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The Life and Most Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of by Daniel Defoe

Part 5 out of 6

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ventured; when one of the men taking the end of a tow-line in one hand,
and keeping our boat between him and our adversaries, swam to us, and
slipping our cables, they towed us, out of reach of their arrows, and
quickly after a broadside was given them from the ship, which made a
most dreadful havoc among them. When we got on board, we examined into
the occasion of this fray. The men who fled informed us that an old
woman who sold milk within the poles, had brought a young woman with
her, who carried roots or herbs, the sight of whom so much tempted our
men, that they offered rudeness to the maid, at which the old woman set
up a great cry: nor would the sailors part with the prize, but carried
her among the trees, while the old woman went, and brought a whole army
down upon them. At the beginning of the attack, one of our men was
killed with a lance, and the fellow who began the mischief, paid dear
enough for his mistress, though as yet we did not know what had become
of him; the rest luckily escaped. The third night after the action,
being curious to understand how affairs stood, I took the supercargo and
twenty stout fellows with me, and landed about two hours before
midnight, at the same place where those Indians stood the night before,
and there we divided our men into two bodies, the boatswain commanding
one, and I another. It was so dark, that we could see nobody, neither
did we hear any voice near us: but by & bye the boatswain falling over a
dead body, we agreed to halt till the moon should rise, which he knew
would be in an hour after. We perceived here no fewer than two and
thirty bodies upon the ground, whereof two were not quite dead.
Satisfied with this discovery I was for going on board again; but the
boatswain and the rest told me, they would make a visit to the Indian
town, where these dogs (so they called them) resided, asking me at the
same time to go along with them; for they did not doubt, besides getting
a good booty, but they should find Tom Jeffery there, for that was the
unhappy man we missed. But I utterly refused to go, and commanded them
back, being unwilling to hazard their lives, as the safety of the ship
wholly depended upon them. Notwithstanding all I could say to them, they
all left me but one, and the supercargo; so we three returned to the
boat, where a boy was left, resolving to stay till they returned. At
parting I told them I supposed most of them would run the same fate with
Tom Jeffery. To this they replied, _Come boys, come along, we'll warrant
we'll come off safe enough_; and so away they went, notwithstanding all
my admonitions, either concerning their own safety or the preservation
of the ship. Indeed they were gallantly armed, every man having a
musket, bayonet, and a pistol, besides cutlasses, hangers, pole-axes,
and hand granades. They came to a few Indian houses at first, which not
being the town they expected they went farther, & finding a cow tied to
a tree, they concluded that she would be a sufficient guide, and so it
proved; for, after they untied her, she led them directly to the town,
which consisted of above two hundred houses, several families living in
some of the huts together. At their arrival, all being in a profound
sleep, the sailors agreed to divide themselves into three bodies, and
set three parts of the town on fire at once, to kill those that were
escaping, and plunder the rest of the houses. Thus desperately resolved,
they went to work; but the first party had not gone far, before they
called out to the rest, that they had found Tom Jeffery; whereupon they
all ran up to the place, and found the poor fellow indeed hanging up
naked by one arm, and his throat almost cut from ear to ear. In a house
that was hard by the tree, they found sixteen or seventeen Indians, who
had been concerned in the fray, two or three of them being wounded, were
not gone to sleep: this house they set on fire first, and in a few
minutes after, five or six places more in the town appeared in flames.
The conflagration spread like wild-fire, their housing being all of
wood, and covered with flags or rushes. The poor affrighted inhabitants
endeavoured to run out to save their lives, but they were driven back
into the flames by the sailors, and killed without mercy. At the first
house above mentioned, after the boatswain had slain two with his
pole-ax, he threw a hand-granade into the house, which bursting, made a
terrible havoc, killing and wounding most of them; and their king and
most of his train, who were then in that house, fell victims to their
fury, every creature of them being either smothered or burnt. All this
while they never fired a gun, lest the people should awaken faster than
they could overpower them. But the fire awakened them fast enough, which
obliged our fellows to keep together in bodies. By this time the whole
town was in a flame, yet their fury rather increased, calling out to one
another to remember Tom Jeffery. The terrible light of this
conflagration made me very uneasy, and roused my nephew the captain, and
the rest of his men, who knew nothing of the matter. When he perceived
the dreadful smoke, and heard the guns go off, he readily concluded his
men were in danger; he therefore takes another boat, and comes ashore
himself, with thirteen men well armed. He was greatly surprised to see
me and only two men in the boat, but more so when I told him the story:
but though I argued with him, as I did with the men, about the danger
of the voyage, the interests of the merchants and owners, and the
safety of the ship, yet my nephew, like the rest, declared, that he
would rather lose the ship, his voyage, his life and all, than his men
should be lost for want of help; and so away he went. For my part,
seeing him resolved to go, I had not power to stay behind. He ordered
the pinnace back again for twelve men more, and then we marched directly
as the flame guided us. But surely never was such a scene of horror
beheld, or more dismal cries heard, except when Oliver Cromwell took
Drogheda in Ireland, where he neither spared man, woman, nor child.

The first object, I think, we met with, was the ruins of one of their
habitations, before which lay four men and three woman killed, and two
more burnt to death among the fire, which was now decaying. Nothing
could appear more barbarous than this revenge; none more cruel than the
authors of it. As we went on, the fire increased, and the cry proceeded
in proportion. We had not gone much farther, when we beheld three naked
women, followed by sixteen or seventeen men, flying with the greatest
swiftness from our men, who shot one of them in our sight. When they
perceived us, whom they supposed also their murderers, they set up a
most dreadful shriek, and both of them swooned away in the fright. This
was a sight which might have softened the hardest heart; and in pity we
took some ways to let them know we would not hurt them, while the poor
creatures with bended knees, and lifted up hands, made piteous
lamentations to us to save their lives. I ordered our men not to hunt
any of the poor creatures whatsoever; but being willing to understand
the occasion of all this, I went among these unhappy wretches, who
neither understood me, nor the good I meant them. However being resolved
to put an end to this barbarity, I ordered the men to follow me. We had
not gone fifty yards before we came up with the boatswain, with four of
our men at his heels, all of them covered with blood and dust, and in
search of more people to satiate their vengeance. As soon as we saw
them, we called out, and made them understand who we were; upon which
they came up to us, setting up a holloo of triumph, in token that more
help was come. _Noble Captain_, said he to my nephew, _I'm glad your
come: we have not half done with these villainous hell-hound dogs;
wee'll root out the very nation of them from the earth, and kill more
than poor Tom has hairs upon his head:_ and thus he went on till I
interrupted him.--"Blood-thirsty dog," said I, "will your cruelty never
end? I charge you touch not one creature more; stop your hands and stand
still, or you're a dead man this moment." _Why Sir_, said he, _you
neither know whom you are protecting, nor what they have done: but pray
come hither, and behold an instance of compassion, if such can merit
your clemency_; and with that he shewed me the poor fellow with his
throat cut, hanging upon the tree.

Indeed, here was enough to fill their breasts with rage, which, however,
I thought had gone too far, agreeable to these words of Jacob to his
sons Simeon and Levi: _Cursed be their anger for it was fierce; and
their wrath; for it was cruel._ But this sight made my nephew and the
rest as bad as they: nay, my nephew declared, his concern was only for
his men; as for the people, not a soul of them ought to live. Upon this,
the boatswain and eight more directly turned about, and went to finish
the intended tragedy; which being out of my power to prevent, I returned
back from the dismal sight, & the piteous cries of those unfortunate
creatures, who were made victims to their fury. Indeed, it was an
egregious piece of folly in me to return to the boat with but one
attendant; and I had very near paid for it, having narrowly escaped
forty armed Indians, who had been alarmed by the conflagration; but
having passed the place where they stood, I got to the boat accompanied
with the supercargo, and so went on board, sending the pinnace back
again, to assist the men in what might happen. When I had got to the
boat, the fire was almost extinguished, and the noise abated; but I had
scarce been half an hour on board the ship, when I heard another volley
given by our sailors, and a great smoke, which, as I afterwards found,
was our men falling upon those houses and persons that stood between
them and the sea; but here they spared the wives and children, and
killed only the men, to the number of about sixteen or seventeen. By the
time they got to the shore, the pinnace and the ship's boat were ready
to receive them, and they all got safe on board, not a man of them
having received the least hurt, except two, one of whom strained his
foot, and the other burnt his hand a little; for they met with no
resistance, the poor Indians being unprepared, amazed, and confounded.

I was extremely angry with every one of them, but particularly with the
captain, who instead of cooling the rage of the men, had prompted them
on to further mischief: nor could he make me any other excuse, but that
as he was a man, he could not master his passions at the sight of one of
his men so cruelly murdered. As for the rest, knowing they were not
under my command, they took no notice of any anger, but rather boasted
of their revenge. According to all their accounts, they killed or
destroyed about 150 men, women, and children, besides burning the town
to ashes. They took their companion Tom Jeffery from the tree, covered
him with some of the ruins, and so left him. But however this action of
our men might seem to them justifiable, yet I always openly condemned it
with the appellation, of the Massacre of Madagascar. For tho' the
natives had slain this Jeffery, yet certainly he was the first
aggressor, by attempting to violate the chastity of a young innocent
woman, who ventured down to them, on the faith of the public
capitulation, which was so treacherously broken.

While we were under sail, the boatswain would often defend this bloody
action, by saying, that the Indians had broke the truce the night
before, by shooting one of our men without just provocation: and what if
the poor fellow had taken a little liberty with the wench, he ought not
to have been murdered in so villainous a manner: and that they had acted
nothing but what the divine laws commissioned to be done to such
homicides. However I was in the same mind as before, telling them that
they were murderers, and bid them depend upon it that God would blast
their voyage, for such an unparalleled piece of barbarity.

When we came to the Gulph of Persia, five of our men, who ventured on
shore, were either killed or made slaves by the Arabians, the rest of
them having scarce time to escape to their boat. This made me upbraid
them afresh with the just retribution of Heaven for such actions; upon
which the boatswain very warmly asked me, _Whether those men on whom the
tower of Siloam fell, were greater sinners than the rest of the
Galileans? and besides, Sir_, said he, _none of these five poor men that
are lost, were with us at the Massacre of Madagascar, as you call it,
and therefore your representation is very unjust, and your application
improper. Besides_, added he, _you are continually using the men very
ill upon this account, and, being but a passenger yourself, we are not
obliged to bear it; nor can we tell what evil designs you may have to
bring us to judgment for it in England: and, therefore, if you do not
leave this discourse, as also not concern yourself with any of our
affairs, I will leave the ship, and not sail among such
dangerous company._

All this I heard very patiently; but, it being often repeated, I at
length told him, the concern I had on board was none of his business;
that I was a considerable owner in the ship, and therefore had a right
to speak in common, and that I was no way accountable to him, nor to any
body else. As no more passed for some time after, I thought all had been
over. At this time we were in the road of Bengal, where, going on shore
with the supercargo one day, in the evening, as I was preparing to go on
board, one of the men came to me, and told me, I need not trouble myself
to come to the boat, for that the cockswain and others had ordered him
not to carry me on board any more. This insulent message much surprised
me; yet I gave him no answer to it, but went directly and acquainted the
supercargo, entreating him to go on board, and, by acquainting the
Captain with it, prevent the mutiny which I perceived would happen. But
before I had spoken this, the matter was effected on board; for no
sooner was he gone off in the boat, but the boatswain, gunner,
carpenter, and all the inferior officers, came to the quarter-deck,
desiring to speak with the Captain; & there the boatswain made a long
harangue, exclaiming against me, as before mentioned, that, if I had not
gone on shore peaceably, for my own diversion, they, by violence would
have compelled me, for their satisfaction: that as they had shipped with
the Captain, so they would faithfully serve him; but if I did not quit
the ship, or the Captain oblige me to it, they would leave the ship
immediately: hereupon, turning his face about by way of signal, they all
cried out, "ONE and ALL! ONE and ALL!"

You may be sure, that though my nephew was a man of great courage, yet
he could not but be surprised at their sudden and unexpected behaviour;
and though he talked stoutly to them, and afterwards expostulated with
them, that in common justice to me, who was a considerable owner in the
ship, they could not turn me as it were out of mine own house, which
might bring their lives in danger should they ever be taken in England;
nay, though he invited the boatswain on shore to accomodate matters with
me, yet all this I say, signified nothing; they would have nothing to do
with me; and they were resolved to go on shore if I came on board.
_Well,_ said my nephew, _if you are so resolved, permit me to talk with
him, and then I have done; and so he came to me, giving me an account of
their resolution, how one and all designed to forsake the ship when I
came on board, for which he was mightily concerned._ "I am glad to see
you, nephew," said I, "and rejoice it is no worse, since they have not
rebelled against you; I only desire you to send my necessary things on
shore, with a sufficient sum of money, and I will find my way to England
as well as I can." Though this grieved my nephew to the heart, yet there
was no remedy but complience; in short, all my necessaries were sent me,
and so this matter was over in a few hours.

I think I was now near a thousand leagues farther off England by sea,
than at my little kingdom, except this difference, that I might travel
by land over the Great Mogul's country to Surat, from thence to Baffora,
by sea up the Persian Gulph, then take the way of the caravans over the
Arabian desert to Alleppo and Scanderoon, there take shipping to Italy,
and so travel by land into France, and from thence cross the sea
to England.

My nephew left me two persons to attend me; one of them was his servant,
and the other clerk to the purser, who engaged to be mine. I took
lodging in an English woman's house, where several French, one English,
and two Italian merchants resided. The handsome entertainment I met with
here, occasioned me to stay nine months, considering what course I
should take. Some English goods I had with me of great value, besides a
thousand pieces of eight, and a letter for more, if there was such
necessity. The goods I soon disposed of to advantage, and bought here
several good diamonds, which I could easily carry about with me. One
morning the English merchant came to me, as being very intimate
together, _countryman_, said he, _I have a project to communicate to
you, which I hope will suit to both our advantage. To be short, Sir, we
are both in a remote part of the world from our country; but yet in a
place where men of business may get a great deal of money. Now, if you
will put a thousand pounds to my thousand pounds, we will hire a ship to
our satisfaction; you shall be Captain, I will be merchant: and we'll go
a trading voyage to China, for why should we lie still like drones,
while the whole world is in a continual motion_.

This proposal soon got my consent, being very agreeable to my rambling
genius; and the more so, because I looked upon my countryman to be a
very sincere person; it required some time before we could get a vessel
to our mind, and sailors to man it accordingly; at length we bought a
ship, and got an English mate, boatswain, and gunner, a Dutch carpenter,
and three Portuguese foremast men; and, for want of others, made shift
with Indian seamen. We first sailed to Achin, in the island of Sumatra,
and then to Siam, where we bartered our wares for some arrack and opium,
the last of which bore a great price among the Chinese; in a word, we
went up to Suskan, making a very great voyage; &, after eight months
time, I returned to Bengal, very well satisfied with this adventure,
having not only got a sufficient quantity of money, but an insight of
getting a great deal more.

The next voyage my friend proposed to me, was to go among the spice
islands, and bring home a load of cloves from the Manillas, or
thereabouts; islands belonging partly to Spain, but where the Dutch
trade very considerably. We were not long in preparing for this voyage,
which we made no less successful than the last, touching at Borneo, and
several other places which I do not perfectly remember, and returning
home in about five months time. We soon sold our spices, which were
chiefly cloves and some nutmegs, to the Persian merchants, who carried
them away to the gulph; and, in short, making five to one advantage, we
were loaded with money.

Not long after my friend and I had made up our accounts, to our entire
satisfaction, there came in a Dutch coaster from Batavia of about two
hundred tons. The crew of this vessel pretended themselves so sickly,
that there were not hands sufficient to undertake a voyage; and the
Captain having given out that he intended to go to Europe, public notice
was given that the ship was to be sold. No sooner did this come to our
ears, but we bought the ship, paid the master, and took possession. We
would also have very willingly entertained some of the men; but they
having received their share of booty, were not to be found, being
altogether fled to Agra, the great city of the Mogul's residence; and
from thence went to travel to Surat, and so by the sea to the Persian
Gulph. And indeed they had reason to fly in this manner; for the truth
of it was the pretended Captain was the gunner only, and not the
commander; that having been on a trading voyage, they were attacked on
shore by the Malayans, who killed three men and the Captain; after whose
death the other eleven men ran away with the ship to the Bay of Bengal,
and left the mate and five men more on shore: but of this affair we
shall have occasion to speak more at length hereafter.

However they came by the ship, we thought we bought it honestly; neither
did we suspect any thing of the matter, when the man showed us a bill of
sale for the ship (undoubtedly forged) to one Emanuel Clostershoven,
which name he went by. And so without any more to do, we picked up some
Dutch and English seamen, resolving for another voyage for cloves among
the Phillippine and Molucca Islands: in short, we continued thus five or
six years, trading from port to port with extraordinary success. In the
seventh year, we undertook a voyage to China, designing to touch at
Siam, and buy some rice by the way. In this voyage, contrary winds beat
us up and down for a considerable time among the islands in the Straits
of Molucca. No sooner were we clear of those rugged seas, but we
perceived our ship had sprung a leak, which obliged us to put into the
river Cambodia, which lies northward of the Gulph, and goes up to Siam.

One day, as I was on shore refreshing myself, there comes to me an
Englishman, who was gunner's mate on board an English East India ship,
riding up the river near the city of Cambodia. _Sir_, said he, _you may
wonder at my business, having never seen me in your life; but tho' I am
a stranger, I have something to tell you that very nearly concerns you:
& indeed it is the imminent danger you are in has moved me to give you
this timely notice_. "Danger!" said I, "what danger? I know of none,
except my ship being leaky, for which I design to have her run aground
to-morrow morning" _I hope you will be better employed when you shall
hear what I have to say to you. You know the town of Cambodia is about
fifteen leagues up this river; about three leagues on this side of it,
there lie two Dutch and three English ships. And would you venture here
without considering what strength you have to engage them_? I knew not
what he meant by this discourse, and turning short upon him, "Sir," said
I, "I know no reason I have to be afraid either of any Dutch or English
ships. I am no interloper, and what business have they with me?" _Well,
Sir,_ said the man, _if you do think yourselves secure, all as I can
say, you must take your chance; however, I am very sorry you are so deaf
to good advice; but I assure you; if you do not put to sea immediately,
you will be attacked by five long-boats full of men, hanged yourself for
a pirate, if you are taken, and the particulars examined afterwards. I
thought, Sir_, added he, _I might have met a better reception for such a
singular piece of service_. "Sir," said I, "I was never ungrateful to
any man; but pray explain yourself and I'll go on board this minute,
whether the leak be stopped or no." _Why, Sir,_ said he, _to be short,
because time is precious, the matter is this: You know well enough that
you was with the ship at Sumatra, when your Captain was murdered by the
Malayans, with three of his sailors; and that either you, or some who
were on board you, ran away with the ship, and are since turned pirates
at sea. Now, Sir, this is the sum of what I had to say: and I can
positively assure you, that if you are taken, you will be executed
without much ceremony, for undoubtedly you cannot but be sensible what
little law merchant ships show to pirates, whenever they fall into
their hands_.

"Sir,' said I, 'I thank you for your kind information; and though I am
sure no man could come more honestly by the ship than I have done, yet
knowing their enterprize, and being satisfied of your honest intention,
I'll be upon my defence. _Pr'ythee, Sir,_ said the man, _don't talk of
being upon your defence, the best that you can make is to be out of
danger; and therefore, if you have any regard for your life, & the lives
of your men, take the advantage, without fail, of putting out to sea at
high-water: by which means, as you have a whole tide before you, you
will be gone too far out of their reach before they can come down._

"I am mighty well satisfied," said I, "in this particular, and for your
kindness, which merits my great esteem; pray, Sir, what amends shall I
make you?" He replied, "I know not what amends you are willing to make,
because you may have some doubts of its certainty: but, to convince you
of the truth of what I say, I have one offer to make to you. On board
one of the English ships, I have nineteen months pay due to me, and this
Dutchman that is with me has seven months pay due to him, which if you
will make good to us, we will go along with you. If you shall find that
there is nothing in what we have said, then we shall desire nothing; but
when you are convinced that we have saved the ship, your life, and the
lives of the men, we will leave the whole to your generosity."

So reasonable did this every way appear, that I immediately consented,
and we went directly on board. As soon as we came on board, my partner
calls joyfully out, _That they had stopped the leak?_ "Well, thank God,"
said I, "but pray let us weigh anchor forthwith."--_Weigh,_ said he,
_what is the meaning of this hurry_? "Pray ask no questions," said I,
"but all hands to work, without losing a moment's time." Upon which, in
great surprise, the Captain was called, who immediately ordered the
anchor to be got up; and though the tide was not quite down, yet being
assisted with a little land breeze, we stood to sea. I then called my
partner into the cabin, and related the story at large, which was
confirmed and more amplified by the two men I had brought on board.
Scarce had we finished our discourse upon this head, but a sailor came
to the cabin door, with a message from the Captain, that we were chased
by five sloops full of armed men. "Very well," said I, "it is plain now
there is something in it." And so, going upon deck, I told all the men
there was a design for seizing the ship, and of executing us for
pirates; and asked them whether they would faithfully stand by us, and
by one another? To which they unanimously replied, "That they would
fight to their last drop of blood." I then asked the Captain, which way
he thought best for us to manage the battle? _Sir_, said he, _the only
method is to keep them off with our great shot as long as we are able,
and then have recourse to our small arms: and when both these fail us,
then retire to close quarters, when perhaps the enemy wanting materials,
can neither break open our bulk heads, nor get in upon us_. Meantime,
the gunner was ordered to bring two guns to bear fore and aft out of the
steerage, and so load them with musket-bullets and small pieces of old
iron; and the deck being cleared, we prepared for the engagement, still,
however, keeping out at sea. The boats followed us, with all the sail
they could make, and we could perceive the two foremost were English,
which out-sailed the rest by two leagues, and which we found would come
up with us: hereupon, we fired a gun without a ball, intimating that
they should bring to, and we put out a flag of truce, as a signal for
parley; but finding them crowding after us, till they came within shot,
we took in our white, and hanging out the red flap, immediately fired at
them with ball: we then called to them with a speaking trumpet, bidding
them at their peril keep off.

But all this signified nothing; for depending upon the strength that
followed them, they were resolutely bent for mischief: hereupon I
ordered them to bring the ship to, by which means, they lying upon our
broadside, we let fly at them at once, one of whom carried away the
stern of the hindermost boat, and obliged them not only to take down
their sail, but made them all run to the head of the boat, to keep them
from sinking, and so she lay by, having enough of it. In the meantime,
we prepared to welcome the foremost boat in the same manner. While we
were doing this, one of the three hindermost boats came up to the relief
of that which was disabled, and took the men out of her. We again
called to parley with them; but, instead of an answer, one of the boats
came close under our stern; whereupon our gunner let fly his two chase
guns, but missing, the men in the boat shouted, and, waving their caps,
came on with greater fury. To repair this seeming disgrace, the gunner
soon got ready, and firing a second time, did a great deal of mischief
among the enemy. We waved again, and, bringing our quarter to bear upon
them, fired three guns more, when we found the boat a sinking, and
several men already in the sea; hereupon, manning our pinnace, I gave
orders to save as many as they could, and instantly to come on board,
because the rest of their boats were approaching: accordingly they did
so, and took up three of them, one of whom was almost past recovery; and
then crowding all the sail we could, after our men came on board, we
stood out farther to sea, so that the other three boats gave over the
chase, when they came up to the first two. Thus delivered from imminent
danger, we changed our course to the eastward, quite out of the course
of all European ships.

Being now at sea, and inquiring more particularly of the two seamen, the
meaning of all this, the Dutchman at once let us into the secret. He
told us, that the fellow who sold us the ship was an errant thief, who
had run away with her; that the Captain was treacherously murdered on
the coast of Molucca by the natives there, with three of his men; that
he, the Dutchman, and four more, being obliged to have recourse to the
woods for their safety, at length escaped by means of a Dutch ship in
its way to China, which had sent their boat on shore for fresh water:
That, after this, he went to Batavia, where two of the seamen belonging
to the ship (who had deserted the rest in their travels) arrived, and
there gave an account that the fellow who ran away with the ship had
sold her at Bengal to a set of pirates, who went a cruising, and had
already taken one English and two Dutch ship, richly laden.

Now, tho' this was absolutely false, my partner truly said, that our
deliverance was to be esteemed so much the more, by reason, had we
fallen into their hands, we could have expected nothing from them but
immediate death, considering our accusers would have been our judges;
and, therefore, his opinion was to return directly to Bengal, where,
being known, we could prove how honestly we came by the ship, of whom we
bought her, and the like, and where we were sure of some justice; at
least would not be hanged first, and judged afterwards. I was at first
of my partner's opinion, but when I had more seriously considered of the
matter, I told him, we ran a great hazard in attempting to return, being
on the wrong side of the Straits of Molucca and that, if, upon alarm
given, we should be taken by the Dutch at Batavia, or English elsewhere,
our turning away would be a sufficient evidence to condemn us. This
danger indeed startled not only my partner, but likewise all the ship's
company; so we changed our former resolution, and resolved to go to the
coast of Tonquin, and so to that of China, where, pursuing our first
design as to trade, we might likewise have an opportunity to dispose of
the ship some way or other, and to return to Bengal in any country
vessel we could procure. This being agreed to, we steered away N.N.E.
about 50 leagues off the usual course to the east; which put us to some
inconveniences. As the wind blew steadily against us, our voyage became
more tedious, and we began to be afraid of want of provision; and what
was still worse, we apprehended, that as those ships from whose boat we
had escaped, were bound to China, they might get before us, and have
given fresh information, which might create another vigorous pursuit.
Indeed, I could not help being grieved, when I considered that I who had
never wronged or defrauded any person in my life, was now pursued like a
common thief, and if taken to run the greatest danger of being executed
as such; and, though innocent, I found myself under the necessity of
flying for my safety; and thereby escape being brought to shame, of
which I was even more afraid than death itself. It was easy to read my
dejection in my countenance. My mind was oppressed, like those unhappy
innocent persons, who being overpowered by blasphemous and perjured
evidences, wickedly resolved to take away their lives, or ruin their
reputation, have no other recourse in this world to ease their sorrow,
but sighs, prayers, and tears. My partner seeing me so concerned,
encouraged me as well as he could; and, after describing to me the
several ports of that coast, he told me, he would either put me in on
the coast of Cochinchina, or else in the bay of Tonquin, from whence we
might go to Macao, a town once possessed by the Portuguese, and where
still many European families resided.

To this place we steered, and, early next morning, came in sight of the
coast; but thought it advisable to put into a small river where we
could, either over land, or by the ship's pinnace, know what vessels
were in any ports thereabouts. This happy step proved our deliverance;
for, next morning, there came to the bay of Tonquin two Dutch ships, and
a third without any colours; and in the evening, two English ships
steered the same course. The river where we were was but small, and ran
but a few leagues up the country northward; the country was wild and
barbarous, and the people thieves, having no correspondence with any
other nation; dealing only in fish, oil, and such gross commodities: and
one barbarous custom they still retained, that when any vessel was
unhappily shipwrecked upon their coast, they make the men prisoners or
slaves, so that now we might fairly say we were surrounded by enemies
both by sea and land.

As the ship had been leaky, we took the opportunity, in this place to
search her, and to stop up the places which let in the water. We
accordingly lightened her, and bringing our guns and other moveable
things to one side, we essayed to bring her down, that we might come to
her bottom: but, upon second consideration, we did not think it safe to
let her lie on dry ground, neither indeed was the place convenient for
it. The inhabitants not used to such a sight as to see a ship lie down
on one side; and heel in towards the shore, and not perceiving her men,
who were at work on her bottom, with stages and boats on the off side,
presently imagined the ship had been cast away, and lay fast on the
ground. Agreeable to this supposition, they surrounded us with ten or
twelve large boats, with a resolution, undoubtedly to plunder the ship,
and to carry away those they found alive for slaves to their king. But
when they perceived our men hard at work on the ship's bottom and side,
washing, graving, and stopping her, it filled them all with such
surprise, that they stood gazing as though they were confounded. Nor
could we imagine what their design was; however, for fear of danger, we
handed down arms and ammunition to those at work, in order to defend
themselves; and, indeed, this precaution was absolutely necessary; for,
in a quarter of an hour after, the natives, concluding it was really a
shipwreck, and that we were saving our lives and goods, which they
thought belonged to them, came down upon our men as though it had been
in line of battle. We lay at present but in a very unfit posture to
fight; and before the stages could be got down, or the men in the boat
come on board as they were ordered, the Cochinchinese were upon them,
and two of their boats boarding our long boat, they began to lay hold of
our men as prisoners. The first they seized was a stout English sailor,
who never fired his musket, like a fool, as I imagined, but laid it down
in the boat: but he knew what he was doing; for, by main force, he
dragged the Pagan out of the boat into ours by the two ears, and knocked
his brains out against the boat's gunnel; a Dutchman that was next him,
snatched up the musket, and knocked down five more with the but-end of
it; however, this was doing very little to their number; but a strange
unexpected accident, which rather merits laughter than any thing else,
gave our men a complete victory over them.

It seems the carpenter, who was preparing to grave the outside of the
ship, as well as to pay the seams, where he caulked to stop the leaks,
had gotten two kettles just let down in the boat, one filled with
boiling pitch, and the other with rosin, tallow, oil, and such stuffs as
the shipwrights use; the carpenter's man had a great iron ladle with
which he used to supply the workmen with hot stuff, & as two of the
enemies entered the boat where the fellow stood, he saluted them with a
full ladle of the hot boiling liquor; which, the poor creatures being
half naked, made them roar out, and jump into the sea. _Well done,
Jack_, says the carpenter, _give them the other dose_: and so stepping
forward himself, takes a mop, and dipping it into the pitch-pot, he and
his man so plentifully flung it among them, as that none escaped being
scalded; upon which they all made the best of their way, crying and
howling in such a frightful manner, that, in all my adventures, I never
heard the like. And, indeed, never was I better pleased with any
conquest than I was with this, there being so little bloodshed, and
having an aversion to killing such savage wretches, (more than was
necessary) as knowing they came on errands, which their laws and customs
made them think were just and equitable. By this time, all things being
in order, and the ship swimming, they found their mistake, so they did
not venture a second attack. Thus ended our merry fight; and, having got
rice, bread, roots, and sixteen good hogs on board the day before we set
sail, not daring to go into the bay of Tonquin, but steering N.E. toward
the isle of Formosa, or as tho' we would go to the Manillas, or
Phillippine islands, for fear of meeting with any European ships; when
we anchored at the isle of Formosa, the inhabitants not only courteously
supplied us with provisions and fresh water, but dealt very fairly and
honestly with us in their bargains and agreements. From this place we
steered north, keeping still off the coast of China, till we were beyond
all its ports where European ships usually come; and, at length, being
come to the latitude of thirty degrees, we resolved to put into the
first trading port we should come at; and standing for the shore, a boat
came off two leagues to us, with an old Portuguese pilot on board, who
offered his service; we very gladly accepted him, and sent the boat back
again. And now, having the man on board, I talked to him of going to
Nanquin, the most northward part of the coast of China. _What will you
do there_? said he, smiling. I told him that we would sell our cargo,
and purchase calicoes, raw and wrought silks, tea, &c. and so return the
same way back. _O_, said he, _you had better put in at Macao, where you
may buy China wares as cheap as at Nanquin, and sell your opium at a
greater advance_. "But' said I 'we are gentlemen as well as merchants,
and design to see the great city of Pekin, and the magnificent court of
the monarch of China," _Why then_, said he, _you should go to Ningpo,
where is a navigable river that goes through the heart of that vast
empire, two hundred and seventy leagues from the sea, which crosses all
the rivers, passes considerable hills, by the help of the sluices and
gates, and goes even up to the city of Pekin. You may go to Nanquin if
you please, and travel to Pekin, and there is a Dutch ship just before
bound that way_. At the name of a Dutch or English ship, I was struck
with confusion; they being as great a terror to me in this vessel, as an
Algerine man of war is to them in the Mediterranean. The old man finding
me troubled, _Sir_, said he, _I hope the Dutch are not now at war with
your nation_. "No," said I, "but God knows what liberty they may take
when out of the reach of the law." _Why_, says he _what occasion is
there for peaceable merchants to fear? For believe me, they never meddle
with any but PIRATES._

[Illustration: The Carpenter and his man defeats the Cochinchinese.]

At the mentioning the word _pirates_, my countenance turned to that of
scarlet; nor was it possible for me to conceal it from the old pilot;
who was taking notice of it, _Sir_, said he _take what course you
please, I'll do you all the service I can._ "Seignior," said I, "I am a
little concerned at your mentioning pirates; I hope there are none such
in these seas, because you see in what weak condition we are to defend
ourselves." _O, Sir_, said he, _if that's all, don't be concerned, I
don't remember one in these seas these fifteen years, except above a
month ago one was seen in the bay of Siam, but he is gone to the
southward; neither was she built for a privateer, but was run away with
by a reprobate Captain, and some of his men, the right Captain having
been murdered by the Malayans_.

"What," said I, (as though ignorant of what had happened) "did they kill
the Captain?" _No_, said he, _it is generally thought the Malayans
murdered him; but they justly deserve hanging. The rogues were lately
discovered in the bay of Siam, in the river of Cambodia, by some
Dutchmen who belonged to the ship, and had much ado to escape the five
boats that pursued them, but they have solemnly sworn to give no quarter
to the Captain or the seamen but hang them every one up at the yard-arm,
without any formal business of bringing them to a court of judicature_.

Being sensible, that, having the old man on board, he was incapable of
doing me any mischief, "Well, Seignior, (said I) it is for this very
reason I would have you carry us up to Nanquin, where neither English
nor Dutch ships come; and I must tell you, their Captains are a parcel
of rash, proud, insolent rascals, that neither know what belongs to
justice, nor how to behave themselves as the laws of God or nature
direct; fellows that would prove murderers to punish robbers, and take
upon them to adjudge innocent men to death, without any proof to prove
them guilty, but perhaps I may live to call them to account for it, in a
place where they may be taught how justice is to be executed." And so I
told him all the story of buying the ship, and how we were saved by the
means of two men; that the murder of the Captain by the Malayans, as
also the running away with the ship, I believed to be true; but that
we, who bought it, were turned pirates, was a mere fiction to cover
their cowardice and foolish behaviour, when they attacked us, & the
blood of those men we killed in our own just defence, lay at their door,
who sent to attack us by surprise.

"Sir, (said the old man, amazed) you have taken the right course to
steer to the north, and, if I might advise you, I would have you sell
your ship in China, and buy or build another in that country; and I'll
procure people to buy the one and sell the other." "Well, but, Seignior,
(said I) if I sell the ship in this manner, I may bring some innocent
persons into the same dangers I have gone through, perhaps worse, even
death itself; whereby I should be as guilty of their murder as their
villainous executioners." "That need not trouble you, (says the old man)
I'll find a way to prevent that; for these commanders you talk of I know
very well, and will inform them rightly of the matter as you have
related, and I am persuaded they will not only believe me, but act more
cautiously for the future." "And will you deliver one message from me to
them?" "Yes, (said he) if you will give it under your hand, that I may
prove it is not of my own production," Hereupon I wrote a large account
of their attacking me in their long-boat, the pretended reason and
unjust design of it; that they had done what they might be ashamed of,
and could not answer for at any tribunal in England. But this letter was
writ in vain. Providence ordered things another way. We sailed directly
for Nanquin, and in about thirteen day's sail, came to an anchor at the
south-west point of the great gulf of that place, where we learned, that
two Dutch ships were gone the length before us, and that we should
certainly fall into their hands. We were all at a great loss in this
exigency, and would very gladly have been on shore almost any where; but
our old pilot told me, that if I would sail to the southward about two
and forty leagues, there was a little port called Quinchange, where no
European ships ever came, and where we might consider what was further
to be done. Accordingly we weighed anchor the next day, calling only
twice on shore by the way to get fresh water. The country people very
courteously sold us roots, tea, rice, fowls, and other provisions. After
five days sail we came to the port, and landed with unspeakable joy. We
resolved to dispose of ourselves and effects in any other way possible,
than enter on board that ill-fated vessel more; for no state can be more
miserable than a continued fear, which is a life of death, a confounder
of our understandings, that sets the imagination at work to form a
thousand frightful things that may never happen. And we scarce slept one
night without dreaming of halters, yard-arms, or gibbets, of fighting,
being taken, and being killed; nay, so violent were our apprehensions,
that we would bruise our hands and heads against the sides of the
cabin, as though actually engaged. The story of the Dutch cruelty at
Amboyns, often came into our thoughts when awake; and, for my part, I
thought my condition very hard; that after so many difficulties and such
signal deliverances, I should be hanged in my old age, though innocent
of any crime that deserved such punishment; but then religion would seem
to represent to me, as though the voice of it had said; 'consider, O
man! what sins you have been formerly guilty of; which now thou art
called to an account for, to expiate with thy blood! And as to thy
innocence, what art thou more innocent than thy blessed Redeemer, Jesus
Christ, who suffered for thy offences, and to whose providence you ought
to submit, let what will happen?' After this, natural courage would
inspire me to resist to the last drop of blood, and sooner die than
suffer myself to be taken by boorish, rascally Dutchmen, who had arts to
torment beyond death itself.

But now, thank kind Heaven, being ashore; our old pilot procured us a
lodging and a warehouse for our goods; it was a little hut with a large
warehouse joining to it, all built with canes, and pallisadoed round
with large ones, to keep out pilfering thieves, which are very numerous
in that country. The magistrates allowed us a little guard during the
night, and we employed a centinel with a kind of halbert for three pence
a day. The fair, or mart, we found, had been over for some time;
however, there remained in the river four junks and two Japan ships, the
merchants of the latter being on shore. In the first place, our old
pilot brought us acquainted with the missionary Roman priests, who were
converting the people to Christianity: two of them were reserved, rigid,
and austere, applying themselves to the work they came about with great
earnestness, but the third, who was a Frenchman, called Father Simon,
was of a freer conversation, not seemingly so serious and grave, yet no
worse Christian than the other two, one of whom was a Portuguese, and
the other a Genoese. Father Simon, it seems, was appointed to go to
Pekin, the royal seat of the Emperor of the Chinese; and he only waited
for another priest, who was ordered from Macao to accompany him. We
never met together, but he was prompting me to accompany him in that
journey: _Sir_, said he, _I will show you the glorious things of this
mighty empire, and a city, the city of Pekin, far exceeding London and
Paris, put them both together_. One day in particular, being at dinner
with him, I showed some inclination to go; which made him press the more
upon me and my partner, to gain our perfect consent. _But, Father
Simon_, said my partner, _what satisfaction can you have in our company,
whom you esteem as heretics, and consequently objects not worthy your
regard? O_, said he, _you may be as good Catholics in time as those I
hope to convert to our religion. And so_, said I, _we shall have you
preaching to us all the way, instead of pleasing us with a description
of the country. Sir_, said he, _however our religion may be villified by
some people, it is very certain it neither divests us of good manners or
Christian charity; and as we are gentlemen, as such we may converse
together, without making one another uneasy_.

But we shall leave him a while, to consider our ship and the merchandise
which we had to dispose of. There was but very little trade in the place
where we were; and I was once resolved to venture to sail to the river
Kilam, and so to the city of Nanquin; but Providence ordered it
otherwise, by our old pilot's bringing a Japan merchant to us, to see
what goods we had. He immediately bought our opium, for which he gave us
a very good price in gold by weight, some wedges of which were about ten
or eleven ounces. It came into my head that perhaps he might buy the
ship too; and I ordered the interpreter to propose it to him. He said
nothing then, but shrugged up his shoulders; yet in a few days after he
came accompanied by a missionary priest, who was his interpreter, with
this proposal, _That as he had bought a great quantity of our goods, he
had not money enough to purchase our ship; but if I pleased he would
hire her, with all my men, to go to Japan, and from thence with another
loading to the Philippine islands, the freight of both which he would
very willingly pay to us before; and at their return to Japan, would buy
the ship_. Upon this we asked the Captain and his men if they were
willing to go to Japan; to which they unanimously agreed. While this was
in agitation, the young man my nephew left to attend me, told me, "That
as I did not care to accept his prospect of advantage he would manage it
for me as I pleased, and render me a faithful account of his success,
which would be wholly mine." Indeed I was very unwilling to part with
him; but considering it might be for the young man's good, I discoursed
with my partner about it, who, of his own generosity, gave him his share
of the vessel, so that I could do no otherwise than give him mine: but,
however, we let him have but the proper half of it, and preserved a
power, that when we met in England, if he had obtained success, he
should account to us for one half of the profit of the ship's freight
and the other should be his own. Thus having taken a writing under his
hand, away he sailed to Japan, where the merchant dealt very honestly by
him, got him a licence to come on shore, sent him loaded to the
Philippines with a Japanese supercargo, from whence he came back again
loaded with European goods, cloves, and other spiceries. By this voyage
he cleared a considerable sum of money, which determined him not to sell
his ship, but to trade on his own account; so he returned to the
Manillas, where, getting acquaintance, he made his ship free, was hired
by the governor privately to go to Acapulco in America, on the Mexican
coast, with a licence to travel to the great city of Mexico. This
traffic turned out greatly to account, and my friend finding means to
get to Jamaica, returned nine years after exceedingly rich into England.

In parting with the ship, it comes in course to consider of those men
who had saved our lives when in the river of Cambodia; and though, by
the way, they were a couple of rogues, who thought to turn pirates
themselves, yet we paid them what they had before demanded, and gave
each of them a small sum of money, making the Englishman a gunner, and
the Dutchman a boatswain, with which they were very well contented.

We were now about 1000 leagues farther from home, than when at Bengal.
All the comfort we could expect was, that there being another fair to be
kept in a month's time, we might not only purchase all sorts of that
country's manufactures, but very possibly find some Chinese junks, or
vessels from Tonquin, to be sold, which would carry us and our goods
wheresoever we pleased. Upon these hopes, we resolved to continue; and,
to divert ourselves, we took several little journies in the country.
About ten days after we parted with the ship, we travelled to see the
city of Nanquin. The city lies in latitude 30 degrees north of the line:
it is regularly built, and the streets are exactly straight, and cross
one another in direct lines, which sets it out to the greatest
advantage. At our return, we found the priest was come from Macao, that
was to accompany Father Simon to Pekin. That Father earnestly solicited
me to accompany him, & I referred him to my partner. In short, we both
agreed, and prepared accordingly; and we were so lucky as to have
liberty to travel among the retinue of one of their Mandarines, who is a
principal magistrate, and much reverenced by the people.

We were five and twenty days travelling thro' this miserable country,
infinitely populous, but as indifferently cultivated; and yet their
pride is infinitely greater than their poverty, insomuch that they
priests themselves derided them. As we passed by the house of one of
their country gentlemen, two leagues off Nanquin, we had the honour,
forsooth, to ride with the Chinese squire about two miles. Never was Don
Quixote so exactly imitated! Never such a compound of pomp and poverty
seen before!

His habit, made of calico, was dirty, greasy, and very proper for a
Mersy Andrew or Scaramouch, with all its tawdry trappings, as hanging
sleeves, tassels, &c. though torn and rent in almost every part; his
vest underneath it was no less dirty, but more greatly; resembling the
most exquisite sloven or greasy butcher; his horse (worse than
Rosinante, or the famous steed of doughty Hudibras) was a poor starved
decrepid thing, that would not sell for thirty shillings in England;
and yet this piece of worshipful pomp was attended with ten or twelve
slaves who guarded their master to his country seat. We stopped at a
little village for refreshment; and when we came by the country seat of
this great man, we found him sitting under a tree before his door,
eating a mess of boiled rice, with a great piece of garlic in the
middle, and a bag filled with green pepper by him, and another plant
like ginger, together with a piece of lean mutton in it: this was his
worship's repast: but pray observe the state of the food! two women
slaves brought him his food, which being laid before him, two others
appeared to perform their respective offices; one fed him with a spoon,
while the other scraped off what fell upon his beard and taffety vest,
and gave it to a particular favourite to eat. And thus we left the
wretch pleased with the conceit of our admiring his magnificence, which
rather merited our scorn and detestation.

At length we arrived at the great city of Pekin, accompanied by two
servants, and the old Portuguese pilot, whose charges we bore, and who
served us as an interpreter by the way. We had scarce been a week at
Pekin, but he comes laughing to us. "Ah! Seignior Inglise, (said he) me
something tell you make your heart glad, but make me sorry: for your
bring me here twenty-five days journey, and now you leave me go back
alone; and which way shall I make my port after, without de ship,
without de horse, without pecune?" so he called money in his broken
Latin. He then informed me, that there was a great caravan of Muscovite
and Polish merchants in the city, who were preparing to set out for
Muscovy by land within six weeks; and, that he was certain we would take
this opportunity, and consequently that he must go home by himself.
Indeed this news infinitely surprised & pleased me. "Are you certain of
this?" said I, "Yes, Sir, (says he) me sure its true." And so he told
me, that having met an old acquaintance of his, an Armenian, in the
street, who was among them, and who had come from Astracan, with a
design to go to Tonquin, but for certain reasons having altered his
resolutions, he was now resolved to go with the caravan, and to return
by the river Wolga to Astracan. "Well, Seignior, (said I) don't be
discontented about your returning alone; and if, by this means, I can
find a passage to England, it will be your own fault if you return to
Macao at all." And so consulting with my partner what was best to be
done, he referred it to me as I pleased, having our affairs so well
settled at Bengal, that if he could convert the good voyage he had made
in China silks, wrought or raw, he would be satisfied to go to England;
and so return to Bengal in the Company's ships. Thus resolved, we agreed
that if our pilot would go with us, we would bear his charges either to
Moscow or England; and to give him in a present the sum of one hundred
and seventy pounds sterling. Hereupon we called him in, and told him the
cause of his complaint should be removed, if he would accompany us with
the caravans; and, therefore, we desired to know his mind. At this he
shook his head, "Great long journey, (said he) me no pecune carry me to
Moscow, or keep me there." But we soon put him out of that concern, by
making him sensible of what we would give him here to lay out the best
advantage; and, as for his charges, we would set him safe on shore, God
willing, either in Muscovy or England, as he pleased, at our own charge,
except the carriage of his goods. At this proposal, he was like a man
transported, telling us he would go with us all the world over; and we
made preparations for our journey; but it was near four months before
all the merchants were ready.

In the mean time, my partner and the pilot went express to the port
where we first put in, to dispose of what goods had been left there,
while I accompanied a Chinese merchant who was going to Nanquin, and
there bought twenty-nine pieces of damask, with about three hundred more
of other fine silks; and, by the time my partner returned to Pekin, I
had them all carried thither; our cargo in silks amounted to 45col.
sterling, which, together with tea, fine calicoes, nutmegs, and cloves,
loaded eighteen camels for our share, besides what we rode upon, with
two or three spare horses, and two more loaden with provisions; the
company now was very great, making about four hundred horse, and above
one hundred and twenty men, well armed and provided. We were of several
nations, among whom were five Scotch merchants, inhabiting in Moscow,
and well experienced in trade.

We set out from Pekin the beginning of February our stile; and in two
days more, we passed through the gate of the great China wall, which was
erected as a fortification against the Tartars, being one hundred
English miles long. We then entered a country not near so populous,
chiefly under the power of plundering Tartars, several companies of whom
we perceived riding on poor starved horses, contemptible as themselves
without order of discipline. One time our leader, for the day, gave us
leave to go a hunting; but what do you think we hunted? only a parcel of
sheep, which indeed exceeded any in the world for wildness and
swiftness; but while we were pursuing this game, it was our chance to
meet with about forty Tartars, who no sooner perceived us, but one of
them blew a horn, at the sound of which there soon appeared a troop of
forty or fifty more, at about a mile's distance. Hereupon, one of the
Scots merchants (who knew their ways) ordered us to advance towards
them, and attack them immediately, As we advanced, they let fly a
volley of arrows, which happily fell a little short of us; this made us
halt a little, to return the compliment with bullets; and then being led
up by the bold Scot, we fired our pistols in their faces, and drew out
our swords; but there was no occasion; for they flew like timorous
sheep, & only three of them remained, beckoning to the rest to come
back. But our brave commander gallops up to them by himself, shot one
dead, knocked another of his horse, while the third ran away; and thus
ended our battle with the Tartars.

We travelled a month more through the Emperor of China's dominions; and
at length coming to one of their towns about a day and a half's journey
from the city of Naum, I wanted to buy a camel. The person I spoke to
would have brought me one, but, like a fool, I must go along with him,
about two miles from the village. My old pilot and I walked on foot,
forsooth, for some variety, when coming to the place where the camels
were kept as in a park guarded by Chinese soldiers, we there agreed and
bought one, which the Chinese man that came along with me led along the
road. But we had not gone far, before we were attacked by five Tartars,
mounted on horseback, two of whom seized the man, took the camel from
him, and rode away, while the other three approached us, the first of
whom suddenly seized me as I was drawing my sword, the second; knocked
me down, but my old trusty Portuguese taking a pistol out of his pocket,
which I knew nothing of, and coming up to the fellow that struck me, he
with one hand pulled him off his horse, and then shot him dead upon the
spot; then taking his scymitar, he struck at the man that stopped us,
but missing him, cut off one of his horses ears, the pain of which made
him throw his rider to the ground. The poor Chinese who had led the
camel, seeing the Tartar down, runs to him, and seizing upon his
pole-ax, wrenched it from his hands, and knocked his brains out. But
there was another Tartar to deal with, who seeming neither inclined to
fight nor fly, and my old man having begun to charge his pistol, the
very sight of it struck such a terror into the wretch, that away he
scoured, leaving my old pilot, rather my champion and defender, an
absolute victory.

By this time being awakened from my trance, I began to open my eyes,
wondering where I was, having quite forgot all that passed; but my
senses returning, and feeling a great pain in my head, and seeing the
blood was running over my clothes, I instantly jumped upon my feet, and
grasped my sword in my hand, with a resolution to take revenge: but no
enemies now remained, except the dead Tartar, with his horse standing by
him. The old man seeing me recovered, whom he thought slain, ran towards
me, and embraced me with the greatest tenderness, at the same time
examining into my wound, which was far from being mortal. When we
returned to the village, the man demanded payment for his camel, which I
refusing, we brought the cause, before a Chinese judge, who acted with
great impartiality: Having heard both sides, he asked the Chinese man
that went with me, whose servant he was? _Sir,_ said he, _I am nobody's,
but went with the stranger at his request: Why then_, said the judge,
_you are the stranger's servant for the time, and the camel being
delivered to his servant, it is the same as though delivered to himself,
and accordingly he must pay for it._ Indeed the case was so fairly
stated, that I had nothing to object to it; so, having paid for that I
was robbed of, I sent for another, but did not go myself to fetch it, as
I had enough of that sport before.

The city of Naum is a frontier of the Chinese empire, so fortified, as
some will tell you, that millions of Tartars cannot batter down their
walls; by which certainly one might think one of our cannons would do
more execution than all their legions.

When we were within a day's march of that city, we had information that
the governor had sent messengers to every part of the road, to inform
the travellers and caravans to halt, till a guard was sent to protect
them from the numerous bodies of Tartars that lately appeared about the
city. This news put us into great consternation; but, obeying the
orders, we stopt; & two days after, there came two hundred soldiers from
a garrison of the Chinese, and three hundred more from Naum; thus
guarded both in the front and rear, with our own men in the flanks, we
boldly advanced, thinking we were able to combat with ten thousand Mogul
Tartars, if they appeared.

Early next morning, in our march from a little well situated town called
Changu, after having passed a river, and entered upon a desert of about
fifteen or sixteen miles over, we soon beheld by a cloud of dust that
was raised, that the enemy was approaching. This much dispirited the
Chinese. My old pilot took notice of it, and called out, _Seignor
Inglise, those fellows must be encouraged, or they will ruin us all, and
I am afraid if the Tartars attack us, they will all run away_. "Why,
Seignor, (said I), what shall be done in this case?" _Done_, says he,
_why let fifty of our men advance, and flank them on each wing. I know
the fellows will fight well enough in company_. We accordingly took his
advice, and marched fifty to the right wing, and the same number to the
left, and with the rest made a line of reserve, leaving the last two
hundred men to guard the camels, or to assist us, as occasion required.

Thus prepared, a party of the enemy came forward, viewing our posture,
and traversing the ground on the front of our line. Hereupon we ordered
the two wings to move on, and give them a salute with their shot; which
accordingly was done. This put a stop to their proceedings; for
immediately wheeling off to their left, they all marched away, and we
saw no more of them. They had undoubtedly given an account to their
companions of what reception they might expect, which made them to
easily give over their enterprize.

When we came to the city of Naum, we returned the governor hearty
thanks, and distributed a hundred crowns among the soldiers that guarded
us. We rested there one day, and then proceeded on our travels, passing
several great rivers and deserts and on the 13th of April we came to the
frontiers of Muscovy, the first town of which was called Argun.

This happy occasion, as I thought, of coming into a Christian country,
made me congratulate the Scots merchant upon it. He smiled at that,
telling me not to rejoice too soon; _for_, said he, _except the Russian
soldiers in garrison, and a few inhabitants of the cities upon the road,
all the rest of this country, for above a thousand miles, is inhabited
by the most ignorant and barbarous Pagans_.

We advanced from the river Arguna, by moderate journies and found
convenient garrisons on the road, filled with Christian soldiers for the
security of commerce, and for the convenient lodgings of travellers: but
the inhabitants of the country were mere Pagans, worshiping the sun,
moon, and stars. We particularly observed this idolatry near the river
Arguna, at a city inhabited by Tartars and Russians, called Nerisinkey.
Being curious to see their way of living, while the caravan continued to
rest themselves in that city, I went to one of their villages, where
there was to be one of their solemn sacrifices.

There I beheld upon the stump of an old tree, an idol of wood, more ugly
than the representation of the devil himself: its head resembled no
living creature; its ears were as big and as high as goat's horns, a
crooked nose, four-cornered mouth, and horrible teeth: it was clothed in
sheep skins, had a great Tartar bonnet, with two horns growing thro' it,
and was eight feet high, without feet, legs or proportion. Before this
idol their lay sixteen or seventeen people, who brought their offerings,
and were making their prayers, while at a distance stood three men and
one bullock, as victims to this ugly monster.

Such stupendous sacrilege as this, in robbing the true God of his
honour, filled me with the greatest astonishment and reflection: which
soon turning to rage and fury, I rode up to the image, and cut in pieces
the bonnet that was upon his head with my sword, so that it hung down by
one of the horns, while one of my men that was with me pulled at it by
his sheep-skin garment. Immediately an hideous howling and outcry ran
through the village, and two or three hundred people coming about our
ears, we were obliged to fly for it.

But I had not done with the monster; for the caravan being to rest
three nights in the town, I told the Scots merchant what I had seen, and
that I was resolved to take four or five men well armed with me, in
order to destroy the idol, and show the people how little reason they
had to trust in a god who could not save himself. At first he laughed at
me, representing the danger of it, and when it was destroyed, what time
had we to preach to them better things, whole zeal and ignorance was in
the highest degree, and both unparalleled? that if I should be taken by
them, I should be served as a poor ruffian, who contemned their worship;
that is, to be stripped naked, and tied to the top of the idol, there
shot at with arrows till my body was fall of them, and then burnt as a
sacrifice to the monster; _but Sir_, said he, _since your zeal carries
you so far, rather than you should be alone I will accompany you, and
bring a stout fellow equal to yourself, if you will, to assist you in
this design:_ and accordingly he brought one Captain Richardson, who,
hearing the story, readily consented; but my partner declined it, being
altogether out of his way: and so we three, and my servant, resolved to
execute this exploit about midnight; but upon second thoughts we
deferred it to the next night, by reason that the caravan being to go
from hence the next morning, we should be out of the governor's power.
The better to effectuate my design, I procured a Tartar's sheep-skin
robe, a bonnet, with bow and arrows, and every one of us got the like
habits, the first night we spent in mixing combustible matter with aqua
vitae, gunpowder, &c. having a good quantity of tar in a little pot:
next night we came up to the idol about eleven o'clock, the moon being
up. We found none guarding it; but we perceived a light in the house,
where we had seen the priests before. One of our men was for firing the
hut, another for killing the people, and a third for making them
prisoners, while the idol was destroyed. We agreed to the latter; so
knocking at the door, we seized the first that opened it, and stopping
his mouth and tying his feet, we left him. We served the other two in
the like manner; and then the Scots merchant set fire to the
composition, which frightened them so much, that we brought them all
away prisoners to their wooden god. There we fell to work with him,
daubing him all over with tar mixed with tallow and brimstone stopping
his eyes, ears, and mouth full of gunpowder, with a great piece of
wild-fire in his bonnet, and environed it with dry forage. All this
being done, we unloosed and ungagged the prisoners, and set the idol on
fire, which the gunpowder blowing up, the shape of it was deformed, rent
and split, which the forage utterly consumed; for we staid to see its
destruction, lest the ignorant idolatrous people should have thrown
themselves into the flames, And thus we came away undiscovered, in the
morning appearing as busy among our fellow travellers, as no body could
have suspected any other, but that we had been in our beds all night.

Next morning we let out, and had gone but a small distance from the
city, when there came a multitude of people of the country to the gates
of the city, demanding satisfaction of the Ruffian governor for
insulting their priests, and burning their great Cham Cai-Thaungu, who
dwelt in the sun, and no mortal would violate this image but some
Christian miscreants; and being already no less than thirty thousand
strong, they announced war against him and all his Christians.

The governor assured them he was ignorant of the matter, and that none
of his garrison had been abroad; that indeed there was a caravan that
went away that morning, and that he would send after them to inquire
into it; and whoever was the offender, should be delivered into their
hands. This satisfied them for the present, but the governor sent to
inform us, that if any of us had done it, we should make all the haste
away possible, while he kept them in play as long as he could. Upon this
we marched two days and two nights, stopping but very little, till at
last we arrived at a village called Plothus, and hasted to Jerawena,
another of the Czar's colonies. On the third day, having entered the
desert, and passed the lake called Shaks Oser, we beheld a numerous body
of horde on the other side or it to the north, who supposed we had
passed on that side of the lake; but either having found the mistake, or
being certainly informed of the way we took, they came upon us towards
the dusk of the evening, just as we had pitched our camp between two
little but very thick woods, with a little river running before our
front and some felled trees with which we covered our rear; a precaution
we always took, and which we had just finished when the enemy came up.
They did not fall on us immediately, but sent three messengers,
demanding the men who had insulted their priests, & burnt their god,
Cham Chi-Thaungu, that they might be burnt with fire; that if this was
complied with, they would peaceably depart; but if not, they would
destroy one and all of us. Our men stared at one another on receipt of
this message, but Nobody was the word, as indeed nobody knew it, but he
who did it. Upon which the leader of the caravan returned for answer,
_That they were peaceable merchants, who meddled with none of their
priests and gods and therefore desired, them not to disturb us, and put
us to the necessity of defending ourselves_. But do far was this from
satisfying them, that the next morning coming to our right, they let fly
a volley of arrows among us, which happily did not hurt any, because we
sheltered ourselves behind our baggage. We expected however to come to a
closer engagement; but were happily saved by a cunning fellow, a
Cossack, who obtaining leave of the leader to go out, mounts his horse,
rides directly from our rear, and taking a circuit, comes up to the
Tartars, as tho he had been sent express, and tells them a formal story,
that the wretches who had burnt the Cham Chi-Thaungu, were gone to
Shiheilka, with a resolution to burn the god Shal-Ifar, belonging to the
Tongueses. Upon which, believing this cunning Tartar, who was servant to
our Muscovites, away they drove to Shiheilka, and in less than three
minutes were out of sight, nor did we ever hear of them more.

When we came to the city of Jarawena, we rested five days, and then
entered into a frightful desert, which held us twenty-three days march,
infested with several small companies of robbers, or Mogul Tartars, who
never had the courage to attack us. After we had passed over this
desert, we found several garisons to defend the caravans from the
violence of the Tartars. In particular the Governor of Adinskoy offered
us a guard of fifty men to the next station, if we apprehended any
danger. The people here retained the same paganism and barbarity, only
they were not so dangerous, being conquered by the Muscovites. The
clothing, both of men & women, is of the skins of beasts, living under
the ground in vaults & caves, which have a communication with one
another. They have idols almost in every family; besides, they adore the
sun and stars, water and snow; and the least uncommon thing that happens
in the elements, alarms them as much as thunder and lightning does the
unbelieving Jews.

Nothing remarkable occurred in our march through this country. When we
had gone through the desert, after two days farther travel; we came to
Jenezoy, a Muscovite city, on the great river so called, which we were
told, parted Europe from Asia. The inhabitants here were very little
better, though intermixed with the Muscovites, but the wonder will
cease, when I inform my readers of what was observed to me, that the
Czar rather converts the Tartars with soldiers than clergymen, and is
more proud to make them faithful subjects, than good Christians.

From this city to the river Oby, we travelled over a pleasant, fruitful,
but very uncultivated country, for want of good management and people,
and those few are mostly Pagans. This is the place where the Muscovite
criminals are banished to, if they are not put to death. The next city
we came to, was the capital city of Siberia, called Tobolski when having
been almost seven months on our journey, and winter drawing on apace, my
partner and I consulted about our particular affairs in what manner we
should dispose of ourselves. We had been told of sledges and rein-deer
to carry us over the snow in the winter season, the snow being frozen so
hard, that the sledges can run upon the surface without any danger of
going down. As I was bound to England, I now behoved either to go with
the caravan to Jerosaw, from thence west to Marva, and the gulph of
Finland, and so by land or sea to Denmark; or else I must leave the
caravan at a little town on the Dwina, and so to Archangel, where I was
certain of shipping either to England, Holland, or Hamburgh. One night I
happened to get into the company of an illustrious, but banished Prince,
whose company and virtues were such as made me to propose to him a
method how he might obtain his liberty. _My dear friend_, said he, _as I
am here happily free from my miserable greatness with all its attendants
of pride, ambition, avarice, and luxury, if I should escape from this
place, those pernicious seeds may again revive, to my lasting
disquietude; therefore let me remain in a blessed confinement, for I am
but flesh, a mere man, with passions and affections as such; O be not my
friend and tempter too!_ Struck dumb with surprise, I stood silent
a-while; nor was he less in disorder, by which perceiving he wanted to
give vent to his mind, I desired him to consider of it, and so withdrew.
But about two hours after he came to my apartment: _Dear friend_, said
he, _though I cannot consent to accompany you, I shall have this
satisfaction in parting, that you leave me an honest man still: but as a
testimony of my affection to you, be pleased to accept this present
of sables_.

In return for his compliment, I sent my servant next morning to his
Lordship with a small present of tea, two pieces of China damask, and
four little wedges of gold; but he only accepted the tea, one piece of
damask, and one piece of gold, for the curiosity of the Japan stamp that
was upon it. Not long after he sent for me, and told me, _that what he
had refused himself, he hoped upon his account, I would grant to another
whom he should name:_ In short it was his only son, who was about two
hundred miles distant from him, on the other side of the city, whom he
said he would send for, if I gave my consent. This I soon complied with;
upon which he sent his servants next day for his son, who returned in
twenty days time, bringing seven horses loaded with valuable furs. At
night the young Lord was conducted incognito into our apartment, where
his father presented him to me. We then concerted the best ways for
travelling, and after having bought a considerable quantity of sables,
black fox-skins, fine ermines, &c. (which I sold at Archangel at a good
price) we set out from this city the beginning of June, making a small
caravan, being about thirty-two horses and camels, of which I
represented the head. My young Lord had with him a very faithful
Siberian servant, well acquainted with the roads: We shunned the
principal towns and cities, as Tumen, Soli Kamoskoi, and several others,
by reason of their strictness in examining travellers, lest any of the
banished persons of distinction should escape. Having passed the river
Kama, we came to a city on the European side, called Soloy Kamoskoi,
where we found the people mostly Pagans as before. We then passed a
desert of about two hundred miles over; but in other places it is near
seven hundred. In passing this wild place, we were beset by a troop of
men on horseback, and about five and forty men armed with bows and
arrows. At first they looked earnestly on us, and then placed themselves
in our way. We were above sixteen men, and drew up a little line before
our camels. My young Lord sent out his Siberian servant, to know who
they were; but, when he approached them, he neither knew a word they
said; nor would they admit him to come near them at his peril, but
prepared to shoot him. At his return, he told us he believed them to be
Calmuc Tartars; and that there were more upon the desert. This was but a
small comfort to us; yet seeing a little grove, about a quarter of a
mile's distance, we moved to it, by the old Portuguese pilot's advice,
without meeting with any opposition. Here we found a marshy piece of
ground, and a spring of water running into a little brook on one side,
which joined another like it a little further off, and these two formed
the head of the river called Writska. As soon as we arrived, we went to
work, cutting great arms off the trees, and laying them hanging (not
quite off from one tree to another). In this situation we waited the
motion of the enemy, without perceiving any advancement they made
towards us. About two hours before night, being joined by some others,
in all about fourscore horse, among whom we fancied were some women,
they came upon us with great fury. We fired without ball, calling to
them in the Russian tongue, to know their business; but they, either not
knowing, or seeming not to understand us, came directly to the wood
side, nor considering that we were to be fortified, as that they could
not break in. Our old pilot, the Portuguese, proved both our captain and
engineer, and desired us not to fire, till they came within pistol shot;
and when he gave the word of command, then to take the surest aim: but
he did not bid us give fire, till they were within two pikes length of
us, and then we filled fourteen of them, wounded several, as also their
horses, having every one of us loaded our pieces with two or three
bullets at least. So much were they surprised at our undauntedness, that
they retired about a hundred roods from us. In the mean while we loaded
our pieces again, and sallying out, secured four or five of their
horses, whose riders we found were killed, and perceived them to be
Tartars. About an hour after, they made another attempt, to see where
they might break in; but finding us ready to receive them, they retired.

All that night we wrought hard, in strengthening our situation, and
barricading the entrances into the woods; but when day-light came, we
had a very unwelcome discovery; for the enemy, being encouraged by
their numbers, had set up eleven or twelve tents, in form of a camp,
about three quarters of a mile from us. I must confess, I was never more
concerned in my life, giving myself and all that I had over for lost.
And my partner declared, that as the loss of his goods would be his
ruin, before they should be taken from him, he would fight to the last
drop of his blood. As we could not pretend to force our way, we had
recourse to a stratagem; we kindled a large fire, which burnt all night;
and no sooner was it dark, but we pursued our journey towards the pole
or north star, and travelling all night; by six o'clock in the morning
we came to a Russian village called Kertza, and from thence came to a
large town named Ozonzoys, where we heard that several troops of Calmuc
Tartars had been abroad upon the desert, but that we were past all
danger. In five days after we came to Veuslima, upon the river Witzedga;
from thence we came to Lawrenskoy, on the third of July, where,
providing ourselves with two luggage boats, and a convenient bark, we
embarked the seventh, and arrived at Archangel the eighteenth, after a
year, five months, and three days journey, including the eight months
and odd days at Tobolski. We came from Archangel the 20th of August in
the same year, and arrived at Hamburg the 30th of September. Here my
partner and I made a very good sale of our goods, both those of China
and Siberia; when dividing our effects, my share came to 3475l. 17s. 3d.
after all the losses we had sustained, and charges we had been at. Here
the young Lord took his leave of me, in order to go to the court of
Vienna, not only to seek protection, but to correspond with his father's
friends. After we had staid four months in Hamburgh, I went from thence
overland to the Hague, where embarking in the packet, I arrived in
London the 10th of January 1705, after ten years and nine months absence
from England.


* * * * *


However solitude is looked upon as a restraint to the pleasure of the
world, in company and conversation, yet it is a happy state of exemption
from a sea of trouble, an inundation of vanity and vexation, of
confusion and disappointment. While we enjoy ourselves, neither the joy
not sorrow of other men affect us: We are then at liberty with the voice
of our soul, to speak to God. By this we shun such frequent trivial
discourse, as often becomes an obstruction to virtue: and how often do
we find that we had reason to with we had not been in company, or said
nothing when we were there? for either we offend God by the impiety of
our discourse, or lay ourselves open to the violence of designing people
by our ungarded expressions; and frequently feel the coldness and
treachery of pretended friends, when once involved in trouble and
affliction: of such unfaithful intimates (I should say enemies) who
rather by false inuendoes would accumulate miseries upon us, than
honestly assist us when under the hard hand of adversity. But in a state
of solitude, when our tongues cannot be heard, except from the great
Majesty of Heaven, how happy are we, in the blessed enjoyment of
conversing with our Maker! It is then we make him our friend, which sets
us above the envy and contempt of wicked men. When a man converses with
himself, he is sure that he does not converse with an enemy. Our retreat
should be to good company, and good books. I mean not by solitude, that
a man should retire into a cell, a desert, or a monastry: which would be
altogether an useless and unprofitable restraint: for as men ate formed
for society, and have an absolute necessity and dependance upon one
another; so there is a retirement of the soul, with which it converses
in heaven, even in the midst of men; and indeed no man is more fit to
speak freely, than he who can, without any violence himself, refrain his
tongue, or keep silence altogether. As to religion, it is by this the
foul gets acquainted with the hidden mysteries of the holy writings;
here she finds those floods of tears, in which good men wash themselves
day and night, and only makes a visit to God, and his holy angels. In
this conversation the truest peace and most solid joy are to be found;
it is a continual feast of contentment on earth, and the means of
attaining everlasting happiness in heaven.


Honesty is a virtue beloved by good men, and pretended to by all other
persons. In this there are several degrees: to pay every man his own is
the common law of honesty: but to do good to all mankind, is the
chancery law of honesty: and this chancery court is in every man's
breast, where his conscience is a Lord Chancellor. Hence it is, that a
miser, though he pays every body their own, cannot be an honest man,
when he does not discharge the good offices that are incumbent on a
friendly, kind, and generous person: for, faith the prophet Isaiah,
chap. XXXII. ver. 7, 8. _The instruments of a churl are evil: he
deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when
the needy speaketh right. But the liberal soul deviseth liberal things,
and by liberal things shall he stand_. It is certainly honest to do
every thing the law requires; but should we throw every poor debtor into
prison till he has paid the utmost farthing, hang every malefactor
without mercy, exact the penalty of every bond, and the forfeiture of
every indenture, this would be downright cruelty, and not honesty: and
it is contrary to that general rule, _To do to another, that which you
would have done unto you_. Sometimes necessity makes an honest man a
knave: and a rich man a honest man, because he has no occasion to be a
knave. The trial of honesty is this: Did you ever want bread, and had
your neighbour's loaf in keeping, and would starve rather than eat it?
Were you ever arrested, having in your custody another man's cash, and
would rather go to gaol, than break it? if so, this indeed may be
reckoned honesty. For King Solomon tells us, _That a good name is better
than life, and is a precious ointment, and which, when a man has once
lost, he has nothing left worth keeping_.

CHAP. III _Of the present state of Religion in the world_.

I doubt, indeed, there is much more devotion than religion in the world,
more adoration than supplication, and more hypocrisy than sincerity; and
it is very melancholy to consider, what numbers of people there are
furnished with the powers of reason and gifts of nature, and yet
abandoned to the grossest ignorance and depravity. But it would be
uncharitable for us to imagine (as some Papists, abounding with too much
ill nature, the only scandal to religion, do) that they will certainly
be in a state of damnation after this life; for how can we think it
consistent with the mercy and goodness of an infinite Being, to damn
those creatures, when he has not furnished them with the light of the
gospel? or how can such proud, conceited and cruel bigots, prescribe
rules to the justice and mercy of God?

We are told by some people, that the great image which King
Nebuchadnezzar set up to be adored by his people held the representation
of the sun in it's right hand, as the principal object of adoration. But
to wave this discourse of Heathens, how many self-contradicting
principles are there held among Christians? and how do we doom one
another to the devil, while all profess to worship the same Deity, and
to expect the same salvation.

When I was at Portugal, there was held at that time the court of justice
of the Inquisition. All the criminals were carried in procession to the
great church, where eight of them were habited in gowns and caps of
canvass, whereon the torments of hell were displayed, and they were
condemned and burnt for crimes against the Catholic faith and
blessed Virgin.

I am sorry to make any reflection upon Christians; but indeed, in Italy
the Roman religion seems the most cruel and mercenary upon earth; and a
very judicious person, who travelled through Italy from Turkey, tells,
_That there is only the face and outward pomp of religion there; that
the church protects murderers and assassins; and then delivers the civil
magistrate over to Satan for doing justice; interdicts whole kingdoms,
and shuts up the churches for want of paying a few ecclesiastical dues,
and so puts a stop to religion for want of their money; that the court
of Inquisition burnt two men for speaking dishonourably of the Blessed
Virgin; and the missionaries of China tolerated the worshipping the
devil by their new converts: that Italy was the theatre, where religion
was the grand opera: and that the Popish clergy were no other than
stage players_.

As to religion in Poland, they deny Christ to be the Messiah, or that
the Messiah has come in the flesh. And as to their Protestants, they are
the followers of Laelius Socinus, who denied our Saviour's divinity; and
have no concern about the divine inspiration of the Holy Ghost.

In Muscovy their churches are built of wood, and, indeed, they have but
wooden priests, though of the Greek church; they pray as much to St.
Nicholas, as the Papists do to the Virgin Mary, for protection in all
their difficulties or afflictions.

As to Lutherans, they only differ from the Romans in believing
consubstantiation, instead of transubstantiation; but like them, they
are much pleased with the external gallantry and pomp, more than the
true and real practice of it.

In France I found a world of priests, the streets every where crowded
with them, and the churches full of women: but surely never was a nation
so full of blind guides, so ignorant of religion, and even as void of
morals, as those people who confess their sins to them.

Does it not seem strange, that, while all men own the Divine Being,
there should be so many different opinions as to the manner of paying
him obedience in the Christian church? I know not what reason to assign
for this, except it be their different capacities and faculties.

And, indeed, upon this account, we have perceived, in all Christian
countries, what mortal feuds have been about religion; what wars and
bloodshed have molested Europe, till the general pacification of the
German troubles at the treaty of Westphalia: and since those times, what
persecution in the same country among the churches of the Lutherans; and
should I take a prospect at home, what unhappy divisions are between
Christians in this kingdom, about Episcopacy and Presbytery; the church
of England and the Dissenters opposing one another like St. Paul and St.
Peter, even to the face; that is, they carry on the dispute to the
utmost extremity.

It might be a question, why there are such differences in religious
points, and why these breaches should be more hot and irreconcileable?
All the answer I can give to this, is, that we inquire more concerning
the truth of religion, than any other nation in the world; and the
anxious concern we have about it, makes us jealous of every opinion, and
tenacious of our own; and this is not because we are more furious and
rash than other people; but the truth is, we are more concerned about
them, and being sensible that the scripture is the great rule of faith,
the standard for life and doctrine, we have recourse to it ourselves,
without submitting to any pretended infallible judge upon earth.

There is another question, pertinent to the former, and that is, _What
remedy can we apply to this malady_? And to this I must negatively
answer, _Not to be less religious, that we may differ the less_. This is
striking at the very root of all religious differences; for, certainly,
were they to be carried on with a peaceable spirit, willing to be
informed, our variety of opinions would not have the name of
differences; nor should we separate in communion of charity though we
did not agree in several articles of religion.

Nor is there a less useful question to start, namely, _Where will our
unhappy religious differences end?_ To which, I hope, I may answer, _In
Heaven_; there we shall unchristian and unbrotherly differences will
find a period; there we shall embrace many a sinner, that here we think
it a dishonour to converse with; & perceive many a heart we have broken
here with censures, reproachings, & revilings, made whole again by the
balm of the same Redeemer's blood. Here we shall perceive there have
been other flocks than those of our fold; that those we have
excommunicated have been taken into that superior communion; and, in a
word, that those contradicting notions and principles which we thought
inconsistent with true religion, we shall then find reconcileable to
themselves, to one another, and to the fountain of truth. If any man ask
me, Why our differences cannot be ended on earth? I answer, _Were we all
thoroughly convinced, that then they would be reconciled, we would put
an end to them before; but this is impossible to be done: for as men's
certain convictions of truth are not equal to one another, or the weight
or significancy of such veracity: so neither can a general effect of
this affair be expected on this side of time_.

Before I conclude this chapter, I shall beg leave to discourse a little
of the wonderful excellency of negative religion and negative virtue.
The latter sets out, like the Pharisee, with, _God, I thank thee;_ it is
a piece of religious pageantry, the hypocrite's hope: and, in a word, it
is positive vice: for it is either a mask to deceive others, or a mist
to deceive ourselves. A man that is clothed with negatives, thus argues:
_ I am not such a drunkard as my landlord, such a thief as my tenant,
such a rakish fellow, or a highwayman; No! I live a sober, regular,
retired life: I am a good man, I go to church; God, I thank thee._ Now,
through a mans boasts of his virtue in contradiction to the vices
mentioned, yet a person had better have them altogether than the man
himself; or he is so full of himself, so persuaded that he is good and
religious enough already, that he has no thoughts of any thing, except
it be to pull of his hat to God Almighty now and then, and thank him
that he has no occasion for him; and has the vanity to think that his
neighbours must imagine well of him too.

The negative man, though he is no drunkard is yet intoxicated with the
pride of his own worth; a good neighbour and peace-maker in other
families, but a tyrant in his own; appears in church for a show, but
never falls upon his knees in his closet; does all his alms before men,
to be seen of them; eager in the duties of the second table, but
regardless of the first; appears religious, to be taken notice of by
men, but without intercourse or communication between God and his own
soul: Pray, what is this man? or what comfort is there of the life he
lives? he is insensible of faith, repentance, and a Christian mortified
life: in a word, he is a perfectly a stranger to the essential part
of religion.

Let us for a while enter into the private and retired part of his
conversation: What notions has he of his mispent hours, and of the
progress of time to the great centre and gulph of life, eternity? Does
he know how to put a right value on time, or esteem the life-blood of
his soul, as it really is, and act in all the moments of it, as one that
must account for them? if then you can form an equality between what he
can do and what he shall receive; less can be founded upon his negative
virtue, or what he has forborne to do: And if neither his negative nor
positive piety can be equal to the reward, and to the eternity that
reward is to last for, what then is to become of the Pharisee, when he
is to be judged by the sincerity of his repentance, and rewarded,
according to the infinite grace of God, with a state of blessedness to
an endless eternity?

When the negative man converses with the invisible world, he is filled
with as much horror and dread as Felix, when St Paul reasoned to him of
temperance, righteousness, and of judgment to come; for Felix, though a
great philosopher, of great power and reverence, was a negative man, and
he was made sensible by the Apostle, that, as a life of virtue and
temperance was its own reward, by giving a healthy body, a clear head,
and a composed life, so eternal happiness must proceed from another
spring; namely, the infinite unbounded grace of a provoked God, who
having erected a righteous tribunal, Jesus Christ would separate such as
by faith and repentance he had brought home and united to himself by the
grace of adoption, and on the foot of his having laid down his life as a
ransom for them, had appointed them to salvation, when all the
philosophy, temperance, and righteousness in the world besides had been
ineffectual. And this, I say, it was, that made Felix, this negative
man tremble.

CHAP. IV. _Of listening to the voice of Providence_.

The magnificent and wise King Solomon bids us cry after knowledge, and
lift up our voice for understanding; by which is meant, religious
knowledge, for it follows: _Then shalt thou understand the fear of the
Lord, and find the knowledge of God_. By which undoubtedly he meant, to
enquire after every thing he has permitted us to know, and not to search
into those ways that are unsearchable, and are effectually locked up
from our knowledge.--Now, _as listening to the voice of Providence_ is
my present subject, I intend, in the first place, to write to those who
own, 1. That there is a God, a first great moving cause of all things,
and eternal power, prior, and consequently superior to all created power
or being.--2. That this eternal power, which is God, is the sovereign
creator and governor of heaven and earth.

To avoid all needless distinctions, what persons in the God-head
exercise the creating, and what the governing power, I offer that
glorious text, Psal. xxiii. 6. where the whole Trinity is entitled to
the whole creating work: and, therefore, in the next place, I shall lay
down these two propositions.

I. _That the eternal God guides, by his providence, the whole
universe, which was created by his power._

II. _That this providence manifests a particular care over, and
concern in, the governing and directing man, the most noble
creature upon earth_.

It is plain, that natural religion proves the first, by intimating the
necessity of a providence guiding and governing the world, from the
consequence of the wisdom, justice, prescience, and goodness of the
Almighty Creator: for otherwise it would be absurd to think, that God
should create a world, without any care or providence over it, in
guiding the operations of nature, so as to preserve the order of
his creation.

Revealed religion gives us a light into the care and concern of his
providence, by the climate's being made habitable, the creatures
subjected and made nourishing, and all vegetative life made medicinal;
and all this for the sake of man, who is made viceroy to the King of the
earth. The short description I shall give of providence is this: _That
it is that operation of the power, of the wisdom, and goodness of God,
by which be influences, governs, and directs, not only the means, but
the events of all things, which concern us in this sublunary world; the
sovereignty of which we ought always to reverence, obey its motions,
observe its dictates, and listen to its voice. The prudent man forseeth
the evil, and hideth himself; that is, as I take it, there is a secret
providence intimates to us, that some danger threatens, if we strive not
to shun it_.

The same day that Sir John Hotham kept out Hull against the royal martyr
King Charles I. the same day Sir John Hotham was put to death by the
parliament for that very action: The same day that the King himself
signed the warrant for the execution of the Earl of Stafford, the same
day of the month was he barbarously murdered by the blood-thirsty
Oliverian crew: and the same day that King James II. came to the crown
against the bill of exclusion, the same day he was voted abdicated by
the parliament, and the throne filled with King William and Queen Mary.

The voice of signal deliverances from sudden dangers, is not only a just
call to repentance, but a caution against falling into the like danger;
but such who are utterly careless of themselves after, show a lethargy
of the worst nature, which seems to me to be a kind of practical atheism
or at least, a living in a contempt of Heaven, when he receives good at
the hand of his Maker, but is unconcerned from whence it comes, or to
thank the bountiful hand that gave it; neither, when he receives evil,
does it alter his manner of life, or bring him to any state of

We have a remarkable story of two soldiers being condemned to death in
Flanders. The general being prevailed upon to spare one of them, ordered
them to cast dice upon the drumhead for their lives; the first having
thrown two sixes, the second fell a wringing his hands, having so poor a
chance to escape; however, having thrown, he was surprised when he also
threw other two sixes. The officer appointed to see the execution,
ordered them to throw again; they did so, and each of them threw fives;
at which the soldiers that stood round, shouted, and said, neither of
them was to die. Upon this, the officer acquainted the council of war,
who ordered them to throw a third time, when they threw two fours: the
general being acquainted with it, sent for the men, and pardoned them.
_I love,_ said he, _in such extraordinary cases, to listen to the voice
of Providence._

We read in the holy writings, how God speaks to men by appearance of
angels, or by dreams and visions of the night. As God appeared to
Abraham, Lot, and Jacob: so angels have appeared to many in other cases,
as to Manoah and his wife, Zechariah, the Virgin Mary, and to the
apostles; other have been warned in a dream as king Abimelech, the false
prophet Balaam, and many others.

It is certainly a very great and noble inquiry, _What we shall be after
this life?_ for there is scarce a doubt, that there is a place reserved
for the reception of our souls after death: for if we are to be, we must
have a where, which the scriptures assert by the examples of Dives and
Lazarus. The doctrine of spirits was long believed before our Saviour's
time; for when the disciples of the blessed Jesus perceived our Saviour
walking on the sea, they were as much surprised as though they had seen
a spirit. Nay, in those ages of the world, it was believed that spirits
intermeddled in the affairs of mankind; and, throughout the Old
Testament, I do not find any thing that in the least contradicts is. All
the pains and labour that some learned men have taken, to confute the
story of the witch of Endor, and the appearance of an old man
personating Samuel, cannot make such apparitions inconsistent with
nature or religion; and it is plain, that it was either a good or bad
spirit, that prophetically told the unfortunate king what should happen
the next day; for, said the spirit, _The Lord will deliver thee into the
hands of the Philistines; and to-morrow shalt thou and thy sons be
with me._

Abundance of strange notions possessed me, when I was in the desolate
island; especially on a moonshine night, when every bush seemed a man,
and every tree a man on horseback. When I crept into the dismal cave
where the old goat lay expiring, whole articulate groans even resembled
those of a man, how was I surprised I my blood chilled in my veins,
a cold

[Transcriber's note: There are three pages (224-226) missing from the
source document.]

as not to awake him, the sleeping man shall dream of what has been so
whispered in his ear; nay, I can assure you, those insinuating devils
can do this even when we are awake, which I call impulses of the mind:
for from whence, but from these insinuators, come our causeless
passions, involuntary wickedness, or sinful desires? Who else form ideas
in the mind of man when he is asleep, or present terrible or, beautiful
figures to his, fancy: Mr. Milton represents the devil tempting Eve in
the shape of a toad, lying just at her ear, when in her bower she lay
fast asleep; and brings in Eve telling Adam what an uneasy night's rest
she had, and relating her dream to him. And likewise I believe that good
spirits have the same intercourse with us, in warning us against those
things that are evil, and prompting us to that which is good.

Were we to have the eyes of our souls opened, through the eyes of our
bodies, we should see this very immediate region or air which we breath
in, thronged with spirits now invisible, and which otherwise would be
the most terrible; we should view the secret transactions of those
messengers who are employed when the parting soul takes it's leave of
the reluctant body, and perhaps see things nature would shrink back from
with the utmost terror and amazement. In a word, the curtain of
Providence for the disposition of things here, and the curtain of
judgment for the determination of the state of souls hereafter, would be
alike drawn back; and what heart could support here its future state in
life; much less that, of its future state after life, even good or bad.

A gentleman of my acquaintance, being about seven miles distant from
London, a friend that came to dine with him, solicited him to go to the
city. _What_, said the gentleman, _is there any occasion for me? No,
Sir_, said the other, _nothing at all except the enjoyment of your good
company_: and so gave over importuning him. Just then a strong impulse
of mind urged the gentleman and pursued him like a voice, with, _Go to
London, Go to London. Hark ye_, says he to his friend, _is all well at
London? Am I wanted there? Or did you ask me to go with you on any
particular account? Are all my family well? Yes, indeed, Sir_, said he,
_I perceived them all very hearty; and I did not ask you to go to London
upon any particular account whatsoever, except it was for the sake of
your good company_. Again, he put off his resolution: but still the
impulse suggested to him, _Go to London_; and at length he did so. When
he came there, he found a letter and a messenger had been there to seek
him, and to tell him of a particular business, which was at first and
last above a thousand pounds to him, and which might inevitably have
been lost, had he hot gone to London that night.

The obeying of several hints, of secret impulses, argues great wisdom.
I knew a man that was under misfortunes, being guilty of misdemeanors
against the goverment; when, absconding for fear of his ruin, all his
friends advising him not to put himself in the hands of the law, one
morning as he awaked, he felt a strong impulse darting into his mind
thus, _Write a letter to them;_ and this was repeated several times to
his mind, and at last he answered to it, as if it had been a voice,
_Whom shall I write to?_ Immediately it replied, _Write to the judge:_
and this impulse pursued him for several days, till at length he took
pen, ink, and paper, and sat down to write to him: when immediately
words flowed from his pen, like streams from a fair fountain, that
charmed even himself with hopes of success. In short, the letter was so
strenuous in argument, so pathetic in its eloquence, and so persuasively
moving, that when the judge had read it, he sent him an answer he might
be easy, he would endeavour to make that matter light to him; and,
indeed, never left exerting himself, till he had stopt the prosecution,
and restored him to his liberty and family.

I know a person who had so strong an impression upon her mind, that the
house she was in would be burnt that very night, that she could not
sleep; the impulse she had upon her mind pressed her not to go to bed,
which, however, she got over, and went to bed; but was so terrified with
the thought, which run in her mind, that the house would be burnt, that
she could not go to sleep; but communicating her apprehensions to
another in the family, they were both in such a fright, that they
applied themselves to search from the top of the house to the bottom, &
to see every fire and candle safe out, so that, as they all said, it was
impossible that any thing could happen then, and they sent to the
neighbours on both sides to do the like. Thus far they did well: But had
she obeyed the hint which pressed upon her strangely, not to go to bed,
she had done much better; for the fire was actually kindled at that very
time, though not broken out. About an hour after the whole family was in
bed, the house just over the way, directly opposite, was all in flames,
and the wind, which was very high, blowing the flame upon the house this
gentlewoman lived in, so filled it with smoke and fire, in a few
minutes, the street being narrow, that they had not air to breathe, or
time to do any thing, but jump out of their beds, and save their lives.
Had she obeyed the hint given, and not gone to bed, she might have saved
several things; but the few moments she had spared to her, were but just
sufficient to leap out of bed, put some cloathes on, and get down
stairs, for the house was on fire in half a quarter of an hour.

While I am mentioning these things, methinks it is very hard that we
should obey the whispers of evil spirits, and not much rather receive
the notices which good ones are pleased to give. We never perceive the
misfortune of this, but when in real danger; and then we cry, _My mind
misgave me when I was going about it_; but if so, why do you fight the
caution? Why not listen to it as to a voice? and then there had been no
reason to make this complaint.

I remember about fourteen or fifteen years ago (as to time I cannot be
very positive) there was a young clergyman in the city of Dublin, in
Ireland, who dreamed a very uncommon dream, that a gentleman had killed
his wife, a relation of his, by stabbing her in several places; the
fright of this awaked him, but finding it a dream, he composed himself
again to sleep, when he dreamed a second time the same dream. This made
him a little uneasy; but thinking it proceeded from the impression made
on his mind by the former, he went to sleep again, and dreamed the same
dream a third time also. So troubled was he at this, that he arose, and
knocked at his mother's chamber, told his concern, and his apprehensions
that all was not right at his relation's house. _Dear son_, says the
good old gentlewoman, _do not mind these foolish dreams; and I very much
wonder, that you, being a person in holy orders, should have regard to
such illusions_. Upon this he went to bed again, fell asleep, and
dreamed a fourth time as before. And then indeed he put on his
night-gown, and went to Smithfield, the place where his relation dwelt.
Here it was, alas! he perceived his dream too sadly fulfilled, by seeing
his relation the young lady, big with child, who was a Protestant,
stabbed in several places by her barbarous husband, Mr. Eustace, a
violent Papist, only for some discourses of religion that happened the
day before. After the wretch had stabbed her in three places, he went to
make his escape out at a window; but she cried out, _My dear! don't
leave me, come back, and I shall be well again_. At which he returned in
a hellish rage, and gave her four wounds more; when, even in this
condition, rising from her bed, she wrapped herself in her night-gown,
and went to the Lord Bishop of Rapho's chamber door (the Bishop lodging
at that time in the house). _My Lord_, said she, _O my Lord, make haste
unto me_; but as soon as his Lordship came, she expired in his arms,
resigning her precious soul into the hands of Almighty God. The cruel
wretch her husband was shot by the pursuers; too good a death for one
who deserved the gibbet; and the lady was universally lamented by all
tender and religious people. And this tragical relation I have
mentioned, upon the account of that impulse, or dream, that the
clergyman had at the fatal time of the bloody action.

It might be expected I should enter upon the subject of apparitions,
and discourse concerning the reality of them; and whether they can
revisit the place of their former existence, and resume those faculties
of speech and shape as they had when living; but, as these are very
doubtful matters, I shall only make a few observations upon them.

I once heard of a man that would allow the reality of apparitions, but
laid it all upon the devil, thinking that the souls of men departed, or
good men, did never appear. To this very man something did appear: He
said, he saw the shape of an ancient man pass by him in the dusk, who,
holding up his hand in a threatening posture, cried out, _O wicked man,
repent, repent_. Terrified with this apparition, he consulted several
friends, who advised him to take the advice. But after all, it was not
an apparition, but a grave and pious gentleman, who met him by mere
accident, and had been sensible of his wickedness; and who never
undeceived him, lest it should hinder his reformation.

Some people make a very ill use of the general notion, that there are no
apparitions nor spirits at all: which is worse than those who fancy they
see them upon every occasion; for those carry their notions farther,
even to annihilate the devil, and believe nothing about him, neither of
one kind or other: the next step they come to, is to conclude, _There is
no God_, and so atheism takes its rise in the same sink, with a
carelessness about futurity. But there is no occasion to enter upon an
argument to prove the being of the Almighty, or to illustrate his power
by words, who has so many undeniable testimonies in the breasts of every
rational being to prove his existence: and we have sufficient proofs
enough to convince us of the great superintendency of Divine Providence
in the minutest affairs of this world; the manifest existence of the
invisible world; the reality of spirits, and intelligence between us and
them. What I have said, I hope, will not mislead any person, or be a
means whereby they may delude themselves; for I have spoken of these
things with the utmost seriousness of mind, and with a sincere and
ardent desire for the general good and benefit of the world.

CHAP. V. _Of suffering Afflictions._

Afflictions are common to all mankind; and whether they proceed from
losses, disappointments, or the malice of men, they often bring their
advantages along with them: For this shews man the vanity and
deceitfulness of this life, and is an occasion of rectifying our
measures, and bringing us to a more modest opinion of ourselves: It
tells us, how necessary the assistance of divine grace is unto us, when
life itself becomes a burden, and death even desirable: But when the
greatest oppression comes upon us, we must have recourse to patience,
begging of God to give us that virtue; and the more composed, we are
under any trouble, the more commendable is our wisdom, and the larger
will be our recompense. Let the provocation be what it will, whether
from a good-natured and conscientious, or a wicked, perverse, and
vexatious man; all this we should take as from the over-ruling hand of
God, as a punishment for our sins. Many times injured innocence may be
abused by false oaths, or the power of wicked, jealous, or malicious
men; but we often find it, like the palm, rise the higher the more it is
depressed; while the justice of God is eminently remarkable in punishing
those, one way or other, who desire to endeavour to procure the downfal
of an innocent man: Nor does God fail comforting an afflicted person,
who with tears and prayers solicits the throne of Heaven for deliverance
and protection. David says, _that his soul was full of trouble, and his
life drew near unto the grave_. But certainly David's afflictions made
him eminently remarkable, as particularly when pursued by King Saul, and
hunted as a partridge over the mountains. But one thing which stands by
innocence, is the love of God; for were we to suffer disgrace, nay, an
ignominious death itself, what consolation does our innocence procure at
our latest conflict, our last moments!

CHAP. VI. _Of the immorality of conversation, and the vulgar errors of

As conversation is a great part of human happiness, so it is a pleasant
sight to behold a sweet tempered man, who is always fit for it; to see
an air of humour and pleasantness sit ever upon his brow, and even
something angelic in his very countenance: Whereas, if we observe a
designing man, we shall find a mark of involuntary sadness break in upon
his joy, and a certain insurrection in the soul, the natural concomitant
of profligate principles.

They err very much, who think religion, or a strict morality discomposes
the mind, and renders it unfit for conversation; for it rather inspires
us to innocent mirth, without such a counterfeit joy as vitious men
appear with; and indeed wit is as consistent with religion, as religion
is with good manners; nor is there any thing in the limitation of virtue
and religion that should abate the pleasures of this world, but on the
contrary rather serves to increase them.

On the other hand, many men, by their own vice and intemperance,
disqualify themselves for conversation. Conversation is immoral, where
the discourse is undecent, immodest, scandalous, slanderous, and
abusive. How great is their folly, and how much do they expose
themselves when they affront their best friend, even God himself, who
laughs at the fool _when his fear cometh?_

The great scandal atheistical and immoral discourse gives to virtue,
ought, methinks, to be punished by all good magistrates: Make a man once
cease to believe a God, and he has nothing left to limit his soul. How
incongruous is it to government, that a man shall be punished for
drunkenness, and yet have liberty to affront, and even deny the Majesty
of heaven? When if, even among men, one gives the lie to a gentleman in
company, or perhaps speaks an affronting word, a quarrel will ensue, and
a combat, and perhaps murder be the consequence: At the least, he, will
prosecute him at law with the utmost virulence and oppression.

The next thing to be refrained, is obscene discourse, which is the
language only of proficients in debauchery, who never repent, but in a
gaol or hospital; and whose carcases relish no better than their
discourse, till the body becomes too nasty for the soul to stay any
longer in it.

Nor is false talking to be less avoided; for lying is the sheep's
clothing hung upon the wolf's back: It is the Pharisee's prayer, the
whore's buss, the hypocrite's paint, the murderer's smile, the thief's
cloak; it is Joab's embrace, and Judah's kiss; in a word, it is
mankind's darling sin, and the devil's distinguishing character. Some
add lies to lies, till it not only comes to be improbable, but even
impossible too: Others lie for gain to deceive, delude, and betray: And
a third lies for sport, or for fun. There are other liars, who are
personal and malicious; who foment differences, and carry tales from one
house to another, in order to gratify their own envious tempers, without
any regard to reverence or truth.





_From the voyage of Captain Woodes Rogers to the South Seas and round
the World._

* * * * *

On February 1st, 1709, we came before that island,[1] having had a good
observation the day before, and found our latitude to be 34 degrees 10
minutes south. In the afternoon, we hoisted out our pinnace; and Captain
Dover, with the boat's crew, went in her to go ashore, though we could
not be less that four leagues off. As soon as the pinnace was gone, I
went on board the Duchess, who admired our boat attempting going ashore
at that distance from land. It was against my inclination: but, to
oblige Captain Dover, I let her go: As soon as it was dark, we saw a
light ashore. Our boat was then about a league off the island, and bore
away for the ship as soon as she saw the lights: We put our lights
aboard for the boat, though some were of opinion, the lights we saw were
our boat's lights: But, as night came on, it appeared too large for
that: We fired our quarter-deck gun, and several muskets, showing lights
in our mizen and fore-shrouds, that our boat might find us whilst we
were in the lee of the island: About two in the morning our boat came on
board, having been two hours on board the Duchess, that took them up
astern of us; we were glad they got well off, because it began to blow.
We were all convinces the light was on the shore, and designed to make
our ships ready to engage, believing them to be French ships at anchor,
and we must either fight them, or want water. All this stir and
apprehension arose, as we afterwards found, from one poor naked man, who
passed in our imagination, at present, for a Spanish garrison, a body of
Frenchmen, or a crew of pirates. While we were under these
apprehensions, we stood on the backside of the island, in order to fall
in with the southerly wind, till we were past the island; and then we
came back to it again, and ran close aboard the land that begins to make
the north-east side.

[Footnote 1: _Juan Fernandez._]

We still continued to reason upon this matter; and it is in a manner
incredible, what strange notions many of our people entertained from the
sight of the fire upon the island. It served, however, to show people's
tempers and spirits; and we were able to give a tolerable guess how our
men would behave, in case there really were any enemies upon the island.
The flaws came heavy off the shore, and we were forced to reef our
topsails when we opened the middle bay, where we expected to have found
our enemy; but saw all clear, & no ships, nor in the other bay next the
north-east end. These two bays are all that ships ride in, which recruit
on this island; but the middle bay is by much the best. We guessed there
had been ships there, but that they were gone on sight of us. We sent
our yawl ashore about noon, with Captain Dover, Mr. Fry, and six men,
all armed: Mean while we and the Duchess kept turning to get in, and
such heavy flaws came off the land, that we were forced to let go our
top sail sheet, keeping all hands to stand by our sails, for fear of the
winds carrying them away: But when the flaws were gone, we had little or
no wind. These flaws proceeded from the land; which is very high in the
middle of the island. Our boat did not return; we sent our pinnace with
the men armed, to see what was the occasion of the yawl's stay; for we
were afraid, that the Spaniards had a garrison there, and might have
seized them. We put out a signal for our boat, and the Duchess showed a
French ensign. Immediately our pinnace returned from the shore, and
brought abundance of cry-fish, with a man clothed in goats skins, who
looked wilder than the first owners of them. He had been on the island
four years and four months, being left there by Captain Stradling in the
Cinque-ports, his name was Alexander Selkirk, a Scotchman, who had been
master of the Cinque-ports, a ship that came here last with Captain
Dampier, who told me, that this was the best man in her. I immediately
agreed with him to be a mate on board our ship: It was he that made the
fire last night when he saw our ships, which he judged to be English.
During his stay here he saw several ships pass by, but only two came in
to anchors: As he went to view them; he found them to be Spaniards, and
retired from them, upon which they shot at him: Had they been French, be
would have submitted; but choose to risque his dying alone on the
island, rather than fall into the hands of Spaniards in these parts;
because he apprehended they would murder him, or make a slave of him in
the mines; for he feared they would spare no stranger that might be
capable of discovering the South Seas.

The Spaniards had landed, before he knew what they were; and they came

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