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The Land of Midian, Vol. 2 by Richard Burton

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and cloudy at mountains.
Cool air and light

12.50p.m. 30.23- - 64 55 20 Cool. Wind north. In

3p.m. 30.20 - - 66 56 18 In cabin. Cool. No

Splendid night. Not a sign of cloud. Cool. White streak on the water (milky
sea, like that of Bombay, caused by fish?). Finest weather yet seen.


Feb. 17. 6a.m. 30.17 - 66 - - 15 In cabin. Cool, clear,
splendid. Forenoon warm
and still. Sea glassy.

Noon. 30.16 - 74 - - 20 In cabin. Sea-breeze
came up strong at eleven

3p.m. 30.13 - - - - 23 In cabin. Sky clouded
all the afternoon--did
not see the sun. Moon
veiled--not a nice look.

Night very cold (shivery). Wind Barri ("land-breeze").


Feb. 18. 6.30a.m. 30.00 - 61 - - 14 Cold and clear. Land-

Noon. 30.04 - 78 - - 33 Sea-breeze setting;
land-breeze stopped. Sky
perfectly clear. Sun
hot. No end of flies.

3p.m. 30.04 - 78 - - 22 Fierce and violent west
wind--a Gharbi, or
exaggerated sea-breeze?
Sky quite clear.

Night quite still. Cold wind stopped at nine p.m. rather suddenly.


The distance traversed comprised 222-1/4 statute miles, mostly through
unexplored country.

On return compared aneroids:--
French .............................. 763 millimetres.
My Casella .......................... 762 "

Difference .......................... .001 "

Date. Time. Aneroid Ther. Hygr. Remarks.
Inches. (deg.)(deg.)

Feb. 19. 6.20a.m. 30.07 65 23 In big tent at El-Muwaylah. Cool land-
breeze. Sky quite clear.

Noon. 29.82 74 23 At Wady Surr, under tree in sea-breeze.
Clear sky, few white clouds. Cold land-
breeze in Wady Surr at ten a.m.; cold sea-
breeze at eleven a.m.

3.40p.m. 29.60 76 20 At Safh Wady Malayh (Malih), in big tent.
Feels as if high up.

Night perfectly still, except a gust about midnight.

Feb. 20. 6.25a.m. 29.53 60 21 In big tent at Safh Wady Malayh. Clear and

11.20a.m.29.40 73 43 Under tree at base of western Gháts. Fine
cool sea-breeze.

3p.m. 29.44 78 17 At Sayl Wady el-Jimm ("water-gathering").
Hot sun. Cold sea-breeze.

Night cold, with land-breeze.

Feb. 21. 6.15a.m. 29.38 64 7 In big tent at Sayl Wady el-Jimm. Clouds
to north and east; air damp. High wind and

12.45p.m.28.82 71 25 On march up Wady Sadr, under tree. Cold
sea-breeze. Sky quite clear; sun warm.
Awful east winds down these Wadys form the
Goz or sand-heaps.

3.30p.m. 28.86 76 7 In small tent at El-Nagwah, in Wady Sadr.
Sun hot; breeze cold.

Night cold, but not so cold as we expected.

Feb. 22. 6a.m. 28.86 56 8 In big tent at El-Nagwah.

11.50a.m.25.40 65 4 Under tree in Wady Sadr; say, 1600 feet
high. White clouds. West wind (sea-breeze
deflected to north) blowing. Here cold
comes from wind.

3p.m. 27.80 74 3 In big tent at Amwáh el-Rikáb, Wady Sadr.

At four p.m. cold and clouds; cumuli and cirri. West wind deflected to north.
At five p.m. thermometer in tent 66 degrees. Fire in tent. Night cold, clear,
and still. A few gusts about midnight.


Feb. 23. 6.30a.m. 27.80 53 5 In big tent foot of Gháts. Weather lovely-
-clear, fine, and cold. At eight a.m. sun
warm, then cold wind.

1.30p.m. 26.88 72 5 In big tent. Cold easterly gale.

4p.m. 26.90 65 2 In small tent, same place.

Violent wind at midnight. Cold; thermometer 38 degrees.

Feb. 24. 6a.m. 26.95 48 0 At head of Wady Sadr.

26.15 45 0 To summit of Khuraytat el-Jils (Pass).
Above the Pass, aneroid 26.25; below,
26.70: difference, .55 = 450 feet. Walked
down in twenty-six minutes.

11.30a.m.26.18 56 0 In the open, under shade. Perfectly clear
of clouds. Sun hot.

3p.m. 26.26 66 -2 In big tent on Hismá plateau (short
descent to camping-ground). Air clear; sun

Very cold when sun sets. Gusts from east at night.


Feb. 25. 6.30a.m. 26.30 42 3 In big tent.

12.30p.m.27.84 74 12 At foot of Khuraytat el-Jils. Still, no
wind; no clouds.

3.30p.m. 27.83 78 17 No wind; no clouds.

Night splendidly clear and still. Felt warm.

Feb. 26. 6a.m. 27.72 64 2 In big tent on Hismá plateau. Glorious
orange-coloured dawn. Mild north wind.
Moon in last quarter. At eight a.m. good
breeze from north; at eleven a.m. cool and
pleasant breeze from east.

Noon. 28.00 70 -8 On march in Shafah Mountains. Hot sun.
Cold wind.

3p.m. 28.30 85 -4 Camp Majrá el-Ruways. In small tent.
Strong west breeze in gusts.

Night glorious at foot of the two Passes.

Feb. 27. 6a.m. 28.10 65 -4 On ground outside tent at Majrá el-Ruways.
Sky overhead quite clear; a few flecks to
south, low clouds to east. At 8.30 a.m.
wind south. Sun at first hot; then sky

11.45a.m.28.48 80 3 At El-Rahabah, head of Wady Dámah, under
tree. Fine sea-breeze. High white strata
to north-east and south. No clouds

5p.m. 28.56 76 -5 Under thorn-tree at Wady Dámah. Fleeting

Night very cold. Not a sign of dew till we returned on board Mukhbir.

Feb. 28. 6a.m. 28.50 44 -5 At Wady Dámah, on box in open. Clouds and
sea-breeze at 8.45 a.m.

1p.m. 28.29 70 19 Under tree at Shuwák ruin. Thermometer in
sun, 82 degrees. Bits of cumuli from
south. At two p.m. furious wind and dust
(sand-devils) scouring up valley from
south, also deflected to west by Pass
gorge. "Sand-devils" in Wadys Surr, Sadr,
Dámah, Shuwák, and Salmá.

3p.m. 28.19 71 16 In big tent.

A few gusts during early part of night; the rest very still. Cold and clear.

Mar. 1. 6.45a.m. 25.30 46 10 Very cold; hands chilled. Land-breeze at
eight a.m. At barrage (dam), aneroid

Noon. 28.37 76 17 In small tent. Noon hot. Wind gusty--not
regular and strong as yesterday.

3p.m. 28.34 77 6 In small tent. Sky clear; air still and

Mar. 2. 6a.m. 28.30 58 11 In big tent at Shuwák. Air still. Clouds
to east. Afterwards sky mottled, windy
striae. At seven a.m. rainbow without
rain; thin cloud north of sun;
perpendicular streak, brilliant enough:
lasted twenty minutes.

9a.m. 28.75 66 - At Shaghab ruin. Sea-breeze at eleven a.m.
Clear and cool. Day slightly cloudy; sun
partly hidden.

3p.m. 28.60 86 15 In big tent at Majrá el-Wághir. Mild sea-
breeze. Hot sun. High clouds.

Night windless, except few occasional gusts. Stars veiled. Grand zodiacal
light (now the regular thing). Cool and pleasant.

Mar. 3. 6a.m. 28.55 66 14 At Majrá el-Wághir, outside tent. Sky
cloudy; mist to north, "mackerel's back"
to east. Sea-breeze at 9.30 a.m. in Wady

Noon. 29.13 75 26 Under tree in Wady Dámah. Cool wind from
south-west. A few clouds, getting
gradually darker to west and south-west.

4p.m. 29.20 78 15 At El-Kutayyifah (camp) under a tree. Cool
south-west wind.

6a.m. 29.30 63 16 Cold north wind. Sea-breeze at nine a.m,
In big tent at El-Kutayyifab.

Mar. 4. 11.30a.m. 29.33 68 11 In shade of rock, Umm ámil.

4p.m. 29.63 80 10 In small tent at Má el-Badi'h, Wady Salmá.
Cold, stiff gale: dust-laden sea-breeze up
the ugly gorge.

5.45a.m. 29.50 60 13 At Má el-Badi'h, on box in open air. Air
clear; thin threads to south.

Mar. 5. 12.30p.m. 30.06 84 -3 At Zibá, in big tent, open east and west,
fronting the bay.

2.45p.m. 30.00 82 4 At Zibá, in small tent.

AT ZIBÁ, IN CAMP (our second halt).

Mar. 6. 6a.m. 29.92 61 15 In big tent. Rather heavy clouds to east
and elsewhere. Sea-breeze began at ten

Noon. 30.04 86 10 In big tent. Air dull and heavy. "Rain-

3.45p.m. 30.00 81 3 Sky quite clear.

Storm at sunset. Heavy clouds rising over arch from west to north: all said
meant wind. At seven p.m. violent gusty gale; nearly blew down tents. Rushing
and furious rain from north-west. Gusts lasted long. Fell about eleven p.m.
Rose again very violently at midnight; then blew itself out. Followed by cold
air. Rain lasted about one hour; damped the ground, and left deep puddles in
the rock-hollows.
Never had thunder and lightning in Midian.

Mar. 7. 6a.m. 31.12 58 15 At Zibá, on box. Cold and clear. A few
clouds to west.

11.30a.m.29.96 74 19 At Jebel el Ghál, in shade in the open.
Fine west wind.

Night and morning cold. On summit of Jebel el-Ghál, aneroid 29.75.

Mar. 8. 6a.m. 30.04 51 11 At Máyat el-Ghál (camp), on box.

March 8th is the 30th (last day of) Imshir (February), 1094.
March 9th is the 1st of Barmáhát (March). See Chap. I. p. 22.
In the early days of Barmáhát they expect the Husum or violent wind which
destroyed the tribe of Ad.
After seven nights and eight days begins the Bard el-Agúz, or "old man's
On Barmáhát 12 (March 20) is the Intikál el-Shams, or "vernal equinox;" after
which the weather becomes warmer.

MARCH 12, 1878.

Date. Time. Aneroid Ther. Dry Wet Hygr. Remarks.
Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Mar. 8. 12.40p.m.30.08 74 - - 18 Main cabin, Mukhbir.

Mar. 9. 7a.m. 30.10 20 69 62 - In cabin.

12.30p.m.30.13 73 72 64 - Quite clear. Fresh sea-breeze.

3p.m. 30.11 75 74 64 - Clouds white and streaky

In the evening clouds on hills and mountains, especially the SHÁRR; elsewhere
clear. Red sunset, grand. At night dew heavy on board Mukhbir; gunwales wet in
morning. Moon with kind of half halo round her. Night very hot--sign of coming

At noon compared ship's (Mukhbir)
mercurial barometer ......................... 773 millimetres.
With my aneroid by Casella .................. 765 millimetres.
And (Mr. Duguid's) aneroide ................. 765 millimetres.
Difference .................................. -008 millimetres.
On December 19, 1877, ship's difference ..... +007 millimetres.
Difference .................................. +001 millimetres.

Mar. 10. 6.30p.m. 30.12 73 69 61 - In cabin. Clouds on SHÁRR like
flights of birds, low-lying
banks to south. Morning
slightly muggy: no breeze.

Noon. 30.12 76 75 60 - In cabin. Gentle sea-breeze.
Sky quite clear.

3p.m. 30.11 76 76 66 - Cool, pleasant sea-breeze.

Fine night, pleasant and cool.

Mar. 11. 6a.m. 30.10 73 68 65 - In cabin. Splendid morning.

Noon. 30.10 - 80 64 - In cabin. Glorious day; sea-
breeze cool and fresh.

3.30p.m. 30.05 78 77 65 - In cabin. Sea-breeze lively
and strong.

Mar. 12. 7a.m. 30.04 - 67 61 - In cabin. Warmish. Splendid
sunrise on SHÁRR; cold to
north, warmer tints in centre,
and glowing red-yellow flush
to south.

3p.m. 30.03 78 77 70 - In cabin. Fine cool sea-

Tides high and low (March) pier shows difference of three feet in rise, about
the midlength of Sharm Yáhárr.


The distance traversed comprised 59 miles.

On return compared aneroids:--
French (left on board Mukhbir) .... 758 millimetres.
My Casella ........................ 756 "
Difference ........................ 002 "

Date. Time. Aneroid Ther. Hygr. Remarks.
Inches. (deg.)(deg.)

Mar. 13. 6.20a.m. 29.96 66 23 On deck of Mukhbir. Cool land-breeze; hot
at nine a.m. Sea-breeze at 10.45. At Wady
Sanawiyyah aneroid 29.60.

3p.m. 29.26 82 13 Under tree (acacia, but shady). Grand sea-
breeze from one to three p.m.

Warm night under the SHÁRR, stones retaining heat. Moon misty. Very heavy dew,
like rain; wetted boxes; saw for the first time inland. Will last for some
three months, and must greatly assist vegetation.

Mar. 14. 6a.m. 29.30 68 28 In big tent. All the sky clouded over as
if rain coming. Sea-breeze 10.30.

Noon. 29.60 88 28 Camp at Safh Wady Kusayb. Cloudy and
sultry all day. Little sun, except from
nine till eleven a.m. Rain-heat; seems to
threaten rain.

3p.m. 29.56 86 23 In big tent. Sultry-feels like storm.

At night, violent storm of wind from north-east, with nasty warm gusts. The
people call it Sabáh, probably for Sabá, the "Zephyr"--the Bád-i-Sabá of
poetry; also El-Farawi, because it blows at night. Big tent down in a moment,
as at Makná. N.B.--No windstorm on the coast. At foot of Abú Sháar Pass,
aneroid 28.80; at foot of quartz-vein (wall), 28.50.

Mar. 15. 6a.m. 29.50 76 1 In big tent at Safh Wady Kusayb, north-
east wind still blowing. No dew in

11.45a.m.29.22 93 -5 In Wady Surr. Curious windy cirri to west.
Wind blew itself out in Wady Surr.
Pleasant sea-breeze from south.

3p.m. 28.93 100 14 In big tent at Safhat el-Wúayrah, Wady
Surr. Cloudy. Wind from south, a deflected


Mar. 16. 6a.m. 29.86 70 2 On box outside tent. Morning grand; still,
clear, warm, and dry. At seven a.m., going
uphill, aneroid 28.20; at 7.35, half-way
up, 27.70.

9a.m. 26.83 63 3

Noon. 26.70 82 - Under rock. Pleasant sea-breeze from
north-east. Sun hot; day quite clear.

3p.m. 26.76 86 3 Shade of rock, summit of outlier. Strong
wind from west.

Mean of two observations on summit of outlier, 26.79 = 3,200 feet above sea-


Mar. 17. 9a.m. 28.36 80 3 Under tree. Very hot sun that tired all.
Breeze at 8.30 a.m.

11a.m. 28.76(?)93 - Same place. At summit of Pass el-Kuwayd,
aneroid 28.13; in Wady Kuwayd, 28.20. Very
small descent to 28.50, say 400 feet.

3.40p.m. 28.65 90 -9 In big tent.


Mar. 18. 4.20am 28.63 73 -4 Complete change of climate. No Khamsin to-
day. Fine sea-breeze in puffes at 9:30
a.m.; came up strong about noon.

11.45am 29.43 91 5 Under tree in Wady el-Bayzá.

On March 17th began what our Egyptians called the Khamsin, and the Arabs El-
Dufún (Bedawin, Dafún) generically; and specifically Dufún el-Suráyyá ("of the
Pleiades""). Sky dark without clouds. At night, yellow clouds over moon. Gusts
alternately hot and cold. Highly electrical; few could sleep at night. Tents
left open. It was followed by damp and gloomy weather, which the Arabs
attribute to the Intikál el-Shams ("vernal equinox"). This began on March
19th, and lasted till the 22nd. Aneroid falls lower than we have yet seen it.

20, 1878.

Date. Time. Aneroid Ther. Dry Wet Hygr. Remarks.
Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Mar. 18. 3p.m. 29.91 84 - - 24 In main cabin. A few light

Mar. 19. 7a.m. 29.83 - 70 64 - Under deck awning. Morning
still, calm, and muggy. Clouds
everywhere. Presently cool
land-breeze came up. Regular
Khamsin at eight a.m.

Noon. 29.80 - 79 71 - In captain's cabin. Cloudy and

3p.m. 29.76 - 79 70 - In captain's cabin. Afternoon
sultry. Wind Azyab, and from
south. Seems to threaten a
storm. Heavy clouds from west
and north-west.

Mar. 20. 7a.m. 29.82 - 75 71 - In captain's cabin. Sultry,
"juicy" morning.

Noon. 29.75 - 76 70 - Dark and cloudy. Cool wind
from south-west.

4p.m. 29.80 - 76 68 - In captain's cabin. Sultry
air; no breeze; nasty and
damp. Cloudy all over. A storm
somewhere (Alexandria? Suez?).
Swell on sea, breaking on
south reef; comes from north-
west. Weather looks like that
of Europe.

About eight p.m. a cool draught from north. No moon or stars. Expect it to end
either in a gale or in heavy rain. It ended on morning of March 22nd, with a
fine north wind; and at 9.10 p.m. with slight earthquake.


Date. Time. Aneroid Ther. Dry Wet Hydg. Remarks.
Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)


Mar. 21. 7a.m. 29.76 - 75 71 - In captain's cabin. Aneroid
very low. Wind south-west.
Ugly, gloomy weather.
Mountains misty. Very slight
roll in sea--became heavy in
afternoon--mar vecchio (Bahr
madfún). Bursts of half sun
after nine a.m.

12.40p.m.29.84 - 77 71 - Aneroid rising. At noon sea
quite calm and oily. Shortly
after, sea-breeze from west
set in. About one p.m. made
sail; rolling began. More sun.
Sails down. At two p m.
rolling heavy, cross sea (mar

3.30p.m. 29.85 - 76 73 - Damp increases.

After five p.m. sky clearer and weather finer, but still dark to south. Stars


Mar. 22. 6.15a.m. 29.92 - 73 66 - In cabin. Morning cool. Wind
north. Total change of
weather. Sky clear, except
cirri, and wind increased.
White "horses" outside. All
nature gay.

Noon. 30.01 - 79 65 - In cabin. Damp disappeared.

3p.m. 30.90 - 74 64 - Fine, strong, bright sea-
breeze. North wind,
threatening to blow hard.
Cloudy and clear. Windy sky.

At 9.10 p.m. earthquake from north to south; lasted twenty seconds; followed
by strong north wind, which lasted only a short time. So end the Equinoctials.

Mar. 23. 6a.m. 30.00 - 70 61 - At Dumayghah. In cabin.
Glorious morning; cool, calm,
bright. Zephyr from north. At
noon a few wind-clouds and
cirri to north and west. Very
heavy rolling (mar vecchio)
from north-west. Long waves.

3p.m. 29.98 - 74 65 - At El-Wijh. Pleasant, cool
north wind. Afternoon cloudy
and cold, as if wind came
through rain.

Cleared in the evening. Saw stars.


Mar. 24. 5.45a.m. 29.94 - 71 68 - In cabin. Grey, cloudy
morning. No cold.

3p.m. 29.98 - 74 65 - In cabin. Fine north breeze.
Warm sun. Air cool. Wind-
clouds to east; the rest blue.
Sky wondrous clear.

At 4.30 p.m. left El-Wijh, and steamed nearly due south-west. Fine breeze and
long waves from north-west. Wind and waves fell. Rolled horridly from seven
p.m. to midnight: no ballast; very bad steering: then turned south-east, and
movement somewhat improved. Very heavy dew. Zodiacal light clear.


Mar. 25. 7.30 a.m.30.04 - 73 68 - Marvellous fine morning. Wind
north. Glorious day.

12.15p.m.30.01 - 75 64 - Near El-Haurá. Lovely day.
Steady north breeze.

4p.m. 29.97 - 77 69 -


Mar. 26 6a.m. 29.94 70 - - 36 In cabin. Red morning, warm
and still. Sea oily. Light
mists. Venus throws shadow.
Very heavy dew--all wet.

12.15p.m.29.91 - 74 70 - Same place. Warm sun; cool
breeze from north.

3.20p.m. 29.87 - 78 74 - At sea. Cirri and wind-clouds
to east and nearly everywhere.

Weather fine, yet glass falling. Damp air. Hence (possibly) many have colds,
coughs, and hoarseness. Wind-clouds, but clear to north. Dew very heavy.


Mar. 27. 7a.m. 29.87 - 73 68 - In captain's cabin Dew-clouds
everywhere. Air very damp.

11.45a.m.29.98 - 78 70 - Air still and pleasant.

3p.m. 29.85 - 78 72 - Day decidedly hot and damp.
Aneroid very low.

Mar. 28. 6.30a.m. 29.89 - 70-1/2 68 - In cabin. Dew wetted tents and
decks like heavy shower. Sky
all dew; air feels soppy.
Violent wind from north-west.
Ship rolling.

1p.m. 29.97 - 70-1/2 67 -

Mar. 29. 7a.m. 29.97 71 - - 33 In cabin. Strong, cold north
wind. Men coughing like cries
of camels. Sky very clear.
This kind of storm is called
Hawwá el-'Uwwah ("last storm
of March"), and blows fourteen
days. Followed by El-Ni'ám el-
Kabir ("greater"), and El-
Saghir ("less"); continues
forty days.

6p.m. 28.78 74 - - 30 At Fort El-Wijh, two hours'
journey up the valley.

Fine day on seaboard--not much gale. Wind north-west. Night cool, but no dew.
Ship's barometer, 6 a.m., 30.7 Wind north-west. Ther. (F.) 64 deg.
Ship's barometer, noon, 30.7 Wind north-west. Ther. (F.) 76 deg.
Ship's barometer, 3 p.m., 30.7 Wind north-west. Ther. (F.) 76 deg.


Compared ship's (Sinnár) mercurial barometer, 30.07 (64 deg. F.), with
anerold, 30.01; difference, aneroid,--0.06.

On return compared ship's (Sinnár) mercurial barometer, 29.99, with aneroid,
29.86; difference, aneroid,--0.13.

Date. Time. Aneroid Ther. Dry Wet Hydg. Remarks.
Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Mar. 30. 5.30a.m. 29.70 64 - - 24 At Fort El-Wijh, on box before
tent. Cold and cloudy morning.
Moon and stars veiled.

Noon. 29.55 90 - - 43 In camp at Umm el-Karáyát--
deep valley. Puffs of sea-
breeze from south. Strong sun.

3.15p.m. 29.50 86 - - 29 In big tent at Umm el-Karáyát-
-lat. 26 deg. 13'. Sun very
hot. Fresh and strong sea-
breeze from east (?).

Cool and pleasant night. No sign of dew. Climate healthy. Garrison at Fort El-
Wijh in excellent condition.

Mar. 31. 5a.m. 29.44 45 - - 19 In big tent at Umm el-Karáyát.
Very clear, still morning.
West pink. At sunrise wind,
and hot and cold puffs (south-
east and land-breeze).

11.10p.m.29.46 90 - - -3 At Wady el-Kubbah, under tree.
Very hot. Wind shifting from
east to west (sea-breeze).
Stones in sun so hot that they
cannot be held. At noon
regular Khamsin; air sandy.

Top of Jebel el-Kubbah, aneroid 29.34; in valley below, aneroid 29.46 (47?);
height, 120 feet.

3p.m. 29.30 94 - - -20 At Máyat el-Dasnah. Hot west
wind. Thermometer in big tent,

Night cool.

April 1. " 29.30 63 - - -12 At Máyat el-Dasnah. Morning
pleasant, still, and quite
clear. No sign of dew or
Khamsin. Hygrometer
exceedingly dry. Sun rose hot.
Slight breeze from eight a.m.
to 8.30 a.m., when the rocks
and stones have become
thoroughly heated. Very
refreshing: cools head; stops

9.30a.m. 28.96 83 - - -10 At foot of Marú Rábigh, in
shade of rock.

12.30p.m.28.92 99 - - -8 At Marú Rábigh, under big tent
awning. About noon a medley of
winds; hot blasts of Khamsin
from south-west, suddenly
changed to north.

3p.m. 28.88 100 - - -25 At Marú Rábigh. Hot sun. Wind
in puffs, mostly south-west.
No sand in air. Stones in
sunshine too hot to hold; yet
there are flies.

This is second day of Khamsin. Comes up about ten a.m.; wind either too much
or too little. At 2.5 p.m. nearly blew tent down.

April 2. 5.10a.m. 28.98 70 - - -6 At foot of Marú Rubayyigh in
Wady Rábigh. Morning perfectly
still. All appearance of
Khamsin. Light horizontal
striae to north.

Noon. 29.15 92 - - -18 At Abú Gezáz valley, under
tree. Much bothered by small

3.10p.m. 29.14 100 - - -25 In big tent, which was again
blown down.

Third day of Khamsin. All animals weak and worn out. Wind comes up later--
11.30 a.m. to noon. Gives feeling of faintness and awful thirst. "Devils"
(Zawábah) rose high in valley with electrical whirl. Evening lowering. Wind or
rain clouds from west and north. Night still and cool. Threatening clouds east
and west.

April 3. 5a.m. 29.20 65 - - -13 At Abú Gezáz valley. Morning
cool (sign Khamsin gone). Sun
pleasant. Red wind-clouds to
north and east. At six a.m.
pleasant, cool land-breeze
from south.

Noon. 28.80 90 - - -16 At El-Badá, under palm-tree.
Wind west. Milky sky, all

3p.m. 28.75 95 - - -24 In big tent. Regular Khamsin--
very nasty. Clouds to west.

Night still. Neither warm nor cool. climate fine. Colds and coughs


April 4. 5.30a.m. 28.70 68 - - -7 On box outside tent. Traces of
dew. White clouds. Looked
regularly like a Khamsin day.

Noon. 28.74 90 - - 2 In big tent. No sun. Air
muggy. White gleams. View
poor; like rain. Strong blast
from south-west. Heavy clouds
west and north. Drops of rain
fell three times between one
p.m. and three p.m.

3p.m. 28.70 90 - - -8

At four p.m. in west a dust like general or prairie fire. A few drops of rain
fell at long intervals--could not catch any for photographs. Broad parallel
veins of white, red, and black cloud rising from east to west. Puffs of cold
wind came on, soon growing to blasts; then storm came down upon us. No thunder
or lightning. Kind of "dust-bow" in west (no rain), half the arc. Wind then
turned north and felt cold and rainy. Heavy cloud-bank to west. Forms of
mountains crept out of the brown and purple mist, half dust, half rain. All
enjoyed storm. No rain for two years has fallen here. Rainbows at El-'Akabah
(double) and at Shuwák (single). Cool and pleasant night, with dew. Mean of
six aneroid observations at El-Badá, 28.78. After leaving El-Badá mornings and
evenings delightful; sun warm in day; nights cool and pleasant. Dust at times.

April 5. 4.30a.m. 28.65 - - - -8 In big tent at Badá. Dust
"devils." Great change after
rain. Very damp.

3p.m. 28.58 86 - - -3 At 'Ayn el-Kurr, under shade
of rock. Strong north wind.

Though all prophesied Azyab or "south-easter," this was perhaps the finest of
all our days. Night cool. Cold wind at one a.m., of which all complained.

April 6. 5.45a.m. 28.59 58 - - 6 At 'Ayn el-Kurr, on box
outside tent. White clouds to
south. No wind. False sea-
breeze at seven a.m.; true at
ten a.m. Cloudy forenoon.

11.45a.m.28.90 84 - - - In Wady el-Kurr.

3p.m. 28.87 87 - - -3 At Wady Laylah, in big tent.
Afternoon windy as usual.
Puffs from west (sea-breeze),
cold. Sky quite clear.
Mountains milky.

Night cool, but not cold.

April 7. 4.15a.m. 28.80 60 - - +5 In big tent at Wady Laylah.
Morning especially bright.
Lucifer like a little moon.
Breeze at eight a.m.

Noon. 29.39 54 - - +2 Wady Birkat, under rock. Going
down seawards fast. Cool west
wind. Good sea-breeze. Sky and
sun clear--sun not unpleasant.
Hot in sheltered bends.

3.10p.m. 29.46 81 - - 4 At Abál-Ajáj, under tamarisks.

Dew at night.

April 8. 5a.m. 29.55 60 - - 27 Outside tent at Abál-Ajáj.
Cool morning; warmer at eight
a.m. before breeze set in.

Noon. 29.94 83 - - 22 At the temple (El-Gasr), Wady
Hamz. Sand-dust with sea-
breeze, terrible at temple and
around it. Eyes filled,
clothes covered. Saw mirage--
well defined for first time.

3p.m. 29.90 52 - - 20 At Wady Hamz. Hygrometer damp
on account of sea-breeze.

April 9. 4a.m. 29.92 70 - - 25 Still, clear, and beautiful,
like all these mornings. Hot
sun. Blue sea, glassy near the
shore. Puffs of wind from

Noon. 29.90 96 - - -8 In big tent at Wady Mismáh.
Cool breeze from north-cast.
Heat strongly reflected from
quartz. Vegetation dreadfully
dry; plants look dead. Two bad

3p.m. 29.74 92 - - -18 In big tent at Abál-Marú.
Another nasty afternoon. High
west wind--sea-breeze, not
Khamsin; tent almost blown
down. Dust dreadful.

Evening charming. Night admirably cool.

April 10 4.20a.m. 29.74 - - - 0 In big tent at Abál-Marú.
Splendid morning; few striae
in east. Will be hot.

4.30p.m. 29.95 - 76 73 - On board Sinnár, captain's
cabin. Pleasant afternoon.
Cool sea-breeze.


April 11.6a.m. 29.86 - 70 66 - In captain's cabin. Felt damp
strongly after the Desert.

12.30p.m.29.87 - 78 74 - All complaining of heat (white
heat); damp is the cause. No
sea-breeze to speak of.

3.15p.m. 29.83 - 79 75 - White clouds everywhere.
Curious wind-clouds, not a
little like comets.

Heavy dew. Streets of El-Wijh wet.


Date. Time. Aneroid Dry Wet Remarks.
Inches. Bulb. Bulb.

April 12. 6.20 a.m. 29.89 78 73 En route to El-Muwaylah, captain's
cabin. Red sunrise. Clouds thin all
about horizon. Looks like regular
Khamsin day. Feels exceedingly damp.

12.20 p.m. 20.80 79 70 In dead calm. Sea oily, like mirror.
No winds. Thin white clouds

3.35 p.m. 29.78 81 76 In captain's cabin. Wretched day at
El-Wijh and ashore. Very muggy.

At night a "bruch" (halo) of clouds round moon, and far from it. Expect
storm. "Bruchs" round moon on 13th, 14th, and 15th.

April 13. Noon. 29.84 78 70 Anchored before El-Muwaylah. No dew
in morning, and clouds everywhere.
No sun seen. Very hot at noon. White
clouds everywhere. Smoke of steamer
hangs low. Mountains look very high.
Muggy. Fine drinkytite.

3 p.m. 29.80 83 73 At Sharm Yáhárr. Hot and sweaty.
Light west wind rose after noon;
soon fell.

At night clouds and "bruch." Clear to north, thick to south.

April 14. 6.30 a.m. 29.82 78 72 At Sharm Yáhárr. Nasty muggy
morning. Light north breeze set in.

12.40 p.m. 29.88 82 75

3 p.m. 29.85 83 76 Warm and cloudy.

Weather threatening. The same storm that found us at Makná last year.

April 15. " - - - Water flooded pier, and waves broke
on shore.

April 16. " - - - Ran to El-Muwaylah. Had to return to
Sharm Yáhárr. Furious wind from west
(Gharbi) began about nine a.m.

April 17. Noon. 29.98 77 65 In captain's cabin, Sharm Yáhárr.

3 p.m. 29.92 76 65

Wind changed to north. Weather became cool and pleasant. Gale still, but
shows signs of abating.

On April 18th weather somewhat abated. Stopped at El-Mawaylah to drop Sayyid
'Abd el-Rahim; and steamed off for Suez, where we arrived on 20th. Voyage
very slow in teeth of north wind. Yet at Suez had had south wind for some
days, and congratulated us upon the fact.


(He used the French aneroide and the Centigrade thermometer bought at Cairo.)

Date. Time. Aneroid Thermometer Remarks.
Millimetres. Centigrade.

Jan. 8. Noon. 768 25 At Sharmá camp.

Jan. 9. Noon. 768 25 Ditto.

Jan. 10. Noon. 761 26 Ditto.

Jan. 11. Noon. 763 19 Ditto.

Jan. 12. Noon. 763 19 Ditto.

Jan. 13. Noon. 760 30 Ditto. Very hot.

Jan. 14. Daylight 760 20
(?) 755 25 Very hot.
8 p.m. 758 23

Jan. 15. (?) 757 21
(?) 757 25 Hot.
Nightfall 759 20

Jan. 16. Daylight 762 18 Mr. Duguid marched from Sharmá to El-Muwaylah.

Jan. 17. Sunset. 768 25 On board Mukhbir at Sharm Yáhárr.

Jan. 18. Sunrise. 766 22 On board Mukhbir.
(?) 766 23 Ditto.
Sunset. 764 28 Ditto. Hot.


Jan. 19. Sunrise. 763 21
Noon. 762 25
Sunset. 763 25

Jan. 20. Sunrise. 761 21
Noon. 762 25
Nightfall 762 28 Hot

Jan. 21. Sunrise. 763 23 Bad weather at Sharm Yáhárr.
Noon. 763 24
Sunset. 767 25

Jan. 22. Sunrise. 769 19 Mukhbir delayed by bad weather.
Noon. 768 24

Jan. 24. Noon. 767 24

Mr. Duguid steamed out of Yáhárr for Makná. Anchored off Sináfir Island.

Jan. 25. Sunrise. 767 23 Reached Makná.
Noon. 766 24
Sunset. 765 25

Jan. 26. Sunrise. 764 23 On board Mukhbir.
Noon. 763 27
Sunset. 763 29

Jan. 27. Sunrise. 765 22 Ditto.
Noon. 763 23
Sunset. 763 27

Jan. 28. Sunrise. 763 21 Ditto.
Noon. 762 24
Sunset. 762 22

Jan. 29. Sunrise. 763 20 Ditto.
Noon. 762 22
Sunset. 762 23

Jan. 30. Sunrise. 766 20 Ditto.
Noon. 764 24
Sunset. 765 24

Jan. 31. Sunrise. 765 22 Ditto.
Noon. 764 23
Sunset. 764 23

Feb. 1. Sunrise. 765 21 Ditto.
Noon. 764 22


Date. Time. Aneroid Thermometer Remarks.
Millimetres. Centigrade.

Feb. 18. 7 a.m. 764 18 Clear sky. Light breeze.
Noon. 763 23 Same weather.
5 p.m. 764 23 Clear sky. Good breeze.

Feb. 19. 7 a.m. 764 20 Clear sky. Light wind.
Noon. 764 23 Light wind. Few clouds in east.
5 p.m. 764 24 Clear sky. Light wind.

Feb. 20. 7 a.m. 765 20 Clear sky. Light east wind.
Noon. 765 21 Clear sky. Light north-west wind.
5 p.m. 764 23 Clear sky. Light east wind.

Feb. 21. 7 a.m. 765 20 White clouds all round. Light east wind.
Noon. 766 23 Few clouds to south. Light north-west wind.

Feb. 22. 7 a.m. 765 20 Few clouds to east. Light west wind.
Noon. 764 22 Few clouds to east. Good north-west breeze.
5 p.m. 764 22 Few clouds to west. Light north wind.

Feb. 23. 7 a.m. 764 19 Clouds to south-west. No wind.
Noon. 765 21 Clouds to east. Light north-west wind.
5 p.m. 765 22 Few clouds to east. Light north-west wind.

Feb. 24. 7 a.m. 767 19 Clear sky. No wind.
Noon. 768 22 Clear sky. Light north wind.
5 p.m. 768 24 Same weather.

Feb. 25 7 a.m. 769 20 Clear sky. Light east wind.
Noon. 769 22 Clear sky. Light west wind.
5 p.m. 768 24 Clear sky. No wind.

Feb. 26. 7 a.m. 766 20 Clear sky. Light east wind.
5 p.m. 766 20 Same weather.

Feb. 27. 7 a.m. 762 20 Few clouds to south. Light north-east wind.
Noon. 762 23 Clear sky. Light north wind.
5 p.m. 761 25 Clear sky. Light west wind.

Feb. 28. 5.p.m. 764 23 Heavy clouds to west. Strong west wind.

Mar. 1. 7 a.m. 767 20 Few clouds in south. Light north wind.
Noon. 767 23 Clear sky. Good north-west breeze.
5 p.m. 765 22 Few clouds to west. Light wind from west.

Mar. 2. 7 a.m. 765 20 Clouds all round. Light east wind.
Noon. 765 23 Clouds all round. Light west wind.
5 p.m. 764 24 Clouds all round. Light north wind.

Mar. 3. 7 a.m. 762 20 Few clouds to east. No wind.
Noon. 763 22 Few clouds to south. Good north-west breeze.
5 p.m. 763 23 Few clouds to north. Good west breeze.

Mar. 4. 7 a.m. 767 21 Clear sky. Light breeze from east.
Noon. 768 23 Clear sky. Light breeze from west.
5 p.m. 767 24 Clear sky. Light breeze from north.

Mar. 5. 7 a.m. 764 20 Clear sky. Light east wind.
Noon. 764 22 Clear sky. Good breeze from east.
5 p.m. 762 25 Light clouds all round. North-west wind.

Mar. 6. 7 a.m. 763 20 Heavy clouds to east. Light east wind.
Noon. 763 23 A few clouds to east. Light west wind.
5 p.m. 762 24 Dark clouds all round. Strong west wind. At ten
p.m. gale from west, with some flashes of

Mar. 7. 7 a.m. 766 19 Clouds to south. Wind north.
Noon. 767 23 Clear sky. Good breeze from north-west.
5 p.m. 766 24 Clear sky. Wind north.

Mar. 8. 7 a.m. 763 19 Clear sky. Light east wind.
Noon. 763 23 Clear sky. Light west wind.


Date. Time. Aneroid Thermometer Remarks.
Millimetres. Centigrade.

Mar. 13. 6 a.m. 762 25 Clear sky. Good breeze. Wind west.
Noon. 761 26 Clear sky. Light breeze. Wind west.

Mar. 14. 6 a.m. 762 21 Light clouds all over. Wind east. Light breeze.
Noon. 764 24 Same cloudy weather, but wind from east (?).
3 p.m. 763 26 Light clouds all round. Wind west and light.

Mar. 15. 6 a.m. 762 21 A few clouds to south. Wind east and light.
Noon. 761 26 Light clouds all round. Moderate breeze from
3 p.m. 760 27-1/2 Same weather.

Mar. 16. 6 a.m. 760 24 A few clouds to south. Light east wind.
Noon. 760 26 Clear sky. Wind south-west. Light breeze.
3 p.m. 759 29 Clear sky. Wind west. Very light breeze.

Mar. 17. 6 a.m. 759 24 Clear sky. Light breeze from east.
Noon. 760 26 Clear sky. Wind west. Very light breeze.
3 p.m. 760 27 Same weather.

Mar. 18. 6 a.m. 760 23 Same weather, by wind west.
Noon. - - Clear sky. Wind west. Very light breeze.

Mar. 19. 6 a.m. 759 23 Few clouds to north. Wind east, and very light.
Noon. 758 19 Clouds to north-west. Good breeze from west.
3 p.m. 758 29 Clouds all round. Wind south-west. Good breeze.

APRIL 10, 1878.

Date. Time. Mercurial Thermometer. Remarks.
Barometer. Fahr.

Mar. 29. 6 a.m. 30.7 64
Noon. 30.7 76
3 p.m. 30.7 76

Mar. 30. 6 a.m. 30.00 61 White clouds to north-east. Wind north-east.
Noon. 30.05 77
3 p.m. 30.00 80 Air very damp from noon to sunset. Wind west.

Mar. 31. 6 a.m. 29.9 63 Wind north-east. Never saw barometer so low.
Noon. 30.00 80 Dry and fine.
3 p.m. 29.98 82

April 1. 6 a.m. 29.94 66 Wind east. Fine day.
Noon. 29.95 83
3 p.m. 29.92 83 Damp from noon to sunset.

April 2. 6 a.m. 29.90 68 Wind east. Fine day.
Noon. 30.00 80 Damp.
3 p.m. 29.90 81 Red clouds at sunset.

Gale of wind at El-Wijh from north-east, began at seven p.m. Ship under shelter. Rain for half
an hour.

April 3. 6 a.m. 30.00 69 Wind north.
Noon. 30.20 80 Damp.
3 p.m. 30.00 79 Wind north-west at sunset.

April 4. 6 a.m. 30.00 73 Wind north-west.
Noon. 30.03 76 Wind north-west all day.
3 p.m. 30.00 77

Storm on seaboard. Heavy clouds, wind, and gale all day from north-west. Sinnár rolling.

April 5. 6 a.m. 29.93 66 Wind north-west.
Noon. 30.00 76 Wind north-west.
3 p.m. 30.00 75 Fine day.

April 6. 6 a.m. 29.93 62 Wind north.
Noon. 30.00 74 Wind north-west.
3 p.m. 30.00 74 Same weather.

April 7. 6 a.m. 29.94 64 Wind north.
Noon. 30.00 79 Fine day.
3 p.m. 30.00 76 Wind north-west from noon to sunset. Fine weather.

April 8. 6 a.m. 30.02 61 Wind east.
Noon. 30.04 73 Fine day.
3 p.m. 30.04 78 From noon to sunset, fine but damp.

April 9. 6 a.m. 30.04 68 Wind east.
Noon. 30.06 77
3 p.m. 30.06 81 Damp from noon to sunset.

April 10. 6 a.m. 30.06 64 Wind north. Fine day. Damp and north-west wind
from noon to sunset.


Reaching Cairo, I found Dr. T. E. Maclean from Thebes, with good instruments. He kindly compared
mine with his, and gave me the following results:--The difference between my aneroid (Casella)
and his is very slight, varying generally from 0.05 to -0.10. He advises me to neglect this
slight difference. The dry bulb is, on the whole, a little higher than his; and we have not
sufficient observations for the wet bulb. The pocket thermometer wants correction; it reads from
+1 deg. to +2 deg. 15'.


N&Z = Negretti and Zambra
No obs. = No observation.

Date. Time. N&Z's My Differ- Casellás Differ- N&Z's Casellás Differ- N&Z's Casellás Differ-
(1878) standard Casella. ence for portable ence for dry bulb. dry bulb. ence. wet wet ence for
aneroid. correc- thermo- correc- No. bulb. bulb. correc-
No.1140. tions. meter tions. 39,518. tions.

April 28. 12.30p.m. No obs. No obs. - 91 -1.6 89.4 90.0 -0.6 71.75 71.0 +0.75
3p.m. No obs. No obs. - 84 -2.1 81.9 82.5 -0.6 69.0 69.0 0.0
6.30p.m. No obs. No obs. - 73 -2.5 70.5 71.0 -0.5 61.0 61.0 0.0

April 29. 9a.m. No obs. No obs. - 69 -2.4 66.6 67.0 -0.4 59.1 59.0 +0.1
11.30p.m. 29.796 29.850 -.054 77.5 -2.0 75.5 76.0 -0.5 63.5 64.0 -0.5
3p.m. 29.755 29.752 +.003 77.5 -1.5 76.0 76.0 0.0 62.75 62.0 -0.75

April 30. 9a.m. 29.828 29.850 -.022 67.5 -2.15 65.0 66.0 -1.0 59.5 60.5 -1.0
12.30p.m. 29.822 29.850 -.028 76 -1.5 74.5 75.0 -0.5 63.75 63.5 +0.25
3p.m. 29.799 29.802 -.003 77 -2.0 75.0 73.5 -0.5 64.0 58.0 +1.5

May 1. 9a.m. 29.959 30.100 -.141 66.5 -1.75 64.75 65.5 -0.75 57.5 58.0 -0.5
12.30p.m. 29.945 29.952 -.007 76 -2.5 73.5 74.5 -1.0 61.5 62.0 -0.5
3p.m. 29.984 29.902 +.082 77.5 -1.75 75.75 76.5 -0.75 61.75 61.5 +0.25

May 2. 9a.m. 30.051 30.102 -.051 66 -1.25 64.75 65.0 -0.25 58.0 58.5 -0.5
12.30p.m. 29.978 30.000 -.022 78 -2.0 76.0 76.0 0.0 63.0 66.5 -2.5
3p.m. 29.936 29.950 -.014 78 -1.5 76.5 No obs. - 63.75 No obs. -

May 3. 9a.m. 29.961 29.952 +.009 71.5 -1.5 70.0 No obs. - 58.5 No obs. -
12.30p.m. 29.880 29.900 -.020 83 -2.5 80.5 81.0 -0.5 63.23 62.0 +1.25
3p.m. 29.820 29.850 -.030 83 -1.1 81.9 82.5 -0.6 62.0 62.5 -0.5

May 4. 9a.m. 29.716 29.750 -.024 71.5 -1.25 70.25 71.0 -0.75 63.25 63.0 +0.25
12.30p.m. 29.679 29.700 -.021 89.5 -1.25 87.75 88.0 -0.25 70.25 69.5 +0.75
3.30p.m. 29.617 29.650 -.033 89.5 -1.0 88.5 89.0 -0.5 70.0 69.0 +1.0

May 5. 9.30a.m. 29.586 29.600 -.014 76.5 -1.5 75.0 No obs. - No obs.No obs. -
12.30p.m. No obs. No obs. - 83 -2.0 81.0 82.0 -1.0 69.75 68.5 +1.25
3p.m. 29.603 29.602 -.001 82 -1.5 80.5 81.0 -0.5 69.0 67.0 +2.0

May 6. 9a.m. 29.780 29.800 -.020 70 -1.75 68.25 69.0 -0.75 63.0 63.0 0.0
12.30p.m. 29.785 29.800 -.015 77 -2.0 75.0 76.0 -1.0 65.25 65.0 +0.25
3p.m. 29.778 29.800 -.022 79 -2.0 77.0 77.5 -0.5 67.5 66.0 +1.5

May 7. 9a.m. 29.854 29.850 +.004 67 -2.0 65.0 66.0 -1.0 60.75 61.0 -0.25
12.30p.m. 29.822 29.802 -.020 80.5 -1.5 79.0 79.0 0.0 66.0 65.0 +1.0


[EN#1] The word is explained in my "Itineraries," part ii. sect.

[EN#2] See Appendix IV. "Botanical Notes."

[EN#3] "Opens," i.e. the door for a higher price: it is the usual
formula of refusing to sell.

[EN#4] Chap. XVI.

[EN#5] The Saturday Review, in a courteous notice of my first
volume (May 25, 1878), has the following remarks:--"The Arabs
talk of some (?) Nazarenes, and a 'King of the Franks,' having
built the stone huts and the tombs in a neighbouring cemetery
('Aynúnah). But there can be no local tradition worth repeating
in this instance." Here we differ completely; and those will
agree with me who know how immutable and, in certain cases,
imperishable Arab tradition is. The reviewer, true, speaks of
North Midian, where all the tribes, except the Beni 'Ukbah, are
new. Yet legend can survive the destruction and disappearance of
a race: witness the folk-traditions of the North-Eastern Italians
and the adjacent Slavs. Here, however, in South Midian we have an
ancient race, the Baliyy. And what strengthens the Christian
legend is that it is known to man, woman, and child throughout
the length and breadth of the land.

[EN#6] In Sinai "Shinnár" is also applied to a partridge, but I
am unable to distinguish the species--caccabis, Desert partridge,
(Ammoperdix heyi, the Arab Hajl), or the black partridge
(Francolinus vulgaris).

[EN#7] Chap. IX. has already noticed Ptolemy's short measure.

[EN#8] Chap. XVII.

[EN#9] Helix desertorum (Forsk.) and Helix (sp. incert.)

[EN#10] See "The Gold Mines of Midian,'' Chap. II.

[EN#11] So in Moab the ruins of "Méron" or Mérou of the Greeks
has degenerated into Umm Rasás, "the Mother of Lead."

[EN#12] Their names will be given in Chap. XIII.

[EN#13] A. G., p. 24. See "The Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. XI.
Sprenger spells the word either with a Zád or a Zá: I have
discussed the question in my "Itineraries," part ii. sect. 4.

[EN#14] See the end of this Chapter for a list.

[EN#15] See Chap. XIV.

[EN#16] "Irwin's Voyage," 1777.

[EN#17] This was probably a misprint originally, but it has been
repeated in subsequent editions. Hence it imposed upon even such
careful workmen as the late Lieutenant Henry Raper, "The Practice
of Navigation," etc., p. 527, 6th edition.

[EN#18] See an excellent description of the phenomenon in that
honest and courageous work, "Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina
on Foot," by Arthur J. Evans, B.A., F.S.A. London: Longmans,

[EN#19] There is, however, nothing to prevent its being eaten.

[EN#20] See Chap. X.

[EN#21] Chap. X.

[EN#22] Not to be confounded with the luguminous "Tanúb"
mentioned by Forskâl ("Flora," etc., p. 197).

[EN#23] The word classically means the cypress or the
juniper-tree: in Jeremiah, where it occurs twice (xvii. 6 and
xlviii. 6), the Authorized Version renders it by "heath." It is
now generally translated "savin" (Juniperus sabina), a shrub
whose purple berries have a strong turpentine flavour. When shall
we have a reasonable version of Hebrew Holy Writ, which will
retain the original names of words either untranslatable or to be
translated only by guess-work?

[EN#24] In Cairo generally called Espadrilles, and sold for 1.25
francs. Nothing punishes the feet at these altitudes so much as
leather, black leather.

[EN#25] The explorers laid this down at a few hundred feet. But
they judged from the eye; and probably they did not sight the
true culmination. Unfortunately, and by my fault, they were not
provided with an aneroid.

[EN#26] See Chap. V.

[EN#27] For the usual interpretations see Chapter I. The
Egyptians, like other nations, often apply their own names, which
have a meaning, to the older terms which have become
unintelligible. Thus, near Cairo, the old goddess, Athor el-Núbí
("of the Gold"), became Asr el-Nabi ("the Footprint of the

[EN#28] "The Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. XI.

[EN#29] See Chap. XI.

[EN#30] Chap. XII.

[EN#31] Chap XV.

[EN#32] Chap. XV.

[EN#33] Vol. ii. Chap. X. I have also quoted him in "The
Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. VI.

[EN#34] My "Pilgrimage" (Vol. I. Chap. XI.) called it "Sherm
Damghah": it is the "Demerah" of Moresby and the "Demeg" of 'Ali
Bey el-'Abbási (the unfortunate Spaniard Badia).

[EN#35] See "The Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. VII.

[EN#36] The old being the classical (Iambia Vicus), in
north lat. 24°. This is Yambú' el-Nakhil, in Ptolemy's time a
seaport, now fifteen miles to the north-east (north lat. 24° 12'
3"?) of the modern town. The latter lies in north lat. 24° 5' 30"
(Wellsted, ii. II), and, according to the Arabs, six hours' march
from the sea.

[EN#37] Vol. I. pp. 364, 365.

[EN#38] "The Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. IX.

[EN#39] Chap. VI. describes one of the sporadic (?) outcrops near
Tayyib Ism; and Chap. IX notices the apparently volcanic
sulphur-mount near El-Muwaylah.

[EN#40] See Chap. IX.

[EN#41] "The Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. XII.

[EN#42] See "The Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. VIII.

[EN#43] "Pilgrimage," Vol. I. Chap. XI.

[EN#44] In "The Gold Mines of Midian" (Chap. IV.) I unconsciously
re-echoed the voice of the vulgar about "the harbour being bad
and the water worse" at El-Wijh.

[EN#45] This style of writing reminds me of the inch allah
(Inshallah!) in the pages of a learned "war correspondent"--a
race whose naive ignorance and whose rare self-sufficiency so
completely perverted public opinion during the Russo-Turkish war
of 1877-78.

[EN#46] Not Shaykh Hasan el-Marábit--"Pilgrimage," Vol. I. Chap.

[EN#47] "Pilgrimage," Vol. I. Chap. XI., where it is erroneously
called "Jebel Hasan;" others prefer Hasa'ni--equally wrong.
Voyagers put in here to buy fish, which formerly was dried,
salted, and sent to Egypt; and, during the Hajj season, the
Juhaynah occupy a long straggling village of huts on the south
side of the island.

[EN#48] There are now no less than three lines of steamers that
connect the western coast of Arabia with the north. The first is
the Egyptian Company, successively called Mejidíyyah, Azízíyyah,
and Khedivíyyah, from its chief actionnaire: the packets, mostly
three-masted screws, start from Suez to Jeddah every fortnight.
Secondly, the Austro-Hungarian Lloyd which, with the subvention
of Ł1400 per voyage, began in 1870 to ply monthly between
Constantinople, Port Sa'íd, Suez, Jeddah, and Hodaydah: it has
been suspended since the beginning of the Russo-Turkish war.
Thirdly, the British India Steam Navigation Company sends every
three weeks a ship from London viâ the Canal to Jeddah, Hodaydah,
and Aden. A fourth is proposed; Bymen's (Winan's?) steamers are
establishing a London-Basrah (Bassorah) line, in whose itinerary
will be Jeddah.

[EN#49] The observation was taken on board the Sinnár, by the
first lieutenant Násir Effendi Ahmed: of course I am not
answerable for its correctness, although the latitude cannot be
far out. Thus the difference of parallel between it and El-Wijh
(north lat. 26° 14') would be sixty-eight direct geographical

[EN#50] Beni Kalb: so the Juhaynah were called in the Apostle's

[EN#51] The site was probably near the Shaykh's tomb, where there
are wells which in winter supply water.

[EN#52] This is the volume which I have translated: see also Dr.
Beke's papers in the Athenćum (February 8 and 15, 1873).

[EN#53] See "Mount Sinai a Volcano" (Tinsleys). For a list of
Yakut's volcanoes, see Dr. Beke, "Sinai in Arabia," Appendix, p.

[EN#54] Vol. II. p. 187.

[EN#55] "The Gold-Mines of Midian," p. 213.

[EN#56] As regards these and similar graffiti see (Athenaeum,
March 16, 1878) an excerpt from the last Comptes Rendues of the
Acad. des Inscript. et B. Lettres, Paris. The celebrated M.
Joseph Halévy attacked in their entirety (about 680) the
rock-writings in the Safá desert, south-east of Damascus. The
German savants, mostly attributing them to the Sabá tribes, who
immigrated from Yemen about our first century, tried the
Himyaritic syllabaries and failed. M. Halévy traces them to the
Beni Tamúd (Thamudites), who served as mercenaries in the Roman
army, and whose head-quarters we are now approaching. They
contain, according to him, mostly proper names, with devotional
formulae, similar to those of the Sinaitic inscriptions and the
Kufic and later epigraphs which we discovered. For instance, "By
A., son of B., in memory of his mother; he has accomplished his
vow, may he be pardoned." The language is held to be intermediate
between Arabic and the northern Semitic branches. Names of the
Deity (El and Loo or La'?) are found only in composition, as in
Abd-El ("Abdallah, slave of El"); and the significant absence of
the cross and religious symbols remarked in the Syrian
inscriptions, denotes the era of heathenism, which lasted till
the establishment of Christianity, about the end of the third
century. "At that time," M. Halévy says, "Christianity became the
official religion of the Empire; doubt and scepticism penetrated
amongst those Arabic tribes which were the allies of Rome, and
amongst whom, for a certain time, a kind of vague Deism was
prevalent until the day when they disappeared, having been
absorbed by the great migrations which had taken place in those

[EN#57] Some call it so; others Umm Karáyát: I have preferred the
former--"Mother of the Villages," not "of Villages"--as being
perhaps the more common.

[EN#58] See Chap. XIX.

[EN#59] Vol. II. Chap. X.

[EN#60] This rock, assayed in England, produced no precious
metal. As has been said, gold was found in its containing walls
of quartz.

[EN#61] This is the valley confounded by Wallin and those who
followed him (e.g. Keith Johnston) with the Wady Hamz, some forty
miles to the south.

[EN#62] See the illustration, "Desert of the Exodus," p. 306.

[EN#63] Vol. II. Chap. X.

[EN#64] Described in "The Gold-Mines of Midian," Chap. XII.

[EN#65] Chap. XVIII.

[EN#66] The barbarous names, beginning from the west, are Jebels
Sehayyir, 'Unká ("of the griffon"), Marákh (name of a shrub),
Genayy (Jenayy), El-Hazzah, El-Madhanah, Buza'mah, and Urnuwah.

[EN#67] Dr. C. Carter Blake examined the four brought home, and
identified No. 1, superior pharyngeal bone and teeth (Scarus);
No. 2, inferior bone and teeth of a large fish allied to Labrus
or Chrysophrys; No. 3, left side, pre-maxillary, possibly same
species; and No. 4, lower right mandible of Sphœrodon
grandoculis, Rüppell.

[EN#68] The MS. of this geographer was brought to light by
Professor Sprenger, and Part I. has been published by Professor
de Goeje in his "Bibliotheca Geographarum Arabicorum," here
alluded to.

[EN#69] We have seen (Chap. II.) that the Arabs of Midian mistake
iron for antimony; and the same is the case in the Sinaitic

[EN#70] Ahmed Kaptán's solar observation.

[EN#71] Written in pleasant memory of two visits to Uriconium,
the favourite "find" of poor Thomas Wright, under the guidance of
our steadfast and hospitable friend, Mr. Henry Wace, of
Brooklands, Shrewsbury.

[EN#72] The capital was also transported to Cairo; it could not
have been voluted as there were only two projections.

[EN#73] Lib. xvi. c. iv. § 24. The MSS. differ in the name of the
"village situated on the sea;" some call it Egra, others Negra,
after the inland settlement; and the commentator Kramer remarks,
Mire corrupta est h?c ultima libri pars.

[EN#74] North lat. 26°, which would correspond with that of the
Abá'l-Maru' ruins.

[EN#75] My friend Sprenger strongly protests against Ćlius
Gallus, begging me to abandon him, as the Romans must long have
held the whole coast to El-Haurá, their chief settlement.

[EN#76] For a specimen of the superficiality which characterizes
Lane's "Modern Egyptians," and of the benefits which, despite the
proverbial difficulty of changing an old book into a new one, an
edition, much enlarged and almost rewritten, would confer upon
students, see Vol. III. Chap. XXI. Instead of a short abstract of
all this celebrated story, we have only popular excerpts from the
first volume.

[EN#77] On the maritime road between Meccah and El-Medínah,
celebrated for the apostolic battle which took place in A.H. 2.

[EN#78] The names marked with interrogations are unknown to all
the Arabs whom I consulted : they are probably obsolete.

[EN#79] Identified by Niebuhr and Wellsted with certains ruins
south of Yambú'. See Chap. IV.

[EN#80] The straight path, the highway to Egypt or Cairo.

[EN#81] Elsewhere called Sukyat Yezíd, a name now forgotten.

[EN#82] I have remarked that the name of the Patriarch Jacob is
no longer connected with the Badá plain.

[EN#83] Schweinfurth (the Athenćum, July 6, 1878) speaks of a
"Wadi Abu Marwa ('Quartz Valley')" south of the Galalah block.

[EN#84] Chap. IX.

[EN#85] A paper describing our "finds" was read before the
Anthropological Section of the British Association Meeting at
Dublin on August 21, 1878, and subsequently before the
Anthropological Institute of London (December 10, 1878).

[EN#86] The following was the announcement offered to the

"La collection minéralogique et archéologique rapportée par le
Capitaine Burton, de sa seconde Expédition au pays de Midian, est
exposée dans les salles de l'Hippodrome, avant d'ętre envoyée ŕ
l'Exposition Universelle de Paris, sous la direction de M. G.
Marie, inge'nieur des mines.

"La salle du sud renferme les croquis et les aquarelles faits par
M. E. Lacaze.

"La partie du nord commence avec Akabah, point extręme atteint
par l'Expédition; elle contient les résultats du premier voyage
de l'Expédition, c'est-ŕ-dire: Shermá, Djebel el-Abiat, Aynouneh,
Moghair-Schuaib, Mokna et Akabah.

"Le mur de l'est contient tout ce qui se rapporte ŕ la seconde
exploration, c'est-ŕ-dire l'Hismá et le grand massif du Shárr.

"Le mur du sud contient les principaux points de vue pris au sud
du pays de Midian: Wedje, la forteresse, la montagne de
Omm-el-Karáyát, travaillée par les anciens, la mine de Omm
el-Hárab, le temple antique, etc., etc.

"Sur la table sont les médailles et la collection anthropologique
fait par le Capitaine Burton.

"La salle du nord contient la collection géologique et
minéralogique faite par M. G. Marie; les minéraux sont classés
suivant l'ordre des pays parcourus, c'est-ŕ-dire en commencant ŕ
Akabah et finissant au Ouadi Hamz, frontičre du Hedjaz.

"Tout autour de la salle sont rangées les vingt caisses contenant
des échantillons que Son Altesse le Khédive envoie en Angleterre
pour y ętre analysés. Prčs de la porte de l'est sont placés les
restes du temple de l'Ouadi Hamz, les moulins pour écraser le
quartz, les briques réfractaires, et enfin les inscriptions

"Dans les loges de l'Hippodrome, derričre les deux salles, sont
déposés environ quinze tonnes d'échantillons, destinčs a ętre
analysés par une Commission locale, nommée par Son Altesse le

[EN#87] M. Marie, Ł35 12s.; Haji Wali, Ł23; M. Philipin, Ł12 4s.;
M. Lacaze, Ł3 16s.

[EN#88] Starting with a hundred camels and three Shaykhs.

[EN#89] For all hands.

[EN#90] Includes "bakhshísh."

[EN#91] Sixty-one camels, four Shaykhs.

[EN#92] For all hands.

[EN#93] Fifty camels, three Shaykhs.

[EN#94] For all hands.

[EN#95] Got from Mukhbir.

[EN#96] Fifty-eight camels, three Shaykhs.

[EN#97] For all hands.

[EN#98] Includes "bakhshísh."

[EN#99] Six months' pay.

[EN#100] Four months.

[EN#101] Four months and a half.

[EN#102] Employed on special service.

End of The Land of Midian, (Revisited) By Richard F. Burton,
Volume 2.

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