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The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders by Ernest Scott

Part 8 out of 8

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English Government endeavours to direct the tastes of the inhabitants of
the new colony. Different kinds of cattle have been imported, and all
thrive remarkably well. The better kinds, so far from losing quality,
gain in size and weight. But the improvement in sheep is especially
astonishing. Never was there a country so favourable to these animals as
the part of New Holland now occupied by the British. Whether it be the
effect of the climate or, as I think, the peculiar quality of the herbage
(almost wholly aromatic), certain it is that the flocks of sheep have
multiplied enormously. It is true that the finest breeds have been
imported by the Government. At first, the choicest kinds of English and
Irish sheep were naturalised. Then breeds from Bengal and the Cape of
Good Hope were introduced. Finally, the good fortune which seems to have
conspired with the enterprise of our rivals furnished them with several
pairs of merinos from Spain, which the Spanish Government at great
expense were sending to the Viceroy of Peru, upon a ship which was
captured upon the coast of that country by an English vessel out of Port
Jackson, and which were brought thither, much to the satisfaction of the
Governor, who neglected nothing to derive the fullest possible advantage
from a present valuable to the colony. His endeavours have not been in
vain. This species, like the others, has improved much, and there is
reason to believe that in a few years Port Jackson will be able to supply
valuable and abundant material for the manufacturers of England. What is
most astonishing is that the Indian sheep, which naturally produce short,
coarse hair instead of wool, in the course of three or four generations
in this country produce a wool that can hardly be distinguished from that
furnished by English breeds, or even Spanish. I have seen at the
Governor's house an assortment of these different kinds of wool, which
were to be sent to Lord Sydney, and I assure you that it would be
difficult to find finer samples. In my excursions with Mr. Paterson, Mr.
Marsden and Mr. Cox, I have seen their flocks, and really one could not
but admire in that regard the incalculable influence of the industry of
man, so long as it is encouraged and stimulated by enlightened and just

Another source of production which appears to offer great advantages to
the English is that of hemp. In this country it is as fine in quality as
it is abundant, and several persons whose testimony is beyond suspicion
have assured me that New Holland, before many years have passed, will
herself be able to furnish to the British Navy all the hemp that it
requires, thus freeing England from the considerable tribute that she
pays at present in that regard to the north of Europe.

The climate also appears to be favourable to the cultivation of the vine.
Its latitude, little different from that of the Cape of Good Hope,
combined with its temperature, lead the Government to hope for great
advantages from the introduction of this plant to the continent of New
Holland. Furthermore, French vignerons have been introduced at great
expense to promote this object. It is true that their first attempts have
not been very happy, but the lack of success is due entirely to the
obstinacy of the English Governor, who, in spite of the representations
of these men, compelled them to make their first plantations upon the
side of a small, pleasant terrace forming a kind of semi-circle round
Government House at Parramatta. This was, unfortunately, exposed to the
north-west winds, burning winds like the mistral of Italy and Provence,
the khamsin of Egypt, etc. The French vignerons whom I had occasion to
see at Parramatta, in company with the Lieutenant-Governor, Mr. Paterson,
assured me that they had found a piece of country very favourable to
their new plantations, and that they hoped for the greatest success from
their fresh efforts. Choice plants had been imported from Madeira and the

In all the English establishments on these coasts traces of grand designs
for the future are evident. The mass of the people, being originally
composed of the unfortunate and of wrong-doers, might have propagated
immorality and corruption, if the Government had not taken in good time
means to prevent such a sad result. A house was founded in the early days
of the settlement for the reception of young girls whose parents were too
poor and too constrained in their circumstances at the commencement of
their sojourn there to be able to devote much care to them; while if
parents, when emancipated, so conduct themselves that their example or
their course of life is likely to have an evil effect on their offspring,
the children are taken from them and placed in the home to which I have
referred. There they pursue regular studies; they are taught useful arts
appropriate to their sex; they are instructed in reading, writing,
arithmetic, sewing, etc. Their teachers are chosen with much care, and
the wife of the Governor himself is charged with the supervision of that
honourable establishment, a supervision in which she is assisted by the
wife of the commandant of the troops. Each or both of them visit every
day their young family, as they themselves call it. They neglect nothing
to ensure the maintenance of good conduct, the soundness of the education
and the quality of the provisions. I have several times accompanied these
admirable ladies to the establishment, and have on every occasion been
moved by their anxious solicitude and their touching care.

When these young girls arrive at marriageable age they are not abandoned
by the Government. The following is the sagacious and commendable manner
in which their establishment in life is provided for. Among the free
persons who come to Port Jackson are many men who are not yet married.
The same is the case with some of those who by good conduct have earned
their freedom. When one of those young men wishes to take a worthy wife,
he presents himself to the Governor's wife, who, after having obtained
information concerning his character, permits him to visit her young
flock. If he fixes his choice upon someone, he informs the Governor's
wife, who, after consulting the tastes and inclinations of the young
person, accords or refuses her consent. When a marriage is arranged, the
Government endows the young girl by means of concessions, assigned
servants, etc.; and these unions have already become the nursery of a
considerable number of good and happy homes. It is undoubtedly an
admirable policy, and one which has amply rewarded the English Government
for the sacrifices made to support it.

The defence of the country has not up to the present been very
formidable, and has not needed to be, on account of the ignorance which
prevails in Europe respecting the nature of this colony. The English
Government is at the present moment directing men's minds towards
agriculture. It has not, however, neglected to provide what the physical
condition of the land and the nature of its establishment demand. Two
classes of men are much to be feared at present: first, the criminals,
condemned for the most part to a long servitude, harshly treated,
compelled to the roughest and most fatiguing labour. That infamous class,
the vile refuse of civilised society, always ready to commit new crimes,
needs to be ceaselessly restrained by force and violence. The English
Government therefore maintains a strong police. It is so efficient that
in the midst of that infamous canaille the most perfect security reigns
everywhere, and--what may appear paradoxical to those who do not know the
details of the administration of the colony--fewer robberies are
committed than in a European town of equal population. As to murder, I
have never heard tell of a crime of the kind being committed there, nor,
indeed, did I hear of one occurring since the foundation of the colony.
Nevertheless, the first consideration entails the maintenance of a very
considerable force; and with equal foresight and steadiness the
Government has taken precautions against the efforts of these bandits. A
second class of society, more formidable still (also much more
respectable, but having most to complain about, and the most interesting
class for us), is composed of legions of the unfortunate Irish, whom the
desire of freeing their country from the British yoke caused to arm in
concert with us against the English Government. Overwhelmed by force,
they were treated with pitiless rigour. Nearly all those who took up arms
in our favour were mercilessly transported, and mixed with thieves and
assassins. The first families of Ireland count their friends and
relations upon these coasts of New Holland. Persecuted by that most
implacable of all kinds of hatred, the hatred born of national animosity
and differing convictions, they are cruelly treated, and all the more so
because they are feared. Abandoned to themselves, it is felt, they can do
nothing, and the Government gains several interesting advantages from
their residence in this country. First, a population as numerous as it is
valiant is fixed upon these shores. Secondly, nearly all being condemned
to a servitude more or less long, they provide many strong arms for the
laborious work of clearing. Thirdly, the mixing of so many brave men with
criminals seems to obliterate the character of the settlement and to
provide, by the retention of a crowd of honest men, some sort of a
defence against the opprobrium cast upon it. Fourthly, the Government has
relieved itself in Europe of a number of enraged and daring enemies. At
the same time, one must admit, this policy has its defects. The Irish,
ruled by a sceptre of iron, are quiet to-day. But if ever the Government
of our country, alarmed by the rapidly increasing strength of this
colony, should formulate the project of taking or destroying it, at the
mere mention of the French name every Irish arm would be raised. We had a
very striking example when we first arrived at Port Jackson. Upon the
appearance of the French flag in the harbour the alarm in the country was
general. We were again at war with England. They regarded our second
ship,* (* Note 30: Le Naturaliste.) which had been separated from us and
compelled to seek shelter at Port Jackson, as a French ship of war. At
the name the Irish commenced to flock together. Everywhere they raised
their bowed foreheads, bent under an iron rule; and, if their mistake had
not been so rapidly dispelled, a general rising would have taken place
amongst them. One or two were put to death on that occasion, and several
were deported to Norfolk Island. In any case, that formidable portion of
the population will always compel the English to maintain many troops
upon this continent, until, at all events, time and inter-marriage shall
have cicatrized the recent wounds of the poor Irish and softened their

The Government, however, appears to feel that considerably larger forces
are required than are now available. At the time of our departure the
regiment forming the garrison at Port Jackson did not number more than
800. But some were being continually removed to India, and to replace
them 5000 men were expected. The news of the war must have led to the
changing of these dispositions, because the troops, which were to have
been transported on warships, were drawn from Europe, and probably the
English Government will have been careful not to despatch so considerable
a force to New Holland in the critical situation in which it now finds
itself. Moreover, General, do not believe that so many troops are
indispensable to the security of the coasts of New Holland, but rather
consider the advantages that the English nation is likely to draw from
its establishments in that part of the world. The climate of India,
inimical to newcomers from Europe, is still more so to these British
regiments, drawn from the frosty counties of the north of England and
from the icy realms of Scotland. A considerable loss of men results from
their almost immediate transportation to the burning plains of India.
Forced to look after a population which has little affinity with its
immense possessions in both hemispheres, England has always set an
example of great sacrifices for all that can tend to the conservation of
the health of its people. The new colony of Port Jackson will serve in
the future as a depot for troops destined for India. Actually the whole
of the territory occupied up to the present is extremely salubrious. Not
a single malady endemic to the country has yet been experienced. The
whole population enjoys the best of health. The children especially are
handsome and vigorous, though the temperature at certain times is very
high. We ourselves experienced towards the close of our visit very hot
weather, though we were there in the months of Fructidor, Vendemiaire and
Brumaire* (* Note 31: From Fructidor to Brumaire would be from September
22nd to December 20th.) nearly corresponding to our European spring. The
temperature of New Holland, rather more than a mean between those of
England and India, ought to be valuable in preparing for the latter
country that large body of soldiers which the Government despatches every
year to Bengal, the Coromandel coast, Malabar, etc., etc. Consequently
the loss of men will be much less, and you will easily realise the
advantage that will accrue to a power like England, when it contemplates
the invasion, with a mediocre population, of archipelagos, islands, and
even continents.

NOTE: This portion of New Holland appears to owe its salubriousness:--

(1) To a situation resembling that of the Cape of Good Hope (Port Jackson
is in about latitude 34 degrees).

(2) To the nature of the soil, which is very dry, especially round

(3) To the nature of the vegetation, which is not vigorous enough to
maintain a noxious stagnation in the lower strata of the atmosphere;

(4) To the great, or rather enormous, quantity of aromatic plants which
constitute the principal part of the vegetation, including even the
largest species;

(5) To the vicinity of the Blue Mountains, the elevation of which
contributes largely to maintain a certain salutary freshness in the

(6) To the remarkable constancy of the light fresh breezes which blow
from the south-east towards the middle of the day.

I have not yet finished the account of the important advantages that
England draws from this colony. If time were not so pressing and if I had
at my disposal the abundant material consigned to our Government, I could
write more. I venture to sum up those considerations to which I have
referred, in a form which will be useful for determining your opinion
upon this important and rising colony.

(1) By means of it England founds an empire which will extend over the
continent of New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, all the islands of Bass
Strait, New Zealand, and the numerous archipelagos of the Pacific Ocean.

(2) She thereby becomes the mistress of a large number of superb ports,
several of which can be compared with advantage to the most fortunately
situated harbours in other parts of the world.

(3) She thereby excludes her rivals, and, so to speak, blocks all the
nations of Europe from entry to the Pacific.

(4) Having become the neighbour of Peru and Chili, she casts towards
those countries hopes increasingly assured and greedy.

(5) Her privateers and her fleets in time of war will be able to
devastate the coasts of South America; and, if in the last war she
attempted no such enterprise, the reason appears to be that her astute
policy made her fear to do too much to open the eyes of Spain, and even
of all Europe.

(6) In time of peace, by means of an active contraband trade, she
prepares redoubtable enemies for the Spaniards; she furnishes arms and
ammunition of all kinds to that horde of untamed people who have not yet
been subjugated to the European yoke.

(7) By the same means she enables the products of her manufacturers to
inundate South America, which is shabbily and above all expensively
supplied by Spain.

(8) If amongst the numerous archipelagos that are visited constantly some
formidable military position is found, England will occupy it and,
becoming a nearer neighbour to the rich Spanish possessions, will menace
them more closely, more certainly, and above all more impatiently. Mr.
Flinders, in an expedition of discovery which is calculated to last five
years, and who doubtless at the present moment is traversing the region
under discussion, appears to have that object particularly in view.* (*
Note 32: "M. Flinders, dans une expedition de decouverte qui doit durer
cinq ans, et qui sans doute parcourt en ce moment le theatre qui nous
occupe, paroit avoir plus particulierement cette objet en vue." The
passage is peculiarly interesting. At the time when Peron was writing,
early in December, 1803, Flinders was, as a matter of fact, sailing
towards Ile-de-France in the Cumberland.)

(9) The extraordinarily lucrative whale fishery of New Zealand is
EXCLUSIVELY* (* Note 33: Underlined in original.) assured to them. No
European nation can henceforth, according to the general opinion, compete
with them for that object.

(10) The fishery, no less lucrative, of the enormous seals which cover
the shores of several of the islands of Bass Strait, and from which is
drawn an oil infinitely superior to whale oil, guarantees them yet
another source of greatness and of wealth. Note: the seals in question,
distinguished by the English under the name of sea elephants, are
sometimes 25 or 30 feet long. They attain the bulk of a large cask: and
the enormous mass of the animal seems, so to say, to be composed of
solid, or rather coagulated, oil. The quantity extracted from one seal is
prodigious. I have collected many particulars on this subject.

(11) A third fishery, even more lucrative and important, is that of the
skins of various varieties of seal which inhabit most of the islands of
Bass Strait, all the Furneaux Islands, all the islands off the eastern
coast of Van Diemen's Land, and all those on the south-west coast of New
Holland, and which probably will be found upon the archipelagos of the
eastern portion of this vast continent. The skins of these various
species of seal are much desired in China. The sale of a shipload of
these goods in that country is as rapid as it is lucrative. The ships
engaged in the business are laden on their return to Europe with that
precious merchandise of China which gold alone can extract from the
clutch of its rapacious possessors. Accordingly, one of the most
important objects of the mission of Lord Macartney* to China, (* Note 34:
Lord Macartney's embassy to China, 1792 to 1794, was, says the Cambridge
Modern History (2 718), "productive only of a somewhat better
acquaintance between the two Powers and an increased knowledge on the
part of British sailors of the navigation of Chinese waters.") that of
developing in that country a demand for some of the economic and
manufacturing products of England, so as to relieve that country of the
necessity of sending out such a mass of specie--that interesting object
which all the ostentatious display of the commercial wealth of Europe had
not been able to attain, and all the astute diplomacy of Lord Macartney
had failed to achieve--the English have recently accomplished. Masters of
the trade in these kinds of skin, they are about to become masters of the
China trade. The coin accumulated in the coffers of the Government or of
private people will no longer be sunk in the provinces of China. That
advantage is incontestably one of the greatest that they have derived
from their establishment at Port Jackson.

(12) This augmentation of distant possessions is likely to occasion a
fresh development in the British Navy. The practice of voyaging round the
world should exalt the enthusiasm of their sailors, whilst it increases
their number and efficiency. I may add here that to attain the
last-mentioned end the English Government compels each ship which sails
for these regions, and above all for New Zealand, to carry a certain
number of young men below 19 years of age, who return from these voyages
only after having obtained a very valuable endowment of experience.

(13) The temperature and salubriousness of the country will enable it to
look after a very large number of soldiers who used to be incapacitated
every year by the burning heat of Asia.

(14) The abundance of the flocks, and the superiority of their wool, will
furnish an immense quantity of excellent material to the national
manufactures, already superior to those of the rest of Europe.

(15) The cultivation of hemp and vines gives cause to the English to hope
that before very long they will be freed from the large tribute which
they now pay for the first-named to all the Powers of the north of
Europe, and for the second to Portugal, France and Spain.

(16) I will not discuss with you some substances indigenous to the
country which are already in use, whether in medicine, or in the arts--of
eucalyptus gum, for example, which is at once astringent and tonic to a
very high degree, and is likely soon to become one of our most energetic
drugs. Nor will I say much about the resin furnished by the tree which
the English mis-name gourmier,* (* Note 35: Peron's word.) a resin which
by reason of its hardness may become of very great value in the arts. It
will be sufficient to say, General, that I possess a native axe obtained
from the aboriginals of King George's Sound. It is nothing better than a
chip of very hard granite fastened to the end of a piece of wood, which
serves as a handle, by means of the resin to which I have referred. I
have shown it to several persons. It will rapidly split a wooden plank
and one can strike with all one's force, without in the least degree
injuring the resin. Though the edge of the stone has several times been
chipped, the resin always remained intact. I will say little of the fine
and abundant timber furnished by what is called the casuarina tree, and
by what the English improperly call the pear. This pear is what the
botanists term Xylomelum, and by reason of its extremely beautiful and
deep grain, and the fine polish which it is susceptible of receiving, it
appears to be superior to some of the best known woods. I will not refer
at length to the famous flax of New Zealand, which may become the subject
of a large trade when its preparation is made easier; nor to cotton,
which is being naturalised; nor to coffee, of which I myself have seen
the first plantations, etc., etc. All these commodities are secondary in
importance in comparison with others to which I have referred; yet,
considered together, they will add greatly to the importance of this new
colony. Similarly, I will pass over the diverse products which are sure
to be furnished by the prolific archipelagos, and of which several are
likely to become of great value and to fetch high prices for use in the
arts and in medicine. For example, the cargo of the last vessel that
arrived in Port Jackson from the Navigator Islands, during our stay,
consisted partly of cordage of different degrees of thickness, made from
a plant peculiar to those islands, the nature of which is such that, we
were assured, it is almost indestructible by water and the humidity of
the atmosphere; whilst its toughness makes it superior to ordinary

(17) The English hope for much from mineral discoveries. Those parts of
the country lying nearest to the sea, which are of a sandstone or slaty
formation, appear to contain only deposits of excellent coal; but the
entire range of the Blue Mountains has not yet been explored for
minerals. The colony had not up to the time of our visit a mineralogist
in its service, but the Governor hoped soon to obtain the services of
one, to commence making investigations; and the nature of the country,
combined with its extent, affords ground for strong hope in that regard.

(18) There are, finally, other advantages, apparently less interesting,
but which do not fail to exert an influence upon the character and
prestige of a nation. I refer to the conspicuous glory which geographical
discoveries necessarily following upon such an establishment as this
bring upon a nation's name; to all that which accrues to a people from
the discovery and collection of so many new and valuable things; to the
distinguished services which new countries call forth and which confer so
much distinction upon those who watch over their birth.

Time does not permit me to pursue the enquiry. I wish only to add here
one fresh proof of the importance which England attaches to this new
colony. When we left Port Jackson, the authorities were awaiting the
arrival of five or six large vessels laden with the goods of English
persons formerly domiciled at the Cape of Good Hope, whom the surrender
of that possession to the Dutch had compelled to leave.* (* Note 36: The
Cape was surrendered to Holland in 1803, but British rule was restored
there in 1806.) That very great accession of population ought
sufficiently to indicate to you how great are the projects of the British
Ministry in that region.

Before concluding I should have liked to point out the impossibility, for
France, of retarding the rapid progress of the establishment at Port
Jackson, or of entering into competition with its settlers in the trade
in sealskins, the whale fishery, etc. But it would take rather too long
to discuss that matter. I think I ought to confine myself to telling you
that my opinion, and that of all those among us who have more
particularly occupied themselves with enquiring into the organization of
that colony, is that it should be destroyed as soon as possible.* (* Note
37: Mon sentiment et celui de tous ceux d'entre nous qui se sont plus
particulierement occupes de l'organisation de cette colonie seroit de la
detruire le plus tot possible.") To-day we could destroy it easily; we
shall not be able to do so in 25 years' time.

I have the honour to be, with respectful devotion,

Your very humble servant,


P.S. M. Freycinet, the young officer, has especially concerned himself
with examining all the points upon the coast of the environs of Port
Jackson which are favourable to the landing of troops. He has collected
particular information concerning the entrance to the port; and, if ever
the Government should think of putting into execution the project of
destroying this freshly-set trap of a great Power,* that distinguished
officer would be of valuable assistance in such an operation. (* Note 38:
"Le projet de detruire ce piege naissant d'une grande puissance." )


Among the Flinders Papers is a list of names given by Flinders to points
on the Australian coast, with his reasons for doing so. The list is
incomplete, but has served as the basis of the following catalogue, for
help in the enlargement of which I am greatly indebted to Mr. Walter


Hat Hill, named by Flinders from Cook's suggestion that it "looked like
the crown of a hat."
Red Point.
Martin's Isles, after the boy who accompanied them.
Providential Cove (native name, Wattamowlee).


Green Cape.
Cape Barren Island.
Clarke Island, Hamilton's Rocks, after members of the crew of the Sydney
Kent's Group, after the Captain of the Supply.
Armstrong's Channel, after the Master of the Supply.
Preservation Island.


Chappell Islands, after Miss Ann Chappell.
Settlement Island, Babel Islands (from the noises made by the sea-birds),
and other names in the Furneaux Group.
Double Sandy Point.
Low Head.
Table Cape.
Circular Head.
Hunter Islands, after Governor Hunter.
Three-Hummock Island.
Barren Island.
Cape Grim.
Trefoil Island.
Albatross Island.
Mount Heemskirk and Mount Zeehan, after Tasman's ships.
Point Hibbs, after the Master of the Norfolk.
Rocky Point.
Mount de Witt.
Point St. Vincent, after the First Lord of the Admiralty.
Norfolk Bay and Mount.
Cape Pillar.
After the voyage was over, Hunter, apparently at Flinders' suggestion,
named Cape Portland, Bass Strait, Port Dalrymple and Waterhouse Island.


Shoal Bay.
Sugarloaf Point.
Pumice-stone River.
Point Skirmish.
Moreton Island.
Curlew Inlet.


Cape Leeuwin, "the most projecting part of Leeuwin's Land."
Mount Manypeak.
Haul-off Rock.
Cape Knob.
Mount Barren.
Lucky Bay, discovered when the ship was in an awkward position.
Goose Island.
Twin Peaks Islands.
Cape Pasley, after Admiral Pasley.
Point Malcolm, after Captain Pulteney Malcolm.
Point Culver.
Point Dover.


Nuyts' Reefs and Cape.
Fowler's Bay and Point, after the First Lieutenant of the Investigator.
Point Sinclair, after a midshipman on the Investigator.
Point Bell, after the surgeon of the Investigator.
Purdie's Islands, after the Assistant-surgeon of the Investigator.
St. Francis Islands, adapted from the name given by Nuyts.
Lound's Island, Lacy's Island, Evans' Island, Franklin's Island (in
Nuyts' Archipelago), after midshipmen on the Investigator.
Petrel Bay.
Denial Bay, "as well in allusion to St. Peter as to the deceptive hope we
had found of penetrating by it some distance into the interior country."
Smoky Bay, from the number of smoke columns rising from the shore.
Point Brown, after the Botanist of the Investigator.
Streaky Bay, "much seaweed floating about."
Cape Bauer, after the Botanical Draftsman of the Investigator.
Point Westall, after the painter.
Olive Island, after the ship's clerk.
Cape Radstock, after Admiral Lord Radstock.
Waldegrave Isles.
Topgallant Isles.
Anxious Bay, "from the night we passed in it."
Investigator Group.
Pearson's Island, after Flinders' brother-in-law.
Ward's Island, after his mother's maiden name.
Flinders' Island, after Lieutenant S.W. Flinders.
Cape (now Point) Drummond, after Captain Adam Drummond, R.N.
Point Sir Isaac, Coffin's Bay, after Vice-Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin.
Mount Greenly, Greenly Isles, after the lady to whom Sir Isaac Coffin was
Point Whidbey, Whidbey's Islands, after "My worthy friend the
Master-attendant at Sheerness."
Avoid Bay and Point, "from its being exposed to the dangerous southern
Liguanea Island, after an estate in Jamaica.
Cape Wiles, after the Botanist on the Providence.
Williams' Isle.
Sleaford Bay, from Sleaford in Lincolnshire.
Thistle Island, after the Master of the Investigator.
Neptune Isles, "for they seemed inaccessible to men."
Thorny Passage, from the dangerous rocks.
Cape Catastrophe, where the accident occurred.
Taylor's Island, after a midshipman drowned in the accident.
Wedge Island, "from its shape."
Gambier Isles, after Admiral Lord Gambier.
Memory Cove, in memory of the accident.
Cape Donington, after Flinders' birthplace.
Port Lincoln, after the chief town in Flinders' native county.
Boston Island, Bay and Point, Bicker Island, Surfleet Point, Stamford
Hill, Spalding Cove, Grantham Island, Kirton Point, Point Bolingbroke,
Louth Bay and Isle, Sleaford Mere, Lusby Isle, Langton Isle, Kirkby Isle,
Winceby Isle, Sibsey Isle, Tumby Isle, Stickney Isle, Hareby Isle. All
Lincolnshire names, after places familiar to Flinders.
Dalby Isle, after the Rev. M. Tyler's parish.
Marum Isle, after the residence of Mr. Stephenson, Sir Joseph Banks'
Spilsby Island, after the town where the Franklins lived.
Partney Isles, after the place where Miss Chappell lived, and where
Flinders was married.
Revesby Isle, after Revesby Abbey, Banks' Lincolnshire seat.
Northside Hill.
Elbow Hill, from its shape.
Barn Hill, from the form of its top.
Mount Young, after Admiral Young.
Point Lowly.
Mount Brown, after the botanist.
Mount Arden, Flinders' great-grandmother's name.
Point Riley, after an Admiralty official.
Point Pearce, after an Admiralty official.
Corny Point, "a remarkable point."
Hardwicke Bay, after Lord Hardwicke.
Spencer's Gulf and Cape, after Earl Spencer.
Althorp Isles, after Lord Spencer's eldest son.
Kangaroo Island and Head.
Point Marsden, after the Second Secretary to the Admiralty.
Nepean Bay, after Sir Evan Nepean, Secretary to the Admiralty.
Mount Lofty, from its height.
St. Vincent's Gulf, after Admiral Lord St. Vincent.
Cape Jervis, Lord St. Vincent's family name.
Troubridge Hill, after Admiral Troubridge.
Investigator Strait.
Yorke's Peninsula, after the Honourable C.P. Yorke.
Prospect Hill.
Pelican Lagoon.
Backstairs Passage.
Antechamber Bay.
Cape Willoughby.
Pages Islets.
Encounter Bay.


Point Franklin.
Indented Head (Port Phillip).
Station Peak (Port Phillip).


Tacking Point.
Mount Larcom, after Captain Larcom, R.N.
Gatcombe Head.
Port Curtis, after Admiral Sir Roger Curtis.
Facing Island, the eastern boundary of Port Curtis, facing the sea.
Port Bowen, after Captain James Bowen, R.N., Naval Commandant at Madeira
when the Investigator put in there.
Cape Clinton, after Colonel Clinton of the 85th Regiment, Commandant at
Entrance Island.
Westwater Head.
Eastwater Hill.
Mount Westall, after William Westall the artist.
Townshend Island--Cook had so named the Cape which is its prominent
Leicester Island.
Aken's Island, after the Master of the Investigator.
Strongtide Passage.
Double Mount.
Mount Funnel, from its form.
Upper Head.
Percy Isles, after the Northumberland family.
Eastern Fields, coral banks near Torres Strait.
Pandora's Entrance, after the Pandora.
Half-way Island, convenient anchorage for ships going through Tortes
Good Island, after Peter Good, the botanist.

VOYAGE OF THE INVESTIGATOR (in the Gulf of Carpentaria):

Duyfken Point, after the first vessel which entered the Gulf of
Pera Head, after the second vessel that sailed along this coast in 1623.
Sweers Island, after a member of the Batavia Council in Tasman's time.
Inspection Hill.
Lord William Bentinck's Island (now Bentinck Island), after the Governor
of Madras.
Allen's Island, after the "Miner"--i.e., Geologist--of the Investigator.
Horseshoe Island.
Investigator Road.
Pisonia Isle, from the soft white wood of the Pisonia tree found upon it.
Bountiful Island.
Wellesley Island, Mornington Isle--After the Marquess Wellesley,
Governor-General of India, whose earlier title was Lord Mornington.


Vanderlin Island, the Dutch "Cape Vanderlin."
Sir Edward Pellew Group, Cape Pellew, after Admiral Pellew.
Craggy Isles.
West Island.
North Island.
Centre Island.
Observation Island.
Cabbage-Tree Cove.
Maria Island, the Dutch "Cape Maria."
Bickerton Island, after Admiral Sir Richard Bickerton.
Cape Barrow, after Sir John Barrow.
Connexion Island.
North Point Island.
Chasm Island, "the upper parts are intersected by many deep chasms."
North-West Bay.
Winchelsea Island, after the Earl of Winchelsea.
Finch's Island, after the Winchelsea family name.
Pandanus Hill, from the clump of trees upon it.
Burney Island, after Captain James Burney, R.N.
Nicol Island, after "His Majesty's bookseller."
Woodah Island, "it having some resemblance to the whaddie, or woodah, a
wooden sword used by the natives of Port Jackson."
Bustard Isles--They "harboured several bustards."
Mount Grindall, Point Grindall, after Vice-Admiral Grindall.
Morgan's Isle, after a seaman who died there.
Bluemud Bay, "in most parts of the bay is a blue mud of so fine a quality
that I judge it might be useful in the manufacture of earthenware."
Point Blane, after Sir Gilbert Blane of the Naval Medical Board.
Cape Shield, after Commissioner Shield.
Cape Grey, after General Grey, Commandant at Capetown.
Point Middle.
Mount Alexander.
Point Alexander.
Round Hill Island.
Caledon Bay, after the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Arnhem, extremity of Arnhem's Land.
Mount Saunders.
Mount Dundas, Melville Isles--After Dundas, Viscount Melville, a
colleague of the younger Pitt.
Mount Bonner.
Drimmie Head.
Cape Wilberforce, after W. Wilberforce, M.P., the slave-emancipator, who
was a friend of Flinders.
Melville Bay, after Viscount Melville.
Harbour Rock.
Point Dundas.
Bromby Islands, after the Reverend F. Bromby, of Hull, a cousin of Mrs.
Malay Road.
Pombasso's Island, after the chief of the Malay praus.
Cotton's Island, after Captain Cotton of the East India Company's
English Company Islands, after the East India Company.
Wigram Island.
Truant Island, "from its lying away from the rest."
Inglis Island.
Bosanquet Island.
Astell Island.
Mallison Island.
Point Arrowsmith, after the map-publisher.
Cape Newbald, Newbald Island--After Henrietta Newbald, nee Flinders, who
introduced him to Pasley.
Arnhem Bay.
Wessell Islands, name found on a Dutch chart.
Point Dale.
Wreck Reef.



1. The Flinders Papers, in the Melbourne Public Library, consisting of a
letter-book of Flinders (August 31, 1807, to May 31, 1814); manuscript
narrative of the voyage of the Francis; miscellaneous notes and memoranda
by friends and relatives, a short manuscript memoir, and a large quantity
of transcripts of journals, family letters, etc. This material is not at
present numbered, and allusions to it in the text of the book are
therefore made by the general reference, "Flinders Papers."

2. Decaen Papers, in the Municipal Library of Caen, Normandy. General
Decaen's manuscripts fill 149 volumes. The documents relating to
Flinders, including a translation of portions of the Cumberland's log,
are principally in volumes 10, 84, 92, and 105. Peron's important report
upon the British colony at Port Jackson is also in this collection, which
includes many original letters of Flinders.

3. Archives Nationales, Paris, Marine BB4, 996 to 999, contains a
quantity of manuscripts relative to Baudin's expeditions, including
reports and letters by him, and many miscellaneous papers.

4. The Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, nouveaux acquisitions, France,
contains many documents relative to Baudin's expedition, including the
diary of the commander.

5. The Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris contain reports
and documents concerning the scientific work of Baudin's expedition.

6. The Depot de la Marine, service hydrographique, Paris, cartons 6, 22,
and 23, contains many reports upon the Australian coast made to Captain
Baudin by his officers.

7. The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute, London, contains
Westall's original drawings executed on the Investigator voyage.
Photographed copies are in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.

8. The Mitchell Library, Sydney, contains Smith's manuscript journal of
the Investigator voyage, and many Flinders and Franklin papers, as cited
in the text.


Most of the Flinders material contained in the Record Office, London, and
the British Museum, is printed in Volumes 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the
Historical Records of New South Wales, edited by F.M. Bladen (Sydney,
1893 to 1901). Copies of other letters and documents, mainly from the
same source, are in course of publication by the Commonwealth Government,
under the direction of the Commonwealth Library Committee, edited by Dr.
F. Watson.


FLINDERS, MATTHEW, A Voyage to Terra Australis, 2 volumes, London, 1814.
The principal authority for the voyages of the navigator.

FLINDERS, M., Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, etc.,
London, 1801.

FLINDERS, M., Papers on the Marine Barometer and on Variations of the
Mariner's Compass, printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society, London, 1806 and 1807.

FLINDERS, MATTHEW, Reise nach dem Austral-Lande, in der Absicht die
Entdeckung desselben zu vollenden unter nommen in den Jaksen, 1801, 1802
and 1803. Aus dem Englischen, von F. Gotze. Weimar, 1816. A German
translation of the Voyage to Terra Australis. An accompanying map is of
great interest, as it essays for the first time to indicate by colours
the portions of the Australian coast discovered by the English, the Dutch
and the French. The map errs with regard to Kangaroo Island, in
attributing the discovery of the north to the French and the south to the
English. The reverse was the case.

MATTHEW FLINDERS, Ontdekkings-reis naar het Groote Zuidland anders Nieuw
Holland; besigtiging van het zelve in 1801, 1802 en 1803; noodlottige
schipbreak, en gevangenschap van 6 1/2 jaar by de Franschen op Mauritius.
Uit het Engelsch. 4 volumes, Haarlem, 1815 and 1816. A Dutch translation
of the Voyage to Terra Australis.


BARROW, SIR JOHN, articles in Quarterly Review, 1810 and 1817, strongly
condemning the work of Peron and Freycinet (see below), and championing
the cause of Flinders. Barrow had access to material in possession of the
Admiralty, sent to England from Mauritius by Flinders.

BECKE, L., and JEFFERY, W., Naval Pioneers of Australia, London, 1899.
Very useful.

DALRYMPLE, ALEXANDER, Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South
Pacific Ocean, 2 volumes, London, 1770.

EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1807, reviews with commendation Flinders' "Observations
upon the Marine Barometer."

GRANT, Narrative of a Voyage of Discovery, London, 1803.

LABILLIERE, F.P., Early History of the Colony of Victoria, 2 volumes,
London, 1878 to 1879. Prints extracts from Flinders' manuscript journals
relating to Port Phillip.

LAUGHTON, SIR J.K., article on Flinders in Dictionary of National

MAIDEN, J.H., Sir Joseph Banks, the Father of Australia, Sydney, 1909.

FOWLER, T.W., "The Work of Captain Matthew Flinders in Port Phillip,"
Victorian Geographical Journal, 1912. Good topographical account.

MALTE-BRUN, Annales des Voyages, 1810 and 1814. Interesting references to
Flinders; biographical sketch in Volume 23, 268.

Naval Chronicle, Volume 32 (1814), contains a biography of Flinders, with

PATERSON, G., History of New South Wales, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1811.
Contains account of the early discoveries of Bass and Flinders.

PERON and FREYCINET, Voyage de decouvertes aux Terres Australes, Paris,
1807 to 1817. Second edition, with additions by Freycinet, 1824. Very
important, but the historical statements have to be checked by reference
to Baudin's manuscript diary and letters (see reference to manuscripts

SCORESBY, W., Journal of a Voyage to Australia for Magnetic Research, 2
volumes, London, 1859. The introduction by A. Smith deals with Flinders'
discoveries regarding variations of the compass.

SCOTT, ERNEST, Terre Napoleon, London, 1910. Deals generally with French
explorations in Australia and particularly with the work of Baudin and
Flinders. See also the bibliography to that book.

SCOTT, ERNEST, English and French Navigators on the Victorian Coast, with
maps, etc., in the Victorian Historical Magazine, 1912.

SCOTT, ERNEST, "Baudin's Voyage of Exploration to Australia," in English
Historical Review, April, 1913.

SMITH, E., Life of Sir Joseph Banks, London, 1911.

South Australian Geographical Society's Proceedings, 1912. Prints from
Baudin's letter to Minister of Marine his account of the meeting with
Flinders in Encounter Bay, and Decaen's statement of his reasons for
detaining Flinders.

PICARD, ERNEST (editor), Memoires et Journaux du General Decaen, 2
volumes, Paris, 1911.

PITOT, ALBERT, Esquisses historiques de l'Ile de France, 1715 to 1810,
Port Louis, Mauritius, 1899.

PRENTOUT, HENRI, L'Ile de France sous Decaen, Paris. 1901. Very

Victorian Geographical Journal, Volume 28 (1910 and 1911) prints a
biographical sketch of Flinders from a manuscript found in a copy of A
Voyage to Terra Australis in Donington vicarage in 1903. It is printed
with an Introduction (by G. Gordon McCrae) wherein it is stated to be
"hitherto unpublished." But it is simply the Naval Chronicle sketch, with
a few paragraphs added, and it is from the same pen as the manuscript
sketch mentioned above.

WALCKENAER, C.A., biography of Flinders in the Biographie Universelle,
Volume 14; excellent.

WALKER, J. BACKHOUSE, Early Tasmania, Hobart, 1902. Gives an admirable
account of Flinders' explorations in Tasmania.


Aboriginals, references to.

Admiralty's treatment of Flinders.

Aken, John.
Sails in Cumberland.
At Ile-de-France.
Departure of.

Albatross Island.

Allen, John, miner, joins Investigator.

Althorp Isles.

Amiens, treaty of.

Arnhem Bay.

Arthur's Seat, Port Phillip.

Australasia, name of.

Australia, discovery of.
Name of.
Geography of, before Flinders.
Theories concerning.
French expedition to.
South Coast discovery.
Influence of Flinders on discovery.
Circumnavigation of.

"Australians," Flinders' use of word.

Babel Isles.

Backstairs Passage.

Banks, Cape.

Banks' Group.

Banks, Sir Joseph, promotes breadfruit expedition.
His friendship for Flinders.
His interest in Australian development.
Dedication of Flinders' Observations to.
His letters concerning Mrs. Flinders' proposed voyage on Investigator.
Disapproves of Flinders' conduct towards Decaen.
His dislike to word Australia.

Barmouth Creek.

Barois, Colonel.

Barometer, marine, Flinders' paper on use of.

Barrow, Sir John, his article on Flinders' case.

Bass, Elizabeth, her marriage to George Bass.
Letters from her husband.

Bass, George, family of.
Medical training of.
Sails in Reliance.
Character of.
Friendship with Flinders.
Discovery of Bass Strait.
Exploration of Blue Mountains.
Discovery of coal.
Plans discovery voyage.
Whaleboat crew.
Discovery of Twofold Bay.
Discovery of Wilson's Promontory.
Adventure with escaped convicts.
Discovery of Western Port.
French admiration for.
Report on Derwent.
Fate of.
Indifference to fame.
Marriage of.
Purchase of Venus.
Voyage to Tahiti.
New Zealand fishing project.
South American projects.
Reports concerning his end.
Letters to his mother.
Flinders' last letter to.
See also Flinders.

Bass Strait, discovery of.
Governor Hunter on.
Naming of.
Importance of discovery.
Flinders' chart of.

Baudin des Ardennes, Lieutenant Charles, wounded, and visited by

Baudin, Captain Nicolas, his expedition to Australia.
Instructions to.
His career.
Reaches Ile-de-France.
Sails for Southern Tasmania.
At Waterhouse Island.
In Encounter Bay.
At Kangaroo Island.
At Port Jackson.
Rumours of intended French settlement.
Letter to Governor King.
Report on Port Jackson.
His account of the Encounter Bay meeting.

Bauer, Cape.

Bauer, Ferdinand, botanical draftsman, joins Investigator.

Baye du Cap.


Bell, Point.

Bellerophon, H.M.S.
Flinders appointed to.
Battle off Brest.

Bennelong Point.

Bergeret, Captain.

Blaxland, Gregory, his exploration of Blue Mountains.

Bligh, Captain William, voyage under Captain Cook.
Command of the Bounty.
Mutiny of the Bounty.
Character of.
Second breadfruit expedition.
Expedition reaches Tahiti, Voyage from Pacific to West Indies.
Introduces Flinders to Duke of Clarence.
Asks for dedication of Flinders' book.

Blue Mountains, exploration of.

Blue Mud Bay.

Bolger, Commandant.

Bongaree, aboriginal, accompanies Flinders on Queensland voyage.
On Investigator.

Boston, Point.

Botany Bay.


Boullanger, hydrographer on Le Geographe.

Bounty, H.M.S., voyage to Tahiti.
Mutiny of.

Bowling Green, Cape.


Behaviour at Wreck Reef.
Wreck of.

Bridgewater, Cape.

Brisbane River.

Brouwer, Henrick, his new route to Java.

Brown, Point.

Brown, Robert, botanist.
Joins Investigator.
His Prodromus.

Burney, Captain, and name Australia.

Cape of Good Hope, Flinders at.
Importance of to Australia.
Voyage of Reliance to from Sydney.

Carpentaria, Gulf of.

Catastrophe, Cape.

Wreck of.

Cattle Point.

Chappell, Ann, see Flinders, Mrs. Ann.

Chappell Isles.

Chappell, Mount.

Clarence River.

Clarke's Island.

Coal, discovery of in New South Wales.


Coffin's Bay.

Compass, variations of, Flinders' experiments.

Isaac Nichols.
Irish, Peron on.
On Investigator.

Cook, Captain James, his voyage.
His belief in a strait between New Holland and Van Diemen's land.
Pension to his widow.

Coral reefs, Flinders on.

Crossley, J.

Cumberland, schooner, voyage to Ile-de-France.
At Kupang.
Arrival at Ile-de-France.
Enters Port Louis.
End of.

Dalrymple, Alexander, naval hydrographer.
His use of word Australia.

Dalrymple, Port.

Dampier, William.

Dance, Commodore Nathaniel.

D'Arifat, Madame.

Darwin, on coral reefs.

Decaen, General Charles.
Career of.
Napoleon's opinion of.
Sent to India.
Arrival at Pondicherry.
Sails for Ile-de-France.
Arrival at Port Louis.
Character of.
Examination of Flinders.
Interrogates Flinders.
Invites Flinders to dinner.
Flinders' refusal.
Accuses Flinders of impertinence.
His intentions.
Report to French Government.
Motives for detaining Flinders.
Anger against Flinders.
Despatch arrives in France.
Flinders' opinion of.
Receives order for Flinders' release.
Refuses to liberate Flinders.
His reasons.
Release of Flinders.

Decres, French Minister of Marine.


Derwent, estuary of the.

Dirk Hartog Island.

Donington, birthplace of Flinders.
Flinders' monument at.
Free school.
The Flinders' house.

Donington, Cape.

Dunienville, Major.

Dutch navigators, discoveries in Australia.

East India Company, its interest in Australia.
Interest in Investigator voyage.

Elder, John, Flinders' servant.
Sails in Cumberland.
At Ile-de-France.

Encounter Bay.
Flinders and Baudin in.

Everard, Cape.

Fitzroy, Sir Charles.

Fleurieu, Comte de, prepares instructions for French discovery voyages.

Flinders, John, naval career.

Flinders, Matthew, surgeon, father of the navigator.
Marriage into Franklin family.
Death of.

Flinders, Matthew, genealogy.
School days.
Study of Robinson Crusoe.
Anecdotes of childhood.
Desire to go to sea.
Advice of Uncle.
Study of navigation.
Introduction to Admiral Pasley.
Anecdote of visit to Pasley.
On the Scipio.
On the Bellerophon.
On the Dictator.
Midshipman on Providence.
Description of Teneriffe.
Description of Dutch at the Cape.
In Torres Strait.
Return to Europe.
Aide-de-camp on Bellerophon.
First experience of war.
Anecdote of battle.
His journal of the engagement.
Estimate of French seamen.
Appointed to Reliance.
Careful record of observations.
Arrival at Port Jackson.
Friendship with Bass.
Exploration of George's River.
Voyages in Tom Thumb.
Adventure with aboriginals.
Voyage on Francis.
Discovery of Kent Group.
Biological notes.
On the sooty petrel.
Description of wombat.
Voyage to Norfolk Island.
Exploration projects.
Voyage of Norfolk.
Character as an author.
Discovery of Bass Strait.
Circumnavigation of Tasmania.
Description of Tasmanian mountains.
Banks' friendship for.
On Queensland coast.
Adventures with Queensland aboriginals.
Return to England.
Marriage of.
His Observations.
Naming of Mount Chappell.
Letters to his wife.
Suggests new discovery voyage.
Instructions for voyage.
Passport from French Government.
Correspondence concerning Mrs. Flinders' proposed voyage in Investigator.
Reports sandbank at the Roar.
Management of crew.
On Australian coast.
Method of research.
Coastal names given by.
On the character of John Thistle.
Exploration of Spencer's Gulf.
Discovery of Kangaroo Island.
Discovery of St. Vincent's Gulf.
In Encounter Bay.
In Port Phillip.
At King Island.
Description of Port Phillip entrance.
Influence on Australian discovery.
Departure from Port Phillip.
Arrival at Port Jackson.
On Francois Peron.
Circumnavigation of Australia.
On coral reefs.
Forced to return to Port Jackson.
Death of father.
Last letter to Bass.
Sails in Porpoise.
Observations on Sydney.
Wrecked on Porpoise.
Sails for Port Jackson in Hope.
Arrives at Port Jackson.
Arrival at Wreck Reef.
Arrival at Kupang.
Decides to sail for Ile-de-France.
Sights Ile-de-France.
Appears before Decaen.
Seizure of his papers.
Interrogated by Decaen.
Invited to dinner by Decaen.
His refusal.
Accused of impertinence.
Carries despatches for Governor King.
Letters to Decaen.
Obtains books and papers.
Prolongation of captivity.
Occupations in Garden Prison.
Opinion of Decaen.
Solicits examination by French officers.
Refuses to surrender his sword.
Removal to Wilhelm's Plains.
Life at Wilhelm's Plains.
Works on his Voyage.
Paper on marine barometer.
Treatment by Admiralty.
Release ordered.
Decaen refuses release.
Knowledge of weakness of Ile-de-France.
Allegations as to taking soundings.
Possibilities of escape.
Arrival in England.
Receipt for books, papers, etc.
Interest in French prisoners of war.
Honoured in London.
Evidence before House of Commons Committee.
Works at his Voyage and charts.
Illness of.
Death of.
Place of burial.
Visit to wounded French officer.
Advice to young officers.
As a navigator.
Naming of Australia.

Flinders, Mrs. Ann, marriage to Matthew Flinders.
Flinders' letters to.
Proposed voyage in Investigator.
On Admiralty's treatment of Flinders.
Meets Flinders on his return.
Pension voted by Australian colonies.

Flinders, S.W., joins Investigator.
On Wreck Reef.

Flinders' bar, invention of.

Flinders' Entrance.

Flinders family.
Connection with Tennysons.

Flinders' Island.

Foigny, Gabriel de, his La Terre Australe connue.

Forfait, French Marine Minister, instructions to Baudin.

Fowler, Robert, joins Investigator.
On Rolla.

Fowler's Bay.

Francis, schooner, voyage of.
Sails with Cumberland.

Franklin, Sir John, connection with Flinders' family.
On the Polyphemus.
Influenced by Flinders.
Joins Investigator.
At wreck of Porpoise.
On Rolla.
On Flinders' return to England.

Franklin's Isles.

French Island.

French Revolution.

Freycinet, Lieutenant Louis de, at Sydney.
On military situation at Port Jackson.
His hydrographical work.
Charge of plagiarism against.
Publication of his charts.

Furneaux, commander of Adventure.

Furneaux Land.

Gambier Isles.

Gambier, Mount.

Garden Prison, see Maison Despeaux.

Geographe, Le.

George's River, exploration of.

Glasshouse Bay.

Glasshouse Mountains.

Good, Peter, gardener, joins Investigator.

Grant, Captain, in command of Lady Nelson.
Governor King on.
Sails for Australia.

Harrington, brig, and the American contraband trade.

Hartog, Dirk, his metal plate.

Hawkesbury River, the.

Heemskirk, Mount.

Hervey Bay.

Hicks, Point.

Hindmarsh, Sir John, his naval career.

Hohenlinden, battle of.

Hope, cutter.

Howe, Lord, battle off Brest.

Hunter, Captain John, appointed Governor of New South Wales.
Interest in Australian colonisation.
Discourteous treatment of by Portuguese Viceroy.
Encourages Bass and Flinders.
On Bass Strait.

Flinders at.
Interior of.
Military situation of.
Regulations concerning visiting ships.
Blockade of.
Captured by British.

Reasons for expedition.
Formerly the Xenophon.
Refitting of.
Selection of crew.
Sailing delayed.
Sailing of.
On South Coast.
In Encounter Bay.
In Port Phillip.
Arrival at Port Jackson.
Circumnavigation of Australia.
Decrepit condition of.
Taken to England.
End of.

Investigator Strait.

Jervis Bay.

Julia Percy Island.

Jussieu, French botanist, recommends Baudin to command discovery voyage.

Kangaroo Island, discovery of.
Wild life on.
Baudin at.

Kent, Lieutenant William.

Kent's Group.

Keppel Bay.

King, Governor, P.G. and Bass's South American project.
His hospitality to French expedition.
Receives news of Porpoise wreck.
Entrusts despatches to Flinders.
Protest against Flinders' imprisonment.

King George's Sound.

King Island.
Discovery of.
French at.



Lacy, midshipman.

Lady Nelson.



Lawson, Lieutenant.
his share in crossing Blue Mountains.

Leeuwin, Cape.

Linois, Rear-Admiral.

Little Bay.

Liverpool, Lord.

Lofty, Mount.

Louis XVI, his interest in discovery voyages.

Louth Bay.

Louth Isle.

Lucky Bay.

Macquarie, Fort.

Macquarie, Governor, his use of word Australia.

Maison Despeaux (Garden Prison).

Malaspina, Admiral.

Championship of Flinders.

Maria Island.

Marsden, Reverend Samuel.

Martin's Isles.

Mauritius, see Ile-de-France.

Melville Bay.

Memory Cove.

Monistrol, Colonel.

Moreau, General.

Moreton Bay.


Mornington Island.

Murray, Lieutenant John, discovers Port Phillip.
Accompanies Flinders.

Mutton birds.

Napoleon, authorises French discovery voyage.
His opinion of General Decaen.
Sends Decaen to India.
Hears of the Flinders case.
Orders release of Flinders.
His comment on oaths of allegiance.

Naturaliste, Le.

Navy, the British, promotion in.
Entrance to.


Nelson, Cape.

Nepean, Evan, Secretary of the Admiralty.

Nepean Peninsula.

Nichols, Isaac, case of.

Norfolk, sloop.
Flinders' description of.
Importance of voyage.
Voyage to Queensland coast.

Northumberland, Cape.

Nuyts, Pieter.

Observations on the Coast of Van Diemen's Land, publication of.

Otto, L.G.

Otway, Cape.

Palmer, Captain of Bridgewater.

Pandora's Entrance.

Papuans, fight with in Torres Strait.

Park, Mungo, and the Investigator.


Partney Isle.

Pasley, Admiral Sir Thomas, Flinders' introduction to.
His interest in Flinders' career.
Command of Bellerophon.
Wounded in battle off Brest.
Character of.

Pasley, Cape, naming of.

Paterson, Lieutenant-Colonel.

Peel, Sir Robert.

Pellew, Rear-Admiral, his interest in Flinders' case.

Pellew Group.

Pelsart, Francis, on the Australian Coast.

Percy Isles.

Peron, Francois, at Sydney.
His report on British settlement.
Plays the spy on British designs.
Flinders on.
Scientific work of.
Effect of his report on Decaen.
Malte-Brun on.
Death of.

Petrie, Professor W.M. Flinders, grandson of Matthew Flinders.

Phillip Island.

Pinkerton, Modern Geography.

Pitot, Thomas.

Pitt, Mount.

Plagiarism, allegation against the French.
Freycinet on.


Porpoise, Flinders sails in.
Wreck of.

Port Bowen.

Port Curtis.

Port Hacking.

Port Jackson, see Sydney.

Port Lincoln.
Discovery and survey of.

Port Louis.

Port Phillip.
Flinders in.
Discovery of.
Attempted settlement of.

Portland Bay.

Portlock, Lieutenant N., Commander of Assistant.


Preservation Island.

Providence, H.M.S.

Providential Cove, see Wattamolla.

Quarterly Review, article on Flinders' case.

Queensland coasts.
Flinders' voyages on.

Quiros, voyage of.

Red Point.

Reliance, H.M.S.

Revesby Isle.

Robbins, Acting-Lieutenant.

Robinson Crusoe, influence of on Flinders.

Rowley, Commodore.

St. Alouarn.

St. Vincent's Gulf.
Discovery of.

Schanck, Cape.

Schanck, Captain John, designs Lady Nelson.


Shaw and Smith, their use of the word Australia.

Shinglar, Reverend John, schoolmaster of Flinders.

Ships not elsewhere indexed:
Advice, brig.
Belier, brig.
Belle Poule, La.
Berceau, Le.
Blonde, La.
Cape Chatham.
Captivity. See also Bellerophon.
Circe, frigate.
Duyfhen [Duyfken], yacht.
Eliza, sloop.
Greyhound, frigate.
Harbinger, brig.
Harriet, cartel.
Heir Apparent.
Lowestoft, frigate.
Marengo, French frigate.
Matilda, whaler.
Minerva, frigate.
Orient, L'.
Piemontaise, La, privateer.
Queen Charlotte.
Royal Sovereign.
Semillante, La.
Serpente, Le. See Le Geographe.
Supply, tender.
Vesuve, Le. See Le Naturaliste.
Warren Hastings.
Xenophon. See Investigator.


Sibsey Isle.

Sleaford Bay.

Smith, Samuel, journal of.

Spanish-American colonies.
Contraband trade with.
Alleged British designs on.

Spencer, Earl, First Lord of the Admiralty, supports Flinders'
exploration project.
Grants passport to French discovery voyage.
Visited by Flinders.

Spencer's Gulf.
Exploration of.

Spilsby Isle.

Stamford Hill.

Station Peak.

Stickney Isle.

Streaky Bay.

Surfleet Point.

Swan Harbour.

Swans, black.

Sydney, growth of.
Arrival of Investigator at, Baudin's expedition at.
Peron's report on.
Military forces at.
Flinders' observations on.

Sydney Cove, wreck of.

Bass's voyages to.

Tamar, discovery of.

Tasman, voyage of.

Tasmania, circumnavigation of.

Taylor's Isle.

Teneriffe, Flinders' description of.

Tennysons, connection with Flinders' family.

Termination Island.

Terra Australis.

Thistle, John, drowning of.

Thistle Island.

Tides, theory of, Flinders' writings on.

Tom Thumb, measurements of.
Second boat of same name.

Torres, voyage of.

Torres Strait.

Trafalgar, battle of.

Transportation system, Peron on.

Twofold Bay, discovery of.
Adventure with aboriginal in.

Vancouver, voyage of.
His discoveries on Australian coast.

Van Diemen, Cape.

Venus, brig, Bass's purchase of.
Voyages to Tahiti.
Voyages to South America.
Seizure of.

Venus Bay.

Vlaming, his metal plate.

Waterhouse, Captain Henry.

Waterhouse, Elizabeth, see Bass, Elizabeth.

Waterhouse Island.

Wattamolla (Watta-Mowlee).

Wellesley, the Marquess, Governor-General of India.
His interest in Flinders' case.

Wellesley Isles.

Wentworth, W.C., his share in crossing Blue Mountains.

Westall, Point.

Westall, William, artist, joins Investigator.

Westernport, discovery of.
Le Naturaliste in.

Whaleboat, Bass', measurements of.

Wilhelm's Plains, Flinders' residence at.

William IV inspects Flinders' charts.
On proposed pension to Mrs. Flinders.

Williams, mate of Bridgewater.

Williamson, acting commissary.

Wilson's Promontory.

Winceby Isle.

Wombat, Flinders' description of.


Wreck Reef.

Yorke's Peninsula.

You-yang Range.

Zeehan, Mount.

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