselves. Unable to stand the
tremendous fire of the VICTORY, whose larboard guns played against this
great four-decker, and not knowing how else to escape them, nor where
else to betake themselves for protection, many of them leaped overboard
and swam to the VICTORY; and were actually helped up her sides by the
English during the action. The Spaniards began the battle with less
vivacity than their unworthy allies, but they continued it with greater
firmness. The ARGONAUTA and BAHAMA were defended till they had each lost
about four hundred men; the SAN JUAN NEPOMUCENO lost three hundred and
fifty. Often as the superiority of British courage has been proved
against France upon the seas, it was never more conspicuous than in this
decisive conflict. Five of our ships were engaged muzzle to muzzle with
five of the French. In all five the Frenchmen lowered their lower-deck
ports, and deserted their guns; while our men continued deliberately to
load and fire till they had made the victory secure.

Once, amidst his sufferings, Nelson had expressed a wish that he were
dead; but immediately the spirit subdued the pains of death, and he
wished to live a little longer, doubtless that he might hear the
completion of the victory which he had seen so gloriously begun. That
consolation, that joy, that triumph, was afforded him. He lived to know
that the victory was decisive; and the last guns which were fired at the
flying enemy were heard a minute or two before he expired. The ships
which were thus flying were four of the enemy's van, all French, under
Rear-Admiral Dumanoir. They had borne no part in the action; and now,
when they were seeking safety in flight, they fired not only into the
VICTORY and ROYAL SOVEREIGN as they passed, but poured their broadsides
into the Spanish captured ships; and they were seen to back their
topsails for the purpose of firing with more precision. The indignation
of the Spaniards at this detestable cruelty from their allies, for whom
they had fought so bravely, and so profusely bled, may well be
conceived. It was such that when, two days after the action, seven of
the ships which had escaped into Cadiz came out in hopes of re-taking
some of the disabled prizes, the prisoners in the ARGONAUTA, in a body,
offered their services to the British prize-master, to man the guns
against any of the French ships, saying, that if a Spanish ship came
alongside, they would quietly go below; but they requested that they
might be allowed to fight the French in resentment for the murderous
usage which they had suffered at their hands. Such was their
earnestness, and such the implicit confidence which could be placed in
Spanish honour, that the offer was accepted and they were actually
stationed at the lower-deck guns. Dumanoir and his squadron were not
more fortunate than the fleet from whose destruction they fled. They
fell in with Sir Richard Strachan, who was cruising for the Rochefort
squadron, and were all taken. In the better days of France, if such a
crime could then have been committed, it would have received an
exemplary punishment from the French government. Under Buonaparte it
was sure of impunity, and perhaps might be thought deserving of reward.
But if the Spanish court had been independent, it would have become us
to have delivered Dumanoir and his captains up to Spain, that they might
have been brought to trial, and hanged in sight of the remains of the
Spanish fleet.

The total British loss in the battle of Trafalgar amounted to 1587.
Twenty of the enemy struck; but it was not possible to anchor the fleet,
as Nelson had enjoined. A gale came on from the S.W., some of the prizes
went down, some went on shore; one effected its escape into Cadiz;
others were destroyed; four only were saved, and those by the greatest
exertions. The wounded Spaniards were sent ashore, an assurance being
given that they should not serve till regularly exchanged; and the
Spaniards, with a generous feeling, which would not perhaps have been
found in any other people, offered the use of their hospitals for our
wounded, pledging the honour of Spain that they should be carefully
attended there. When the storm, after the action, drove some of the
prizes upon the coast, they declared that the English who were thus
thrown into their hands should not be considered as prisoners of war;
and the Spanish soldiers gave up their own beds to their shipwrecked
enemies. The Spanish vice-admiral, Alva, died of his wounds. Villeneuve
was sent to England, and permitted to return to France. The French
Government say that he destroyed himself on the way to Paris, dreading
the consequences of a court-martial; but there is every reason to
believe that the tyrant, who never acknowledged the loss of the battle
of Trafalgar, added Villeneuve to the numerous victims of his murderous

It is almost superfluous to add, that all the honours which a
grateful country could bestow were heaped upon the memory of Nelson. His
brother was made an earl, with a grant of L6000 a year. L10,000 were
voted to each of his sisters; and L100,000 for the purchase of an
estate. A public funeral was decreed, and a public monument. Statues and
monuments also were voted by most of our principal cities. The leaden
coffin in which he was brought home was cut in pieces, which were
distributed as relics of Saint Nelson,--so the gunner of the VICTORY
called them; and when, at his internment, his flag was about to be
lowered into the grave, the sailors who assisted at the ceremony with
one accord rent it in pieces, that each might preserve a fragment while
he lived.

The death of Nelson was felt in England as something more than a
public calamity; men started at the intelligence, and turned pale, as if
they had heard of the loss of a dear friend. An object of our admiration
and affection, of our pride and of our hopes, was suddenly taken from
us; and it seemed as if we had never, till then, known how deeply we
loved and reverenced him. What the country had lost in its great naval
hero--the greatest of our own, and of all former times--was scarcely
taken into the account of grief. So perfectly, indeed, had he performed
his part, that the maritime war, after the battle of Trafalgar, was
considered at an end: the fleets of the enemy were not merely defeated
but destroyed; new navies must be built, and a new race of seamen reared
for them, before the possibility of their invading our shores could
again be contemplated. It was not, therefore, from any selfish
reflection upon the magnitude of our loss that we mourned for him: the
general sorrow was of a higher character. The people of England grieved
that funeral ceremonies, and public monuments, and posthumous rewards,
were all which they could now bestow upon him, whom the king, the
legislature, and the nation would have alike delighted to honour; whom
every tongue would have blessed; whose presence in every village through
which he might have passed would have wakened the church bells, have
given schoolboys a holiday, have drawn children from their sports to
gaze upon him, and "old men from the chimney corner" to look upon Nelson
ere they died. The victory of Trafalgar was celebrated, indeed, with the
usual forms of rejoicing, but they were without joy; for such already
was the glory of the British navy, through Nelson's surpassing genius,
that it scarcely seemed to receive any addition from the most signal
victory that ever was achieved upon the seas: and the destruction of
this mighty fleet, by which all the maritime schemes of France were
totally frustrated, hardly appeared to add to our security or strength;
for, while Nelson was living, to watch the combined squadrons of the
enemy, we felt ourselves as secure as now, when they were no longer in

There was reason to suppose, from the appearances upon opening the
body, that in the course of nature he might have attained, like his
father, to a good old age. Yet he cannot be said to have fallen
prematurely whose work was done; nor ought he to be lamented who died so
full of honours, at the height of human fame. The most triumphant death
is that of the martyr; the most awful that of the martyred patriot; the
most splendid that of the hero in the hour of victory: and if the
chariot and horses of fire had been vouchsafed for Nelson's translation,
he could scarcely have departed in a brighter blaze of glory. He has
left us, not indeed his mantle of inspiration, but a name and an example
which are at this hour inspiring thousands of the youth of England: a
name which is our pride, and an example which will continue to be our
shield and our strength. Thus it is that the spirits of the great and
the wise continue to live and to act after them; verifying, in this
sense, the language of the old mythologist:--

[The book ends with two lines of ancient Greek by the poet Hesiod.
Their meaning is approximately that of the final lines above.]

In this text, to keep the character set to the minimum 'vanilla
ASCII': italics have been converted to capitals, accents etc.
have been omitted, and the British 'Pound' currency symbol has
been written as 'L'. Where angles are given in degrees, minutes
and seconds; the abreviations d, m, s have been used.

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