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The Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott

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60. Halberd. A combination of spear and battle-axe. See Wb.

63. Holytide. Holiday. For tide = time, see on iii. 478 above.

73. Neighboring to. That is, lying in adjacent rooms.

75. Burden. Alluding to the burden, or chorus, of a song. Cf.
ii. 392 above. The MS. has "jest" for joke; and in the next line
"And rude oaths vented by the rest."

78. Trent. the English river of that name. Cf. 231 below.

84. That day. Modifying cut shore, not grieved.

87. A merry catch, I troll. Cf. Shakespeare, Temp, iii. 2. 126:
"will you troll the catch," etc.

88. Buxom. Lively, brisk; as in Hen. V. iii. 6. 27: "of buxom
valour," etc. Its original sense was yielding, obedient; as in
F. Q. i. 11. 37: "the buxome aire" (see also Milton, P. L. ii.
842); and Id. iii. 2. 23: "Of them that to him buxome are and
prone." For the derivation, see Wb.

90. Poule. Paul; an old spelling, found in Chaucer and other
writers. The measure of the song is anapestic (that is, with the
accent on every third syllable), with modifications.

92. Black-jack. A kind of pitcher made of leather. Taylor
quotes Old Mortality, chap. viii.: "The large black-jack filled
with very small beer."

93. Sack. A name applied to Spanish and Canary wines in
general; but sometimes the particular kind was specified. Cf. 2
Hen. IV. iv. 3. 104: "good sherris-sack" (that is, sherry wine);
and Herrick, Poems:

"thy isles shall lack
Grapes, before Herrick leaves Canarie sack."

95. Upsees. "Bacchanalian interjection, borrowed from the
Dutch" (Scott). Nares criticises Scott for using the word as a
noun. It is generally found in the phrases "upsee Dutch" and
"upsee Freeze" (the same thing, Frise being = Dutch), which
appear to mean "in the Dutch fashion." Cf. Ben Jonson,
Alchemist, iv. 6:

"I do not like the dullness of your eye,
It hath a heavy east, 't is upsee Dutch;"

that is, looks like intoxication. See also Beaumont and
Fletcher, Beggar's Bush, iv. 4: "The bowl ... which must be upsey
English, strong, lusty, London beer."

98. Kerchief. See on iii. 495 above.

100. Gillian. A common old English name (according to Coles and
others, a corruption of Juliana), often contracted into Gill of
Jill, and used as a familiar term for a woman, as Jack was for a
man. The two are often associated; as in the proverbs "Every
Jack must have his Jill," and "A good Jack makes a good Jill."

103. Placket. Explained by some as = stomacher; by others as =
petticoat, or the slit or opening in those garments. Cf. Wb. It
is often used figuratively for woman, as here. Placket and pot =
women and wine.

104. Lurch. Rob. Cf. Shakespeare, Cor. ii. 2. 105: "He lurch'd
all swords of the garland;" that is, robbed them all of the

112. The drum. The 1st ed. has "your drum."

116. Plaid. For the rhyme, see on i. 363 above.

124. Store of blood. Plenty of blood. Cf. Milton, L'Allegro,
121: "With store of ladies," etc. See also on the adjective, i.
548 above.

127. Reward thy toil. The MS. goes on thus:

"Get thee an ape, and then at once
Thou mayst renounce the warder's lance,
And trudge through borough and through land,
The leader of a juggler band."

Scott has the following note here: "The jongleurs, or jugglers,
as we learn from the elaborate work of the late Mr. Strutt, on
the sports and pastimes of the people of England, used to call in
the aid of various assistants, to render these performances as
captivating as possible. The glee-maiden was a necessary
attendant. Her duty was tumbling and dancing; and therefore the
Anglo-Saxon version of Saint Mark's Gospel states Herodias to
have vaulted or tumbled before King Herod. In Scotland these
poor creatures seem, even at a late period, to have been
bondswomen to their masters, as appears from a case reported by
Fountainhall: 'Reid the mountebank pursues Scot of Harden and his
lady for stealing away from him a little girl, called the
tumbling-lassie, that dance upon his stage; and he claimed
damages, and produced a contract, whereby he bought her from her
mother for 30 Scots. But we have no slaves in Scotland, and
mothers cannot sell their bairns; and physicians attested the
employment of tumbling would kill her; and her joints were now
grown stiff, and she declined to return; though she was at least
a 'prentice, and so could not run away from her master; yet some
cited Moses's law, that if a servant shelter himself with thee
against his master's cruelty, thou shalt surely not deliver him
up. The Lords, renitente cancellario, assoilzied Harden on the
27th of January (1687)' (Fountainhall's Decisions, vol. i. p.

136. Purvey. Provide. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. v. 12. 10: "He all
things did purvay which for them needfull weare."

147. Bertram, etc. The MS. has
"Bertram | his |
| such | violence withstood."

152. The tartan screen. That is, the tartan which she had drawn
over her head as a veil.

155. The savage soldiery, etc. The MS. has "While the rude
soldiery, amazed;" and in 164 below, "Should Ellen Douglas suffer

167. I shame me. I shame myself, I am ashamed. The very was
formerly used intransitively in this sense. Cf. Shakespeare, R.
of L. 1143: "As shaming any eye should thee behold;" A. Y. L. iv.
3. 136: "I do not shame to tell you what I was," etc.

170. Needwood. A royal forest in Staffordshire.

171. Poor Rose, etc. The MS. reads:

"'My Rose,'--he wiped his iron eye and brow,--
'Poor Rose,--if Rose be living now.'"

178. Part. Act; used for the rhyme. The expression is not
unlike "do the part of an honest man" (Much Ado, ii. 1. 172), or
"act the part," as we should now put it.

183. Tullibardine. The name of an old seat of the Murray
family, about twenty miles from Stirling.

199. Errant damosel. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. ii. 1. 19: "Th'
adventure of the Errant damozell."

209. Given by the Monarch, etc. The MS. has "The Monarch gave
to James Fitz-James."

218. Bower. Chamber. See on i. 217 above.

222. Permit I marshal you the way. Permit that I conduct you

233. The vacant purse, etc. The MS. reads:

"The silken purse shall serve for me,
And in my barret-cap shall flee""--

a forced rhyme which the poet did well to get rid of.

234. Barret-cap. Cloth cap. Cf. the Lay, iii. 216:

"Old England's sign, St. George's cross,
His barret-cap did grace."

He puts the purse in his cap as a favor. See on iv. 686 above.

242. Master's. He means the Douglas, but John of Brent takes it
to refer to Roderick. See 305 below.

261. Wot. Know, understand. See on i. 596 above.

276. Rugged vaults. The MS. has "low broad vaults;" and in 279,
"stretching" for crushing.

291. Oaken floor. The MS. and 1st ed. have "flinty floor;" and

"'thou mayst remain;'
And then, retiring, bolt and chain,
And rusty bar, he drew again.
Roused at the sound," etc.

292, 293. Such ... hold. This couplet is not in the 1st ed.,
and presumably not in the MS., though the fact is not noted by

295. Leech. Physician. Cf. F. Q. iii. 3. 18: "Yf any leaches
skill," etc.; and in the preceding stanza, "More neede of leach-
crafte hath your Damozell," etc.

306. Prore. Prow (Latin prora); used only in poetry.

309. Astrand. On strand (cf. ashore), stranded.

316. At sea. The MS. has "on main," and "plain" for lea in the
rhyme. The 1st ed. and that of 1821 have "on sea."

334. Has never harp, etc. The MS. reads:

"Shall never harp of minstrel tell
Of combat fought so fierce and well."

348. Strike it! Scott says: "There are several instances, at
least in tradition, of persons so much attached to particular
tunes, as to require to hear them on their death-bed. Such an
anecdote is mentioned by the late Mr. Riddel of Glenriddel, in
his collection of Border tunes, respecting an air called the
'Dandling of the Bairns,' for which a certain Gallovidian laird
is said to have evinced this strong mark of partiality. It is
popularly told of a famous freebooter, that he composed the tune
known by the name of Macpherson's Rant while under sentence of
death, and played it at the gallows-tree. Some spirited words
have been adapted to it by Burns. A similar story is recounted
of a Welsh bard, who composed and played on his death-bed the air
called Dafyddy Garregg Wen. But the most curious example is
given by Brantome of a maid of honor at the court of France,
entitled Mademoiselle de Limeuil: 'Durant sa maladie, dont elle
trespassa, jamais elle ne cessa, ainsi causa tousjours; car elle
estoit fort grande parleuse, brocardeuse, et tres-bien et fort a
propos, et tres-belle avec cela. Quand l'heure de sa fin fut
venue, elle fit venir a soy son valet (ainsi que les filles de la
cour en ont chacune un), qui s'appelloit Julien, et scavoit tres-
bien jouer du violon. "Julien," luy dit elle, "prenez vostre
violon, et sonnez moy tousjours jusques a ce que vous me voyez
morte (car je m'y en vais) la Defaite des Suisses, et le mieux
que vous pourrez, et quand vous serez sur le mot, 'Tout est
perdu,' sonnez le par quatre ou cing fois, le plus piteusement
que vous pourrez," ce qui fit l'autre, et elle-mesme luy aidoit
de la voix, et quand ce vint "tout est perdu," elle le reitera
par deux fois; et se tournant de l'autre coste du chevet, elle
dit a ses compagnes: "Tout est perdu a ce coup, et a bon
escient;" et ainsi deceda. Voila une morte joyeuse et plaisante.
Je tiens ce conte de deux de ses compagnes, dignes de foi, qui
virent jouer ce mystere' (OEuvres de Brantome, iii. 507). The
tune to which this fair lady chose to make her final exit was
composed on the defeat of the Swiss of Marignano. The burden is
quoted by Panurge in Rabelais, and consists of these words,
imitating the jargon of the Swiss, which is a mixture of French
and German:

'Tout est verlore,
La Tintelore,
Tout est verlore bi Got.'"

362. With what, etc. This line is not in the MS.

369. Battle of Beal' au Duine. Scott has the following note

"A skirmish actually took place at a pass thus called in the
Trosachs, and closed with the remarkable incident mentioned in
the text. It was greatly posterior in date to the reign of James

'In this roughly-wooded island [FN#13] the country people
secreted their wives and children and their most valuable effects
from the rapacity of Cromwell's soldiers during their inroad into
this country, in the time of the republic. These invaders, not
venturing to ascend by the ladders along the lake, took a more
circuitous road through the heart of the Trosachs, the most
frequented path at that time, which penetrates the wilderness
about half way between Binean and the lake by a tract called Yea-
chilleach, or the Old Wife's Bog.

'In one of the defiles of this by-road the men of the country at
that time hung upon the rear of the invading enemy, and shot one
of Cromwell's men, whose grave marks the scene of action, and
gives name to that pass. [FN#14] In revenge of this insult, the
soldiers resolved to plunder the island, to violate the women,
and put the children to death. With this brutal intention, one
of the party, more expert than the rest, swam towards the island,
to fetch the boat to his comrades, which had carried the women to
their asylum, and lay moored in one of the creeks. His
companions stood on the shore of the mainland, in full view of
all that was to pass, waiting anxiously for his return with the
boat. But just as the swimmer had got to the nearest point of
the island, and was laying hold of a black rock to get on shore,
a heroine, who stood on the very point where he meant to land,
hastily snatching a dagger from below her apron, with one stroke
severed his head from the body. His party seeing this disaster,
and relinquishing all future hope of revenge or conquest, made
the best of their way out of their perilous situation. This
amazon's great grandson lives at Bridge of Turk, who, besides
others, attests the anecdote' (Sketch of the Scenery near
Callander, Stirling, 1806, p. 20). I have only to add to this
account that the heroine's name was Helen Stuart."

376. No ripple on the lake. "The liveliness of this description
of the battle is due to the greater variety of the metre, which
resembles that of Marmion. The three-accent lines introduced at
intervals give it lightness, and the repetition of the same rhyme
enables the poet to throw together without break all that forms
part of one picture" (Taylor).

377. Erne. Eagle. See Wb.

392. I see, etc. Cf. iv. 152 above.

396. Boune. See on iv. 36 above. Most eds. misprint "bound."

404. Barded. The reading of the 1st ed. and that of 1821;
"corrected" in all the recent ones into "barbed." Scott
doubtless wrote barded (= armored, or wearing defensive armor;
but applied only to horses), a word found in many old writers.
Cf. Holinshed (quoted by Nares): "with barded horses, all covered
with iron," etc. See also Wb. Scott has the word again in the
Lay, i. 311:

"Above the foaming tide, I ween,
Scarce half the charger's neck was seen;
For he was barded from counter to tail,
And the rider was armed complete in mail."

405. Battalia. Battalion, army. The word is not a plural of
battalion, as some have seemed to think. See Wb.

414. Vaward. In the vanward, or vanguard; misprinted "vanward"
in some editions. Shakespeare has the noun several times; as in
Hen. V. iv. 3. 130: "The leading of the vaward;" Cor. i. 6. 53:
"Their bands i' the vaward;" and figuratively in M. N. D. iv. 1.
110: "the vaward of the day," etc.

419. Pride. Some eds. misprint "power."

429. As. As if. See on ii. 56 above.

434. Their flight they ply. The reading of the 1st ed. and that
of 1821. Most of the eds. have "plight" for flight, and Taylor
has the following note on Their plight they ply: "The meaning of
this is not very clear. Possibly 'they keep up a constant fire,'
but they seem in too complete a rout for that." Cf. iii. 318

438. The rear. The 1st ed. has "their rear."

443. Twilight wood. Cf. 403 above. "The appearance of the
spears and pikes was such that in the twilight they might have
been mistaken at a distance for a wood" (Taylor).

449-450. And closely shouldering, etc. This couplet is not in
the MS.

452. Tinchel. "A circle of sportsmen, who, by surrounding a
great space, and gradually narrowing, brought immense quantities
of deer together, which usually made desperate efforts to breach
through the Tinchel" (Scott).

459. The tide. The 1st ed. has "their tide."

473. Now, gallants! etc. Cf. Macaulay, Battle of Ivry:

"Now by the lips of those ye love,
Fair gentlemen of France,
Charge for the golden lilies,--
Upon them with the lance!"

483. And refluent, etc. The MS. reads:

"And refluent down the darksome pass
The battle's tide was poured;
There toiled the spearman's struggling spear,
There raged the mountain sword."

488. Linn. Here the word is = cataract. See on i. 71 and ii.
270 above.

497. Minstrel, away! The MS. has "Away! away!"

509. Surge. Note the imperfect rhyme. See on i. 223 above.

511. That sullen. The reading of the 1st ed. and that of 1821;
"the sullen" in many eds.

514. That parts not, etc. Lockhart quotes Byron, Giaour:

"the loveliness in death
That parts not quite with parting breath."

515. Seeming, etc. The MS. reads:

"And seemed, to minstrel ear, to toll
The parting dirge of many a soul."

For part = depart, see on ii. 94 above.

523. While by the lake, etc. The MS. reads:

"While by the darkened lake below
File out the spearmen of the foe."

525. At weary bay. See on i. 133 above.

527. Tattered sail. The 1st ed. has "shattered sail;" not noted
in the Errata.

532. Saxons. Some eds. misprint "Saxon."

538. Wont. See on i. 408 above.

539. Store. See on i. 548 above. Bonnet-pieces were gold coins
on which the King's head was represented with a bonnet instead of
a crown.

540. To him will swim. For the ellipsis, see on i. 528 above.

556. Her billows, etc. The 1st ed. has "Her billow reared his
snowy crest," and "its" for they in the next line.

564. It tinged, etc. The MS. has "It tinged the boats and lake
with flame."

Lines 561-568 are interpolated in the MS. on a slip of paper.

565. Duncraggan's widowed dame. Cf. iii. 428 fol. above.

567. A naked dirk. The 1st ed. has "Her husband's dirk."

592. Chime. Music. Cf. iv. 524 above.

595. Varied his look, etc. The MS. has "Glowed in his look, as
swelled the song;" and in 600,

"his | glazing | eye."
| fiery |

602. Thus, motionless, etc. Cf. the Introduction to Rob Roy;
"Rob Roy, while on his death-bed, learned that a person, with
whom he was at enmity, proposed to visit him. 'Raise me from my
bed,' said the invalid; 'throw my plaid around me, and bring me
my claymore, dirk, and pistols: it shall never be said that a
foeman saw Rob Roy MacGregor defenceless and unarmed.' His
foeman, conjectured to be one of the MacLarens, entered and paid
his compliments, inquiring after the health of his formidable
neighbor. Rob Roy maintained a cold, haughty civility during
their short conference; and so soon as he had left the house,
'Now,' he said, 'all is over--let the piper play Ha til mi
tulidh' [we return no more], and he is said to have expired
before the dirge was finished."

605. Grim and still. Originally "stern and still." In a note
to the printer, sent with the final stanzas, Scott writes: "I
send the grand finale, and so exit the Lady of the Lake from the
head she has tormented for six months. In canto vi. stanza 21,--
stern and still, read grim and still; sternly occurs four lines
higher. For a similar reason, stanza 24,--dun deer read fleet

608. And art thou, etc. The MS. has "'And art thou gone,' the
Minstrel said."

609. Foeman's. Misprinted "foeman's" in some eds.

610. Breadalbane. See on ii. 416 above.

614. The shelter, etc. The MS. has "The mightiest of a mighty

631. Even she. That is, Ellen.

638. Storied. Referring to the scenes depicted on the painted
glass. Cf. Milton, Il Penseroso, 159: "And storied windows,
richly dight." The change of tense in fall is of course for the
rhyme; but we might expect "lighten" for lightened.

643. The banquet, etc. The MS. reads:

"The banquet gay, the chamber's pride,
Scarce drew one curious glance aside;"

and in 653, "earnest on his game."

665. Of perch and hood. That is, of enforced idleness. See on
ii. 525 above. In some eds. this song is printed without any
division into stanzas.

670. Forest. The 1st ed. and that of 1821 have "forests," but
we suspect that Scott wrote forest.

672. Is meet for me. The MS. has "was meant for me." For the
ellipsis, cf. 540 above.

674. From yon dull steeple's," etc. The MS. has "From darkened
steeple's" etc. See on v. 558 above.

677. The lark, etc. The MS. has "The lively lark my matins
rung," and "sung" in the rhyme. The omission of to with ring and
sing is here a poetic license; but in Elizabethan English it is
common in many cases where it would not now be admissible. Cf.
Othello, ii. 3. 190: "you were wont be civil;" F. Q. i. 1. 50:
"He thought have slaine her," etc.

680. A hall, etc. The MS. has "a hall should harbor me."

683. Fleet deer. See on 605 above.

707. At morning prime. Early in the morning. Prime is properly
the first canonical hour of prayer, or 6 a.m. For its looser use
here, cf. F. Q. ii. 9. 25: "at evening and at prime."

712. Stayed. Supported; not to be printed "staid," as in some

716. Within, etc. The MS. reads:

"Within 't was brilliant all, and bright
The vision glowed on Ellen's sight."

726. Presence. Presence-chamber. Cf. Rich. II. i. 3. 289:

"Suppose the singing birds musicians,
The grass whereon thou tread'st the presence strew'd"

(that is, strewn with rushes); Hen. VIII. iii. 1. 17:

"the two great cardinals
Wait in the presence," etc.

727. For him, etc. The MS. reads: "For him who owned this royal

737. Sheen. Bright. See on i. 208 above.

740. And Snowdoun's Knight is Scotland's King. Scott says:
"This discovery will probably remind the reader of the beautiful
Arabian tale of Il Bondocani. Yet the incident is not borrowed
from that elegant story, but from Scottish tradition. James V.,
of whom we are treating, was a monarch whose good and benevolent
intentions often rendered his romantic freaks venial, if not
respectable, since, from his anxious attention to the interests
of the lower and most oppressed class of his subjects, he was, as
we have seen, popularly termed the King of the Commons. For the
purpose of seeing that justice was regularly administered, and
frequently from the less justifiable motive of gallantry, he used
to traverse the vicinage of his several palaces in various
disguises. The two excellent comic songs entitled The
Gaberlunzie Man and We'll gae nae mair a roving are said to have
been founded upon the success of his amorous adventures when
travelling in the disguise of a beggar. The latter is perhaps the
best comic ballad in any language.

"Another adventure, which had nearly cost James his life, is said
to have taken place at the village of Cramond, near Edinburgh,
where he had rendered his addresses acceptable to a pretty girl
of the lower rank. Four or five persons, whether relations or
lovers of his mistress is uncertain, beset the disguised monarch
as he returned from his rendezvous. Naturally gallant, and an
admirable master of his weapon, the King took post on the high
and narrow bridge over the Almond river, and defended himself
bravely with his sword. A peasant who was thrashing in a
neighboring barn came out upon the noise, and, whether moved by
compassion or by natural gallantry, took the weaker side, and
laid about with his flail so effectually as to disperse the
assailants, well thrashed, even according to the letter. He then
conducted the King into his barn, where his guest requested a
basin and a towel, to remove the stains of the broil. This being
procured with difficulty, James employed himself in learning what
was the summit of the deliverer's earthly wishes, and found that
they were bounded by the desire of possessing, in property, the
farm of Braehead, upon which he labored as a bondsman. The lands
chanced to belong to the Crown; and James directed him to come to
the palace of Holyrood and inquire for the Guidman (that is,
farmer) of Ballenguich, a name by which he was known in his
excursions, and which answered to the Il Bondocani of Haroun
Alraschid. He presented himself accordingly, and found, with due
astonishment, that he had saved his monarch's life, and that he
was to be gratified with a crown charter of the lands of
Braehead, under the service of presenting a ewer, basin, and
towel for the King to wash his hands when he shall happen to pass
the bridge of Cramond. This person was ancestor of the Howisons
of Braehead, in Mid-Lothian, a respectable family, who continue
to hold the lands (now passed into the female line) under the
same tenure. [FN#15]

"Another of James's frolics is thus narrated by Mr. Campbell from
the Statistical Account: 'Being once benighted when out a-
hunting, and separated from his attendants, he happened to enter
a cottage in the midst of a moor, at the foot of the Ochil hills,
near Alloa, where, unknown, he was kindly received. In order to
regale their unexpected guest, the gudeman desired the gudewife
to fetch the hen that roosted nearest the cock, which is always
the plumpest, for the stranger's supper. The King, highly
pleased with his night's lodging and hospitable entertainment,
told mine host, at parting, that he should be glad to return his
civility, and requested that the first time he came to Stirling
he would call at the Castle, and inquire for the Gudeman of
Ballenguich. Donaldson, the landlord, did not fail to call on
the Gudeman of Ballenguich, when his astonishment at finding that
the King had been his guest afforded no small amusement to the
merry monarch and his courtiers; and to carry on the pleasantry,
he was thenceforth designated by James with the title of King of
the Moors, which name and designation have descended from father
to son ever since, and they have continued in possession of the
identical spot, the property of Mr. Erskine of Mar, till very
lately, when this gentleman with reluctance turned out the
descendant and representative of the King of the Moors, on
account of his Majesty's invincible indolence, and great dislike
to reform or innovation of any kind, although, from the spirited
example of his neighbor tenants on the same estate, he is
convinced similar exertion would promote his advantage.'

"The author requests permission yet farther to verify the subject
of his poem, by an extract from the genealogical work of Buchanan
of Auchmar, upon Scottish surnames (Essay upon the Family of
Buchanan, p. 74):

'This John Buchanan of Auchmar and Arnpryor was afterwards termed
King of Kippen [a small district of Perthshire] upon the
following account: King James V., a very sociable, debonair
prince, residing at Stirling, in Buchanan of Arnpryor's time,
carriers were very frequently passing along the common road,
being near Arnpryor's house, with necessaries for the use of the
King's family; and he, having some extraordinary occasion,
ordered one of these carriers to leave his load at his house, and
he would pay him for it; which the carrier refused to do, telling
him he was the King's carrier, and his load for his Majesty's
use; to which Arnpryor seemed to have small regard, compelling
the carrier, in the end, to leave his load; telling him, if King
James was King of Scotland, he was King of Kippen, so that it was
reasonable he should share with his neighbor king in some of
these loads, so frequently carried that road. The carrier
representing these usage, and telling the story as Arnpryor spoke
it, to some of the King's servants, it came at length to his
majesty's ears, who shortly thereafter, with a few attendants,
came to visit his neighbor king, who was in the meantime at
dinner. King James, having sent a servant to demand access, was
denied the same by a tall fellow with a battle-axe, who stood
porter at the gate, telling there could be no access till dinner
was over. This answer not satisfying the King, he sent to demand
access a second time; upon which he was desired by the porter to
desist, otherwise he would find cause to repent his rudeness.
His Majesty finding this method would not do, desired the porter
to tell his master that the Goodman of Ballangeigh desired to
speak with the King of Kippen. The porter telling Arnpryor so
much, he, in all humble manner, came and received the King, and
having entertained him with much sumptuousness and jollity,
became so agreeable to King James, that he allowed him to take so
much of any provision he found carrying that road as he had
occasion for; and seeing he made the first visit, desired
Arnpryor in a few days to return him a second to Stirling, which
he performed, and continued in very much favor with the King,
always thereafter being termed King of Kippen while he lived.'

"The readers of Ariosto must give credit for the amiable features
with which James is represented, since he is generally considered
as the prototype of Zerbino, the most interesting hero of the
Orlando Furioso."

743. Glided from her stay. The MS. has "shrinking, quits her

Ruskin asks us to "note the northern love of rocks" in this
passage, and adds: "Dante could not have thought of his 'cut
rocks' as giving rest even to snow. He must put it on the pine
branches, if it is to be at peace." Taylor quotes Holmes,
Autocrat of Breakfast Table: "She melted away from her seat like
an image of snow."

780. Pry. Look pryingly or curiously. In prose on would not be
used with pry.

784. To speed. To a fortunate issue; unless speed be the verb,
and = pass.

786. In life's more low but happier way. The MS. has "In lowly
life's more happy way."

789. The name of Snowdoun. Scott says: "William of Worcester,
who wrote about the middle of the fifteenth century, calls
Stirling Castle Snowdoun. Sir David Lindsay bestows the same
epithet upon it in his Complaint of the Papingo:

'Adieu, fair Snawdoun, with thy towers high, Thy chaple-
royal, park, and table round; May, June, and July, would I
dwell in thee, Were I a man, to hear the birdis sound,
Whilk doth agane thy royal rock rebound.'

"Mr. Chalmers, in his late excellent edition of Sir David
Lindsay's works, has refuted the chimerical derivation of
Snawdoun from snedding, or cutting. It was probably derived from
the romantic legend which connected Stirling with King Arthur, to
which the mention of the Round Table gives countenance. The ring
within which justs were formerly practised in the Castle park, is
still called the Round Table. Snawdoun is the official title of
one of the Scottish heralds, whose epithets seem in all countries
to have been fantastically adopted from ancient history or

"It appears from the preceding note that the real name by which
James was actually distinguished in his private excursions was
the Goodman of Ballenguich; derived from a steep pass leading up
to the Castle of Stirling, so called. But the epithet would not
have suited poetry, and would besides at once, and prematurely,
have announced the plot to many of my country men, among whom the
traditional stories above mentioned are still current."

798. My spell-bound steps. The MS. has

"Thy sovereign back | to Benvenue."
Thy sovereign's steps |

800. Glaive. Sword. See on iv. 274 above.

803. Pledge of my faith, etc. The MS. has "Pledge of Fitz-
James's faith, the ring."

808. A lightening. Some eds. have "A lightning."

809. And more, etc. The MS. reads:

"And in her breast strove maiden shame;
More deep she deemed the Monarch's ire
Kindled 'gainst him, who, for her sire,
Against his Sovereign broadsword drew;
And, with a pleading, warm and true,
She craved the grace of Roderick Dhu."

813. Grace. Pardon.

825. Stained. Reddened.

829. The Graeme. Jeffrey says: "Malcolm Graeme has too
insignificant a part assigned him, considering the favor in which
he is held both by Ellen and the author; and in bringing out the
shaded and imperfect character of Roderick Dhu as a contrast to
the purer virtue of his rival, Mr. Scott seems to have fallen
into the common error of making him more interesting than him
whose virtues he was intended to set off, and converted the
villain of the piece in some measure into its hero. A modern
poet, however, may perhaps be pardoned for an error of which
Milton himself is thought not to have kept clear, and for which
there seems so natural a cause in the difference between poetical
and amiable characters."

837. Warder. Guard, jailer.

841. Lockhart quotes here the following extract from a letter of
Byron's to Scott, dated July 6, 1812:

"And now, waiving myself, let me talk to you of the Prince
Regent. He ordered me to be presented to him at a ball; and after
some saying, peculiarly pleasing from royal lips, as to my own
attempts, he talked to me of you and your immoralities: he
preferred you to every bard past and present, and asked which of
your works pleased me most. It was a difficult question. I
answered, I thought the Lay. He said his own opinion was nearly
similar. In speaking of the others, I told him that I thought
you more particularly the poet of princes, as they never appeared
more fascinating than in Marmion and The Lady of the Lake. He
was pleased to coincide, and to dwell on the description of your
James's as no less royal than poetical. He spoke alternately of
Homer and yourself, and seemed well acquainted with both."

842. Harp of the North, farewell! Cf. the introduction to the

846. Wizard elm. See on i. 2 above.

850. Housing. Returning to the hive.

858. The grief devoured. For the figure, cf. Ps. xlii. 3, lxxx.
5, and Isa. xxx. 20.

859. O'erlive. Several eds. misprint "o'erlived."


Since our first edition appeared we have had the privilege of
examining a copy of Scott's 2d ed. (1810), belonging to Mr. E. S.
Gould, of Yonkers, N. Y. This 2d ed. is in smaller type than the
1st, and in octavo form, the 1st being in quarto. A minute
collation of the text with that of the 1st ed. and our own shows
that Scott carefully revised the poem for this 2d ed., and that
the changes he afterwards made in it were few and unimportant.
For instance, the text includes the verbal changes which we have
adopted in i. 198, 290, 432, ii. 103, 201, 203, 534, iii. 30,
173, 190, 508, v. 106, 253, 728, 811, iv. 6, 112, 527, 556, 567,
etc. In vi. 291 fol. it reads (including the omissions and
insertions) as in our text. In i. 336, 340, the pointing is the
same as in the 1st ed.; and in i. 360, the reading is "dear." In
ii. 865, 866, it varies from the pointing of the 1st ed.; but we
are inclined to regard this as a misprint, not a correction. In
ii. 76 this 2d ed. has "lingerewave" for "lingerer wave," and in
ii. 217 it repeats the preposterous misprint of "his glee" from
the 1st ed. If Scott could overlook such palpable errors as
these, he might easily fail to detect the misplacing of a comma.
We have our doubts as to i. 336, 340, where the 1st and 2d eds.
agree; but there a misprint may have been left uncorrected, as in
ii. 217.

Jan. 25, 1884.


[FN#1] One of Scott's (on vi. 47) has suffered badly in
Lockhart's edition. In a quotation from Lord Berners's Froissart
(which I omit) a whole page seems to have dropped out, and the
last sentence, as it now stands, is made up of pans of the one
preceding and the one following the lost matter. It reads thus (I
mark the gap): " There all the companyons made them [ . . . ]
breke no poynt of that ye have ordayned and commanded.,' This is
palpable nonsense, but it has been repeated without correction in
every reprint of Lockhart's edition for the last fifty years.

[FN#2] Lockhart says: "The lady with whom Sir Walter Scott held
this conversation was, no doubt, his aunt, Miss Christian
Rutherford; there was no other female relation DEAD when this
Introduction was written, whom I can suppose him to have
consulted on literary questions. Lady Capulet, on seeing the
corpse of Tybalt, exclaims,--

'Tybalt, my cousin! O my brother's child!'"

[FN#3] Lockhart quotes Byron, Don Juan, xi. 55:

"In twice five years the 'greatest living poet,'
Like to the champion in the fisty ring,
Is called on to support his claim, or show it,
Although 't is an imaginary thing," etc.

[FN#4] "Sir Walter reigned before me," etc. (Don Juan, xi. 57).

[FN#5] The Spenserian stanza, first used by Spenser in his
Faerie Queene, consists of eight lines of ten syllables, followed
by a line of twelve syllables, the accents throughout being on
the even syllables (the so-called iambic measure). There are
three sets of rhymes: one for the first and third lines; another
for the second, fourth, fifth, and seventh; and a third for the
sixth, eighth, and ninth.

[FN#6] Vide Certayne Matters concerning the Realme of Scotland,
etc., as they were Anno Domini 1597. London, 1603.

[FN#7] See on ii. 319 above.

[FN#8] Hallowe'en.

[FN#9] To the raven that sat on the forked tree he gave his

[FN#10] "This story is still current in the moors of
Staffordshire, and adapted by the peasantry to their own
meridian. I have repeatedly heard it told, exactly as here, by
rustics who could not read. My last authority was a nailer near
Cheadle" (R. Jamieson).

[FN#11] See Scottish Historical and Romantic Ballads, Glasgow,
1808, vol. ii. p. 117.

[FN#12] A champion of popular romance; see Ellis's Romances,
vol. iii.

[FN#13] "That at the eastern extremity of Loch Katrine, so often
mentioned in the text."

[FN#14] "Beallach an duine."

[FN#15] "The reader will find this story told at greater length,
and with the addition in particular of the King being recognized,
like the Fitz-James of the Lady of the Lake, by being the only
person covered, in the First Series of Tales of a Grandfather,
vol. iii, p. 37. The heir of Braehead discharged his duty at the
banquet given to King George IV. in the Parliament House at
Edinburgh, in 1822" (Lockhart).

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