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The Land of Midian, Vol. 2 by Richard Burton

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10 1878, reached Magháir Shu'ayb.
25 1878, marched upon Makná.
February 3 1878, embarked for the Marsá Dahab in the
Sinaitic Peninsula.
4 1878, to the anchorage of El-Nuwaybi'.
5 1878, anchored at Pharaoh's Island.
6 1878, halted at Pharaoh's Island.
7 1878, steamed to El-'Akabah town.
8 1878, ran down Gulf el-'Akabah.
9 1878, anchored under Tírán Island.
10 1878, halted at Tírán Island.
February 11, 1878, ran from wrecking to Sináfir
Island.
12 1878, halted at Sinafir Island.
13 1878, returned to El-Muwaylah (Sharm
Yáhárr).

Second Journey.

(February 17, 1878, to March 8,1878.)

February 17, 1878 walked to ruins of Abú Hawáwít.
18 ,, marched upon the Safh Jebel Malíh in the
Wady Surr.
19 ,, camped in the Sayl Wady el-Jimm.
20 ,, marched upon El-Nagwah.
21 ,, reached the head of the Wady Sadr.
23 ,, camped below the Col, "El-Khuraytah."
24 ,, reached the Hismá.
25 ,, descended the two Passes and camped in
the "Jayb el-Khuraytah."
26 ,, marched upon the Majrá el-Ruways.
27 ,, ,, ,, ,, Wady Damah.
28 ,, ,, ,, ,, ruins of Shuwák.
March 1 ,, halted at the ruins of Shuwák.
2 ,, visited the ruins of Shaghab and camped
at the Majrá el-Wághir.
3 ,, visited the ruins El-Khandakí and camped
at the plain El-Kutayyifah.
4 ,, marched down the Wady Salmá and camped
at the Má el-Badíah.
5 ,, reached Zibá town.
6 ,, halted at Zibá.
7 ,, visited the turquoise-diggings of Zibá
and camped at the Máyat el-Ghál.
8 ,, returned to El-Muwaylah (Sharm Yáhárr).

Complementary Excursion to the Shárr Mountain.

March 13, 1878, camped in the Wady el-Káimah.
14 ,, camped in the Wady el-Kusayb.
15 ,, camped in the Safhat el-Wu'ayrah.
16 ,, up the Shárr.
17 ,, camped in the Wady Kuwayd.
18 ,, returned to El-Muwaylah (Sharm Yáhárr).

THIRD JOURNEY.

March 21, 1878, to April 10, 1878.)

March 21, 1878, left Sharm Yáhárr and made the
Sharm Dumayghah.
22 ,, halted at El-Dumayghah.
23 ,, anchored in harbour of El-Wijh.
24 ,, set out in the Sinnár southwards.
25 ,, anchored at El-Haurá.
26 ,, halted at El-Haurá.

(On March 26th MM. Marie and Philipin marched from El-Wijh to the
Wady Hamz, and rejoined head-quarters on the 28th.)

March 27, 1878 returned to El-Wijh.
29 ,, left El-Wijh and camped at inner fort.
30 ,, to Umm el-Karáyát (ruins and mine).
31 ,, visited ruins of El-Kubbah; camped in
Wady Dasnah.
April 1, 1878 to Umm el-Haráb (ruins and mine).
2 ,, camped in the Wady Abá'l-Gezáz.
3 ,, camped in the plain of Badá.
4 ,, halted at the plain of Badá.
5 ,, camped at the Ayn el-Kurr.
6 ,, camped in the Wady Laylah.
7 ,, camped in the Wady Abá'l-'Ajáj.
8 ,, to the ruins of the Gasr Gurayyim Sa'íd
(classical temple).
9 ,, to the Abá'l-Marú (Marwah mine).
1O ,, return to El-Wijh.

THE RETURN TO EGYPT.

April 12, 1878 steamed northwards to Nu'man Island.
13 ,, reached El-Muwaylah (Sharm Yáhárr).
18 ,, left El-Muwaylah, night at sea.
19 ,, in Gulf of Suez.
20 ,, reached Suez.
22 ,, reached Cairo.

Appendix II.

EXPENSES OF THE EXPEDITION TO MIDIAN, commanded by Captain R. F.
Burton, H.B.M. Consul, Trieste.

Cairo, November 1, 1877.

Ł s. d.
Sum received from Egyptian Finance 1977 12 0

Amounts Paid out by Order of Captain Burton. Ł s. d.

Hotel bills for five persons (thirty-six days) 149 6 9
Advanced to members of Expedition up to date
(May 3rd)[EN#87] 74 12 3
Cost of provisions for journey to Midian,
fourteen persons 314 8 9
Cost of tools, chemicals, instruments,
canteen, etc. 185 19 0
Medicine chest from Dr. Lowe 10 10 0

Journey to Suez from Cairo, December 6th, 1878:--
Hotel bill for eleven persons (three days) 33 3 6
Tobacco for presents to Bedawin 6 8 0
Sundries 13 10 6
Telegrams and post service 3 9 0
__________________
Ł791 7 9

El-Muwaylah, December 16th, to return, February 13th:--
Journey to north[EN#88] 316 14 3
Post service 14 8 0
Cost of sheep[EN#89] 32 14 0
Sundries[EN#90] 20 7 7
Five foot-soldiers' salaries 7 4 0

Eastern journey to the Hismá[EN#91] 187 6 6
Post service 3 8 0
Cost of sheep[EN#92] 11 19 0
Sundries 5 11 0
Sambúk from Suez, as per contract 9 4 0
Soldiers from fort 3 0 0

Journey to Shárr[EN#93] 44 11 6
Cost of sheep[EN#94] 3 4 0
Thirty pairs of boots for soldiers[EN#95] 6 0 0
Sundries 1 0 0
Journey to south[EN#96] 92 13 0
Cost of sheep[EN#97] 15 16 0
Post service 2 0 0
Sundries[EN#98] 18 3 6
Special payments:--
Sayyid 'Abd el-Rahím Effendi 16 0 0
Bukhayt 1 12 0
Husayn 1 12 0
Shaykh Furayj 4 0 0
Shaykh Furayj salary for twenty-five days 5 0 0
Expenses at Suez, unloading, etc., and hotel bills
for ten persons 39 17 0
Post and telegrams 1 16 0
Suez to Cairo 1 12 6
_________________
Ł1658 1 7

Expenses at Cairo up to date May 5, 1878:--
Unloading, cartage, and preparing for Exhibition 24 5 5
Salaries of persons engaged from Cairo and Muwaylah:--
Anton Dimitri, Giorgi, and Petro[EN#99] 93 17 6
Magazine-man at El-Muwaylah[EN#100] 6 8 0
Sais from Suez, engaged through governor[EN#101] 9 0 0
Mr. Clarke's salary[EN#102] 180 0 0
_________________
Ł1971 12 6
In hand for small expenses not yet sent in
for payment 5 19 6
_________________
Ł1977 12 0
_________________
Sent in May 6, 1878.

(Signed) CHAS. CLARKE.
(Countersigned) RICHARD F. BURTON.
Commanding Expedition.

Appendix III.
PRESERVED PROVISIONS AND OTHER STORES, supplied by Messrs.
Voltéra Bros., of the Ezbekiyyah, Cairo.

Ł s. d.
95 okes potatoes, at 5d. 1 19 7
670 okes best rice, at 8 1/2d. 23 14 7
152 okes sugar, at 11 1/2d. per kilog. 8 19 6 1/2
60 okes ground coffee, at 4s. 6d. 13 10 0
120 tins milk, at 14s. 7 0 0
120 bottles pickles 6 0 0
15 tins butter (of 1 lb.), at 2s. 6d. 1 17 6
60 okes oil, at 2s. 6d. 7 10 0
6 heads English cheese (60 1/4 lbs.) at 1s. 5d. 4 10 4 1/2
160 okes dried French beans, at 10d. 6 13 4
60 okes maccaroni and paste 3 0 0
54 okes onions, at 7d. 1 11 6
10 okes garlic, at 10d. 0 8 4
50 packets candles 2 10 0
5 okes cavendish tobacco, at 12s. 3 0 0
6 okes tobacco (Turkish), at 24s. 7 4 0
120 bottles soda-water, at 8d. per dozen 4 0 0
20 bottles syrups, at 2s. 2 0 0
50 bottles vinegar 2 10 0
10 dozen beer, at 11s. 5 10 0
15 bars soap, at 1s. 6d. 1 2 6
20 pots mustard, at 1s. 6d. 1 10 0
6 bottles curry, at 1s. 6d. 0 9 0
20 lbs. table raisins 0 16 0
10 large bottles pepper, at 2s. 1 0 0
_________________
Ł118 6 3

10 small packets salt, at 1s. 0 10 0
5 large packets salt at 1s. 6d. 0 7 6
6 bottles sauces, at s. 12d. 0 7 0
12 bottles lime-juice, at 2s. 6d. 1 10 0
12 umbrellas, at 4s. 2 8 0
12 bottles blacking, at 1s.
(for tracing inscriptions) 0 12 0
6 lanterns, at 1s. 6d. 0 9 0
12 large tins sardines, at 1s. 6d. 0 18 0
2 corkscrews, at 1s. 3d. 0 2 6
2 opening knives 0 2 0
101 1/4 okes of biscuits, at 1s. 5 1 3
1 case Mumm's champagne 4 5 0
1 case cognac, XX 2 8 0
1 case whisky 1 16 0
1 tin plum-pudding 0 2 6
10 packets matches, at 1s. 2d. 0 11 8
8 barrels flour, at L3 24 0 0
4 okes Curani (Kora'ni) tobacco, at 16s. 3 4 0
30 lbs. tea, at 4s. 6 0 0
24 tins green peas, at 1s. 1 4 0
18 tins haricots verts, at 1s. 0 18 0
18 tins haricots flageolets, at 1s. 0 18 0
18 tins champignons, at 1s. 2d. 1 1 0
18 tins macedoine, at 1s. 0 18 0
8 tins carrots, at 1s. 0 8 0
16 tins asparagus (large), at 3s. 2 8 0
53 1/2 lbs. ham, at 1s. 6d. 4 0 3
100 bottles 'Ráki, at 2s. 10 0 0
100 tins meats, at 1s. 6d. 7 10 0
4 dozen pints beer, at 8s. 1 12 0
7 empty tins for coffee, at 1s. 6d. 0 10 6
17 empty bags 0 14 2
4 okes packing rope, at 2s. 0 8 0
1/4 okes isinglass 0 3 0
2 bottles spices 0 2 0
10 nutmegs 0 1 0
_________________
Ł205 16 7

Ł s. d.
1 packet starch 0 3 0
1 oke twine 0 2 6
2 okes nails, at 10d. 0 1 8
1 box cigarette papers 0 8 0
Kitchen utensils 0 13 6
Empty bags 0 2 0
Packing 2 10 0
_________________
Total Ł209 17 3
_________________

Additional Supplies.

Ł s. d.
50 bottles 'Ráki, at 2s. 5 0 0
95 okes potatoes, at 5d. 1 19 7
16 lbs. tea, at 4s. 3 4 0
50 tins preserved meats, at 1s. 6d. 3 15 0
20 tins green peas, at 1s. 1 0 0
12 tins haricots verts, at 1s. 0 12 0
12 tins champignon, at 1s. 2d. 0 14 0
6 tins first size asparagus, at 4s. 1 4 0
10 tins butter (1 lb.), at 2s. 8d 1 6 8
36 lbs. English cheese, at 1s. 6d. 2 14 0
60 okes maccaroni 3 0 0
126 okes onions, at 7d. 3 13 6
20 packets candles 1 0 0
50 boxes matches, at 1s. 2d. doz. 0 5 0
5 bars soap, at 1s. 6d. 0 7 6
12 bottles sauces, at 1s. 2d. 0 14 0
6 large bottles pepper, at 2s. 0 12 0
10 small packets salt, at 1s. 0 10 0
5 bottles lime-juice, at 2s. 6d. 0 12 6
108 okes hard biscuits, at 1s. 5 8 0
2 1/2 okes snuff 2 10 0
16 lbs. ginger-root, at 1s. 6d. 1 4 0
2 doz. whisky, at 36s. 3 12 0
2 doz. Martel's cognac 4 4 0
6 bottles absinthe, 2s. 6d. 0 15 0
_________________
Ł49 16 9

5 bottles Oxley's essence of ginger, at 4s. 1 0 0
5 bottles pyretic saline, at 3s. 6d. 0 17 6
3 boxes seidlitz powders, at 2s. 0 6 0
1 bottle aconite 0 2 6
4 iron tea and coffee kettles 1 14 0
2 empty tins for tea 0 3 0
Packing 1 10 0
Carts, 2s.; railway fare, 82s. 4 4 0
_________________
Total Ł59 13 9

APPENDIX IV.
BOTANY AND LIST OF INSECTS.

SECTION I.

PROFESSOR D. OLIVER'S LIST OF DRIED PLANTS presented by Captain
Burton to the Herbarium, Royal Gardens, Kew, September, 1878.

Núman North Middle South
Isle. Midian. Midian. Midian.

Anastatica hierochuntina, L.
Kaff maryam ................ - I - -
Morettia parviflora, Boiss.
Eaten by cattle. Thagar;
Gaf'aa ..................... - - I I
Matthiola oxyceras, DC.
forma gracilis. Animals
eat. Hazá; Muhawwil ..... - - I -
Malcolmia aegyptiaca, Spr.
Animals eat. Tarbeh ...... - I - -
Zilla myagroides, F. Silla.
Camels eat. ............... - I - -
Biscutella Columnae, Ten .... - - I -
Diplotaxis Harra? Hárrah.
Eaten by cattle. .......... - - I -
Diplotaxis acris, Boiss.
(Moricandia crassifolia,
Gay) ...................... - I - -
Sisymbrium erysimoides, Desf.
Salih. Eaten by camels
and sheep ................. - I I I
Farsetia Burtonae, Oliv.
sp. nov. Ghurayrá ........ - I I -
Schimpera arabica, H. and
St. ....................... - I - -
Enarthrocarpus lyratus, F.,
vel E. strangulatus,
Boiss ..................... - I - -
Capparis Sodada, Br. (Sodada
decidua, Forsk.). Tanzub.
Red berries eaten. ........ - - - I
Cleome chrysantha, Dcne.
Mashteh. Pounded and
drank for worms, etc. ..... - - - I
Cleome arabica, L. 'Ubaysd.
Eaten by animals. ......... - - - I
Papaver Decaisnei, H. and St. - - I -
Ochradenus baccatus, Del.
Gurzi. A large tree;
eaten by cattle ........... - I - I
Reseda (Caylusea) canescens,
L. Zanabán. Eaten by
cattle .................... - I I -
Reseda, an R. stenostachya(?),
Boiss. Khizám. Eaten by
animals ................... - I - -
Helianthemum Lippii, Pers.
Kazim. Cattle eat. ........ - - I -
Silene villosa, Forsk.
'Abaysá. Too much coated
with sand to serve as
food for animals .......... - I - -
Gypsophila Rokejeka, Del. ... - - I -
Polycarpaea fragilis, Del.
Makr ...................... I - - -
Portulaca oleracea, L. ...... - - - I
Hibiscus micranthus, L. fil.
forma. Khusiyat Ráshid.
Eaten by animals. ......... - - I I
Abutilon fruticosum, G. and
P. (Sida denticulata,
Fres.). ................... - - - I
Abutilon muticum, Don ....... - - - I
Erodium laciniatum, Cav.
Garná. Eaten by cattle ... - I I I
Monsonia nivea, Gay ......... - I - -
Geranium mascatense, Boiss.
Hiláwá. Eaten by man and
beast. .................... - - I -
Erodium cicutarium, L. ...... - I - -
Tribulus terrestris, L.
Katbeh .................... - I I I
Zygophyllum simplex, L. ..... - - I -
Zygophyllum album, L.
Gallúm. Camels eat. ...... I - - -
Zygophyllum coccineum, L.
forma (Z. propinqiuum,
Dcne.). Muráká.
Animals eat. .............. - I - -
Fagonia cretica, L. van
(F. glutinosa, Del.).
Shikáá (North Midian);
Darmeh (Núman) ........... I I - -
Fagonia mollis, Del.
Warágá; and young plant
of same = Zarag. Animals
eat. ...................... - I I -
Fagonia Bruguieri, DC.
Jamdeh. Animals eat. ...... - I - -
Dodonmaea viscosa, L. var.
(D. arabica, H. and
St.). Athab ............... - - I -
Rhus oxyacanthoides, Dum.
'Ar'ar .................... - - I -
Neurada procumbens, L.
Sáadán. Eaten by man and
beast. Mountain region. ... - I - I
Trianthema pentandra, L. .... - - - I
Trianthema(?). (Imperfect
specimen.) Rumayh. Eaten by
sheep and cattle. ......... - - - I
Aizoon canariense, L. Dááá.
Grain pounded and eaten. .. - - - I
Gisekia pharnaceoides, L. ... - I - -
Cucumis prophetarum, L.
Locality mislaid. .........
Cotyledon umbilicus, L.
forma ..................... - - I -
Pimpinella arabica, Boiss.
Rujaylet el-Ghuráb (Little
Crow's-foot). Sheep eat.
Locality astray. ..........
Pimpinella (Tragium
palmetorum? St. and H.).
Very young. ............... - I I -
Ferula (? sp., leaf only).
Kalkh. Animals eat. High up
on SHÁRR. .................
Grammosciadium scandicinum,
Boiss. sp. nov. ............ - - I I
Medicago laciniata, All. ..... - - I -
Taverniera aegyptiaca, Boiss.
(ex descr.). Shibrig. Eaten
by animals. ................ I - - -
Indigofera spinosa, Forsk.
Shibrig. Camels eat. Good
fodder. .................... - - - I
Indigofera paucifolia, D. .... - I - -
Indigofera (stunted specimen,
may be I. paucifolia).
'Afar. Animals eat. ........ - I - -
Tephrosia Apollinea, DC.
Dalsam; Táwil. Animals eat. - I I I
Genista (Retama) monosperma,
Del. ....................... - I - -
Lotononis Leobordea, Bth.
Hurbat. Eaten by cattle. ... - I I -
Trigonella stellata, Forsk.
(T. microcarpa, Fres.) ..... - I I -
Onobrychis(?), possibly
O. Ptolemaica. (Barren
specimen). ................. - I - -
Astragalus sparsus(?), Dcne. . - I - -
Astragalus Sieberi, DC.
Ghákeh. Dry and pounded
root mixed with clarified
butter. Drunk as a
restorative. ............... - I - I
Astragalus Forskahlei, Boiss.
Kidád. Camels eat. ........ - I - -
Cassia obovata, Coll. Senna .. - I I I
Iphiona scabra, DC. Zafrah.
Camels eat. ................ - I - -
Pulicaria undulata, DC.
Rabul. Fine perfume. ....... - I - -
Blumea Bovei, DC.
(B. abyssinica, Sch.) ...... - I - I
Ifloga spicata, Forsk.
Zenaymeh. Animals eat. ..... - - - I
Asteriscus pygmaeus, C. and
Dur. ....................... - - - I
Anvillaea Garcini, DC.
(fide Boissier). Nukud.
Eaten by camels and sheep. . - - I -
Anthemis, an A. deserti(?),
Boiss. Gahwán. Camels
eat: also called Gurrays,
pounded and eaten with
dates. ..................... - I I I
Matricaria (Chamaemelum)
auriculata (Boiss.) ........ - - I -
Senecio Decaisnei, DC.
Umm lewinayn ............... - - I I
Senecio coronopifolius, Desf. - I I -
Calendula aegyptiaca, Desf. . - - I -
Calendula aegyptiaca(?) ..... - I - -
Calendula, an var.
aegyptiacae(?) ............ - - - I
Echinops spinosus, L.
Akhshir. Eaten by camels,
sheep, and asses. ......... - - I I
Zoegea purpurea, Fres.
Rubayyán. Cattle eat. .... - - I -
Centaurea sinaica, DC.
Yemrár. Eaten by sheep,
asses, etc. ............... - I - I
Picridium tingitanum, Desf.
forma. Huwwá; Tiz
el-Kalbeh; El-Haudán.
Eaten by man and animals. . - I I I
Urospermum picroides, Desf. . - I - -
Microrhynchus nudicaulis,
Less. 'Azid ............... I - I I
Pterotheca bifida, F. and M. - I I -
Picris, conf. P. Saha*ae,
C. and K. ................. - - - I
Picris cyanocarpa, Boiss. ... - - I -
Callipeltis cucullaria,
Stev. 'Ikrish. Cattle eat.
North or Central Midian.
Crucianella membranacea,
Boiss. ................... - - I -
Galium capillare, Dcne ..... - - I -
Salvadora persica, L.
El-Arák ................. - I - I
Rhazya stricta, Dcne.
Harjal. Eaten only by
mules. Very fragrant. .... - I - -
Daemia cordata, R. Br. ..... - - I -
Steinheilia radians, Dcne.
Faká .................... - I - -
Convolvulus Hystrix, V.
Shibrim. Root used as a
purgative. Animals eat
upper part of plant. .... - - - I
Cuscuta, conf.
C. brevistyla, A. Br. ... - - I -
Withania somnifera, Dun.
Shajarat el-Dib ......... - I - -
Lycium europaeum, L.
'Aushaz. Eaten by
animals. ................ - - I I
Solanum coagulans(?),
Forsk. var. (A small
fragment only). ......... - - I -
Hyoscyamus pusillus,
L. Saykrán ............. - I I -
Heliotropium arbainense,
Fres. Rahháb. Cattle
eat. .................... - I I -
Trichodesma africanum,
R. Br. Ahmim. Camels and
other animals eat. ...... - - I -
Echium longifolium(?), Del.
Kahlá. Animals eat. .... - - I -
Anchusa Milleri, W. ....... - - I -
Anchusa Milleri(?) young
specimens. .............. - - I -
Anchusa Milleri(?) young
specimens. .............. - I - -
Gastrocotyle (Anchusa
hispida, Forsk.). Karir.
Camels eat. ............. - - - I
Arnebia hispidissima,
A. DC. Fayná. Animals
eat. .................... - I I -
Lithospermum callosum, V. . - I - -
Lindenbergia sinaica,
Bth. Mallih. Cattle eat. - - - I
Verbascum (in bud), an
V. sinaiticum(?), Bth. . - - - I
Verbascum, sp. nov. Sammá - - I -
Herpestis Monniera,
Kth. Nafal. Animals eat. - I - -
Veronica Anagallis, L. ... - - - I
Linaria aegyptiaca, Dum. . - I - -
Linaria macilenta, Dcne.
Zuraymat el-Himar.
Eaten by animals. ...... - - I -
Linaria (*§ Elatinoides),
sp. imperfect. ......... - - I -
Linaria simplex(?), DC. .. - I I -
Linaria Haelava Chav.
(fide Boissier) ........ - I - -
Blepharis edulis, Pers.
(Acanthodium spicatum,
Del.). Shauk el-Jemel.
Camels fond of it. ..... - I - I
Lavandula coronopifolia,
Poir. Zayteh. All
animals eat. ........... - I I -
Mentha lavandulacea, W.
Habag. Animals do not
eat. Pounded and mixed
with fresh dates, "good
for stomach". .......... - I - -
Salvia aegyptiaca, L. .... - I - -
Salvia deserti, Dcne. .... - - I -
Salvia, an S. deserti(?).
Jáadeh. Pounded in
water and snuffed up
nose. .................. - - I -
Otostegia, var. O.
scariosae(?), Bth. (vel
O. repanda, Bth.)
Ghasseh. Sheep eat. .... - - I I
Statice axillaris, Forsk.
Annúm. Camels eat. .... - I - I
Plantago Psyllium, L.
Nez'i'ah. Animals eat. . - I I -
Plantago amplexicaulis,
Cav. Yanameh. Animals
eat. ................... - - I -
Aerwa javanica, Jass.
Rayl. Cattle eat. ...... - I - I
Chenopodium murale, L.? .. - I - -
Chenopodium murale, L.?
(Small seedlings.)
Nafal. Cattle eat. ..... - - - I
Atriplex dimorphostegia?
K. and K. Roghol.
Animals eat. ........... - I - -
Echinopsilon lanatum, Moq.
Garay'á. ............... - I - I
Suaeda sp.(?). (Small
fragment.) .............. - I - -
Suaeda sp.(?). (Barren
fragments, insect
punctured?) 'Aslá.
Forage plant. ........... I - I -
Suaeda monoica? Forsk.
Zuraygá. Forage plant. . I - - -
Salsola(?), cf. S.
longifolia, F. Hamz.
Camels eat. ............. I - - -
Caroxylon(?) (barren
specimen), near C.,
foetidum. Akahrit.
Animals eat. ............ I - - -
Rumex vesicarius, L.
(R. roseus, Del.).
Hammáz. Animals eat. ... - - I -
Emex spinosus, Camp. ...... - I - -
Crozophora tinctoria, Juss.
Hinaydieh. Not eaten. ... - - - I
Euphorbia cornuta, Pers.
'Atir ................... - I - -
Euphorbia scordifolia,
Jacq. Gharghir. Animals
eat. .................... - I - -
Euphorbia (Anisophyllum)
granulata, Schf.
Rugaygeh. Animals eat. .. - - - I
Euphorbia (Anisophyllum)
granulata, forma(?).
Lubayneh. Cattle eat. ... - - - I
Juniperus phoenicea, L.
At four thousand feet on
Sharr. Trunk thicker
than a man's body.
Halibeh. ................ - - I -
Parietaria alsinifolia,
Del. .................... - - I -
Forskahlea tenacissima, L.
Lissák. Animals eat. ... - - I -
Asphodelus fistulosus, L.
(var. tenuifolius,
Bker.). Bo'rak. Only
eaten by animals when
very hungry. Asses eat. . - I I -
Bellevalia flexuosa, Boiss. - I - -
Dipcadi erythraeum, Webb .. - I - -
Gagea reticulata, R. and S. - I - -
Juncus maritimus, L. ...... - - - I
Scirpus Holoschoenus, L.
Namas. Sent to Egypt for
mats. ................... - - - I
Cyperus conglomeratus,
Rottb. (Young specimens) - I - -
Chloris villosa, Pers. .... - - I -
AEluropus repens .......... - I - -
Tricholaena micrantha,
Schrad. Ghazuiar. Eaten
by camels, etc. ......... - - I I
Panicum turgidum, Forsk.
Zarram. Good fodder. .... - I - I
Arundo Donax, L. Kasbá ... - I - -
Polypogon monspeliensis,
Desf. Kháfúr. Sheep
eat. .................... - - - I
Stipa tortilis, Desf.
Pehmeh. Animals eat. .... - I I I
Aristida caerulescens,
Desf. Shárib el-Kale.
Animals eat. ............ - I I -
Hordeum maritimum, L. ..... - I - -
Pappophorum, an P.
phleoides(?), R. and S.
Nejil. Sheep eat. ....... - - - I
Barren specimen.
Indeterminable. Grass ... - I - -
Grass(?). Root and leaves.
Hashmil. Animals eat. ... I - - -
Typha(?). Root and
fragments of leaves.
Birdi ................... - - - I
Grass. Fragmentary. Záeh.
Cattle eat. ............. - - - I
Chara foetida, Braun.
'Ishnik ................. - I - -
A barren fragment of
undershrub, with opposite
fleshy leaves with
recurved margins. Ajid.
Eaten by animals.
Doubtful. ............... I - - -

D. OLIVER.

SECTION II.

The spirit-specimens submitted to Mr. William Carruthers, of the
British Museum, are described by him as follows:--

1. Phallus impudicus, Linn. (in Arab. Faswat el-'Ajúz). The common
"stinkhorn," extremely common in some districts of England, and obtruding
on the notice of every one from its detestable odour. It is widely
distributed over America and Africa, as well as Europe, but I find no
record of its occurring in Asia.

2. Tulostoma mammosum, Fr. Also British, but not so common. Widely
distributed.

3. Phelipoea lutea, Desf. A dark, fleshy broom-rape, with scaly leaves. We
have one species of the same genus in England. They are parasitic on
the roots of plants; and the Midianite species, which is found in North
Africa, Egypt, and Arabia, grows on the roots of a Chenopodium.

4. Cynomorium coccineum, Mich. A fleshy, leafless plant, also a root-
parasite. It was called by old writers Fungus Melitensis, and was of much
repute in medicine. It is known from the Himalayas to the Canary
Islands, and is said by Webb, in his history of the Canaries, to be eaten in
the Island of Lancerotte.

5. Doemia cordata, R. Br. A spiny shrub, with roundish leaves and small
sharp-pointed fruit, found in Egypt and Arabia.

6. Capparis galeata, Fres., with large fruit, long and pear-shaped. This
caper is well known; from Syria and Egypt.

(Signed) W. CARRUTHERS.

INSECTS COLLECTED IN MIDIAN BY CAPTAIN BURTON.
(Identified by Mr. Frederick Smith, of the British Museum.)

COLEOPTERA.

Geodephaga

l. Anthia 12 guttata.

Melolonthidoe.

2. Schizonycha reflexa.
3. Pachydema.

Dynastidoe.

4. Heteronychus.

Curculionidoe.

5. Cleonus arabs.

Heteromera.

6. Mesostenanear punctipennis.
7. Adesmia.
8. Akis Goryi?
9. Mylabris.

Hemiptera.

10. Nepa rubra.

Mantidoe.

11. Eremiaphila arenaria. 12. Blepharis mendica.

Orthoptera.

13. Acocera.
14. Acridium peregrinum. 15. Poecilocera bufonia.

Scorpionidea.

16. Androctonus funestus.
17. " leptochelys.
18. " quinquestriatus.

Arachnida.

19. Galeodes arabs, in spirit.
20. Clubiona Listeri, in spirit.

(Signed) FREDK. SMITH.

APPENDIX V.

METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL
(December 19, 1877, to April 17, 1878).

METEOROLOGICAL NOTES ON TRAVELLING IN MIDIAN.

Midian follows the rule of Syria--travel in the spring. The best time on the
seaboard is during the months of March, April, and May. In the mountains and
the Hismá plateau, April, May, and June are the most favourable. In Syria
(Damascus) the autumn is dangerous: the finest travelling weather is in March
to May. The second best season is between October and December.

January and February are cold; the latter also (sometimes) rainy.

March is stormy at first (El-'Uwweh), but afterwards gets warmer (El-Ni'ám).
Dews now begin, and last some three months: they wet everything like a sharp
shower, and make the air feel soppy.

In July the first dates come in. Fevers are prevalent during this month, and
also during August and September.

October is a month of heat and drought.

In November the first cold occurs.

December is the coldest month.

NOTES on TRAVELLING IN LOWER EGYPT.

September is very bad--all should escape who can. Fruits everywhere; sun hot;
air damp with irrigation water, white fogs and other horrors.

October is a good month, the weather being neither too hot nor too
cold.

November is the month of the "second water" irrigation about Cairo.

December is pleasant.

January is cold and sometimes wet.

February is stormy, and even foggy with sand-mist.

March is windy, but on the whole a good month, except for Khamsin, which
begins about March 20th.

April begins to feel warm (April 29, 1878, Shamm el-Nasim).

The winter presents a marvellous contrast to that of England, which
can often show one hour and five minutes' sunlight in the twenty-four, or
2.8 per cent. of its possible duration.

THE TIDES

In El-'Akabah are like Suez: first of month, flood, 6--12 a.m. and p.m.; ebb,
the rest. But at Suez the tides rise one metre, and at times two metres; at
El-'Akabah (February 7), one foot.

For the instruments NOT used in this Expedition, see Chap. I. p. 11.

The barometre aneroid sold by M. Ebner was partially repaired by M. Lacaze,
and served for Mr. David Duguid's observations.

My pocket set by Casella (maker to the Admiralty and Ordnance)
consisted of--

One watch aneroid (compensated, 1182).
Two sets wet and dry bulb thermometers (one broken).
One set maxima and minima thermometers, Nos. 12,877 and 12,906.
Two pocket hygrometers not numbered.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING FIRST MARCH BETWEEN DECEMBER
19, 1877, AND FEBRUARY 18, 1878

December 19, 1877, compared ship's (Mukhbir) mercurial barometer, 758
millimetres, with my aneroid by Casella (29.85) = 765 millimetres; difference
in
ship's, + 007 millimetre.

January 31, 1878, returned on board Mukhbir at Makná. Ship's mercurial
barometer, 773 millimetres; my aneroid by Casella, 764 millimetres; difference
in ship's, + 009 millimetre.

Date. Time. Aneroid Aneroid Ther. Dry Wet Hygr. Remarks.
Inches. Milli. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Dec. 19. 7a.m. 29.85 765 76 - - 58 On deck of gunboat
Mukhbir, at Sharm
Yahárr, steaming to El-
Muwaylah. Morning ugly.
Strong land-breeze,
turned to Azyab ("south-
easter"). Waves rising.
Dark-blue clouds to
windward.

Noon. 29.80 757 77 - - 54 In big tent on shore,
open east and west. Wind
high. Everything feels
damp; looks gloomy;
mountains almost hidden
by clouds. Landscape
that of Europe. No sun
nor sunshine all day.

3p.m. 29.09 - 86 - - 51 In my small tent.
Clearing to windward
(north). Wind veering to
north. Moon nearly full.
High fleecy clouds. Sea
high. No sun all day.

Azyab (the wet wind) generally lasts two or three days; veers round by west to
north. Much rain has already fallen (Arab lies). Land green (all brown); grass
plentiful (not a blade to be seen). Rains here December 15th to February 15th;
downfall one hour to four hours, then clears. On December 8th, violent rain
for one hour; filled all the torrents (Sayl).

Dec. 20. 7a.m. 29.80 758 63 - - 40 In small tent open to
east. Morning clear. Few
fleecy clouds: cool and
bright. "Misri" from
north-west; cold and
rain.

3p.m. 29.92 759 78 - - 32 Hot in tents, cool in
breeze. "Misri" high and
strong sea. At 1.10 p.m.
heavy clouds; expected
rain--few heavy drops.

AT EL-MUWAYLAH AND RAS WADY TIRYAM.

Dec. 21. 6.35a.m. 30.02 763 71 - - 35 Inside tent. Full moon
and clear. Dawn, 6 a.m.;
night, 6.30. Speckled
clouds.

Noon. 30.48 764 76 - - 48 Under umbrella. Air
clear. Mottled clouds on
mountains. Sea horizon.
Low white bank of
clouds.

3p.m. 30.05 763 77 - - 39 "Misri." High cirri from
west. Big black cloud
over sea. Suspected
rain: Arabs said no.
Cloud dispersed.

AT RAS WADY TIRYAM.

Dec. 22. 7a.m. 30.01 760 57 - - 32 Cold night. Clear
morning. Cold sunrise.
Dry north-wester.
Instruments on paper,
resting on the sand.
Very dry.

Noon. 30.14 - 82 - - 22 Very dry. Straight
streaks of cirri
everywhere.

4p.m. 30.00 763 72 - - 17 At Wady Sharmá, on sand
protected from west
wind. Bright moon,
showed halo.

Kayhak 14 begins the Coptic winter, properly speaking evening of 13th; after
sunset 1 hour 51 minutes. Sea-breeze and land-winds regular to-day and
throughout the month.

AT WADY SHARMÁ.

Dec. 23. 7a.m. 29.90 760 58 - - 19 Instruments on box
standing on sand. Moon
with halo at night. Red
sunrise, grey clouds.
Mountains blue-grey,
brightly defined. Before
dawn moon two halos,
large and small. Fleecy
clouds. Nine a.m. clear,
sun hot.

2.30p.m. 29.15 740 78 - - 25 Under rock in upper Wady
Sharmá. Streaky cirri.
Sun hot; air cool.
Little sea-breeze, kept
off by hills.

Arrived at the "White Mountain," and stayed there a week.

4p.m. 29.12 740 75 - - 28 At Jebel el-Abyaz, on
box behind tent
sheltered from wind. Air
quite still; streaky
cirri. Camp Jebel el-
Abyaz, say, 800 feet
above sea. Felt very
dry.

AT JEBEL EL-ABYAZ.

Dec. 24 7a.m. 29.10 738 61 - - 29 In mess tent on mess
table. Cold. Mottled
clouds east and zenith.
Grey bank to sea
reddened by sunrise,
like storm clouds. Rain
here from Azyab ("south-
east"). Sunrise at
Cairo, 6.55 a.m.

Noon. 29.00 737 64 63 55 33 Suspended instruments.
Grey day: cold breeze
from east. Cold comes
only from wind; when no
breeze, very mild.
Getting greyer and
colder. Very like rain--
heavey clouds.

3.10p.m. 29.00 737 64 64 52 28 Wind west, cold and raw.
Air grey and cold.
Evening cold; clouds
dispersed, sun came out.
Wind to west, inclining
to north.

Small thermometer shows higher than Casellás because in brass case; not so
well exposed to air.

Dec. 25. 7a.m. 29.10 739 50 50 45 29 Morning cool and clear.

Noon. 29.20 - 72 68 55 21 Very clear, still, and
hot. Slight breeze from
sea (west). Sun strong.
Swarms of flies. Dry
bulb in sun, 73 degrees;
wet, 60 degrees.

3p.m. 29.16 741 72 69 54 15 Cool and gentle breeze
from sea, dispersing the
swarms of flies. At
times "sand-devil" from
north-west.

All this day's observations taken on writing table in large tent. Night cold:
cold severest after two a.m. and before sunrise. Sky at night perfectly clear.
Wind from north turning to east, a Barri ("land-breeze"). Height of Jebel el-
Abyaz above tents, by aneroid = 350 feet (29.20 - 28.85 = 0.35).

Dec. 26. 7.15a.m. 29.21 743 48 46 43 22 In tent. Sky perfectly
clear.

Noon. 29.26 - 76 77 55 6 Sun very hot. Air quite
still. Fleecy clouds
from west over the sun.

4.45p.m. 29.23 743 73 69 55 8 Sun cooler. Air
perfectly clear.

Dec. 27. 7a.m. 29.16 740 50 49 43 5 3 In tent. Morning cold
and clear: few flecks of
cloud to east. Air feels
intensely dry.

12.30p.m.29.23 743 77 74 58 9 Fine cirri high up. Sky
blue. Sun veiled at
times. Very little wind,
a breath from north.

3.20p.m. 59.16 742 80 77 56 6 Sky with filmy white
clouds, thicker at west.
Sun hidden; very hot at
noon (rain-sun?). Not a
breath of air. Sense of
intense dryness. Ink
evaporates at once. Cool
breeze started up
shortly after 3.30 p.m.
from west, then clouds
thickened. Thermometer
fell 4 degrees.

Cool evening; quite clear. Fevers and feverish colds begin to show themselves
in camp. Minimum thermometer during night--No. 1, 45 degrees; No. 2, 46
degrees; French, 15-1/2 degrees (Centigrade).

Dec. 28 7a.m. 29.10 739 55 53 46 10 In tent. Still. Neither
warm nor cold. Mottled
clouds.

Noon. 29.13 740 78 72 58 4 Clouds thin. Sun very
hot (rain-sun?). Light
breeze from north-west.

3p.m. 29.10 739 79 72 58 - Feels intensely dry.
Hot, close. Heavy
clouds, and purple to
west. Gusts from west.

No wind. Morning and evening very mild. At eight p.m. dark cloud moving from
south-west to mountains. Drops of rain; then stars. Minimum thermometers
during night, both 48 degrees. None of the maximum will act.

Dec. 29. 7a.m. 29.10 738 58 58 54 9 In tent. Cool, clear.
Blue-pink in west. Light
sea-breezes from west.
Must be awfully hot in
summer. In closed tent
at eleven a.m., 92
degrees.

Noon. 29.13 - 77 75 60 10 Nice breeze from sea
(west), bending to
north.

4p.m. 29.00 739 82 79 59 5 Warm and quite still.

Mean of nineteen aneroid observations at Jebel el-Abyaz = 29.13.

MARCH FROM JEBEL EL-ABYAZ TO WADY SHARMÁ.

Dec. 30. 7a.m. 29.10 739 56 - - 7 Clear, still. No speck
of cloud. Moon Náim
(sleeping = *[figure]).

5p.m. 29.88 758 66 - - 8 Air quite clear. Camped
at Sharmá. Change to
shore pleasant and soft.

Noon on journey; sun very hot. Evening still. Violent weather at night; cold
and comfortless. Abated somewhat after sunrise.

AT SHARMÁ, IN BIG TENT OPEN NORTH AND SOUTH.

Dec. 31. 7a.m. 29.88 758 59 - - 7 Wind cold and dusty. Sky
perfectly clear. A few
light mist-clouds on
mountain-wall.

Noon. 29.94 760 75 73 58 6 Wind still. Sun much
warmer.

3p.m. 29.90 - 74 71 58 3 Wind cool; some dust.

Clouds about sunset sailing out of Suez Gulf, forming archipelago of sky
islets. Dark bank to south. Minimum thermometer at night = 42 degrees.

AT SHARMÁ, IN BIG TENT OPEN NORTH AND SOUTH (about 100 feet
above sea-level).

Jan. 1. 7a.m. 29.90 759 53 50 45 10 Clear, fine, quite
still. Nice breeze began
about nine a.m.

Noon. 29.97 - 71 69 57 4 Cold. North wind high.
Light clouds to west;
the rest clear.

3p.m. 29.94 760 73 72 61 4 Clouds to west from Suez
sea.

High wind fell before midnight. Cold--sat in tent. Flies troublesome
everywhere. Minimum at night, 42-43 degrees.

AT WADY SHARMÁ, IN BIG TENT.

Jan 2. 7a.m. 29.98 761 53 - - 10

3p.m. 30.00 762 76 72 58 3 Cool breeze from north.
No signs of clouds. Sun
hot and air cool.

Evening no wind, no clouds. At night high cold wind from east, seems to pierce
clothes. Lasted till morning and sun well up. Minimum thermometer, No. 1 = 45
degrees; No. 2 = 46 degrees.

Jan. 3. 7a.m. 29.92 760 58 57 47 3 Dawn comfortless. Cold.
Fire in tent. Sand
blowing. Air highly
electrical.

Noon. 29.90 762 77 76 61 2 Wind still. Hot sun.

3p.m. 29.91 759 76 74 58 4 Hot sun. Gentle breeze.
Warm in tent.

Night very cold. Minimum thermometers, No. 1 = 40 degrees; No. 2 = 41 degrees.

Jan. 4. " 29.83 - 52 50 - 5

Noon. 29.93 760 81 80 60 3 Decidedly hot. No
breeze.

3p.m. 29.90 - 78 75 63 0 Very hot and still.

In evening few fleecy clouds to south-west. Appearance of Azyab. Minimum
thermometers at night, No. 1 = 36 degrees; No. 2 = 38 degrees.

AT WADY SHARMÁ.

Jan. 5. 7a.m. 29.90 - 48 45 43 6 Pink clouds south-west
and south-east. Cirri
everywhere.

Noon. 29.87 761 79 79 67 3 Hot and still. Clear;
few cirri.

3p.m. 29.96 760 74 71 60 0 Cool wind. Cold in
shade. Cirri to south,
at times over the sun.

Very cold at night. Saw new moon; set in fire. Planets veiled in mist. Moon
Káim (points upwards = *[figure]).

Jan. 6. 7.20a.m. 29.94 760 53 51 46 8 Still, clear. Light
breeze about 10.30 a.m.

Noon. 29.80 761 82 - - 4

4p.m. 29.96 761 76 - - 3 Clear and hot. Sunset,
red cirri. Water very
cold. Moon clear.

Jan. 7 " 29.98 758 52 - - 18 At Sharmá. Cool and raw.
Few clouds to south and
south-west.

Noon. 30.08 764 78 - - 26 At 'Aynúnah, in big
tent. Fresh wind from
north. Air much damper;
more pleasant.

AT 'AYNÚNAH.

Jan. 8. 7a.m. 30.11 763 55 - - 22 Morning still--windless
Breath from east. Warm
and pleasant.

Noon. 30.02 767 77 74 61 13 Quite clear and dry.
Gusts of wind. Flies
very bad, even in the
waste.

3p.m. 30.15 767 77 76 63 7

Cold high wind at night.

LEFT 'AYNÚNAH.

Jan. 9. 7a.m. 30.04 - 63 - - 10 Outside tent. Light
clouds everywhere at
dawn. Morning warm and
close.

Noon. 29.91 759 80 - - 48 At El-'Usaylah. Sky
covered with clouds. Sun
coming out.

4p.m. 29.87 758 53 - - 23 In tent at El-'Usaylah.
No wind.

Cool pleasant night. Rain in Mount Sinai(?).

Jan. 10. 6.45a.m. 29.85 - 56 - - 15 Observations in open.
Cold north wind. Clear
and cirri.

3p.m. 29.30 745 77 - - 1 At Magháir Shúayb, under
a tree.

Night cold. High wind; shook the tents.

AT MAGHÁIR SHÚAYB.

Jan. 11. 7a.m. 29.37 747 60 - - 20 In open, on box.

Noon. 29.40 748 82 - - 8 In tent.

3p.m. 29.38 747 84 - - -4 Still. Air hot.

As a rule, at Magháir Shúayb we had land-breezes; cold from north and east.
Seabreezes during day, after noon.

Jan. 12. 7a.m. 29.35 746 59 - - 3 In tent. Cool. Cirri. At
two a.m. cool fresh wind
from north.

Noon. 29.46 747 83 - - -5 In tent. Hot sun. Light
clouds.

3p.m 29.30 746 83 81 64 -9 In tent. No sun, no
wind. Thin clouds.

Night warm; wind towards morning. Mosquitoes in tamarisks of Wady. Minimum
thermometer, 52 degrees.

Jan. 13. 7a.m. 29.38 745 65 - - -4 Outside tent, on box.
Cloudy; little wind. elt
warm. Sun came out
strong at ten a.m.

Noon. 29.27 744 87 87 67 -9 In big tent. Heat like
summer. Flies
troublesome, travel on
our backs.

3p.m. 29.20 743 85 85 65 -15 Very hot. Thin clouds.
Sea-breeze.

Very hot and sultry weather: Arabs say portends rain. Wind (generally) from
north in morning; afternoon from sea.

Jan. 14. 7a.m. 29.01 740 63 63 55 0 In tent. Land-breeze set
in. Expected heavy rain,
and pitched camp higher
up.

2.30p.m. 29.15 - 81-1/279 68 0 Taken by Mr. Clarke.

Rain began 2.30 a.m. (Jan. 15), small drops, then heavy, lull, and again
heavy; ended about 4.30 a.m. A little wind from south-west rose after rain.

The last rain was on December 7-10, 1877; violent storms accompanied it.

Jan. 15. " 29.00 - 71-1/270 66 30 By Mr. Clarke at Magháir
Shúayb. Sky all covered
; little clear to west.
Mist all over north.
Things feel damp.

Noon. 29.06 737 76 73 65 30 All cloudy. After rain,
sultry heat of noon
quite disappeared.

3p.m. 29.06 738 75 73 65 25 Still cloudy. Cool.

Cold nights and mornings.

Jan. 16. 7a.m. 29.20 - 48 45 42 18 No rain. Cold. Little
wind. Cloudy. No wind.

Noon. 29.05 - 69 65 54 3 Sun hot. Cool breeze
from north as usual. No
clouds.

3p.m. 29.25 - 69 65 52 12

Night fine and clear. Stars and moon very bright.

Jan. 17. 7a.m. 29.30 - 42 42 39 17 Clear morning. Very
cold. Land breeze.

Noon. 29.36 745 69 66 54 18 Fine stiff breeze from
north-east.

3p.m. 29.34 745 73 70 59 16 Fine breeze falling.

Fine clear night, moon nearly full. No clouds. Not cold. Cool at night and
towards morning. Wind rose about four a.m.

Jan. 18. 7.30a.m. 29.28 745 55 55 50 26 In tent. Cool, clear.
Gentle land-wind.

Noon. 29.30 - 79 79 63 16 Same weather.

3p.m. 29.25 - 81 79 62 8 Night cool. Hardly any
wind.

Jan. 19. 7a.m. 29.15 - 53 52 45 16 In tent. Cold wind from
north.

Noon. 29.17 - 81 79 63 9 Sun hot. Cool breeze
from north. Sky clear.

3p.m. 29.15 - 80 77 60 5

Remarkably warm pleasant night.

Jan. 20. 7a.m. 29.05 - 50 48 45 19 In tent. No wind. Air
sharp.

Noon. 29.10 - 79 75 63 12 Light wind (south-west).
Sun hot. Sky clear.

3p.m. 29.10 - 73 73 60 8 Cool and pleasant.

Curious moonrise. Thin clouds like volcanic smoke, separated into cirri like
sheep-skin: all said sign of heat. Night still and warm. Few stratified clouds
to west.

Jan. 21. 8a.m. 29.13 740 56 54 50 20 In tent. Cold raw wind
(El-Ayli) from north-
east. High clouds. Worse
near Gulf.

Noon. 29.20 743 68 66 55 16 High cold wind,
continuous. Bright sun.
Sky intensely blue and
clear.

4.15p.m. 29.22 744 66 65 53 8 Cool. High wind.

Strong wind at night; fell about midnight; gusts at times. Very cold. Bad
weather at Sharm Yahárr. Fortuna ("strong wind") began January 21st, ended
January 23rd: the next gale was on night of January 28th. As a rule, the
people say; black clouds show that the wind will increase; light clouds the
contrary.

Jan. 22. 7a.m. 29.32 745 50 49 45 15 Cold and cloudy. El-Ayli
continues.

Noon. 29.36 748 66 62 52 11 High cold north-easter
rose about 11.30. Sun
warm. Air cold.

Heavy purple clouds to north and west. Night still; occasional gusts. Eight
p.m. quite still. Mukhbir delayed by bad weather.

Jan. 23. 7.20a.m. 29.39 748 50 50 45 19 Gusts and calm. Nimbi to
west. High north wind
set in.

Noon. 29.40 747 66 64 54 14 Cold in shade, hot in
sun. High wind.

4p.m. - - 66 65 52 9 Wind still high. Dust.

Night alternately gusty and still. Warm. Mukhbir steamed back to her
anchorage, Sharm Yáhárr.

Jan 24. 7a.m. 29.29 745 55 52 47 15 Gentle breeze from
north. No clouds--sign
of no wind.

1.30p.m. - - 83 78 68 10 The normal hot,
windless, cloudless day.

3p.m. - - 78 74 62 7 Pleasant sea-breeze. Sun
hot; air coolish.

Night warm and pleasant.

MAGHáIR SHÚAYB TO MAKNÁ (March).

Jan. 25. 7a.m. 29.30 - 61 - - 15 On box. Fine, and
perfectly clear.

Noon. 29.45 - 78 - - - On road to Wady Makná,
riding mule. Sea-breeze
about noon, strong.
Shortly after noon heavy
clouds (from north and
west) hid the sun.

3p.m. 30.06 - 71 - - 23 Arrived at Makná, on
box.

Warm pleasant night. Appearance of rain. Wind from north. Moon clouded.

AT MAKNÁ.

Land and sea breezes regular. Morning and evening cool. Noon hot. Evaporation
immense. Healthy near shore; feverish up the valley. Damp air from
neighbourhood of Mount Sinai.

Jan. 26. 7a.m. 30.02 - 68 - - 21 Cloudy. Heavy white
waves on water. Wind
west; dangerous for
ships.

12.30p.m.30.07 - 80 77 62 21 Sun hot; sky clear.
Light fleecy clouds on
Sinai.

3.30p.m. 30.04 743 82 80 70 18 Air and sun hot. Clear.
Sea-breeze. No gale.

Rain probably during the day in Sinai. Muttali, or "fort," of Makná showed
aneroid 760 (29).

Jan. 27. 7a.m. 30.02 - 60 59 55 35 In tent. Fine clear;
nice land-breeze. Rush
of wind at two a.m. Wind
at four a.m. Loud noise
of reef.

1.30p.m. 30.04 - 80 76 68 28 In big tent, opening to
south. Quite clear and
bright. No clouds.
Slight sea-breeze.

3p.m. 30.02 - 80 79 70 26 Hot and still.

Night glorious. No wind. Only sigh and sound of reef.

Jan. 28. 7a.m. 29.98 - 58 58 53 30 Perfectly still and
clear. Light land-
breeze.

12.45p.m.30.00 - 80 78 66 20 Weather breaking. Clouds
forming everywhere. High
horizontal cirri. North
wind, whistling over
country.

3p.m. 29.98 - 80 79 67 20 Packed up wet and dry
bulbs.

At sunset high streaky cirri of red colour: all said wind. Same as at Magháir
Shúayb (January 21-23). At eleven p.m. El-Ayli (north wind from 'Akabat-
Aylah?) came down upon us with a rush. Gravel like drops of rain. Tents at
once on the ground. Sky still clear--stars shining.

Jan. 29. 7.15a.m.30.02 - 62 - - 19 In tent-hut. Wind
violent. Cold and raw
between moonrise and
sunrise.

Noon. 30.04 - 81 - - 13 In tent-hut. Wind (El-
Ayli) gusty and violent.
Sky quite clear.

They say this gale denotes end of Zamharir ("great cold"). Wind fell about
three p.m. Mild at sunset. Wind then increased, and became very violent at
night (l0-11 p.m.); seems to beat down from above. Summit of quartz-hills, 2
obs. = 29.40

Jan. 30 7a.m. 30.06 - 62 - - 19 In tent-hut. Mountains
perfectly clear. Fleecy
clouds to north and
south, sailing from west
to east.

3p.m. 30.06 - 72 - - 15 Clear and fine. Wind
falling.

Wind fell during afternoon and evening, but rose again at night; was at its
worst about eleven p.m.

Jan. 31. 7a.m. 30.06 - 67 - - 22 In tent-but. Wind worse;
signs of blowing
everywhere. Light clouds
north and south. Mottled
clouds (cirri, mackerel-
back). Gusts violent
after sunrise.

Noon. 30.08 - 73 - - 19 In cabin on board
Mukhbir. Wind violent.
Sky clear. White clouds,
as yet wind increasing.
Sand and dust but
mountains clear.

3p.m. 30.09 - 78 - - 22 On board Mukhbir. Wind
violent. Sky covered
with grey clouds.

At sunset, gleams to west and round horizon; heavy to north. Hoped for rain,
but none came. Fires alight all night. Very bad night; perhaps the worst yet
seen. Chain dragging. At nine p.m. sky clear, but wind worse.

AT MAKNÁ, ON BOARD "MUKHBIR."

Feb. 1. 7a.m. 30.08 - 70 - - 21 Wind worse than ever.
Dark cirri to south.
Mountains clear on all
sides.

Noon. 30.06 - 74 70 63 21 Wind very bad, turning
to east (?). Cirri
everywere: to west
formed ascending rays
like sun, extending to
zenith; to east were
crosses and lozenges.

3p.m 30.04 - - 70 65 - Wind still bad. White
clouds have thickened to
south, and thinned to
north. Bases of
mountains blurred (by
dust?); summits clear.

At sunset wind lighter. Dark clouds to south, going westward from Suez. Cirri
overhead, presently disappeared; also about the horizon. At night fine
zodiacal light. Wind increased. Observations in main cabin throughout voyage.

Feb. 2. 7a.m. 30.00 - 69 70 65 22 Perfectly clear. Wind
worse.

Noon. 30.00 - 78 - - 21 Clear sky; only cloud,
thin white strata to
north.

3p.m. 29.04 - 75 73 63 19 No clouds. Wind milder.
Barometer falling (sign
of wind ceasing?). Wind
getting warmer, and
bending east.

Wind less in evening, and warmer; ceased about midnight; lasted from eleven
p.m., January 28, to midnight, February 2 = five days and five nights.
Zodiacal light.

Feb. 3. 7a.m. 29.93 - 56 65 56 20 On deck (wet and dry
bulbs in main cabin).
Fresh breeze from east.
Fleecy clouds south and
east.

Noon. 29.96 - 74 - - 25 On deck. Fine breeze
from north.

In evening cirri to west and east. Black dots in regular lines. Night at Minat
Jinái. Very fine and clear; young moon and Venus. Deadly still. Zodiacal light
seen every night in the 'Akabah Gulf: not outside it.

Feb. 4. 7a.m. 29.92 - 74 70 67 24 En route to Nuwaybi',
along Sinai shore.
Morning grey; light
clouds everywhere. Dull
brassy sunrise. Water
dark. Wind south, felt
very damp. Sinai hills
clouded over: cirri
strata high up; nimbi in
fragments below.

Noon. 29.86 - 74 73 68 28 Under awning on board;
going north. Sickly sun.
Cirri to east.

3p.m. 29.80 - 75 73 66 26 Main cabin South wind
strong, increased after
noon. Clear horizon
then. Sea foaming: wind
became very strong, and
raised water about
sunset, then fell.

A regular day of south wind, blasts, mists, and gusts; calmed down in evening.
Quiet night. All day cirri and strata high up from west. Wásit sand forming
cloud.

Feb. 5. 7a.m. 30.00 - 72 68 60 9 En route to Kaláh
(Jezirat Faráun of
maps), in main cabin.
Wind north. Clouds on
hill-tops and to north--
effects of yesterday.
East mountains misty;
west clear. Mottle of
clouds.

Noon. 29.94 - 73 70 61 7 On deck, steaming north.
Dry and wet bulbs in
main cabin. Clouds--
light cumuli to north,
east, and west; south
clear. Wind north,
light.

3p.m. 29.97 - 75 70 59 19 In main cabin off island
El-Kaláh. Violent gusts
from west, down valleys-
-deflection of south
wind, lasted only few
minutes. Cloudy and
clear.

Night clear. Violent gusts from south, lasting a few minutes, then still.

ON BOARD "MUKHBIR," OFF ISLAND EL-KALÁH.

Feb. 6. 7a.m. 30.12 - 70 66 59 15 In main cabin. A regular
raw and gloomy English
morning. Clouds
everywhere--drops of
rain. Wind south,
deflected west. Gusts at
times. All felt damp and
uncomfortable.

Noon. 30.10 - 70 65 59 26 In main cabin. Sky all
covered with clouds.
Wind from north, gusty.
Barometer rising.

3p.m. 30.12 - 66 68 60 21 In main cabin. Sky
covered; gleams of sun.
Clear to south. Wind
north, mild.

A few drops of rain morning and evening. Pleasant quiet night.

Feb. 7. 6a.m. 30.13 - - 62 57 19 In main cabin. Still;
fresh air; no wind.
Heavy clouds from west,
covering east-west
mountains. West mottled;
north and south clear.

3p.m. 30.10 - 71 66 62 25 In main cabin. Cool
breeze. Hot sun. Cloudy
and clear.

Drops of rain at sunset. Wind west. Heavy rain twice at night; after midnight
wetted deck. Rain at 'Akabah from west, with clouds and winds.

FROM EL-'AKABAIT, GOING SOUTH.

Rise of tide off El-'Akabah town, one foot.

Feb. 8. 7a.m. 30.20 - 56 63 61 3 On deck. Dry and wet
bulbs in main cabin. At
sunrise heavy purple
clouds drifting over
plain, covering hills on
both sides. Cold, raw,
wet wind. Rain on Sinai
to north-west and south-
west. Saw rainbow. Wind
gradually turning to
east (favourable). Play
of light and shade over
plains and hills.

Noon. 30.15 - 65 64 57 22 In main cabin. Glorious
day. Blue sky; bluer
sea. Strong breeze.
Cloudy and clear.

3p.m. 30.16 - 67 65 58 25 In main cabin. After
noon wind gradually
fell, and sky cleared;
became much warmer.
Steamer (five and a half
knots) beat the sailing
tender. North perfectly
clear; south and east,
fleecy clouds. Sun clear
and warm.

At sunset red cirri. Wind increased greatly. Waves following us, high and
hollow. Bad night. Wind and water high. At midnight(?), rode with head to
gale. February 9th, four a.m., turned south. Six a.m. stood for Makná (right
angles, and nearly "turned turtle").

ON BOARD "MUKHBIR."

Feb. 9. 7a.m. 30.22 - - 64 26 26 In main cabin, off Sharm
Dabbah. Sky quite clear.
North wind colder than
ever, yet we are going
south. Beginning of
dangerous gale which
lasted till February
13th. Ugly hollow sea.

1p.m. 30.15 - - 66 58 28 In main cabin. Out of
'Akabah Gulf. Passed
into a summer sea. Under
lee of Tirán. On deck 63
degrees (F.).

3p.m. 30.11 - - 69 59 27 In main cabin, rounding
south of Jezirat Tirán.
Sky all clear, except
wind cirri over 'Akabah
Gulf and to west.

At nine p.m. halo round moon, and far from it--bad sign! Before midnight gusts
began. Increased at one a.m. (February 10). At four a.m. very violent north
wind from El-'Akabah.

Feb. 10 7a.m. 30.07 - - 69 65 30 In cabin of Mukhbir,
south of Tirán. Water
ruffled. Clouds
everywhere. Rain on the
coast. Felt raw. Mottled
sky.

Noon. 30.03 - - 72 64 38 In cabin at Tirán. Sun
out at nine a.m. Clouds
and clear. Windy sky.
Cirri to west and north-
west. Dark clouds to
leeward.

3p.m. 29.94 - - 74 65 25 In cabin at Tirán. Rain-
storm to south-west.
Wind north. Sky cloudy
and clear. Cool breeze,
not high.

At four p.m. a few large drops fell. Heavy rain at El-'Akabah and on east
coast. Sand-veil over Sinaitic shore. Six p.m., wind gusty. Rain-clouds all
over coast. Wind becoming warm. At 1.15 a.m. (February 11), terrible rush and
fall of rain. Wind westing. Mild at first. Five a.m., hard Gharbi, threatening
Azyab. All mist--could hardly see the shore.

Feb. 11. 7a.m. 29.82 - - 71 67 35 To windward of Tirán.
Howling west wind. Sun
like pale cheese.
Aneroid falling. After
seven a.m. the storm
broke, and we narrowly
escaped a wreck in two
places, Tirán and
Sináfir. Crisis of gale.

Noon. 29.80 - - 70 60 30 In Sináfir port, main
cabin. Wind west,
bending to south on
falling.

3p.m. 28.20 - - 72 65 24 In main cabin. Mist and
sand. English sun. Wind
west and warm. Sea green
and breaking.

At five p.m. the sand-mist began to clear off. Wind died away, then turned
north and north-north-east. Light scud over moon, going slowly. Patches of
blue, and stars. Barometer rising fast. Perfectly still night till midnight,
when it began to blow, about the setting of the moon. At Suez, during the
gale, red dust prevented ships seeing one another; and at Cairo trees were
uprooted.

AT SINÁFIR ISLAND.

Feb. 12 " 30.13 - - 68 62 31 In main cabin. At 3.30
a.m. a violent Ayli,
like that of El-'Akabah,
began to blow. Gusts and
shivering water. Swept
off all sand-fog.

Noon. 30.17 - - 73 64 27 In main cabin. Howling
wind. Sea less, because
of ebb. Breeze fresh.
Sky clear to south; few
white clouds to north-
east and west. Sun
bright and warm.

3p.m. 30.14 - - 75 65 24 In cabin. Wind violent
as ever, and cold from
north.

During the night the wind blew from all possible directions; north-east, and
at one time due west.

LEFT SINÁFIR FOR SOUTH.

Feb. 13. " 30.18 - - 66 60 36 In main cabin. Howling
north wind till four
a.m., then milder.
Hardly a speck of cloud.
Fresh cool air from
north. Sea very blue.
All sail set. Mist-
clouds on tallest peaks
of coast-range. Wind
diminished as we went
south. Cirri everywhere,
zenith and on horizon.

Noon. 30.12 - - 69 59 26 On deck. Soft pleasant
air; before cold and
hard. Influence of
El'Akabah. Thermometer
on deck 69 degrees (F.).

3p.m 30.10 - - 71 62 20 On board. Sky milky
everywhere with cirri.
Wind north-west, going
west.

Red sunset. Distant halo round moon--cleared off soon (a good sign), and not
well marked. Light westerly gale (No. 2).

AT SHARM YÁHÁRR.

Feb. 14. 7a.m. 30.06 - - 64 58 22 In cabin (open).
Splendid morning. Wind
west, set in hard before
noon. Milk-and-water
sky. Should have been
kept at Sináfir.

Noon. 30.04 - - 71 60 20 West wind increased. Sky
clear; but SHÁRR
Mountains cloudy--
condensing moisture.

3p.m. 30.02 - - 71 60 20 In cabin. North-west
wind strong. Moved ship.
Heavy black clouds on
mountains.

ON BOARD "MUKHBIR" AT SHARM YÁHÁRR.

Feb 15. " 30.10 - - 66 58 30 In cabin.

Noon. 30.13 - 72 - - 35 In cabin.

3p.m. 30.14 - 75 - - 26 On deck. Clouds above
the mountains.

Cold north-west breeze at five p.m. Sea high. Aneroid observations at Sulphur
Mountain--foot, 30.14; top, 29.90; difference .24 = 250 feet.

Feb. 16. 7.30a.m. 30.23 - - 63 55 20 In cabin. Aneroid
unusually high. Clear

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