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The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II

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I must thank you for all the wonderful trouble which you have taken about
the seeds of Impatiens, and on scores of other occasions. It in truth
makes me feel ashamed of myself, and I cannot help thinking: "Oh Lord,
when he sees our book he will cry out, is this all for which I have helped
so much!" In seriousness, I hope that we have made out some points, but I
fear that we have done very little for the labour which we have expended on
our work. We are here for a week for a little rest, which I needed.

If I remember right, November 30th, is the anniversary at the Royal, and I
fear Sir Joseph must be almost at the last gasp. I shall be glad when he
is no longer President.

Yours very sincerely,

[In the spring of the following year, 1879. When he was engaged in putting
his results together, he wrote somewhat despondingly to Mr. Dyer: "I am
overwhelmed with my notes, and almost too old to undertake the job which I
have in hand--i.e. movements of all kinds. Yet it is worse to be idle."

Later on in the year, when the work was approaching completion, he wrote to
Prof. Carus (July 17, 1879), with respect to a translation:--

"Together with my son Francis, I am preparing a rather large volume on the
general movements of Plants, and I think that we have made out a good many
new points and views.

"I fear that our views will meet a good deal of opposition in Germany; but
we have been working very hard for some years at the subject.

"I shall be MUCH pleased if you think the book worth translating, and
proof-sheets shall be sent you, whenever they are ready."

In the autumn he was hard at work on the manuscript, and wrote to Dr. Gray
(October 24, 1879):--

"I have written a rather big book--more is the pity--on the movements of
plants, and I am now just beginning to go over the MS. for the second time,
which is a horrid bore."

Only the concluding part of the next letter refers to the 'Power of

May 28, 1880.

My dear Sir,

I am particularly obliged to you for having so kindly send me your
'Phytographie' (A book on the methods of botanical research, more
especially of systematic work.); for if I had merely seen it advertised, I
should not have supposed that it could have concerned me. As it is, I have
read with very great interest about a quarter, but will not delay longer
thanking you. All that you say seems to me very clear and convincing, and
as in all your writings I find a large number of philosophical remarks new
to me, and no doubt shall find many more. They have recalled many a puzzle
through which I passed when monographing the Cirripedia; and your book in
those days would have been quite invaluable to me. It has pleased me to
find that I have always followed your plan of making notes on separate
pieces of paper; I keep several scores of large portfolios, arranged on
very thin shelves about two inches apart, fastened to the walls of my
study, and each shelf has its proper name or title; and I can thus put at
once every memorandum into its proper place. Your book will, I am sure, be
very useful to many young students, and I shall beg my son Francis (who
intends to devote himself to the physiology of plants) to read it

As for myself I am taking a fortnight's rest, after sending a pile of MS.
to the printers, and it was a piece of good fortune that your book arrived
as I was getting into my carriage, for I wanted something to read whilst
away from home. My MS. relates to the movements of plants, and I think
that I have succeeded in showing that all the more important great classes
of movements are due to the modification of a kind of movement common to
all parts of all plants from their earliest youth.

Pray give my kind remembrances to your son, and with my highest respect and
best thanks,

Believe me, my dear Sir, yours very sincerely,

P.S.--It always pleases me to exalt plants in the organic scale, and if you
will take the trouble to read my last chapter when my book (which will be
sadly too big) is published and sent to you, I hope and think that you also
will admire some of the beautiful adaptations by which seedling plants are
enabled to perform their proper functions.

[The book was published on November 6, 1880, and 1500 copies were disposed
of at Mr. Murray's sale. With regard to it he wrote to Sir J.D. Hooker
(November 23):--

"Your note has pleased me much--for I did not expect that you would have
had time to read ANY of it. Read the last chapter, and you will know the
whole result, but without the evidence. The case, however, of radicles
bending after exposure for an hour to geotropism, with their tips (or
brains) cut off is, I think, worth your reading (bottom of page 525); it
astounded me. The next most remarkable fact, as it appeared to me (page
148), is the discrimination of the tip of the radicle between a slightly
harder and softer object affixed on opposite sides of tip. But I will
bother you no more about my book. The sensitiveness of seedlings to light
is marvellous."

To another friend, Mr. Thiselton Dyer, he wrote (November 28, 1880):--

"Very many thanks for your most kind note, but you think too highly of our
work, not but what this is very pleasant...Many of the Germans are very
contemptuous about making out the use of organs; but they may sneer the
souls out of their bodies, and I for one shall think it the most
interesting part of Natural History. Indeed you are greatly mistaken if
you doubt for one moment on the very great value of your constant and most
kind assistance to us."

The book was widely reviewed, and excited much interest among the general
public. The following letter refers to a leading article in the "Times",
November 20, 1880:]

CHARLES DARWIN TO MRS. HALIBURTON. (Mrs. Haliburton was a daughter of my
father's early friend, the late Mr. Owen, of Woodhouse.)
Down, November 22, 1880.

My dear Sarah,

You see how audaciously I begin; but I have always loved and shall ever
love this name. Your letter has done more than please me, for its kindness
has touched my heart. I often think of old days and of the delight of my
visits to Woodhouse, and of the deep debt of gratitude I owe to your
father. It was very good of you to write. I had quite forgotten my old
ambition about the Shrewsbury newspaper (Mrs. Haliburton had reminded him
of his saying as a boy that if Eddowes' newspaper ever alluded to him as
"our deserving fellow-townsman," his ambition would be amply gratified.);
but I remember the pride which I felt when I saw in a book about beetles
the impressive words "captured by C. Darwin." Captured sounded so grand
compared with caught. This seemed to me glory enough for any man! I do
not know in the least what made the "Times" glorify me (The following is
the opening sentence of the leading article:--"Of all our living men of
science none have laboured longer and to more splendid purpose than Mr.
Darwin."), for it has sometimes pitched into me ferociously.

I should very much like to see you again, but you would find a visit here
very dull, for we feel very old and have no amusement, and lead a solitary
life. But we intend in a few weeks to spend a few days in London, and then
if you have anything else to do in London, you would perhaps come and lunch
with us. (My father had the pleasure of seeing Mrs. Haliburton at his
brother's house in Queen Anne Street.)

Believe me, my dear Sarah,
Yours gratefully and affectionately,

[The following letter was called forth by the publication of a volume
devoted to the criticism of the 'Power of Movement in Plants' by an
accomplished botanist, Dr. Julius Wiesner, Professor of Botany in the
University of Vienna:]

Down, October 25th, 1881.

My dear Sir,

I have now finished your book ('Das Bewegungsvermogen der Pflanzen.'
Vienna, 1881.), and have understood the whole except a very few passages.
In the first place, let me thank you cordially for the manner in which you
have everywhere treated me. You have shown how a man may differ from
another in the most decided manner, and yet express his difference with the
most perfect courtesy. Not a few English and German naturalists might
learn a useful lesson from your example; for the coarse language often used
by scientific men towards each other does no good, and only degrades

I have been profoundly interested by your book, and some of your
experiments are so beautiful, that I actually felt pleasure while being
vivisected. It would take up too much space to discuss all the important
topics in your book. I fear that you have quite upset the interpretation
which I have given of the effects of cutting off the tips of horizontally
extended roots, and of those laterally exposed to moisture; but I cannot
persuade myself that the horizontal position of lateral branches and roots
is due simply to their lessened power of growth. Nor when I think of my
experiments with the cotyledons of Phalaris, can I give up the belief of
the transmission of some stimulus due to light from the upper to the lower
part. At page 60 you have misunderstood my meaning, when you say that I
believe that the effects from light are transmitted to a part which is not
itself heliotropic. I never considered whether or not the short part
beneath the ground was heliotropic; but I believe that with young seedlings
the part which bends NEAR, but ABOVE the ground is heliotropic, and I
believe so from this part bending only moderately when the light is
oblique, and bending rectangularly when the light is horizontal.
Nevertheless the bending of this lower part, as I conclude from my
experiments with opaque caps, is influenced by the action of light on the
upper part. My opinion, however, on the above and many other points,
signifies very little, for I have no doubt that your book will convince
most botanists that I am wrong in all the points on which we differ.

Independently of the question of transmission, my mind is so full of facts
leading me to believe that light, gravity, etc., act not in a direct manner
on growth, but as stimuli, that I am quite unable to modify my judgment on
this head. I could not understand the passage at page 78, until I
consulted my son George, who is a mathematician. He supposes that your
objection is founded on the diffused light from the lamp illuminating both
sides of the object, and not being reduced, with increasing distance in the
same ratio as the direct light; but he doubts whether this NECESSARY
correction will account for the very little difference in the heliotropic
curvature of the plants in the successive pots.

With respect to the sensitiveness of the tips of roots to contact, I cannot
admit your view until it is proved that I am in error about bits of card
attached by liquid gum causing movement; whereas no movement was caused if
the card remained separated from the tip by a layer of the liquid gum. The
fact also of thicker and thinner bits of card attached on opposite sides of
the same root by shellac, causing movement in one direction, has to be
explained. You often speak of the tip having been injured; but externally
there was no sign of injury: and when the tip was plainly injured, the
extreme part became curved TOWARDS the injured side. I can no more believe
that the tip was injured by the bits of card, at least when attached by
gum-water, than that the glands of Drosera are injured by a particle of
thread or hair placed on it, or that the human tongue [is so] when it feels
any such object.

About the most important subject in my book, namely circumnutation, I can
only say that I feel utterly bewildered at the difference in our
conclusions; but I could not fully understand some parts which my son
Francis will be able to translate to me when he returns home. The greater
part of your book is beautifully clear.

Finally, I wish that I had enough strength and spirit to commence a fresh
set of experiments, and publish the results, with a full recantation of my
errors when convinced of them; but I am too old for such an undertaking,
nor do I suppose that I shall be able to do much, or any more, original
work. I imagine that I see one possible source of error in your beautiful
experiment of a plant rotating and exposed to a lateral light.

With high respect and with sincere thanks for the kind manner in which you
have treated me and my mistakes, I remain, my dear Sir, yours sincerely,





[The present chapter contains a series of miscellaneous letters on
botanical subjects. Some of them show my father's varied interests in
botanical science, and others give account of researches which never
reached completion.]


[His researches into the meaning of the "bloom," or waxy coating found on
many leaves, was one of those inquiries which remained unfinished at the
time of his death. He amassed a quantity of notes on the subject, part of
which I hope to publish at no distant date. (A small instalment on the
relation between bloom and the distribution of the stomata on leaves has
appeared in the 'Journal of the Linnean Society,' 1886. Tschirsch
("Linnaea", 1881) has published results identical with some which my father
and myself obtained, viz. that bloom diminishes transpiration. The same
fact was previously published by Garreau in 1850.)

One of his earliest letters on this subject was addressed in August, 1873,
to Sir Joseph Hooker:--

"I want a little information from you, and if you do not yourself know,
please to enquire of some of the wise men of Kew.

"Why are the leaves and fruit of so many plants protected by a thin layer
of waxy matter (like the common cabbage), or with fine hair, so that when
such leaves or fruit are immersed in water they appear as if encased in
thin glass? It is really a pretty sight to put a pod of the common pea, or
a raspberry into water. I find several leaves are thus protected on the
under surface and not on the upper.

"How can water injure the leaves if indeed this is at all the case?"

On this latter point he wrote to Sir Thomas Farrer:--

"I am now become mad about drops of water injuring leaves. Please ask Mr.
Paine (Sir Thomas Farrer's gardener.) whether he believes, FROM HIS OWN
EXPERIENCE, that drops of water injure leaves or fruit in his
conservatories. It is said that the drops act as burning-glasses; if this
is true, they would not be at all injurious on cloudy days. As he is so
acute a man, I should very much like to hear his opinion. I remember when
I grew hot-house orchids I was cautioned not to wet their leaves; but I
never then thought on the subject.

"I enjoyed my visit greatly with you, and I am very sure that all England
could not afford a kinder and pleasanter host."

Some years later he took up the subject again, and wrote to Sir Joseph
Hooker (May 25, 1877):--

"I have been looking over my old notes about the "bloom" on plants, and I
think that the subject is well worth pursuing, though I am very doubtful of
any success. Are you inclined to aid me on the mere chance of success, for
without your aid I could do hardly anything?"]

Down, June 4 [1877].

...I am now trying to make out the use or function of "bloom," or the waxy
secretion on the leaves and fruit of plants, but am VERY doubtful whether I
shall succeed. Can you give me any light? Are such plants commoner in
warm than in colder climates? I ask because I often walk out in heavy
rain, and the leaves of very few wild dicotyledons can be here seen with
drops of water rolling off them like quick-silver. Whereas in my flower
garden, greenhouse, and hot-houses there are several. Again, are bloom-
protected plants common on your DRY western plains? Hooker THINKS that
they are common at the Cape of Good Hope. It is a puzzle to me if they are
common under very dry climates, and I find bloom very common on the Acacias
and Eucalypti of Australia. Some of the Eucalypti which do not appear to
be covered with bloom have the epidermis protected by a layer of some
substance which is dissolved in boiling alcohol. Are there any bloom-
protected leaves or fruit in the Arctic regions? If you can illuminate me,
as you so often have done, pray do so; but otherwise do not bother yourself
by answering.

Yours affectionately,

Down, September 5 [1877].

My dear Dyer,

One word to thank you. I declare had it not been for your kindness, we
should have broken down. As it is we have made out clearly that with some
plants (chiefly succulent) the bloom checks evaporation--with some
certainly prevents attacks of insects; with SOME sea-shore plants prevents
injury from salt-water, and, I believe, with a few prevents injury from
pure water resting on the leaves. This latter is as yet the most doubtful
and the most interesting point in relation to the movements of plants...

Down, July 4 [1881].

My dear Sir,

Your kindness is unbounded, and I cannot tell you how much your last letter
(May 31) has interested me. I have piles of notes about the effect of
water resting on leaves, and their movements (as I supposed) to shake off
the drops. But I have not looked over these notes for a long time, and had
come to think that perhaps my notion was mere fancy, but I had intended to
begin experimenting as soon as I returned home; and now with your
INVALUABLE letter about the position of the leaves of various plants during
rain (I have one analogous case with Acacia from South Africa), I shall be
stimulated to work in earnest.


[The following letter refers to a subject on which my father felt the
strongest interest:--the experimental investigation of the causes of
variability. The experiments alluded to were to some extent planned out,
and some preliminary work was begun in the direction indicated below, but
the research was ultimately abandoned.]

CHARLES DARWIN TO J.H. GILBERT. (Dr. Gilbert, F.R.S., joint author with
Sir John Bennett Lawes of a long series of valuable researches in
Scientific Agriculture.)
Down, February 16, 1876.

My dear Sir,

When I met you at the Linnean Society, you were so kind as to say that you
would aid me with advice, and this will be of the utmost value to me and my
son. I will first state my object, and hope that you will excuse a long
letter. It is admitted by all naturalists that no problem is so perplexing
as what causes almost every cultivated plant to vary, and no experiments as
yet tried have thrown any light on the subject. Now for the last ten years
I have been experimenting in crossing and self-fertilising plants; and one
indirect result has surprised me much; namely, that by taking pains to
cultivate plants in pots under glass during several successive generations,
under nearly similar conditions, and by self-fertilising them in each
generation, the colour of the flowers often changes, and, what is very
remarkable, they became in some of the most variable species, such as
Mimulus, Carnation, etc., quite constant, like those of a wild species.

This fact and several others have led me to the suspicion that the cause of
variation must be in different substances absorbed from the soil by these
plants when their powers of absorption are not interfered with by other
plants with which they grow mingled in a state of nature. Therefore my son
and I wish to grow plants in pots in soil entirely, or as nearly entirely
as is possible, destitute of all matter which plants absorb, and then to
give during several successive generations to several plants of the same
species as different solutions as may be compatible with their life and
health. And now, can you advise me how to make soil approximately free of
all the substances which plants naturally absorb? I suppose white silver
sand, sold for cleaning harness, etc., is nearly pure silica, but what am I
to do for alumina? Without some alumina I imagine that it would be
impossible to keep the soil damp and fit for the growth of plants. I
presume that clay washed over and over again in water would still yield
mineral matter to the carbonic acid secreted by the roots. I should want a
good deal of soil, for it would be useless to experimentise unless we could
fill from twenty to thirty moderately sized flower-pots every year. Can
you suggest any plan? for unless you can it would, I fear, be useless for
us to commence an attempt to discover whether variability depends at all on
matter absorbed from the soil. After obtaining the requisite kind of soil,
my notion is to water one set of plants with nitrate of potassium, another
set with nitrate of sodium, and another with nitrate of lime, giving all as
much phosphate of ammonia as they seemed to support, for I wish the plants
to grow as luxuriantly as possible. The plants watered with nitrate of Na
and of Ca would require, I suppose, some K; but perhaps they would get what
is absolutely necessary from such soil as I should be forced to employ, and
from the rain-water collected in tanks. I could use hard water from a deep
well in the chalk, but then all the plants would get lime. If the plants
to which I give Nitrate of Na and of Ca would not grow I might give them a
little alum.

I am well aware how very ignorant I am, and how crude my notions are; and
if you could suggest any other solutions by which plants would be likely to
be affected it would be a very great kindness. I suppose that there are no
organic fluids which plants would absorb, and which I could procure?

I must trust to your kindness to excuse me for troubling you at such
length, and,

I remain, dear Sir, yours sincerely,

[The next letter to Professor Semper (Professor of Zoology at Wurzburg.)
bears on the same subject:]

Down, July 19, 1881.

My dear Professor Semper,

I have been much pleased to receive your letter, but I did not expect you
to answer my former one...I cannot remember what I wrote to you, but I am
sure that it must have expressed the interest which I felt in reading your
book. (Published in the 'International Scientific Series,' in 1881, under
the title, 'The Natural Conditions of Existence as they affect Animal
Life.') I thought that you attributed too much weight to the DIRECT action
of the environment; but whether I said so I know not, for without being
asked I should have thought it presumptuous to have criticised your book,
nor should I now say so had I not during the last few days been struck with
Professor Hoffmann's review of his own work in the 'Botanische Zeitung,' on
the variability of plants; and it is really surprising how little effect he
produced by cultivating certain plants under unnatural conditions, as the
presence of salt, lime, zinc, etc., etc., during SEVERAL generations.
Plants, moreover, were selected which were the most likely to vary under
such conditions, judging from the existence of closely-allied forms adapted
for these conditions. No doubt I originally attributed too little weight
to the direct action of conditions, but Hoffmann's paper has staggered me.
Perhaps hundreds of generations of exposure are necessary. It is a most
perplexing subject. I wish I was not so old, and had more strength, for I
see lines of research to follow. Hoffmann even doubts whether plants vary
more under cultivation than in their native home and under their natural
conditions. If so, the astonishing variations of almost all cultivated
plants must be due to selection and breeding from the varying individuals.
This idea crossed my mind many years ago, but I was afraid to publish it,
as I thought that people would say, "how he does exaggerate the importance
of selection."

I still MUST believe that changed conditions give the impulse to
variability, but that they act IN MOST CASES in a very indirect manner.
But, as I said, it is a most perplexing problem. Pray forgive me for
writing at such length; I had no intention of doing so when I sat down to

I am extremely sorry to hear, for your own sake and for that of Science,
that you are so hard worked, and that so much of your time is consumed in
official labour.

Pray believe me, dear Professor Semper,
Yours sincerely,


[Shortly before his death, my father began to experimentise on the
possibility of producing galls artificially. A letter to Sir J.D. Hooker
(November 3, 1880) shows the interest which he felt in the question:--

"I was delighted with Paget's Essay ('Disease in Plants,' by Sir James
Paget.--See "Gardeners' Chronicle", 1880.); I hear that he has occasionally
attended to this subject from his youth...I am very glad he has called
attention to galls: this has always seemed to me a profoundly interesting
subject; and if I had been younger would take it up."

His interest in this subject was connected with his ever-present wish to
learn something of the causes of variation. He imagined to himself
wonderful galls caused to appear on the ovaries of plants, and by these
means he thought it possible that the seed might be influenced, and thus
new varieties arise. He made a considerable number of experiments by
injecting various reagents into the tissues of leaves, and with some slight
indications of success.]


[The following letter gives an idea of the subject of the last of his
published papers. ('Journal of the Linnean Society.' volume xix, 1882,
pages 239 and 262.) The appearances which he observed in leaves and roots
attracted him, on account of their relation to the phenomena of aggregation
which had so deeply interested him when he was at work on Drosera:]

CHARLES DARWIN TO S.H. VINES. (Reader in Botany in the University of
Down, November 1, 1881.

My dear Mr. Vines,

As I know how busy you are, it is a great shame to trouble you. But you
are so rich in chemical knowledge about plants, and I am so poor, that I
appeal to your charity as a pauper. My question is--Do you know of any
solid substance in the cells of plants which glycerine and water dissolves?
But you will understand my perplexity better if I give you the facts: I
mentioned to you that if a plant of Euphorbia peplus is gently dug up and
the roots placed for a short time in a weak solution (1 to 10,000 of water,
suffices in 24 hours) of carbonate of ammonia the (generally) alternate
longitudinal rows of cells in every rootlet, from the root-cap up to the
very top of the root (but not as far as I have yet seen in the green stem)
become filled with translucent, brownish grains of matter. These rounded
grains often cohere and even become confluent. Pure phosphate and nitrate
of ammonia produce (though more slowly) the same effect, as does pure
carbonate of soda.

Now, if slices of root under a cover-glass are irrigated with glycerine and
water, every one of the innumerable grains in the cells disappear after
some hours. What am I to think of this.?...

Forgive me for bothering you to such an extent; but I must mention that if
the roots are dipped in boiling water there is no deposition of matter, and
carbonate of ammonia afterwards produces no effect. I should state that I
now find that the granular matter is formed in the cells immediately
beneath the thin epidermis, and a few other cells near the vascular tissue.
If the granules consisted of living protoplasm (but I can see no traces of
movement in them), then I should infer that the glycerine killed them and
aggregation ceased with the diffusion of invisibly minute particles, for I
have seen an analogous phenomenon in Drosera.

If you can aid me, pray do so, and anyhow forgive me.
Yours very sincerely,


[Mr. James Torbitt, of Belfast, has been engaged for the last twelve years
in the difficult undertaking, in which he has been to a large extent
successful, of raising fungus-proof varieties of the potato. My father
felt great interest in Mr. Torbitt's work, and corresponded with him from
1876 onwards. The following letter, giving a clear account of Mr.
Torbitt's method and of my father's opinion of the probability of its
success, was written with the idea that Government aid for the work might
possibly be obtainable:]

Down, March 2, 1878.

My dear Farrer,

Mr. Torbitt's plan of overcoming the potato-disease seems to me by far the
best which has ever been suggested. It consists, as you know from his
printed letter, of rearing a vast number of seedlings from cross-fertilised
parents, exposing them to infection, ruthlessly destroying all that suffer,
saving those which resist best, and repeating the process in successive
seminal generations. My belief in the probability of good results from
this process rests on the fact of all characters whatever occasionally
varying. It is known, for instance, that certain species and varieties of
the vine resist phylloxera better than others. Andrew Knight found in one
variety or species of the apple which was not in the least attacked by
coccus, and another variety has been observed in South Australia. Certain
varieties of the peach resist mildew, and several other such cases could be
given. Therefore there is no great improbability in a new variety of
potato arising which would resist the fungus completely, or at least much
better than any existing variety. With respect to the cross-fertilisation
of two distinct seedling plants, it has been ascertained that the offspring
thus raised inherit much more vigorous constitutions and generally are more
prolific than seedlings from self-fertilised parents. It is also probable
that cross-fertilisation would be especially valuable in the case of the
potato, as there is reason to believe that the flowers are seldom crossed
by our native insects; and some varieties are absolutely sterile unless
fertilised with pollen from a distinct variety. There is some evidence
that the good effects from a cross are transmitted for several generations;
it would not, therefore be necessary to cross-fertilise the seedlings in
each generation, though this would be desirable, as it is almost certain
that a greater number of seeds would thus be obtained. It should be
remembered that a cross between plants raised from the tubers of the same
plant, though growing on distinct roots, does no more good than a cross
between flowers on the same individual. Considering the whole subject, it
appears to me that it would be a national misfortune if the cross-
fertilised seeds in Mr. Torbitt's possession produced by parents which have
already shown some power of resisting the disease, are not utilised by the
Government, or some public body, and the process of selection continued
during several more generations.

Should the Agricultural Society undertake the work, Mr. Torbitt's knowledge
gained by experience would be especially valuable; and an outline of the
plan is given in his printed letter. It would be necessary that all the
tubers produced by each plant should be collected separately, and carefully
examined in each succeeding generation.

It would be advisable that some kind of potato eminently liable to the
disease should be planted in considerable numbers near the seedlings so as
to infect them.

Altogether the trial would be one requiring much care and extreme patience,
as I know from experience with analogous work, and it may be feared that it
would be difficult to find any one who would pursue the experiment with
sufficient energy. It seems, therefore, to me highly desirable that Mr.
Torbitt should be aided with some small grant so as to continue the work

Judging from his reports, his efforts have already been crowned in so short
a time with more success than could have been anticipated; and I think you
will agree with me, that any one who raises a fungus-proof potato will be a
public benefactor of no common kind.

My dear Farrer, yours sincerely,

[After further consultation with Sir Thomas Farrer and with Mr. Caird, my
father became convinced that it was hopeless to attempt to obtain
Government aid. He wrote to Mr. Torbitt to this effect, adding, "it would
be less trouble to get up a subscription from a few rich leading
agriculturists than from Government. This plan I think you cannot object
to, as you have asked nothing, and will have nothing whatever to do with
the subscription. In fact, the affair is, in my opinion, a compliment to
you." The idea here broached was carried out, and Mr. Torbitt was enabled
to continue his work by the aid of a sum to which Sir T. Farrer, Mr. Caird,
my father, and a few friends, subscribed.

My father's sympathy and encouragement were highly valued by Mr. Torbitt,
who tells me that without them he should long ago have given up his
attempt. A few extracts will illustrate my father's fellow feeling with
Mr. Torbitt's energy and perseverance:--

"I admire your indomitable spirit. If any one ever deserved success, you
do so, and I keep to my original opinion that you have a very good chance
of raising a fungus-proof variety of the potato.

"A pioneer in a new undertaking is sure to meet with many disappointments,
so I hope that you will keep up your courage, though we have done so very
little for you."

Mr. Torbitt tells me that he still (1887) succeeds in raising varieties
possessing well-marked powers of resisting disease; but this immunity is
not permanent, and, after some years, the varieties become liable to the
attacks of the fungus.]


[Some account of my father's connection with the Index of Plant-names now
(1887) in course of preparation at Kew will be found in Mr. B. Daydon
Jackson's paper in the 'Journal of Botany,' 1887, page 151. Mr. Jackson
quotes the following statement by Sir J.D. Hooker:--

"Shortly before his death, Mr. Charles Darwin informed Sir Joseph Hooker
that it was his intention to devote a considerable sum of money annually
for some years in aid or furtherance of some work or works of practical
utility to biological science, and to make provisions in his will in the
event of these not being completed during his lifetime.

"Amongst other objects connected with botanical science, Mr. Darwin
regarded with especial interest the importance of a complete index to the
names and authors of the genera and species of plants known to botanists,
together with their native countries. Steudel's 'Nomenclator' is the only
existing work of this nature, and although now nearly half a century old,
Mr. Darwin had found it of great aid in his own researches. It has been
indispensable to every botanical institution, whether as a list of all
known flowering plants, as an indication of their authors, or as a digest
of botanical geography."

Since 1840, when the 'Nomenclator' was published, the number of described
plants may be said to have doubled, so that the 'Nomenclator' is now
seriously below the requirements of botanical work. To remedy this want,
the 'Nomenclator' has been from time to time posted up in an interleaved
copy in the Herbarium at Kew, by the help of "funds supplied by private
liberality." (Kew Gardens Report, 1881, page 62.)

My father, like other botanists, had as Sir Joseph Hooker points out,
experienced the value of Steudel's work. He obtained plants from all sorts
of sources, which were often incorrectly named, and he felt the necessity
of adhering to the accepted nomenclature, so that he might convey to other
workers precise indications as to the plants which he had studied. It was
also frequently a matter of importance to him to know the native country of
his experimental plants. Thus it was natural that he should recognize the
desirability of completing and publishing the interleaved volume at Kew.
The wish to help in this object was heightened by the admiration he felt
for the results for which the world has to thank the Royal Gardens at Kew,
and by his gratitude for the invaluable aid which for so many years he
received from its Director and his staff. He expressly stated that it was
his wish "to aid in some way the scientific work carried on at the Royal
Gardens" (Kew Gardens Report, 1881, page 62.)--which induced him to offer
to supply funds for the completion of the Kew 'Nomenclator.'

The following passage, for which I am indebted to Professor Judd, is of
much interest, as illustrating the motives that actuated my father in this
matter. Professor Judd writes:--

"On the occasion of my last visit to him, he told me that his income having
recently greatly increased, while his wants remained the same, he was most
anxious to devote what he could spare to the advancement of Geology or
Biology. He dwelt in the most touching manner on the fact that he owed so
much happiness and fame to the natural-history sciences, which had been the
solace of what might have been a painful existence;--and he begged me, if I
knew of any research which could be aided by a grant of a few hundreds of
pounds, to let him know, as it would be a delight to him to feel that he
was helping in promoting the progress of science. He informed me at the
same time that he was making the same suggestion to Sir Joseph Hooker and
Professor Huxley with respect to Botany and Zoology respectively. I was
much impressed by the earnestness, and, indeed, deep emotion, with which he
spoke of his indebtedness to Science, and his desire to promote its

Sir Joseph Hooker was asked by my father "to take into consideration, with
the aid of the botanical staff at Kew and the late Mr. Bentham, the extent
and scope of the proposed work, and to suggest the best means of having it
executed. In doing this, Sir Joseph had further the advantage of the great
knowledge and experience of Professor Asa Gray, of Cambridge, U.S.A., and
of Mr. John Ball, F.R.S." ('Journal of Botany,' loc. cit.)

The plan of the proposed work having been carefully considered, Sir Joseph
Hooker was able to confide its elaboration in detail to Mr. B. Daydon
Jackson, Secretary of the Linnean Society, whose extensive knowledge of
botanical literature qualifies him for the task. My father's original idea
of producing a modern edition of Steudel's 'Nomenclator' has been
practically abandoned, the aim now kept in view is rather to construct a
list of genera and species (with references) founded on Bentham and
Hooker's 'Genera Plantarum.' The colossal nature of the work in progress
at Kew may be estimated by the fact that the manuscript of the 'Index' is
at the present time (1887) believed to weigh more than a ton. Under Sir
Joseph Hooker's supervision the work goes steadily forward, being carried
out with admirable zeal by Mr. Jackson, who devotes himself unsparingly to
the enterprise, in which, too, he has the advantage of the active interest
in the work felt by Professor Oliver and Mr. Thiselton Dyer.

The Kew 'Index,' which will, in all probability, be ready to go to press in
four or five years, will be a fitting memorial of my father: and his share
in its completion illustrates a part of his character--his ready sympathy
with work outside his own lines of investigation--and his respect for
minute and patient labour in all branches of science.]



Some idea of the general course of my father's health may have been
gathered from the letters given in the preceding pages. The subject of
health appears more prominently than is often necessary in a Biography,
because it was, unfortunately, so real an element in determining the
outward form of his life.

During the last ten years of his life the condition of his health was a
cause of satisfaction and hope to his family. His condition showed signs
of amendment in several particulars. He suffered less distress and
discomfort, and was able to work more steadily. Something has been already
said of Dr. Bence Jones's treatment, from which my father certainly derived
benefit. In later years he became a patient of Sir Andrew Clark, under
whose care he improved greatly in general health. It was not only for his
generously rendered service that my father felt a debt of gratitude towards
Sir Andrew Clark. He owed to his cheering personal influence an often-
repeated encouragement, which laterally added something real to his
happiness, and he found sincere pleasure in Sir Andrew's friendship and
kindness towards himself and his children.

Scattered through the past pages are one or two references to pain or
uneasiness felt in the region of the heart. How far these indicate that
the heart was affected early in life, I cannot pretend to say; in any case
it is certain that he had no serious or permanent trouble of this nature
until shortly before his death. In spite of the general improvement in his
health, which has been above alluded to, there was a certain loss of
physical vigour occasionally apparent during the last few years of his
life. This is illustrated by a sentence in a letter to his old friend Sir
James Sulivan, written on January 10, 1879: "My scientific work tires me
more than it used to do, but I have nothing else to do, and whether one is
worn out a year or two sooner or later signifies but little."

A similar feeling is shown in a letter to Sir J.D. Hooker of June 15, 1881.
My father was staying at Patterdale, and wrote: "I am rather despondent
about myself...I have not the heart or strength to begin any investigation
lasting years, which is the only thing which I enjoy, and I have no little
jobs which I can do."

In July, 1881, he wrote to Mr. Wallace, "We have just returned home after
spending five weeks on Ullswater; the scenery is quite charming, but I
cannot walk, and everything tires me, even seeing scenery...What I shall do
with my few remaining years of life I can hardly tell. I have everything
to make me happy and contented, but life has become very wearisome to me."
He was, however, able to do a good deal of work, and that of a trying sort
(On the action of carbonate of ammonia on roots and leaves.), during the
autumn of 1881, but towards the end of the year he was clearly in need of
rest; and during the winter was in a lower condition than was usual with

On December 13 he went for a week to his daughter's house in Bryanston
Street. During his stay in London he went to call on Mr. Romanes, and was
seized when on the door-step with an attack apparently of the same kind as
those which afterwards became so frequent. The rest of the incident, which
I give in Mr. Romanes' words, is interesting too from a different point of
view, as giving one more illustration of my father's scrupulous
consideration for others:--

"I happened to be out, but my butler, observing that Mr. Darwin was ill,
asked him to come in, he said he would prefer going home, and although the
butler urged him to wait at least until a cab could be fetched, he said he
would rather not give so much trouble. For the same reason he refused to
allow the butler to accompany him. Accordingly he watched him walking with
difficulty towards the direction in which cabs were to be met with, and saw
that, when he had got about three hundred yards from the house, he
staggered and caught hold of the park-railings as if to prevent himself
from falling. The butler therefore hastened to his assistance, but after a
few seconds saw him turn round with the evident purpose of retracing his
steps to my house. However, after he had returned part of the way he seems
to have felt better, for he again changed his mind, and proceeded to find a

During the last week of February and in the beginning of March, attacks of
pain in the region of the heart, with irregularity of the pulse, became
frequent, coming on indeed nearly every afternoon. A seizure of this sort
occurred about March 7, when he was walking alone at a short distance from
the house; he got home with difficulty, and this was the last time that he
was able to reach his favourite 'Sand-walk.' Shortly after this, his
illness became obviously more serious and alarming, and he was seen by Sir
Andrew Clark, whose treatment was continued by Dr. Norman Moore, of St.
Bartholomew's Hospital, and Mr. Alfrey, of St. Mary Cray. He suffered from
distressing sensations of exhaustion and faintness, and seemed to recognise
with deep depression the fact that his working days were over. He
gradually recovered from this condition, and became more cheerful and
hopeful, as is shown in the following letter to Mr. Huxley, who was anxious
that my father should have closer medical supervision than the existing
arrangements allowed:

Down, March 27, 1882.

My dear Huxley,

Your most kind letter has been a real cordial to me. I have felt better
to-day than for three weeks, and have felt as yet no pain. Your plan seems
an excellent one, and I will probably act upon it, unless I get very much
better. Dr. Clark's kindness is unbounded to me, but he is too busy to
come here. Once again, accept my cordial thanks, my dear old friend. I
wish to God there were more automata (The allusion is to Mr. Huxley's
address 'On the Hypothesis that Animals are Automata, and its History,'
given at the Belfast meeting of the British Association in 1874, and
republished in 'Science and Culture.') in the world like you.

Ever yours,

The allusion to Sir Andrew Clark requires a word of explanation. Sir
Andrew Clark himself was ever ready to devote himself to my father, who,
however, could not endure the thought of sending for him, knowing how
severely his great practice taxed his strength.

No especial change occurred during the beginning of April, but on Saturday
15th he was seized with giddiness while sitting at dinner in the evening,
and fainted in an attempt to reach his sofa. On the 17th he was again
better, and in my temporary absence recorded for me the progress of an
experiment in which I was engaged. During the night of April 18th, about a
quarter to twelve, he had a severe attack and passed into a faint, from
which he was brought back to consciousness with great difficulty. He
seemed to recognise the approach of death, and said, "I am not the least
afraid to die." All the next morning he suffered from terrible nausea and
faintness, and hardly rallied before the end came.

He died at about four o'clock on Wednesday, April 19th, 1882, in the
seventy-fourth year of his age.

I close the record of my father's life with a few words of retrospect added
to the manuscript of his 'Autobiography' in 1879:--

"As for myself, I believe that I have acted rightly in steadily following,
and devoting my life to Science. I feel no remorse from having committed
any great sin, but have often and often regretted that I have not done more
direct good to my fellow creatures."



On the Friday succeeding my father's death, the following letter, signed by
twenty members of Parliament, was addressed to Dr. Bradley, Dean of

HOUSE OF COMMONS, April 21, 1882.

Very Rev. Sir,

We hope you will not think we are taking a liberty if we venture to suggest
that it would be acceptable to a very large number of our fellow-countrymen
of all classes and opinions that our illustrious countryman, Mr. Darwin,
should be buried in Westminster Abbey.

We remain, your obedient servants,


The Dean was abroad at the time, and telegraphed his cordial acquiescence.

The family had desired that my father should be buried at Down: with
regard to their wishes, Sir John Lubbock wrote:--

HOUSE OF COMMONS, April 25, 1882.

My dear Darwin,

I quite sympathise with your feeling, and personally I should greatly have
preferred that your father should have rested in Down amongst us all. It
is, I am sure, quite understood that the initiative was not taken by you.
Still, from a national point of view, it is clearly right that he should be
buried in the Abbey. I esteem it a great privilege to be allowed to
accompany my dear master to the grave.

Believe me, yours most sincerely,



The family gave up their first-formed plans, and the funeral took place in
Westminster Abbey on April 26th. The pall-bearers were:--

MR. JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL (American Minister),
MR. WM. SPOTTISWOODE (President of the Royal Society),

The funeral was attended by the representatives of France, Germany, Italy,
Spain, Russia, and by those of the Universities, and learned Societies, as
well as by large numbers of personal friends and distinguished men.

The grave is in the North aisle of the Nave close to the angle of the
choir-screen, and a few feet from the grave of Sir Isaac Newton. The stone
bears the inscription--

Born 12 February, 1809.
Died 19 April, 1882.



Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of Her Majesty's Ships 'Adventure' and
'Beagle' between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of
the Southern shores of South America, and the 'Beagle's' circumnavigation
of the globe. Volume iii. Journal and Remarks, 1832-1836. By Charles
Darwin. 8vo. London, 1839.

Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries
visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle' round the world, under the
command of Captain Fitz-Roy, R.N. 2nd edition, corrected, with additions.
8vo. London, 1845. (Colonial and Home Library.)

A Naturalist's Voyage. Journal of Researches, etc., 8vo. London, 1860.
[Contains a postscript dated February 1, 1860.]

Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle.' Edited and superintended by
Charles Darwin. Part I. Fossil Mammalia, by Richard Owen. With a
Geological Introduction, by Charles Darwin. 4to. London, 1840.

--Part II. Mammalia, by George R. Waterhouse. With a notice of their
habits and ranges, by Charles Darwin. 4to. London, 1839.

--Part III. Birds, by John Gould. An "Advertisement" (2 pages) states
that in consequence of Mr. Gould's having left England for Australia, many
descriptions were supplied by Mr. G.R. Gray of the British Museum. 4to.
London, 1841.

--Part IV. Fish, by Rev. Leonard Jenyns. 4to. London, 1842.

--Part V. Reptiles, by Thomas Bell. 4to. London, 1843.

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. Being the First Part of the
Geology of the Voyage of the 'Beagle.' 8vo. London, 1842.

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. 2nd edition. 8vo. London,

Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands, visited during the Voyage
of H.M.S. 'Beagle.' Being the Second Part of the Geology of the Voyage of
the 'Beagle.' 8vo. London, 1844.

Geological Observations on South America. Being the Third Part of the
Geology of the Voyage of the 'Beagle.' 8vo. London, 1846.

Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands and parts of South America
visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle.' 2nd edition. 8vo. London,

A Monograph of the Fossil Lepadidae; or, Pedunculated Cirripedes of Great
Britain. 4to. London, 1851. (Palaeontographical Society.)

A Monograph of the Sub-class Cirripedia, with Figures of all the Species.
The Lepadidae; or, Pedunculated Cirripedes. 8vo. London, 1851. (Ray

--The Balanidae (or Sessile Cirripedes); the Verrucidae, etc. 8vo. London,
1854. (Ray Society.)

A Monograph of the Fossil Balanidae and Verrucidae of Great Britain. 4to.
London, 1854. (Palaeontographical Society.)

On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation
of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. 8vo. London, 1859. (Dated
October 1st, 1859, published November 24, 1859.)

--Fifth thousand. 8vo. London, 1860.

--Third edition, with additions and corrections. (Seventh thousand.) 8vo.
London, 1861. (Dated March, 1861.)

--Fourth edition with additions and corrections. (Eighth thousand.) 8vo.
London, 1866. (Dated June, 1866.)

--Fifth edition, with additions and corrections. (Tenth thousand.) 8vo.
London, 1869. (Dated May, 1869.)

--Sixth edition, with additions and corrections to 1872. (Twenty-fourth
thousand.) 8vo. London, 1882. (Dated January, 1872.)

On the various contrivances by which Orchids are fertilised by Insects.
8vo. London, 1862.

--Second edition. 8vo. London, 1877. [In the second edition the word
"On" is omitted from the title.]

The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants. Second edition. 8vo.
London, 1875. [First appeared in the ninth volume of the 'Journal of the
Linnean Society.']

The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. 2 volumes. 8vo.
London, 1868.

--Second edition, revised. 2 volumes. 8vo. London, 1875.

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. 2 volumes. 8vo.
London, 1871.

--Second edition. 8vo. London, 1874. (In 1 volume.)

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. 8vo. London, 1872.

Insectivorous Plants. 8vo. London, 1875.

The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom. 8vo.
London, 1876.

--Second edition. 8vo. London, 1878.

The different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the same Species. 8vo.
London, 1877.

--Second edition. 8vo. London, 1880.

The Power of Movement in Plants. By Charles Darwin, assisted by Francis
Darwin. 8vo. London, 1880.

The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms, with
Observations on their Habits. 8vo. London, 1881.


A Manual of scientific enquiry; prepared for the use of Her Majesty's Navy:
and adapted for travellers in general. Edited by Sir John F.W. Herschel,
Bart. 8vo. London, 1849. (Section VI. Geology. By Charles Darwin.)

Memoir of the Rev. John Stevens Henslow. By the Rev. Leonard Jenyns. 8vo.
London, 1862. [In Chapter III., Recollections by Charles Darwin.]

A letter (1876) on the 'Drift' near Southampton published in Prof. J.
Geikie's 'Prehistoric Europe.'

Flowers and their unbidden guests. By A. Kerner. With a Prefatory Letter
by Charles Darwin. The translation revised and edited by W. Ogle. 8vo.
London, 1878.

Erasmus Darwin. By Ernst Krause. Translated from the German by W.S.
Dallas. With a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin. 8vo. London, 1879.

Studies in the Theory of Descent. By August Weismann. Translated and
edited by Raphael Meldola. With a Prefatory Notice by Charles Darwin.
8vo. London, 1880--.

The Fertilisation of Flowers. By Hermann Muller. Translated and edited by
D'Arcy W. Thompson. With a Preface by Charles Darwin. 8vo. London, 1883.

Mental Evolution in Animals. By G.J. Romanes. With a posthumous essay on
instinct by Charles Darwin, 1883. [Also published in the Journal of the
Linnean Society.]

Some Notes on a curious habit of male humble bees were sent to Prof.
Hermann Muller, of Lippstadt, who had permission from Mr. Darwin to make
what use he pleased of them. After Muller's death the Notes were given by
his son to Dr. E. Krause, who published them under the title, "Ueber die
Wege der Hummel-Mannchen" in his book, 'Gesammelte kleinere Schriften von
Charles Darwin.' (1886).


Letters to Professor Henslow, read by him at the meeting of the Cambridge
Philosophical Society, held November 16, 1835. 31 pages. 8vo. Privately
printed for distribution among the members of the Society.

Geological Notes made during a survey of the East and West Coasts of South
America in the years 1832, 1833, 1834, and 1835; with an account of a
transverse section of the Cordilleras of the Andes between Valparaiso and
Mendoza. [Read November 18, 1835.] Geology Society Proc. ii. 1838, pages
210-212. [This Paper is incorrectly described in Geology Society Proc.
ii., page 210 as follows:--"Geological notes, etc., by F. Darwin, Esq., of
St. John's College, Cambridge: communicated by Prof. Sedgwick." It is
Indexed under C. Darwin.]

Notes upon the Rhea Americana. Zoology Society Proc., Part v. 1837. pages

Observations of proofs of recent elevation on the coast of Chili, made
during the survey of H.M.S. "Beagle," commanded by Captain Fitz-Roy.
[1837.] Geological Society Proc. ii.1838, pages 446-449.

A sketch of the deposits containing extinct Mammalia in the neighbourhood
of the Plata. [1837.] Geological Society Proc. ii. 1838, pages 542-544.

On certain areas of elevation and subsidence in the Pacific and Indian
oceans, as deduced from the study of coral formations. [1837.] Geological
Society Proc. ii. 1838, pages 552-554.

On the Formation of Mould. [Read November 1, 1837.] Geological Society
Proc. ii. 1838, pages 574-576; Geological Society Transactions v. 1840,
pages 505-510.

On the Connexion of certain Volcanic Phenomena and on the formation of
mountain-chains and the effects of continental elevations. [Read March 7,
1838.] Geological Society Proc. ii. 1838, pages 654-660; Geological
Society Transactions v. 1840, pages 601-632. [In the Society's Transactions
the wording of the title is slightly different.]

Origin of saliferous deposits. Salt Lakes of Patagonia and La Plata.
Geological Society Journal ii. (Part ii.), 1838, pages 127-128.

Note on a Rock seen on an Iceberg in 16 deg South Latitude. Geographical
Society Journal ix. 1839, pages 528-529.

Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy, and of other parts of
Lochaber in Scotland, with an attempt to prove that they are of marine
origin. Phil. Trans. 1839, pages 39-82.

On a remarkable Bar of Sandstone off Pernambuco, on the Coast of Brazil.
Phil. Mag. xix. 1841, pages 257-260.

On the Distribution of the Erratic Boulders and on the Contemporaneous
Unstratified Deposits of South America. [1841.] Geological Society Proc.
iii. 1842, pages 425-430; Geological Society Transactions vi. 1842, pages

Notes on the Effects produced by the Ancient Glaciers of Caernarvonshire,
and on the Boulders transported by Floating Ice. London Philosophical
Magazine volume xxi. page 180. 1842.

Remarks on the preceding paper, in a Letter from Charles Darwin, Esq., to
Mr. Maclaren. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal xxxiv. 1843, pages 47-
50. [The "preceding" paper is: "On Coral Islands and Reefs as described by
Mr. Darwin. By Charles Maclaren, Esq., F.R.S.E."]

Observations on the Structure and Propagation of the genus Sagitta. Annals
and Magazine of Natural History xiii. 1844, pages 1-6.

Brief descriptions of several Terrestrial Planariae, and of some remarkable
Marine Species, with an Account of their Habits. Annals and Magazine of
Natural History xiv. 1844, pages 241-251.

An account of the Fine Dust which often falls on Vessels in the Atlantic
Ocean. Geological Society Journal ii. 1846, pages 26-30.

On the Geology of the Falkland Islands. Geological Society Journal ii.
1846, pages 267-274.

A review of Waterhouse's 'Natural History of the Mammalia.' [Not signed.]
Annals and Magazine of Natural History 1847. Volume xix. page 53.

On the Transportal of Erratic Boulders from a lower to a higher level.
Geological Society Journal iv. 1848, pages 315-323.

On British fossil Lepadidae. Geological Society Journal vi. 1850, pages
439-440. [The G.S.J. says "This paper was withdrawn by the author with the
permission of the Council."]

Analogy of the Structure of some Volcanic Rocks with that of Glaciers.
Edinburgh Royal Society Proc. ii. 1851, pages 17-18.

On the power of Icebergs to make rectilinear, uniformly-directed Grooves
across a Submarine Undulatory Surface. Philosophical Magazine x. 1855,
pages 96-98.

Vitality of Seeds. "Gardeners' Chronicle", November 17, 1855, page 758.

On the action of Sea-water on the Germination of Seeds. [1856.] Linnean
Society Journal i. 1857 ("Botany"), pages 130-140.

On the Agency of Bees in the Fertilisation of Papilionaceous Flowers.
"Gardeners' Chronicle", page 725, 1857.

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of
Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. By Charles Darwin,
Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., and F.G.S., and Alfred Wallace, Esq. [Read July 1st,
1858.] Journal of the Linnean Society 1859, volume iii. ("Zoology"), page

Special titles of Charles Darwin's contributions to the foregoing:--

i. Extract from an unpublished work on Species by Charles Darwin Esq.,
consisting of a portion of a chapter entitled, "On the Variation of Organic
Beings in a State of Nature; on the Natural Means of Selection; on the
Comparison of Domestic Races and true Species."

ii. Abstract of a Letter from C. Darwin, Esq., to Professor Asa Gray, of
Boston U.S., dated September 5, 1857.

On the Agency of Bees in the Fertilisation of Papilionaceous Flowers, and
on the Crossing of Kidney Beans. "Gardeners' Chronicle", 1858, page 828
and Annals of Natural History 3rd series ii. 1858, pages 459-465.

Do the Tineina or other small Moths suck Flowers, and if so what Flowers?
"Entomological Weekly Intelligencer" volume viii. 1860, page 103.

Note on the achenia of Pumilio Argyrolepis. "Gardeners' Chronicle",
January 5, 1861, page 4.

Fertilisation of Vincas. "Gardeners' Chronicle", pages 552, 831, 832.

On the Two Forms, or Dimorphic Condition, in the species of Primula, and on
their remarkable Sexual Relations. Linnean Society Journal vi. 1862
("Botany"), pages 77-96.

On the Three remarkable Sexual Forms of Catasetum tridentatum, an Orchid in
the possession of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society Journal vi. 1862
("Botany"), pages 151-157.

Yellow Rain. "Gardeners' Chronicle", July 18, 1863, page 675.

On the thickness of the Pampean formation near Buenos Ayres. Geological
Society Journal xix. 1863, pages 68-71.

On the so-called "Auditory-sac" of Cirripedes. Natural History Review,
1863, pages 115-116.

A review of Mr. Bates' paper on 'Mimetic Butterflies.' Natural History
Review, 1863, page 221-. [Not signed.]

On the existence of two forms, and on their reciprocal sexual relation, in
several species of the genus Linum. Linnean Society Journal vii. 1864
("Botany"), pages 69-83.

On the Sexual Relations of the Three Forms of Lythrum salicaria. [1864.]
Linnean Society Journal viii. 1865 ("Botany"), pages 169-196.

On the Movement and Habits of Climbing Plants. [1865.] Linnean Society
Journal ix. 1867 ("Botany"), pages 1-118.

Note on the Common Broom (Cytisus scoparius). [1866.] Linnean Society
Journal ix. 1867 ("Botany"), page 358.

Notes on the Fertilization of Orchids. Annals and Magazine of Natural
History, 4th series, iv. 1869, pages 141-159.

On the Character and Hybrid-like Nature of the Offspring from the
Illegitimate Unions of Dimorphic and Trimorphic Plants. [1868.] Linnean
Society Journal x. 1869 ("Botany"), pages 393-437.

On the Specific Difference between Primula veris, British Fl. (var.
officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, British Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.), and
P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the Hybrid Nature of the common Oxlip. With
Supplementary Remarks on naturally produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum.
[1868.] Linnean Society Journal x. 1869 ("Botany"), pages 437-454.

Note on the Habits of the Pampas Woodpecker (Colaptes campestris).
Zoological Society Proceedings November 1, 1870, pages 705-706.

Fertilisation of Leschenaultia. "Gardeners' Chronicle", page 1166, 1871.

The Fertilisation of Winter-flowering Plants. 'Nature,' November 18, 1869,
volume i. page 85.

Pangenesis. 'Nature,' April 27, 1871, volume iii. page 502.

A new view of Darwinism. 'Nature,' July 6, 1871, volume iv. page 180.

Bree on Darwinism. 'Nature,' August 8, 1872, volume vi. page 279.

Inherited Instinct. 'Nature,' February 13, 1873, volume vii. page 281.

Perception in the Lower Animals. 'Nature,' March 13, 1873, volume vii.
page 360.

Origin of certain instincts. 'Nature,' April 3, 1873, volume vii. page

Habits of Ants. 'Nature,' July 24, 1873, volume viii. page 244.

On the Males and Complemental Males of Certain Cirripedes, and on
Rudimentary Structures. 'Nature,' September 25, 1873, volume viii. page

Recent researches on Termites and Honey-bees. 'Nature,' February 19, 1874,
volume ix. page 308.

Fertilisation of the Fumariaceae. 'Nature,' April 16, 1874, volume ix.
page 460.

Flowers of the Primrose destroyed by Birds. 'Nature,' April 23, 1874,
volume ix. page 482; May 14, 1874, volume x. page 24.

Cherry Blossoms. 'Nature,' May 11, 1876, volume xiv. page 28.

Sexual Selection in relation to Monkeys. 'Nature,' November 2, 1876,
volume xv. page 18. Reprinted as a supplement to the 'Descent of Man,'

Fritz Muller on Flowers and Insects. 'Nature,' November 29, 1877, volume
xvii. page 78.

The Scarcity of Holly Berries and Bees. "Gardeners' Chronicle", January
20, 1877, page 83.

Note on Fertilization of Plants. "Gardeners' Chronicle", volume vii. page
246, 1877.

A biographical sketch of an infant. 'Mind,' No.7, July, 1877.

Transplantation of Shells. 'Nature,' May 30, 1878, volume xviii. page 120.

Fritz Muller on a Frog having Eggs on its back--on the abortion of the
hairs on the legs of certain Caddis-Flies, etc. 'Nature,' March 20, 1879,
volume xix. page 462.

Rats and Water-Casks. 'Nature,' March 27, 1879, volume xix. page 481.

Fertility of Hybrids from the common and Chinese Goose. 'Nature,' January
1, 1880, volume xxi. page 207.

The Sexual Colours of certain Butterflies. 'Nature,' January 8, 1880,
volume xxi. page 237.

The Omori Shell Mounds. 'Nature,' April 15, 1880, volume xxi. page 561.

Sir Wyville Thomson and Natural Selection. 'Nature,' November 11, 1880,
volume xxiii. page 32.

Black Sheep. 'Nature,' December 30, 1880, volume xxiii. page 193.

Movements of Plants. 'Nature,' March 3, 1881, volume xxiii. page 409.

The Movements of Leaves. 'Nature,' April 28, 1881, volume xxiii. page 603.

Inheritance. 'Nature,' July 21, 1881, volume xxiv. page 257.

Leaves injured at Night by Free Radiation. 'Nature,' September 15, 1881,
volume xxiv. page 459.

The Parasitic Habits of Molothrus. 'Nature,' November 17, 1881, volume
xxv. page 51.

On the Dispersal of Freshwater Bivalves. 'Nature,' April 6, 1882, volume
xxv. page 529.

The Action of Carbonate of Ammonia on the Roots of certain Plants. [Read
March 16, 1882.] Linnean Society Journal ("Botany"), volume xix. 1882,
pages 239-261.

The Action of Carbonate of Ammonia on Chlorophyll-bodies. [Read March 6,
1882.] Linnean Society Journal ("Botany"), volume xix. 1882, pages 262-

On the modification of a Race of Syrian Street-Dogs by means of Sexual
Selection. By W. Van Dyck. With a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin.
[Read April 18, 1882.] Proceedings of the Zoological Society 1882, pages



1838: Water-colour by G. Richmond in the possession of The Family.

1851: Lithograph by Ipswich British Association Series.

1853: Chalk Drawing by Samuel Lawrence in the possession of The Family.

1853?: Chalk Drawing (Probably a sketch made at one of the sittings for
the last mentioned.) by Samuel Lawrence in the possession of Prof. Hughes,

1869: Bust, marble, by T. Woolner, R.A. in the possession of The Family.

1875: Oil Painting (A replica by the artist is in the possession of
Christ's College, Cambridge.) by W. Ouless, R.A., etched by P. Rajon, in
the possession of The Family.

1879: Oil Painting by W.B. Richmond in the possession of The University of

1881: Oil Painting (A replica by the artist is in the possession of W.E.
Darwin, Esq., Southampton.) by the Hon. John Collier, in the possession of
The Linnaean Society, etched by Leopold Flameng.


Statue by Joseph Boehm, R.A., in the possession of Museum, South

Bust by Chr. Lehr, Junr.

Plaque by T. Woolner, R.A., and Josiah Wedgwood and Sons in the possession
of Christ's College, in Charles Darwin's Room.

Deep Medallion by J. Boehm, R.A. to be placed in Westminster Abbey.


1854?: By Messrs. Maull and Fox, engraved on wood for 'Harper's Magazine'
(October 1884).

1870?: By O.J. Rejlander, engraved on steel by C.H. Jeens for 'Nature'
(June 4, 1874).

1874?: By Captain Darwin, R.E., engraved on wood for the 'Century
Magazine' (January 1883). Frontispiece, volume i.

(The dates of these photographs must, from various causes, remain
uncertain. Owing to a loss of books by fire, Messrs. Maull and Fox can
give only an approximate date. Mr. Rejlander died some years ago, and his
business was broken up. My brother, captain Darwin, has no record of the
date at which his photograph was taken.)

1881: By Messrs. Elliott and Fry, engraved on wood by G. Kruells, for the
present work.



(The list has been compiled from the diplomas and letters in my father's
possession, and is no doubt incomplete, as he seems to have lost or mislaid
some of the papers received from foreign Societies. Where the name of a
foreign Society (excluding those in the United States) is given in English,
it is a translation of the Latin (or in one case Russian) of the original

ORDER.--Prussian Order, 'Pour le Merite.' 1867.

OFFICE.--County Magistrate. 1857.


B.A. 1831 [1832]. See volume i.
M.A. 1837.
Hon. LL.D. 1877.

Breslau: Hon. Doctor in Medicine and Surgery. 1862.

Bonn: Hon. Doctor in Medicine and Surgery. 1868.

Leyden: Hon. M.D. 1875.


Zoological. Corresponding Member. 1831. (He afterwards became a Fellow
of the Society.)
Entomological. 1833, Original Member.
Geological. 1836. Wollaston Medal, 1859.
Royal Geographical. 1838.
Royal. 1839. Royal Medal, 1853. Copley Medal, 1864.
Linnean. 1854.
Ethnological. 1861.
Medico-Chirurgical. Hon. Member. 1868.
Baly Medal of the Royal College of Physicians, 1879.


Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1865.
Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, 1826. Hon. Member, 1861.
Royal Irish Academy. Hon. Member, 1866.
Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. Hon. Member, 1868.
Watford Natural History Society. Hon. Member, 1877.
Asiatic Society of Bengal. Hon. Member, 1871.
Royal Society of New South Wales. Hon. Member, 1879.
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, New Zealand. Hon. Member, 1863.
New Zealand Institute. Hon. Member, 1872.


Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. Hon. Member, 1877.
Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Argentine Republic. Hon. Member, 1878.
Sociedad Zoologica Arjentina. Hon. Member, 1874.
Boston Society of Natural History. Hon. Member, 1873.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Boston). Foreign Hon. Member, 1874.
California Academy of Sciences. Hon. Member, 1872.
California State Geological Society. Corresponding Member, 1877.
Franklin Literary Society, Indiana. Hon. Member, 1878.
Sociedad de Naturalistas Neo-Granadinos. Hon. Member, 1860.
New York Academy of Sciences. Hon. Member, 1879.
Gabinete Portuguez de Leitura em Pernambuco. Corresponding Member, 1879.
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Correspondent, 1860.
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. Member, 1869.


Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna. Foreign Corresponding Member,
1871; Hon. Foreign Member, 1875.
Anthropologische Gesellschaft in Wien. Hon. Member, 1872.
K. k. Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft in Wien. Member, 1867.
Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Pest, 1872.


Societe Royale des Sciences Medicales et Naturelles de Bruxelles. Hon.
Member, 1878.
Societie Royale de Botanique de Belgique. 'Membre Associe,' 1881.
Academie Royale des Sciences, etc., de Belgique. 'Associe de la Classe des
Sciences.' 1870.


Royal Society of Copenhagen. Fellow, 1879.


Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Foreign Member, 1871.
Societe Entomologique de France. Hon. Member, 1874.
Societe Geologique de France (Life Member), 1837.
Institut de France. 'Correspondant' Section of Botany, 1878.


Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Berlin). Corresponding Member, 1863;
Fellow, 1878.
Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, etc. Corresponding Member, 1877.
Schlesische Gesellschaft fur Vaterlandische Cultur (Breslau). Hon. Member
Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Academia Naturae Curiosorum (Dresden). 1857.
(The diploma contains the words "accipe...ex antiqua nostra consuetudine
cognomen Forster." It was formerly the custom in the "Caesarea Leopoldino-
Carolina Academia", that each new member should receive as a 'cognomen,' a
name celebrated in that branch of science to which he belonged. Thus a
physician might be christened Boerhave, or an astronomer, Kepler. My
father seems to have been named after the traveller John Reinhold Forster.)
Senkenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Frankfurt am Main.
Corresponding Member, 1873.
Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Halle. Member 1879.
Siebenburgische Verein fur Naturwissenschaften (Hermannstadt). Hon.
Member, 1877.
Medicinisch-naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft zu Jena. Hon. Member,
Royal Bavarian Academy of Literature and Science (Munich). Foreign Member,


Koninklijke Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia).
Corresponding Member, 1880.
Societe Hollandaise des Sciences a Harlem. Foreign Member, 1877.
Zeeuwsch Genootschap der Wetenschappen te Middelburg. Foreign Member,


Societa Geografica Italiana (Florence). 1870.
Societa Italiana di Antropologia e di Etnologia (Florence). Hon. Member,
Societa dei Naturalisti in Modena. Hon. Member, 1875.
Academia de' Lincei di Roma. Foreign Member, 1875.
La Scuola Italica, Academia Pitagorica, Reale ed Imp. Societa (Rome).
"Presidente Onoraria degli Anziani Pitagorici," 1880.
Royal Academy of Turin. 1873. "Bressa" Prize, 1879.


Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa (Lisbon). Corresponding Member, 1877.


Society of Naturalists of the Imperial Kazan University. Hon. Member,
Societas Caesarea Naturae Curiosorum (Moscow). Hon. Member, 1870.
Imperial Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg). Corresponding Member, 1867.


Institucion Libre de Ensenanza (Madrid). Hon. Professor, 1877.


Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Stockholm). Foreign Member, 1865.
Royal Society of Sciences (Upsala). Fellow, 1860.


Societe des Sciences Naturelles de Neuchatel. Corresponding Member, 1863.


ABBOT, F.E., letter to.

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES (Philadelphia) elects Darwin a member.

AGASSIZ, Alexander, letter to.

AGASSIZ, Louis, Darwin's estimate of.
Letters to.
His attitude toward the 'Origin of Species.'
Reviews the 'Origin of Species.'

AGGREGATION, studied by Darwin.


ANDES, Darwin crosses the.


ANTICIPATION of Darwin's views.

ANTS, observations on.

APPLETON, D., & CO., publish 'Origin of Species' in America.

ARGYLL, Duke of, criticises the 'Origin of Species.'
Darwin's comments on his criticisms.
Darwin on his 'Reign of Law.'
Reviews the 'Fertilisation of Orchids.'

ARISTOTLE, Darwin's estimate of.

ARRANGEMENT of leaves on the stems of plants.

'ATHENAEUM,' Darwin on its review of the 'Origin of Species.'
Reports British Association discussion.
Darwin's letters to, in his own defence.
Criticises Darwin.

AUSTRALIA, development of animals in.


AUSTRIAN expedition.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY, extracts from.

AVELING, Dr., on Darwin's religious views.

BAIN, Alexander, letter to.

BALFOUR, Francis M., Darwin's estimate of.

BALY medal presented to Darwin.

BAER, K.E. von, agrees with Darwin.

BASTIAN, H.C., Darwin on his 'Beginnings of Life.'

BATES, H.W., Darwin on his insect fauna of the Amazon valley.
Letters to.
Darwin on his mimetic variations of butterflies.


"BEAGLE", voyage of.
Darwin offered an appointment to the.
Her equipments.
Object of her voyage.
Her crew.

BEETLES, collecting.

BEHRENS, W., letter to.

BELL, T., describes Darwin's reptiles.

BELL-STONE of Shrewsbury mentioned.

BELT, Thomas, Darwin on his 'Naturalist in Nicaragua.'

BEMMELEN, A. van, letter to.

BENTHAM, George, his silence on natural selection.
Letter to Francis Darwin on his adoption of Darwin's views.
His view of natural selection.
Letters to.

BERKELEY, Rev. M.J., reviews the 'Fertilisation of Orchids.'

BERLIN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES elects Darwin corresponding member.

BET made by Darwin.

BLOMEFIELD (JENYNS), Rev. Leonard, Darwin becomes acquainted with.
Letters to.
Darwin on his 'Observations in Natural History.'

BLOOM on leaves and fruit, Darwin's work on.

BLYTH, Edward, mentioned.

BOOLE, Mrs., her letter on natural selection and religion.
Letter to.

BOOTT, Francis, mentioned.

BOTANY, Darwin's work on, and its relation to natural selection.

BOWEN, Francis, reviews the 'Origin of Species.'

BRACE, C.L., and wife, Darwin on their philanthropic work.

BRAZIL, Emperor of, wishes to meet Darwin.

BREE, C.R., his work 'Species not Transmutable.'
Accuses Wallace of blundering, and is answered by Darwin.

BREEDING, sources of information on.

BRESSA prize presented to Darwin.

BRITISH ASSOCIATION discusses the 'Origin of Species.'
Oxford meeting of, allegorized.
Belfast meeting.

BRONN, H.G., edits the 'Origin of Species' in German.
Letters to.
Criticisms on the 'Origin of Species.'

BROWN, Robert, mentioned.

BRUNTON, T. Lauder, letter to.

BUCKLE, his system of collecting facts.
Darwin on his 'History of Civilisation.'

BUCKLEY, Miss A.B., letters to.

BUFFON, Darwin on.

BUNBURY, Sir C., mentioned.

BUTLER, Samuel, charges Darwin of falsehood.

BUTLER, Dr., his school at Shrewsbury.

BUTTON, Jemmy, a visit to.

CAIRNS, J.E., his lecture on 'The Slave Power.'

CAM BRIDGE, University of, makes Darwin LL.D.
Obtains memorial portrait of him.

CAMERON, Mrs., makes a photograph of Darwin.

CANARY ISLANDS, projected trip to.

CANDOLLE, Alphonse de, letters to.
His view of the 'Origin of Species.'
Darwin on his 'Histoire des Sciences et des Savants.'

CARLYLE, Thomas, on Erasmus A. Darwin.
His interesting talk.

CARPENTER, W.B., letters to.
Reviews the 'Origin of Species.'
His work on 'Foraminifera.'

CARUS, J. Victor, letters to.

CATON, John D., letter to.

CHAMBERS, R., Darwin on his geological views.

CHANCE, not implied in evolution.

CHIMNEY-SWEEPS, Darwin's efforts for.

CIRRIPEDIA, monograph of the.
Nomenclature of.
Work on.
The so-called auditory sac of.

CIVIL WAR in the United States.
Darwin on.

CLARK, William, mentioned.

CLARK, Sir Andrew, is Darwin's physician.

CLIMATE and migration.

'CLIMBING PLANTS,' written and published.
Work on.
Republished in book-form.

COAL, discussion on submarine.

COHN, Prof., describes a visit to Darwin.

COLENSO, Bishop, his 'Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua.'

COLLECTING, Darwin on.

COLLIER, John, paints Darwin's portrait.


CONTINENTAL EXTENSION, Darwin's reasons against.

CONTINENTS, permanence of.

COPE, E.D., Darwin on his theory of acceleration.

COPLEY MEDAL presented to Darwin.

'CORAL REEFS,' at work upon.
Opinions on.
Criticised by Semper.
Darwin's answer to Semper.
Darwin on Murray's criticisms of.
Second edition.

CRAWFORD, John, reviews the 'Origin of Species.'


'CREED OF SCIENCE,' read by Darwin.

CRESY, E., letter to.

CRICK, W.D., communicates to Darwin a mode of dispersal of bivalve shells.


DANA, Prof., sends Darwin 'Geology of U.S. Expedition.'

DARESTE, Camille, letter to.


DARWIN, Annie, Darwin's account of.
Death of.

DARWIN, Miss C., letter to.

DARWIN, Catherine, letters to.

DARWIN, Charles, studies medicine at Edinburgh.
Young man of great promise.

DARWIN, Charles Robert (1809-1882).
Table of relationship.
Personal characteristics as traced from his forefathers.
Love and respect for his father's memory.
His affection for his brother Erasmus.
Mother dies.
Taste for natural history.
School-boy experiences.
Humane disposition toward animals.
Goes to Dr. Butler's school at Shrewsbury.
Taste for long, solitary walks.
Inability to master a language.
Leaves school with strong and diversified tastes.
Fondness for poetry in early life.
A wish to travel first roused by reading 'Wonders of the World.'
Fondness for shooting.
Collects minerals and becomes interested in insects and birds.
Studies chemistry.
Goes to Edinburgh University.
And attends medical lectures.
Collects and dissects marine animals.
Attends meetings of the Plinian Royal Medical and Wernerian societies.
Attends lectures on geology and zoology.
Meets Sir J. Mackintosh.
Spends three years at Cambridge studying for the ministry.
Phrenological characteristics.
Reads Paley with delight.
Attends Henslow's lectures on botany.
His taste for pictures and music.
His interest in entomology.
Friendship of Prof. Henslow and its influence upon his career.
Meets Dr. Whewell.
Reads Humboldt's 'Personal Narrative' and Herschel's 'Introduction to the
Study of Natural History.'
Begins the study of geology.
Field-work in North Wales.
Voyage of the "Beagle".
Receives a proposal to sail in the "Beagle".
Starts for Cambridge and thence to London.
'Voyage of the "Beagle" the most important event in my life.'
Sails in the "Beagle".
His letters read before the Philosophical Society of Cambridge.
Returns to England.
Begins his 'Journal of Travels.'
Takes lodgings in London.
Begins preparing MS. for his 'Geological Observations.'
Arranges for publication of 'Zoology of the Voyage of the "Beagle".
Opens first note-book of 'Origin of Species.'
Meets Lyell and Robert Brown.
Works on his 'Coral Reefs.'
Reads papers before Geological Society.
Acts as secretary of the Geological Society.
Residence at Down.
His absorption in science.
His publications.
'Geological Observations' published.
Success of the 'Journal of Researches.'
Begins work on 'Cirripedia.'
visits to water-cure establishments.
Work on the 'Origin of Species.'
Reads 'Malthus on Population.'
Begins notes on 'Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication.'
Becomes interested in cross-fertilisation of flowers.
Publishes papers on dimorphic and trimorphic plants.
Publishes 'Descent of Man.'
First child born.
Publishes translation and sketch of 'Life of Erasmus Darwin.'
Methods of work.
Mental qualities.
Fond of novel reading.
A good observer.
Habits and personal appearance.
Ill health.
Fondness for dogs.
Business habits.
Scientific reading.
Wide interest in science.
Journals of daily events.
Relation to his family and friends.
His account of his little daughter Annie.
How he brought up his children.
Manner towards servants.
As a host.
Not quick at argument.

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