Part 9 out of 14
sub. Apostolic 2 Pet. ii. 5.
11 This is in accordance with Talmudic legend. "Recognise the power of
repentance, in the case of Pharaoh, King of Egypt, who rebelled excessively
against the most High; Who is God that I should hearken to his voice? (Ex. v.
2). But with the same tongue that sinned he did penance: Who is like thee, O
Lord, among the Gods? (xv. 11). The Holy One, Blessed be He, delivered him
from the dead, . . . so that he should not die (ix. 15, 16).–For now have I
stretched forth my hand, and verily thee have I raised up from among the
dead, to proclaim my might." Ex. ix. 15, 16. A strange comment! Pirke R.
Eliezer, § 43. Comp. Midr. on Ps. cvi. Midr. Jalkut, ch. 238.
12 That is, whether thou art not foretold in the Law and Gospel, and whether
the Koran is not in unison with, and confirmatory of, them.
SURA XXXIV.–SABA1 [LXXXV.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
PRAISE be to God! to whom belongeth all that is in the Heavens and all that
is on the Earth; and to Him be praise in the next world: for he is the All-
wise, the All-informed!
He knoweth what entereth into the earth, and what proceedeth from it; and
what cometh down from heaven, and what goeth up into it: and He is the
Merciful, the Forgiving!
"Never," say the unbelievers, "will the Hour come upon us!" SAY: Yea, by my
Lord who knoweth the unseen, it will surely come upon you! not the weight of
a mote either in the Heavens or in the Earth escapeth him; nor is there aught
less than this or aught greater, which is not in the clear Book;–
To the intent that God may reward those who have believed and done the things
that are right: Pardon and a noble provision shall they receive:
But as for those who aim to invalidate our signs,–a chastisement of painful
torment awaiteth them!
And they to whom knowledge hath been given see that what hath been sent down
to thee from thy Lord is the truth, and that it guideth into the way of the
Glorious one, the Praiseworthy.
But the unbelievers say to those whom they fall in with, "Shall we shew you a
man who will foretell you that when ye shall have been utterly torn and rent
to pieces, ye shall be restored in a new form?
He deviseth a lie about God, or there is a djinn in him," but they who
believe not in the next life, shall incur the chastisement, and be lost in
the mazes of estrangement from God.
What! have they never contemplated that which is before them and behind them,
the Heaven and the Earth? If such were our pleasure, we could sink them into
that Earth, or cause a portion of that Heaven to fall upon them! herein truly
is a sign for our every returning servant.
Of old bestowed we on David a gift, our special boon:–"Ye mountains and ye
birds answer his songs of praise." And we made the iron soft for him:–"Make
coats of mail, and arrange its plates; and work ye righteousness; for I
behold your actions."
And unto Solomon did we subject the wind, which travelled in the morning a
month's journey, and a month's journey in the evening. And we made a fountain
of molten brass to flow for him. And of the Djinn were some who worked in his
presence, by the will of his Lord; and such of them as swerved from our
bidding will we cause to taste the torment of the flame.
They made for him whatever he pleased, of lofty halls, and images, and dishes
large as tanks for watering camels, and cooking pots that stood firmly.
"Work," said we, "O family of David with thanksgiving:" But few of my
servants are the thankful!
And when we decreed the death of Solomon, nothing shewed them that he was
dead but a reptile of the earth that gnawed the staff which supported his
corpse.2 And when it fell, the Djinn perceived that if they had known the
things unseen, they had not continued in this shameful affliction.3
A sign there was to SABA, in their dwelling places:–two gardens, the one on
the right hand and the other on the left:–"Eat ye of your Lord's supplies,
and give thanks to him: Goodly is the country, and gracious is the Lord!"
But they turned aside: so we sent upon them the flood of Irem;4 and we
changed them their gardens into two gardens of bitter fruit and tamarisk and
some few jujube trees.
Such was our retribution on them for their ingratitude: but do we thus
recompense any except the ungrateful?
And we placed between them and the cities which we have blessed, conspicuous
cities, and we fixed easy stages: "Travel ye through them by night and day,
But they said, "O Lord! make the distance between our journeys longer,"5–and
against themselves did they act unjustly: so we made them a tale, and
scattered them with an utter scattering. Truly herein are signs to everyone
that is patient, grateful.
And Eblis found that he had judged truly of them: and they all except a
remnant of the faithful, followed him:
Yet no power had he over them. Only we would discern him who believed in the
life to come, from him who doubted of it; for thy Lord watcheth all things.
SAY: Call ye upon those whom ye deem gods, beside God: their power in the
Heavens and in the Earth is not the weight of an atom–neither have they any
share in either; nor hath He a helper from among them.
No intercession shall avail with Him but that which He shall Himself allow.
Until when at last their hearts shall be relieved from terror, they shall
say, "What saith your Lord?" they shall say, "The Truth; and He is the High,
SAY: Who supplieth you out of the Heavens and the Earth? SAY: God. And either
we or ye have guidance, or are in palpable error!
SAY: Not as to our faults shall ye be questioned; neither shall we be
questioned as to your actions.
SAY: Our Lord will gather us together: then will He judge between us in
justice; for He is the Judge, the Knowing!
SAY: Shew me those whom ye have united with Him as associates: Nay, rather,
He is God, the Mighty, the Wise!
And we have sent thee to mankind at large, to announce and to threaten. But
most men understand not.
And they say, "When will this threat come to pass? Tell us, if ye be men of
SAY: Ye are menaced with a day, which not for an hour shall ye retard or
The unbelievers say, "We will not believe in this Koran, nor in the Books
which preceded it." But couldst thou see when the wicked shall be set before
their Lord! With reproaches will they answer one another. The weak shall say
to the mighty ones, "But for you we had been believers:"
Then shall the mighty ones say to the weak, "What! was it we who turned you
aside from the guidance which had reached you? Nay, but ye acted wickedly
And the weak shall say to the mighty ones, "Nay, but there was a plot by
night and by day, when ye bad us believe not in God, and gave him peers." And
they shall proclaim their repentance after they have seen the punishment! And
yokes will we place on the necks of those who have not believed! Shall they
be rewarded but as they have wrought?
And never have we sent a warner to any city whose opulent men did not say,
"In sooth we disbelieve your message."
And they said, "We are the more abundant in riches and in children, nor shall
we be among the punished."
SAY: Of a truth my Lord will be liberal or sparing in his supplies to whom he
pleaseth: but the greater part of men acknowledge it not.
Neither by your riches nor by your children shall you bring yourselves into
nearness with Us; but they who believe and do the thing that is right shall
have a double reward for what they shall have done: and in the pavilions of
Paradise shall they dwell secure!
But they who shall aim to invalidate our signs, shall be consigned to
SAY: Of a truth my Lord will be liberal in supplies to whom he pleaseth of
his servants, or will be sparing to him: and whatever ye shall give in alms
he will return; and He is the best dispenser of gifts.
One day he will gather them all together: then shall he say to the angels,
"Did these worship you?"
They shall say, "Glory be to thee! Thou art our master, not these! But they
worshipped the Djinn: it was in them that most of them believed.
On this day the one of you shall have no power over others for help or hurt.
And we will say to the evil doers, "Taste ye the torment of the fire, which
ye treated as a delusion."
For when our distinct signs are recited to them, they say, "This is merely a
man who would fain pervert you from your father's Worship." And they say,
"This (Koran) is no other than a forged falsehood." And the unbelievers say
to the truth when it is presented to them, "Tis nothing but palpable
Yet have we given them no books in which to study deeply, nor have we sent
any one to them before thee, charged with warnings.
They also flourished before them, treated our apostles as impostors in like
sort: but not to the tenth part of what we bestowed on them,6 have these
attained. And yet when they charged my apostles with deceit, how terrible was
SAY: One thing in sooth do I advise you:–that ye stand up before God two and
two, or singly,7 and then reflect that in your fellow citizen is no djinn:8
he is no other than your warner before a severe punishment.
SAY: I ask not any wage from you: keep it for yourselves: my wage is from God
alone. And He is witness over all things!
SAY: Truly my Lord sendeth forth the Truth:–Knower of things unseen!
SAY: Truth is come, and falsehood shall vanish and return no more.
SAY: If I err, verily to my own cost only shall I err: but if I have
guidance, it will be of my Lord's revealing, for He is the Hearer, the near
Couldst thou see how they shall tremble and find no escape, and be taken
forth from the place that is so near;9
And shall say, "We believe in Him!" But how, in their present distance, shall
they receive the faith,
When they had before denied it, and aimed their shafts at the mysteries from
And a gulf shall be between them and that which they shall desire–
As was done unto their likes of old, who were lost in the questionings of
1 In Arabia Felix, three days' journey from Sanaa.
2 The Talmud mentions the worm Shameer, used by Solomon to cut the stones for
building the temple. Pirke Aboth. v. See Buxt. Lex. Talmud, p. 2456. Tr.
Gittin, fol. 68; and Midr. Jalkut on 1 Kings, vi. 7. This passage of
Scripture may have suggested the idea that Solomon built, etc., by the aid of
Spirits. 3 That is, in their difficult toils.
4 See M. Caussin de Perceval Hist. des Arabes, vol. iii., who, as well as M.
de Sacy, fix this event in the second century of our era.
5 The Saba, of verse 14 formed an important branch of the trading population
of Yemen. This whole passage, 14-18, alludes to the cessation of traffic
between them and Syria, which led to the desire to lengthen the stages and
diminish the expense of the journey. See Muir's Life of Muhammad, i. p.
cxxxix. Muhammad attributes this desire to covetousness.
6 That is, of strength and material prosperity.
7 That is, so as to form a judgment free from the influence of others.
8 It is very remarkable, that when the power of Muhammad became firmly
established, he never reverts to the insinuations against the soundness of
his mind which in the earlier Suras he so often rebuts.
9 That is, their graves. Mar. So called because there is but a step into it
from the surface of the earth. Ullm.
10 That is, when in this life.
SURA XXXV.–THE CREATOR, OR THE ANGELS [LXXXVI.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
PRAISE be to God, Maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! Who employeth the
ANGELS as envoys, with pairs of wings, two, three, and four: He addeth to his
creature what He will! Truly God hath power for all things.
The mercy which God layeth open for man, no one can keep back; and what He
shall keep back, none can afterwards send forth. And He is the Mighty, the
O men! bear in mind the favour of God towards you. Is there a creator other
than God, who nourisheth you with the gifts of heaven and earth? There is no
God but He! How then are ye turned aside from Him?
If they treat thee as an impostor, then before thee have apostles been
treated as impostors. But to God shall all things return.
O men! assuredly the promise of God is true: let not then the present life
deceive you: and let not the Deceiver deceive you as to God.
Yes, Satan is your foe. For a foe then hold him. He calleth his followers to
him that they may become inmates of the flame.
The unbelievers,–for them a terrible punishment!
But believers and doers of good works, for them is mercy, and a great reward!
Shall he, the evil of whose deeds are so tricked out to him that he deemeth
them good, be treated like him who seeth things aright? Verily God misleadeth
whom He will, and guideth whom He will. Spend not thy soul in sighs for them:
God knoweth their doings.
It is God who sendeth forth the winds which raise the clouds aloft: then
drive we them on to some land dead from drought,1 and give life thereby to
the earth after its death. So shall be the resurrection.
If any one desireth greatness, all greatness is in God. The good word riseth
up to Him, and the righteous deed will He exalt. But a severe punishment
awaiteth the plotters of evil things; and the plots of such will He render
Moreover, God created you of dust–then of the germs of life–then made you two
sexes: and no female conceiveth or bringeth forth without his knowledge; and
the aged ageth not, nor is aught minished from man's age, but in accordance
with the Book. An easy thing truly is this to God.
Nor are the two seas2 alike: the one fresh, sweet, pleasant for drink, and
the other salt, bitter; yet from both ye eat fresh fish, and take forth for
you ornaments to wear, and thou seest the ships cleaving their waters that ye
may go in quest of his bounties, and that ye may be thankful.
He causeth the night to enter in upon the day, and the day to enter in upon
the night; and He hath given laws to the sun and to the moon, so that each
journeyeth to its appointed goal: This is God your Lord: All power is His:
But the gods whom ye call on beside Him have no power over the husk of a date
If ye cry to them they will not hear your cry; and if they heard they would
not answer you, and in the day of resurrection they will disown your joining
them with God: and none can instruct thee like Him who is informed of all.
O men! ye are but paupers in need of God; but God is the Rich, the
If He please, He could sweep you away, and bring forth a new creation!
Nor will this be hard for God.
And the burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another: and if the heavy
laden soul cry out for its burden to be carried, yet shall not aught of it be
carried, even by the near of kin! Thou shalt warn those who fear their Lord
in secret, and observe prayer. And whoever shall keep himself pure, he
purifieth himself to his own behoof: for unto God shall be the final
And the blind and the seeing are not alike; neither darkness and light; nor
the shade and the hot wind;
Nor are the living and the dead the same thing! God indeed shall make whom He
will to hearken, but thou shalt not make those who are in their graves to
hearken; for only with warning art thou charged.
Verily we have sent thee with the truth; a bearer of good tidings and a
warner; nor hath there been a people unvisited by its warner.
And if they treat thee as a liar, so did those who were before them threat
their Apostles who came to them with the proofs of their mission, and with
the Scriptures and with the enlightening Book:3
Then chastised I the unbelievers: and how great was my vengeance!
Seest thou not how that God sendeth down water from the Heaven, and that by
it we cause the up-growth of fruits of varied hues, and that on the
mountains4 are tracks of varied hues, white and red, and others are of a
raven black? And of men and reptiles and animals, various likewise are the
hues. Such only of his servants as are possessed of knowledge fear God. Lo!
God is Mighty, Gracious!
Verily they who recite the Book of God, and observe prayer, and give alms in
public and in private from what we have bestowed upon them, may hope for a
merchandise that shall not perish:
God will certainly pay them their due wages, and of his bounty increase them:
for He is Gracious, Grateful.
And that which we have revealed to thee of the Book is the very Truth,
confirmatory of previous Scriptures: for God knoweth and beholdeth his
Moreover, we have made the Book an heritage to those of our servants whom we
have chosen. Some of them injure themselves by evil deeds; others keep the
midway between good and evil; and others, by the permission of God, outstrip
in goodness; this is the great merit!
Into the gardens of Eden shall they enter: with bracelets of gold and pearl
shall they be decked therein, and therein shall their raiment be of silk:
And they shall say, "Praise be to God who hath put away sorrow from us.
Verily our Lord is Gracious, Grateful,
Who of His bounty hath placed us in a manison that shall abide for ever:
therein no toil shall reach us, and therein no weariness shall touch us."
But for infidels is the fire of Hell; to die shall never be decreed them, nor
shall aught of its torment be made light to them. Thus reward we every
And therein shall they cry aloud, "Take us hence, O our Lord! righteousness
will we work, and not what we wrought of old."–"Prolonged we not your days
that whoever would be warned might be warned therein? And the preacher came
Taste it then."–There is no protector for the unjust.
God truly knoweth the hidden things both of the Heavens and of the Earth: for
He knoweth the very secrets of the breast.
He hath appointed you his vicegerents in the earth: And whoever believeth
not, on him shall be his unbelief; and their unbelief shall only increase for
the unbelievers, hatred at the hands of their Lord:–and their unbelief shall
only increase for the unbelievers their own perdition!
SAY: What think ye of the gods whom ye invoke beside God? Shew me what part
of the earth they have created? Had they a share in the creation of the
Heavens? Have we given them a Book in which they can find proofs that they
are to be called on? Nay, the wicked promise one another only deceits.
Verily God holdeth fast the Heavens and the Earth that they pass not away:
and if they were passing away none could hold them back but He: for He is
They swore by God with their mightiest oath that should a preacher come to
them they would yield to guidance more than any people: but when the preacher
came to them it only increased in them their estrangement,
Their haughtiness on earth and their plotting of evil! But the plotting of
evil shall only enmesh those who make use of it.5 Look they then for aught
but God's way6 of dealing with the peoples of old? Thou shalt not find any
change in the way of God,–
Yea, thou shalt not find any variableness in the way of God.
Have they never journeyed in the land and seen what hath been the end of
those who flourished before them, though mightier in strength than they? God
is not to be frustrated by aught in the Heavens or in the Earth; for He is
the All-knowing, the All-mighty.
If, moreover, God should chastise men according to their deserts, He would
not leave even a reptile on the back of the earth! But to an appointed time
doth He respite them.
And when their time shall come, then verily God's eye is on his servants.
1 See note at Sura [xcvii.] iii. 18. This is one of the passages said to have
originated with Zayd.
2 Not only seas, properly so called, but the great masses of fresh water in
the Nile, Tigris, inland lakes, etc. 3 The Gospel.
4 This idea was probably suggested by Muhammad's reminiscences of the view
from the Cave of Hira, to the north and west of which there is a prospect
thus described by Burckhardt (Travels, p. 176). "The country before us had a
dreary aspect, not a single green spot being visible; barren, black, and grey
hills, and white sandy valleys were the only objects in sight."
5 Lit. shall encompass its people.
6 Method of dealing, i.e., first warning, then punishing.
SURA VII.–AL ARAF [LXXXVII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
ELIF. LAM. MIM. SAD.1 A Book hath been sent down to thee: therefore let there
be no difficulty in thy breast concerning it: to the intent that thou mayest
warn thereby, and that it may be a monition to the faithful.
Follow ye what hath been sent down to you from your Lord; and follow no
masters beside Him. How little will ye be monished!
How many cities have we destroyed! By night, or while they were in their
midday slumber, did our wrath reach them!
And what was their cry when our wrath reached them, but to say, "Verily, we
have been impious."
Surely, therefore, will we call those to account, to whom an Apostle hath
been sent, and of the sent ones themselves will we certainly demand a
And with knowledge will we tell them of their deeds, for we were not absent
The weighing2 on that day, with justice! and they whose balances shall be
heavy, these are they who shall be happy.
And they whose balances shall be light, these are they who have lost their
souls, for that to our signs they were unjust:
And now have we stabilished you on the earth, and given you therein the
supports of life. How little do ye give thanks!
We created you; then fashioned you; then said we to the angels, "Prostrate
yourselves unto Adam: and they prostrated them all in worship, save Eblis: He
was not among those who prostrated themselves.
To him said God: "What hath hindered thee from prostrating thyself in worship
at my bidding?" He said, "Nobler am I than he: me hast thou created of fire;
of clay hast thou created him."
He said, "Get thee down hence: Paradise is no place for thy pride: Get thee
gone then; one of the despised shalt thou be."
He said, "Respite me till the day when mankind shall be raised from the
He said, "One of the respited shalt thou be."
He said, "Now, for that thou hast caused me to err, surely in thy straight
path will I lay wait for them:
Then will I surely come upon them from before, and from behind, and from
their right hand, and from their left, and thou shalt not find the greater
part of them to be thankful."
He said, "Go forth from it, a scorned, a banished one! Whoever of them shall
follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you, one and all.
And, O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise, and eat ye whence ye will,
but to this tree approach not, lest ye become of the unjust doers."
Then Satan whispered them to shew them their nakedness, which had been hidden
from them both. And he said, "This tree3 hath your Lord forbidden you, only
lest ye should become angels, or lest ye should become immortals."
And he sware to them both, "Verily I am unto you one who counselleth aright."
So he beguiled them by deceits: and when they had tasted of the tree, their
nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew together upon themselves
the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called to them, "Did I not forbid
you this tree, and did I not say to you, 'Verily, Satan is your declared
They said, "O our Lord! With ourselves have we dealt unjustly: if thou
forgive us not and have pity on us, we shall surely be of those who perish."
He said, "Get ye down, the one of you an enemy4 to the other; and on earth
shall be your dwelling, and your provision for a season."
He said, "On it shall ye live, and on it shall ye die, and from it shall ye
be taken forth."
O children of Adam! now have we sent down to you raiment to hide your
nakedness, and splendid garments; but the raiment of piety–this is best. This
is one of the signs of God, that man haply may reflect.
O children of Adam! let not Satan bring you into trouble, as he drove forth
your parents from the Garden, by despoiling them of their raiment, that he
might cause them to see their nakedness: He truly seeth you, he and his
comrades, whence ye see not them. Verily, we have made the Satans tutelars of
those who believe not.
And when the wicked commit some filthy deed, they say, "We found our fathers
practising it, and to us hath God commanded it"–SAY: God enjoineth not filthy
deeds. Will ye speak of God ye know not what?
SAY: My Lord hath enjoined what is right. Turn your faces therefore towards
every place where he is worshipped5 and call upon him with sincere religion.
As he created you, to him shall ye return: some hath he guided, and some hath
he justly left in error, because they have taken the Satans as their tutelars
beside God, and have deemed that they were guided aright.
O children of Adam! wear your goodly apparel when ye repair to any mosque,6
and eat ye and drink; but exceed not, for He loveth not those who exceed.
SAY: Who hath prohibited God's goodly raiment, and the healthful viands which
He hath provided for his servants? SAY: These are for the faithful in this
present life, but above all on the day of the resurrection. Thus make we our
signs plain for people of knowledge.
SAY: Truly my Lord hath forbidden filthy actions whether open or secret, and
iniquity, and unjust violence, and to associate with God that for which He
hath sent down no warranty, and to speak of God that ye know not.
Every nation hath its set time. And when their time is come, they shall not
retard it an hour; and they shall not advance it.
O children of Adam! there shall come to you Apostles from among yourselves,
rehearsing my signs to you; and whoso shall fear God and do good works, no
fear shall be upon them, neither shall they be put to grief.
But they who charge our signs with falsehood, and turn away from them in
their pride, shall be inmates of the fire: for ever shall they abide therein.
And who is worse than he who deviseth a lie of God, or treateth our signs as
lies? To them shall a portion here below be assigned in accordance with the
Book of our decrees, until the time when our messengers,7 as they receive
their souls, shall say, "Where are they on whom ye called beside God?" They
shall say: "Gone from us." And they shall witness against themselves that
they were infidels.
He shall say, "Enter ye into the Fire with the generations of Djinn and men
who have preceded you. So oft as a fresh generation entereth, it shall curse
its sister, until when they have all reached it, the last comers shall say to
the former, 'O our Lord! these are they who led us astray: assign them
therefore a double torment of the fire:"' He will say, "Ye shall all have
double." But of this are ye ignorant.
And the former of them shall say to the latter, "What advantage have ye over
us? Taste ye therefore the torment for that which ye have done."
Verily, they who have charged our signs with falsehood and have turned away
from them in their pride, Heaven's gates shall not be opened to them, nor
shall they enter Paradise, until the camel8 passeth through the eye of the
needle. After this sort will we recompense the transgressors.
They shall make their bed in Hell, and above them shall be coverings of fire!
After this sort will we recompense the evil doers.
But as to those who have believed and done the things which are right (we
will lay on no one a burden beyond his power) These shall be inmates of
Paradise: for ever shall they abide therein;
And we will remove whatever rancour was in their bosoms: rivers shall roll at
their feet: and they shall say, "Praise be to God who hath guided us hither!
We had not been guided had not God guided us! Of a surety the Apostles of our
Lord came to us with truth." And a voice shall cry to them, "This is
Paradise, of which, as the meed of your works, ye are made heirs."
And the inmates of Paradise shall cry to the inmates of the fire, "Now have
we found what our Lord promised us to be true. Have ye too found what your
Lord promised you to be true?" And they shall answer, "Yes." And a Herald
shall proclaim between them: "The curse of God be upon the evil doers,
Who turn men aside from the way of God, and seek to make it crooked, and who
believe not in the life to come!"
And between them shall be a partition; and on the wall AL ARAF9 shall be men
who will know all,10 by their tokens, and they shall cry to the inmates of
Paradise, "Peace be on you!" but they shall not yet enter it, although they
long to do so.
And when their eyes are turned towards the inmates of the Fire, they shall
say, "O our Lord! place us not with the offending people."
And they who are upon Al Araf shall cry to those whom they shall know by
their tokens, "Your amassings and your pride have availed you nothing.
Are these they on whom ye sware God would not bestow mercy? Enter ye11 into
Paradise! where no fear shall be upon you, neither shall ye be put to grief."
And the inmates of the fire shall cry to the inmates of Paradise: "Pour upon
us some water, or of the refreshments12 God hath given you?" They shall say,
"Truly God hath forbidden both to unbelievers,
Who made their religion a sport and pastime, and whom the life of the world
hath deceived." This day therefore will we forget them, as they forgot the
meeting of this their day, and as they did deny our signs.
And now have we brought them the Book: with knowledge have we explained it; a
guidance and a mercy to them that believe.
What have they to wait for now but its interpretation? When its
interpretation13 shall come, they who aforetime were oblivious of it shall
say, "The Prophets of our Lord did indeed bring the truth; shall we have any
intercessor to intercede for us? or could we not be sent back? Then would we
act otherwise than we have acted." But they have ruined themselves; and the
deities of their own devising have fled from them!
Your Lord is God, who in six days created the Heavens and the Earth, and then
mounted the throne: He throweth the veil of night over the day: it pursueth
it swiftly: and he created the sun and the moon and the stars, subjected to
laws by His behest: Is not all creation and its empire His? Blessed be God
the Lord of the Worlds!
Call upon your Lord with lowliness and in secret, for He loveth not
And commit not disorders on the earth after it hath been well ordered; and
call on Him with fear and longing desire: Verily the mercy of God is nigh
unto the righteous.
And He it is who sendeth forth the winds as the heralds of his compassion,14
until they bring up the laden clouds, which we drive along to some dead land
and send down water thereon, by which we cause an upgrowth of all kinds of
fruit.–Thus will we bring forth the dead. Haply ye will reflect.
In a rich soil, its plants spring forth abundantly by the will of its Lord,
and in that which is bad, they spring forth but scantily. Thus do We
diversify our signs for those who are thankful.
Of old sent We Noah to his people,15 and he said, "O my people! worship God.
Ye have no God but Him: indeed I fear for you the chastisement of the great
The chiefs of his people said, "We clearly see that thou art in a palpable
He said, "There is no error in me, O my people! but I am a messenger from the
Lord of the Worlds.
I bring to you the messages of my Lord, and I give you friendly counsel; for
I know from God what ye know not.
Marvel ye that a Warning should come to you from your Lord through one of
yourselves, that he may warn you, and that ye may fear for yourselves, and
that haply ye may find mercy?"
But they treated him as a liar: so we delivered him and those who were with
him in the ark, and we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood;
for they were a blind people.
And to Ad16 we sent their brother Houd.17 "O my people!" said he, "worship
God: ye have no other god than Him: Will ye not then fear Him?"
Said the unbelieving chiefs among his people, "We certainly perceive that
thou art unsound of mind; and we surely deem thee an impostor."
He said, "O my people! it is not unsoundness of mind in me, but I am an
Apostle from the Lord of the Worlds.
The messages of my Lord do I announce to you, and I am your faithful18
Marvel ye that a warning hath come to you from your Lord through one of
yourselves that He may warn you? Remember how he hath made you the successors
of the people of Noah, and increased you in tallness of stature. Remember
then the favours of God, that it may haply be well with you."
They said, "Art thou come to us in order that we may worship one God alone,
and leave what our fathers worshipped? Then bring that upon us with which
thou threatenest us, if thou be a man of truth."
He said, "Vengeance and wrath shall suddenly light on you from your Lord. Do
ye dispute with me about names that you and your fathers have given your
idols, and for which God hath sent you down no warranty? Wait ye then, and I
too will wait with you."
And we delivered him, and those who were on his side, by our mercy, and we
cut off, to the last man, those who had treated our signs as lies, and who
were not believers.
And to Themoud we sent their brother Saleh.19 He said, O my people! worship
God: ye have no other god than Him: now hath a clear proof of my mission come
to you from your Lord, this she-camel of God being a sign to you: therefore
let her go at large to pasture on God's earth: and touch her not to harm her,
lest a grievous chastisement seize you.
And remember how he hath made you successors to the Adites, and given you
dwellings on the earth, so that on its plains ye build castles, and hew out
houses in the hills. And bear in mind the benefits of God, and lay not the
earth waste with deeds of licence.
Said the chiefs of his people puffed up with pride, to those who were
esteemed weak, even to those of them who believed, "What! know ye for certain
that Saleh is sent by his Lord?" They said, "Truly we believe in that with
which he hath been sent."
Then said those proud men, "Verily, we reject that in which ye believe."
And they ham-strung the she-camel, and rebelled against their Lord's command,
and said, "O Saleh, let thy menaces be accomplished upon us if thou art one
of the Sent Ones."
Then the earthquake surprised them; and in the morning they were found dead
on their faces in their dwellings.
So he turned away from them, and said, "O my people! I did indeed announce to
you the message of my Lord: and I gave you faithful counsel, but ye love not
We also sent Lot, when he said to his people, commit ye this filthy deed in
which no creature hath gone before you?
Come ye to men, instead of women, lustfully? Ye are indeed a people given up
But the only answer of his people was to say, "Turn them out of your city,
for they are men who vaunt them pure."
And we delivered him and his family, except his wife; she was of those who
And we rained a rain upon them: and see what was the end of the wicked!
And we sent to Madian21 their brother Shoaib. He said, "O my people! worship
God; ye have no other God than Him: now hath a clear sign come to you from
your Lord: give therefore the full in measures and weights; take from no man
his chattels, and commit no disorder on the earth after it has been made so
good. This will be better for you, if you will believe it.
And lay not in ambush by every road in menacing sort; nor mislead him who
believeth in God, from His way, nor seek to make it crooked; and remember
when ye were few and that he multiplied you, and behold what hath been the
end of the authors of disorder!
And if a part of you believe in that with which I am sent, and a part of you
believe not, then wait steadfastly until God shall judge between us, for He
is the best of judges."
Said the chiefs of his people puffed up with pride, "We will surely banish
thee, O Shoaib, and thy fellow-believers from our cities, unless indeed ye
shall come back to our religion." "What!" said he, "though we abhor it?
Now shall we have devised a lie concerning God, if after he hath delivered us
from your religion we shall return to it; nor can we return to it, unless by
the will of God our Lord: our Lord embraceth all things in his ken. In God
have we put our trust: O our Lord! decide between us and between our people,
with truth; for the best to decide art Thou."
And the chiefs of his people who believed not, said, "If ye follow Shoaib, ye
shall then surely perish."
An earthquake therefore surprised them, and they were found in the morning
dead on their faces, in their dwellings.
Those who had treated Shoaib as an impostor, became as though they had never
dwelt in them: they who treated Shoaib as an impostor, were they that
So he turned away from them and said, O my people! I proclaimed to you the
messages of my Lord, and I counselled you aright; but how should I be grieved
for a people who do not believe?
Nor did we ever send a prophet to any city without afflicting its people with
adversity and trouble, that haply they might humble them.22
Then changed we their ill for good, until they waxed wealthy, and said, "Of
old did troubles and blessings befall our fathers:" therefore did we seize
upon them suddenly when they were unaware.
But if that the people of these cities had believed and feared us, we would
surely have laid open to them blessings out of the Heaven and the Earth: but
they treated our signs as lies, and we took vengeance on them for their
Were the people, therefore, of those cities secure that our wrath would not
light on them by night, while they were slumbering?
Were the people of those cities secure that our wrath would not light on them
in broad day, while they were disporting themselves?
Did they, therefore, deem themselves secure from the deep counsel23 of God?
But none deem themselves secure from the deep counsel of God, save those who
Is it not proved to those who inherit this land after its ancient occupants,
that if we please we can smite them for their sins, and put a seal upon their
hearts, that they hearken not?
We will tell thee the stories of these cities. Their apostles came to them
with clear proofs of their mission; but they would not believe in what they
had before treated as imposture.–Thus doth God seal up the hearts of the
And we found not of their covenant in most of them; but we found most of them
to be perverse.
Then after them we sent Moses with our signs to Pharaoh and his nobles, who
acted unjustly in their regard. But see what was the end of the corrupt
And Moses said, "O Pharaoh! verily I am an apostle from the Lord of the
Nothing but truth is it right for me to speak of God. Now am I come to you
from your Lord with a proof of my mission; send away, therefore, the children
of Israel with me." He said, "If thou comest with a sign, shew it if thou art
a man of truth."
So he threw down his rod, and lo! it distinctly became a serpent.
Then drew he forth his hand, and lo! it was white24 to the beholders.
The nobles of Pharaoh's people said, "Verily, this is an expert enchanter:
Fain would he expel you from your land: what then do ye order to be done?"
They said, "Put25 him and his brother off awhile, and send round men to your
cities who shall muster
And bring to thee every skilled enchanter."
And the enchanters came to Pharaoh. Said they, "Shall we surely be rewarded
if we prevail?"
He said, "Yes; and ye certainly shall be near my person."
They said, "O Moses! either cast thou down thy rod first, or we will cast
He said, "Cast ye down." And when they had cast them down they enchanted the
people's eyes, and made them afraid; for they had displayed a great
Then spake we unto Moses, "Throw down thy rod;" and lo! it devoured their
So the truth was made strong, and that which they had wrought proved vain:
And they were vanquished on the spot, and drew back humiliated.
But the other enchanters prostrated themselves adoring:
Said they, "We believe on the Lord of the Worlds,
The Lord of Moses and Aaron."
Said Pharaoh, "Have ye believed on him, ere I have given you leave? This
truly is a plot which ye have plotted in this my city, in order to drive out
its people. But ye shall see in the end what shall happen.
I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides; then will I have
you all crucified."
They said, "Verily, to our Lord do we return;
And thou takest vengeance on us only because we have believed on the signs of
our Lord when they came to us. Lord! pour out constancy upon us, and cause us
to die Muslims."
Then said the chiefs of Pharaoh's people–"Wilt thou let Moses and his people
go to spread disorders in our land, and desert thee and thy gods?" He said,
"We will cause their male children to be slain and preserve their females
alive: and verily we shall be masters over them."
Said Moses to his people, "Cry unto God for help, and bear up patiently, for
the earth is God's: to such of His servants as He pleaseth doth He give it as
a heritage; and for those that fear Him is a happy issue."
"We have been oppressed," they said, "before thou camest to us, and since
thou hast been with us:" "Perhaps," said he, "your Lord will destroy your
enemy, and will make you his successors in the land, and He will see how ye
will act therein."
Already had we chastised the people of Pharaoh with dearth and scarcity of
fruits, that haply they might take warning:
And when good fell to their lot they said, "This is our due." But if ill
befel them, they regarded Moses and his partisans as (the birds) of evil
omen.26 Yet, was not their evil omen from God? But most of them knew it not.
And they said, "Whatever sign thou bring us for our enchantment, we will not
believe on thee."
And we sent upon them the flood and the locusts and the kummal (lice) and the
frogs and the blood,–clear signs27–but they behaved proudly, and were a
And when any plague fell upon them, they said, "O Moses! pray for us to thy
Lord, according to that which he hath covenanted with thee: Truly if thou
take off the plague from us, we will surely believe thee, and will surely
send the children of Israel with thee." But when we had taken off the plague
from them, and the time which God had granted them had expired,28 behold!
they broke their promise.
Therefore we took vengeance on them and drowned them in the sea, because they
treated our signs as falsehoods and were heedless of them.
And we gave to the people who had been brought so low, the eastern and the
western lands, which we had blessed as an heritage: and the good word of thy
Lord was fulfilled on the children of Israel because they had borne up with
patience: and we destroyed the works and the structures of Pharaoh and his
And we brought the children of Israel across the sea, and they came to a
people who gave themselves up to their idols. They said, "O Moses! make us a
god, as they have gods." He said, "Verily, ye are an ignorant people:
For the worship they practise29 will be destroyed, and that which they do, is
He said, "Shall I seek any other god for you than God, when it is He who hath
preferred you above all other peoples?"
And remember when we rescued you from the people of Pharaoh they had laid on
you a cruel affliction; they slew your sons, and let only your daughters
live, and in this was a great trial from your Lord.
And we appointed a meeting with Moses for thirty nights, which we completed
with ten other nights, so that his whole time with his Lord30 amounted to
forty nights. Then said Moses to his brother Aaron, "Take thou my place among
my people, and act rightly, and follow not the way of the corrupt doers."
And when Moses came at our set time and his Lord spake with him, he said, "O
Lord, shew thyself to me, that I may look upon thee." He said, "Thou shalt
not see Me; but look towards the mount, and if it abide firm in its place,
then shalt thou see Me." And when God manifested Himself to the mountain he
turned it to dust! and Moses fell in a swoon.
And when he came to himself, he said, "Glory be to thee! To thee do I turn in
penitence, and I am the first of them that believe."
He said, "O Moses! thee above all men have I chosen by my commissions, and by
my speaking to thee. Take therefore what I have brought thee, and be one of
those who render thanks.
And we wrote for him upon the tables a monition concerning every matter, and
said, "Receive them thyself with steadfastness, and command thy people to
receive them for the observance of its most goodly precepts:–I will shew you
the abode of the wicked."
The unjustly proud ones of the earth will I turn aside from my signs, for
even if they see every sign they will not believe them; and if they see the
path of uprightness, they will not take it for their path, but if they see
the path of error, for their path will they take it.
This,–for that they treated our signs as lies, and were heedless of them.
Vain will be the works of those who treated our signs, and the meeting of the
life to come, as lies! Shall they be rewarded but as they have wrought?
And the people of Moses took during his absence a calf made of their
ornaments, and ruddy like gold, and lowing.31 Saw they not that it could not
speak to them, nor guide them in the way?
Yet they took if for a God and became offenders!
But when they repented, and saw that they had erred, they said, Truly if our
Lord have not mercy on us, and forgive us, we shall surely be of those who
And when Moses returned to his people, wrathful, angered, he said, "Evil is
it that ye have done next upon my departure. Would ye hasten on the judgments
of your Lord?" And he threw down the tables, and seized his brother by the
head and dragged him unto him. Said he, "Son of my mother! the people thought
me weak, and had well nigh slain me. Make not mine enemies to rejoice over
me, and place me not among the wrong doers."
He said, "O Lord, forgive me and my brother, and bring us into thy mercy; for
of those who shew mercy thou art the most merciful."
Verily as to those who took the calf as a god, wrath from their Lord shall
overtake them, and shame in this present life: for thus recompense we the
devisers of a lie.
But to those who have done evil, then afterwards repent and believe, thy Lord
will thereafter be Lenient, Merciful.
And when the anger of Moses was stilled, he took up the tables; and in their
writing was guidance and mercy for those who dread their Lord.
And Moses chose seventy men of his people for a meeting appointed by us. And
when the earthquake overtook them, he said, "O my Lord! if it had been thy
pleasure, thou hadst destroyed them and me ere this! wilt thou destroy us for
what our foolish ones have done? It is nought but thy trial: thou wilt
mislead by it whom thou wilt, and guide whom thou wilt. Our guardian, thou!
Forgive us then and have mercy on us; for of those who forgive art thou the
And write down for us what is good in this world, as well as in the world to
come, for to thee are we guided." He said, "My chastisement shall fall on
whom I will, and my mercy embraceth all things, and I write it down for those
who shall fear me, and pay the alms, and believe in our signs,
Who shall follow the Apostle, the unlettered32 Prophet–whom they shall find
described with them in the Law and Evangel. What is right will he enjoin
them, and forbid them what is wrong, and will allow them healthful viands and
prohibit the impure, and will ease them of their burden, and of the yokes
which were upon them; and those who shall believe in him, and strengthen him,
and help him,33 and follow the light34 which hath been sent down with him,–
these are they with whom it shall be well."
SAY to them: O men! Verily I am God's apostle to you all;
Whose is the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth! Therefore believe on
God but He! He maketh alive and killeth! Therefore believe on God, and his
Apostle–the unlettered Prophet–who believeth in God and his word. And follow
him that ye may be guided aright.
And among the people of Moses there is a certain number35 who guide others
with truth, and practise what is right according to it.
And we divided the Israelites into twelve tribes, as nations; and we revealed
unto Moses when the people asked drink of him–"Strike the rock with thy
staff:" and there gushed forth from it twelve fountains–the men all knew
their drinking places. And we caused clouds to overshadow them, and sent down
upon them the manna and the quails. . . . "Eat of the good things with which
we have supplied you." But it was not us whom they injured, but they injured
their own selves:
And when it was said to them, "Dwell in this city, and eat therefrom what ye
will, and say 'Hittat' (forgiveness), and enter the gate with prostrations;
then will we pardon your offences,–we will give increase to the doers of
But the ungodly ones among them changed that word into another than that
which had been told them:36 therefore sent we forth wrath out of Heaven upon
them for their wrong doings.
And37 ask them about the city that stood by the sea, when its inhabitants
broke the Sabbath; when their fish came to them on their Sabbath day
appearing openly, but came not to them on the day when they kept no Sabbath.
Thus did we make trial of them, for that they were evildoers.38
And when some of them said, why warn ye those whom God would destroy or
chastise with terrible chastisement? they said, For our own excuse with your
Lord; and that they may fear Him.
And when they forgot their warnings, we delivered those who had forbidden
evil; and we inflicted a severe chastisement on those who had done wrong, for
that they were evil doers.
But when they proudly persisted in that which was forbidden, we said to them,
"Become scouted apes;" and then thy Lord declared that until the day of the
resurrection, he would surely send against them39 (the Jews) those who should
evil entreat and chastise them: for prompt is thy Lord to punish; and He is
And we have divided them upon the Earth as peoples: some of them are upright
and some are otherwise; and by good things and by evil things have we proved
them, to the intent that they might return to us.
And they have had successors to succeed them: they have inherited the Book:
they have received the passing good things of this lower world,40 and say,
"It will be forgiven us." Yet if the like good things came to them again,
they would again receive them. But hath there not been received on their part
a covenant through the Scripture that they should speak nought of God but the
truth? And yet they study its contents. But the mansion of the next world
hath more value for those who fear God–Do ye not then comprehend?–
And who hold fast the Book, and observe prayer: verily, we will not suffer
the reward of the righteous to perish.
And when we shook the mount41 over them as if it had been a shadow, and they
thought it falling upon them, . . . "Receive, said we, with steadfastness
what we have brought you, and remember what is therein to the end that ye may
And when thy Lord brought forth their descendants from the reins of the sons
of Adam and took them to witness against themselves, "Am I not," said He,
"your Lord?" They said, "Yes, we witness it." This we did, lest ye should say
on the day of Resurrection, "Truly, of this were we heedless, because
Or lest ye should say, "Our fathers, indeed, aforetime joined other gods with
our God, and we are their seed after them: wilt thou destroy us for the
doings of vain men?"
Thus make we our signs clear: that haply they may return to God.
Recite to them42 the history of him43 to whom we vouchsafed our signs, and
who departed from them, so that Satan followed him, and he became one of the
Had we pleased, we had certainly thereby exalted him; but he crouched to the
earth and followed his own lust: his likeness, therefore, is as that of the
dog which lolls out his tongue, whether thou chase him away, or leave him
alone! Such is the likeness of those who treat our signs as lies. Tell them
this tale then, that they may consider.
Evil the likeness of those who treat our signs as lies! and it is themselves
He whom God guideth is the guided, and they whom he misleadeth shall be the
Many, moreover, of the Djinn and men have we created for Hell. Hearts have
they with which they understand not, and eyes have they with which they see
not, and ears have they with which they hearken not. They are like the
brutes: Yea, they go more astray: these are the heedless.
Most excellent titles hath God:44 by these call ye on Him, and stand aloof
from those who pervert45 his titles. For what they have done shall they be
And among those whom we have created are a people who guide others with
truth, and in accordance therewith act justly.
But as for those who treat our signs as lies, we will gradually bring them
down by means of which they know not:
And though I lengthen their days, verily, my stratagem shall prove effectual.
Will they not bethink them that their companion Muhammad is not djinn-
possessed? Yes, his office is only that of plain warner.
Will they not look forth on the realms of the Heaven and of the Earth, and on
all things which God hath made, to see whether haply their end be not drawing
on? And in what other book will they believe46 who reject the Koran?
No other guide for him whom God shall mislead! He will leave them distraught
in their wanderings.
They will ask thee of the Hour–for what time is its coming fixed? SAY: The
knowledge of it is only with my Lord: none shall manifest it in its time but
He: it is the burden47 of the Heavens and of the Earth: not otherwise than on
a sudden will it come on you.48
They will ask thee as if thou wast privy to it: SAY: The knowledge of it is
with none but God. But most men know not this.
SAY: I have no control over what may be helpful or hurtful to me, but as God
willeth. Had I the knowledge of his secrets, I should revel in the good, and
evil should not touch me. But I am only a warner, and an announcer of good
tidings to those who believe.
He it is who hath created you from a single person, and from him brought
forth his wife that he might dwell with her: and when he had known her, she
bore a light burden, and went about with it; and when it became heavy, they
both cried to God their Lord, "If thou give us a perfect child we will surely
be of the thankful."
Yet when God had given them a perfect child,49 they50 joined partners with
Him in return for what he had given them. But high is God above the partners
they joined with Him!
What! Will they join those with Him who cannot create anything, and are
themselves created, and have no power to help them, or to help themselves?
And if ye summon them to "the guidance," they will not follow you! It is the
same to them whether ye summon them or whether ye hold your peace!
Truly they whom ye call on beside God, are, like yourselves, His servants!
Call on them then, and let them answer you, if what ye say of them be true!
Have they feet to walk with? Have they hands to hold with? Have they eyes to
see with? Have they ears to hear with? SAY: Call on these joint gods of
yours; then make your plot against me, and delay it not.
Verily, my Lord is God, who hath sent down "the Book;" and He is the
protector of the righteous.
But they whom ye call on beside Him, can lend you no help, nor can they help
And if ye summon them to "the guidance," they hear you not: thou seest them
look towards thee, but they do not see!
Make the best of things;51 and enjoin what is just, and withdraw from the
And if stirrings to evil from Satan stir thee, fly thou for refuge to God: He
verily heareth, knoweth!
Verily, they who fear God, when some phantom from Satan toucheth them,
remember Him, and lo! they see clearly.
Their Brethren52 will only continue them in error, and cannot preserve
themselves from it.
And when thou bringest not a verse (sign) of the Koran to them, they say,
"Hast thou not yet patched it up?53 SAY: I only follow my Lord's utterances
to me. This is a clear proof on the part of your Lord, and a guidance and a
mercy for those who believe.
And when the Koran is read, then listen ye to it and keep silence, that haply
ye may obtain mercy.
And think within thine own self on God, with lowliness and with fear and
without loud spoken words, at even and at morn; and be not one of the
Verily they who are round about thy Lord disdain not His service. They praise
Him and prostrate themselves before Him.
1 The initial letters, it has been conjectured, of (Amara li Muhammad
sahdiq), thus spake to me Muhammad the truthful. But see Sura 1xviii. p. 32.
The first part of this Sura was perhaps revealed when the Arabians were
assembled at the Pilgrimage. See verse 29.
2 A figure of frequent occurence in the Talmud. See Tr. Rosh. Haschana, 17a.
3 Comp. Sura xx. 118, p. 101.
4 Gen. iii. 15.
5 Lit. towards each Mosque, i.e. towards the kibla of each Mosque. The word
mosque, mesjid, however, is usually applied only to that of Mecca. The common
term in use for larger places of worship is djami, a word unknown, in that
sense, to the Koran.
6 For full information as to the clothing of the ancient Arabians see Freyt.
Einl. pp. 295 327. The Koreisch (we are told in Sirat Arrasul, fol. 26, and
Beidh.), in order to instil a deep respect for the Caaba and other holy
places into the minds of the Arabians, had forbidden all food during the
processions, and required that no clothes, except those borrowed from
Meccans, should be worn, or that those who wore their own should devote them
to God as holy vestments. The consequence was that most of the pilgrims
visited the holy places in perfect nudity. Hence the precept in the text.
7 The Angels of Death.
8 Comp. Matth. xix. 24; Mark x. 25; Luke xviii. 25. By the change of a single
vowel in the Arabic word for camel, we obtain the rendering, cable. In the
Rabbinic form of the proverb, however, the elephant is substituted for the
camel, which confirms the usual rendering and reading.
9 "On this wall (the name of which is derived from Arafa, 'to know,' with
allusion to the employment of those upon it) will stand those whose good and
evil works are equal, and are not, therefore, deserving of either Paradise or
Gehenna. The idea, which is analogous to that of Purgatory, may be derived
from the Talmud. Thus in the Midrasch on Eccl. vii. 14, 'How much space is
there between the two' (Paradise and Hell)? R. Jochanan saith, a wall; R.
Acha, a span: others hold them to be so close that a person may see from one
into the other." See Plato's Phaed. 62.
10 That is, they will know the inmates of Paradise by their whiteness, and
the people of Hell by the blackness of their faces.
11 That is, ye believers: to whom the speakers on Al Araf are supposed to
12 The fruits of Paradise. Comp. Luke xvi. 19.
13 The fulfilment of its promises and threats.
14 The rain. Thus, the Rabbins call the rain "the might and power of God,"
Comp. Tract Tanith, fol. I, and connect it with the Resurrection, Tract
Berachoth, fol. 33.
15 The Rabbins in like manner describe the mission of Noah. Comp. Sanhedr.
108. Midr. Rabbah on Gen. par. 30, 33; and on Eccl. 9, 14. See Sura [lxxv.]
16 The two tribes of Ad and Themoud–the latter of whom is mentioned by Diod.
Sic. and Ptolemy–lay to the north of Mecca in the direct line of traffic
between the countries to the north and to the south, and both probably
disappeared with its cessation, when the Arabs were no longer held in check
by the Romans. The traditions adopted by Muhammad attribute this to the
divine vengeance, throughout the Koran, and were derived by him from the
popular legends of Arabia. See Freyt. Einl. p. 12.
17 On Houd, see Geiger, pp. 113 119. He supposes him to be the Eber of the
Bible. But Mr. Muir suggests that both Houd and Saleh may have been
persecuted Jewish or Christian emissaries and teachers, whose rejection was
thus recast by Muhammad. See note on verse 71.
18 Or, entrusted, i.e. with the office of apostle.
19 Saleh–according to Bochart, the Peleg of Gen. xi. 16. D'Herbelot, B. O.
740, makes him the Schelah of Gen. xi. 13. See v. 63, n. and p. 220, n.
20 It is just possible that the act of Koleib, chief of the Banu Taghlib
tribe, in killing the milch camel of Basûs, a female relative of his wife of
Bani-Bakr lineage–which led to a forty years' war between these two tribes,
A.D. 490–may have been worked up by Muhammad into this account of the
persecutions of Saleh.
21 See Sura xxiv. 176, p. 109.
22 This verse may contain an implied reference to the famine with which Mecca
had been visited, and fix the date of this part of the Sura. Comp. verse 127.
23 Lit. plot, stratagem.
24 Comp. the passage from Pirke R. Eliezer, c. 48, who makes Moses perform
this miracle in the presence of Pharaoh, which the Scripture (Ex. vii.)
account does not. The Muhammadan tradition is that Moses was a black.
25 Lit. cause him to hope, temporise with him.
26 Lit. male ominati sunt. Mar. They traced their calamities to Moses. So
Sale. Kas. But Ullmann. renders, they attributed their misfortunes to the
predictions of Moses.
27 In Suras [lxvii.] xvii. and [lxviii.] Muhammad speaks of nine plagues. The
flood is not mentioned in the Scripture.
28 Lit. when we removed from them the plague until a period at which they
29 Lit. that in which these are.
30 Lit. the set time of his Lord was fulfilled in forty nights.
31 Sale and others render having a body, corporeal, of which the commentators
give no satisfactory explanation. I have adopted that given by Freytag in v.
That the calf lowed in consequence of Sama‰l having entered into it, is one
of the traditions of the Talmud. Pirke R. Eliezer, c. 45.
32 Compare Sura [lxxxi.] xxix. 47, [xciv.] lxxii. 2, [xci.] ii. 73. The word
ummyy is derived from ummah, a nation, and means Gentile; it here refers to
Muhammad's ignorance, previous to the revelation of Islam, of the ancient
Scriptures. It is equivalent to the Gr. laic, ethnic, and to the term gojim,
as applied by the Jews to those unacquainted with the Scriptures. There can,
however, be no doubt that Muhammad–in spite of his assertions to the
contrary, with the view of proving his inspiration–was well acquainted with
the Bible histories. He wished to appear ignorant in order to raise the
elegance of the Koran into a miracle. For the passages of Scripture said to
foretel Muhammad, see Pocock's Sp. Hist. Ar. p. 188, ed. White.
33 If these words, as Nöldeke supposes, contain an allusion to the Ansars, it
is likely that this verse was added at Medina. The epithet Al-Ummy (the
unlettered) does not, thus, occur in Meccan Suras.
34 The Koran.
35 Pirke R. Eliezer, 45, explains Ex. xxxii. 26, of the tribe of Levi, as not
having been implicated with the other tribes in the sin of the golden calf.
36 The Jews changed hittat, absolution, indulgence, into habbat, corn.
37 This and the next six verses are supposed to have been added at Medina.
38 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 61. No trace of this legend is to be found in the
Talmudists. The city is said to have been Aila (Elath) on the Red Sea.
39 Perhaps in allusion to Deut. xxviii. 49, 50.
40 As bribes to pervert Scripture, etc.
41 Sinai–which, however, is not mentioned in the Koran as the place where the
law was given. Comp. "I will cover you with the mountain like a roof." Abodah
Sar. 2, 2. Thus also in Tract Sabbath, f. 88, 1, "R. Avdimi . . . saith,
These words teach us that the Holy One, blessed be He, turned the mountain
over them like a vessel, and said to them, If ye will receive the law, well;
but if not, there shall be your grave." This tradition is still held by the
Jews. See D. Lewis Pent. Prayers, fol. 150. Its origin is a misunderstanding
of Ex. xix. 17, rightly rendered in the E. version at the nether part of the
42 To the Jews.
43 Balaam. But according to others, a Jew who renounced his faith in
44 The 99 titles of God, taken from the Koran, are to be found in Maracci,
vol. 11, p. 414, or in Macbride's Religion of the Mohammedans, p. 121. To
facilitate the repetition of these names, the Muslims use a rosary.
45 In altering the names of God, changing allah into Allat, Elaziz into
Alozza, Mennan into Menat, etc.
46 Lit. and in what declaration after it will they believe?
47 That is, it weighs heavily on the hopes and fears of men, djinn, and
48 Probably the usual final clause, whence ye looked not for it, should here
be added to make good the rhyme, which is otherwise interrupted in the
49 Some render salihan, well made, rightly shaped; others, virtuous, morally
50 And their idolatrous posterity. Beidh.
51 Take or use indulgence; i.e. take men and their actions as they are, and
make all due allowances. Some understand it, of Muhammad's accepting such
voluntary and superfluous alms as the people could spare.
52 That is, those under Satanic influence.
53 Collected or sought it out. Beidh.
SURA XLVI.–AL AHKAF [LXXXVIII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
HA. MIM.1 The Revelation (sending down) of this Book is from the Mighty, the
We have not created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them
otherwise than in truth and for a settled term. But they who believe not,
turn away from their warning.
SAY: What think ye? As for those whom ye invoke beside God, shew me what part
of the earth it is which they have created? Had they a share in the Heavens?
Bring me a Book sent down by them before this Koran, or traces of their
knowledge;2–if ye are men of truth.
And who erreth more than he who, beside God, calleth upon that which shall
not answer him until the day of Resurrection? Yes, they regard not their
And when mankind shall be assembled together, they will become their enemies,
and ungratefully disown their worship.
And when our clear signs are recited to them, they who believe not say of the
truth when it cometh to them, "This is plain sorcery."
Will they say, "He hath devised It?" SAY: If I have devised the Koran, then
not one single thing shall ye ever obtain for me from God! He best knoweth
what ye utter in its regard! Witness enough is He between me and you! And He
is the Gracious, the Merciful.
SAY: I am no apostle of new doctrines: neither know I what will be done with
me or you. Only what is revealed to me do I follow, and I am only charged to
SAY: What think ye? If this Book be from God, and ye believe it not, and a
witness of the children of Israel3 witness to its conformity with the Law,
and believe, while ye proudly disdain it . . . ? Ah! God guideth not the
people guilty of such a wrong!
But the infidels say of the believers, "If it were a good Book they would not
have been before us in believing it:"4 And not having submitted to guidance,
they proceed to say, "It is an old lying legend!"
But before the Koran was the Book of Moses, a rule and a mercy; and this Book
confirmeth it (the Pentateuch)–in the Arabic tongue–that those who are guilty
of that wrong may be warned, and as glad tidings to the doers of good.
Assuredly they who say, "Our Lord is God," and take the straight way to Him–
no fear shall come on them, neither shall they be put to grief:
These shall be the inmates of Paradise to remain therein for ever,–the
recompense of their deeds!
Moreover, we have enjoined on man to shew kindness to his parents. With pain
his mother beareth him; with pain she bringeth him forth: and his bearing and
his weaning is thirty months; until when he attaineth his strength, and
attaineth to forty years,5 he saith, "O my Lord! stir me up to be grateful
for thy favours wherewith thou hast favoured me and my parents, and to do
good works which shall please thee: and prosper me in my offspring: for to
thee am I turned, and am resigned to thy will" (am a Muslim).
These are they from whom we will accept their best works, and whose evil
works we will pass by; among the inmates shall they be of Paradise:–a true
promise which they are promised.
But he who saith to his parents, "Fie on you both! Promise ye me that I shall
be taken forth from the grave alive, when whole generations have already
passed away before me?" But they both will implore the help of God, and say,
"Alas for thee! Believe: for the promise of God is true." But he saith, "It
is no more than a fable of the ancients."
These are they in whom the sentence passed on the nations, djinn and men, who
flourished before them, is made good. They shall surely perish.6
And there are grades for all, according to their works, that God may repay
them for their works; and they shall not be dealt with unfairly.
And they who believe not shall one day be set before the fire. "Ye made away
your precious gifts during your life on earth; and ye took your fill of
pleasure in them: This day, therefore, with punishment of shame shall ye be
rewarded, for that ye behaved you proudly and unjustly on the earth, and for
that ye were given to excesses."
Remember, too, the brother of Ad7 when he warned his people in AL AHKAF8–and
before and since his time there have been warners–"Worship none but God:
verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day."
They said, "Art thou come to us to turn us away from our Gods? Bring on us
now the woes which thou threatenest if thou speakest truth."
"That knowledge," said he, "is with God alone: I only proclaim to you the
message with which I am sent. But I perceive that ye are a people sunk in
So when they saw a cloud coming straight for their valleys, they said, "It is
a passing cloud that shall give us rain." "Nay, it is that whose speedy
coming ye challenged a blast wherein is an afflictive punishment:–
It will destroy everything at the bidding of its Lord!" And at morn nought
was to be seen but their empty dwellings! Thus repay we a wicked people.
With power had we endued them, even as with power have we endued you; and we
had given them ears and eyes and hearts: yet neither their eyes, nor their
ears, nor their hearts aided them at all, when once they gainsaid the signs
of God; but that punishment which they had mocked at enveloped them on all
Of old, too, did we destroy the cities which were round about you; and, in
order that they might return to us, we varied our signs before them.
But did those whom they took for gods beside God as his kindred deities, help
them?9 Nay, they withdrew from them. Such was their delusion, and their
And remember when we turned aside a company of the djinn to thee, that they
might hearken to the Koran: and no sooner were they present at its reading
than they said to each other, "Hist;" and when it was ended, they returned to
their people with warnings.
They said, "O our people! verily we have been listening to a book sent down
since the days of Moses, affirming the previous scriptures; it guideth to the
truth, and to the right way.
O our people! Obey the Summoner of God, and believe in him, that He may
forgive your sins, and rescue you from an afflictive punishment.
And he who shall not respond to God's preacher, yet cannot weaken God's power
on earth, nor shall he have protectors beside Him. These are in obvious
See they not that God who created the Heavens and the Earth, and was not
wearied with their creation, is of power to quicken the dead? Yea, he is for
all things Potent.
And a day is coming when the infidels shall be set before the fire. "Is not
this it in truth?" They shall say, "Aye, by our Lord." He said, "Taste then
the punishment for that ye would not believe."
Bear thou up, then, with patience, as did the Apostles endued with firmness,
and seek not to accelerate their doom. For, on the day when they shall see
that with which they have been menaced,
It shall be as though they had waited but an hour of the day. Enough! shall
any perish save they who transgress?
1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32.
2 Of a divine revelation, authorising the worship of other gods than God
3 Abdallah bin Salma, say the commentators.
4 Comp. John vii. 48.
5 Thus Mischn. Aboth, v. 21, "at forty years of age a man comes to
intelligence." This verse refers, it is said by the Sonnites, to Abu Bekr,
afterwards Chalif, who embraced Islam in his 40th year. But this
interpretation was probably invented after his accession to power.
6 Lit. suffer loss.
7 The Prophet Houd.
8 That is, Sandhills; at Taief, to which Muhammad had retired in consequence
of the opposition, etc., of the Meccans. Verses 20-31 are probably misplaced,
as they interrupt the connection between 19 and 32, but appear to belong to
the same period as the rest of the Sura.
9 Thus Ullm. als naheverwandte Götter. But Wahl, denen sie sich mit
gottesdienstlichen Opfer näherten. Ad appropinquandum (magis ipsi Deo), by
intercession. Mar. Beidh.
SURA VI.–CATTLE [LXXXIX.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
PRAISE be to God, who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, and ordained
the darkness and the light! Yet unto their Lord do the infidels give peers!
He it is who created you of clay then decreed the term of your life: and with
Him is another prefixed term for the resurrection. Yet have ye doubts
And He is God in the Heavens and on the Earth! He knoweth your secrets and
your disclosures! and He knoweth what ye deserve.
Never did one single sign from among the signs of their Lord come to them,
but they turned away from it;
And now, after it hath reached them, have they treated the truth itself as a
lie. But in the end, a message as to that which they have mocked, shall reach
See they not how many generations we have destroyed before them? We had
settled them on the earth as we have not settled you, and we sent down the
very heavens upon them in copious rains, and we made the rivers to flow
beneath their feet: yet we destroyed them in their sins, and raised up other
generations to succeed them.
And had we sent down to thee a Book written on parchment, and they had
touched it with their hands, the infidels had surely said, "This is nought
but plain sorcery."
They say, too, "Unless an angel be sent down to him. . . ." But if we had
sent down an angel, their judgment would have come on them at once,1 and they
would have had no respite:
And if we had appointed an angel, we should certainly have appointed one in
the form of a man, and we should have clothed him before them in garments
like their own.2
Moreover, apostles before thee have been laughed to scorn: but that which
they laughed to scorn encompassed the mockers among them!
SAY: Go through the land: then see what hath been the end of those who
treated them as liars.
SAY: Whose is all that is in the Heavens and the Earth?
SAY: God's. He had imposed mercy on Himself as a law. He will surely assemble
you on the Resurrection day; there is no doubt of it. They who are the
authors of their own ruin, are they who will not believe.
His, whatsoever hath its dwelling in the night and in the day! and He, the
Hearing, the Knowing!
SAY: Other than God shall I take as Lord, maker of the Heavens and of the
Earth, who nourisheth all, and of none is nourished? SAY: Verily, I am bidden
to be the first of those who surrender them to God (profess Islam): and, be
not thou of those who join gods with God.
SAY: Verily, I fear, should I rebel against my Lord, the punishment of the
From whomsoever it shall be averted on that day, He will have had mercy on
him: and this will be the manifest bliss.
If God touch thee with trouble, none can take it off but He: and if He visit
thee with good–it is He whose power is over all things;
And He is the Supreme over his servants; and He is the Wise, the Cognisant!
SAY: What thing is weightiest in bearing witness? SAY: God is witness between
me and you; and this Koran hath been revealed to me that I should warn you by
it, and all whom it shall reach. What! will ye really bear witness that there
are other gods with God? SAY: I bear no such witness. SAY: Verily, He is one
God, and truly am guiltless of what ye join with Him.
They to whom we have given the Book, recognise him (Muhammad) as they do
their own children:3 but they who are the authors of their own perdition are
they who will not believe.
And who more wicked than he who inventeth a lie concerning God, or who
treateth our signs as lies? Verily those wicked ones shall not prosper.4
And on "the Day" we will gather them all together: then will we say to those
who joined gods with God, "Where are those companion-gods of yours, as ye
Then shall they find no other excuse than to say, "By God our Lord! we joined
not companions with Him."
Behold! how they lie against themselves–and the gods of their own inventing
Some among them hearken unto thee: but we have cast veils over their hearts
that they should not understand the Koran, and a weight into their ears: and
though they should see all kinds of signs, they will refuse all faith in
them, until when they come to thee, to dispute with thee, the infidels say,
"Verily, this is nothing but fables of the ancients."
And they will forbid it, and depart from it:–but they are only the authors of
their own perdition, and know it not.
If thou couldst see when they shall be set over the fire, and shall say, "Oh!
would we might be sent back! we would not treat the signs of our Lord as
lies! we would be of the believers."
Aye! that hath become clear5 to them which they before concealed; but though
they should return, they would surely go back to that which was forbidden
them; for they are surely liars!
And they say, "There is no other than our life in this world, neither shall
we be raised again."
But if thou couldest see when they shall be set before their Lord! He shall
say to them, "Is not this it6 in truth?" They shall say, "Yea, by our Lord!"
"Taste then," saith He, "the torment, for that ye believed not!"
Lost are they who deny the meeting with God until "the Hour" cometh suddenly
upon them! Then will they say, "Oh, our sighs for past negligence of this
hour!" and they shall bear their burdens on their back! Will not that be evil
with which they shall be burdened?
The life in this world is but a play and pastime; and better surely for men
of godly fear will be the future mansion! Will ye not then comprehend?
Now know we that what they speak vexeth thee:7 But it is not merely thee whom
they charge with falsehood, but the ungodly gainsay the signs of God.
Before thee have apostles already been charged with falsehood: but they bore
the charge and the wrong with constancy, till our help came to them;–for none
can change the words of God. But this history of His Sent Ones hath already
But if their estrangement be grievous to thee, and if thou art able to seek
out an opening into the earth or a ladder into Heaven,8 that thou mightest
bring them a sign. . . . Yes! But if God pleased, He would surely bring
them, one and all, to the guidance! therefore be not thou one of the
To those only who shall lend an ear will He make answer: as for the dead, God
will raise them up; then unto Him shall they return.
They say, "Unless a sign be sent down to him from his Lord. . . ." SAY:
Verily, God is able to send down a sign; but the greater part of them know it
No kind of beast is there on earth nor fowl that flieth with its wings, but
is a folk9 like you: nothing have we passed over in the Book:10 then unto
their Lord shall they be gathered.
They who gainsay our signs are deaf, and dumb, in darkness: God will mislead
whom He pleaseth, and whom He pleaseth He will place upon the straight path.
SAY: What think ye? If the punishment of God were to come upon you, or "the
Hour" were to come upon you, will ye cry to any other than God? Tell me, if
ye speak the truth?
Yes! to Him will ye cry: and if He please He will deliver you from that ye
shall cry to Him to avert, and ye shall forget the partners ye joined with
Already have we sent apostles to nations that were before thee, and we laid
hold on them with troubles and with straits in order that they might humble
Yet, when our trouble came upon them, they did not humble themselves; but
their hearts were hardened, and Satan pre-arranged for them11 their course of
And when they had forgotten their warnings, we set open to them the gates of
all things, until, as they were rejoicing in our gifts, we suddenly laid hold
upon them, and lo! they were plunged into despair,
And the uttermost part of that impious people was cut off. All praise be to
God, the Lord of the Worlds!
SAY: What think ye? If God should take away your hearing and your sight and
set a seal upon your hearts, what god beside God would restore them to you?
See! how we vary our wondrous verses (signs)! yet they turn away from them!
SAY: What think ye? If the punishment of God come on you suddenly or
foreseen,12 shall any perish except the impious?
We send not our Sent Ones but as heralds of good news and warners; and whoso
shall believe and amend, on them shall come no fear, neither shall they be
But whoso shall charge our signs with falsehood, on them shall fall a
punishment for their wicked doings.
SAY: I say not to you, "In my possession are the treasures of God;" neither
say I, "I know things secret;" neither do I say to you, "Verily, I am an
angel:" Only what is revealed to me do I follow. SAY: Shall the blind and the
seeing be esteemed alike? Will ye not then reflect?
And warn those who dread their being gathered to their Lord, that patron or
intercessor they shall have none but Him,–to the intent that they may fear
And thrust not thou away those who cry to their Lord at morn and even,
craving to behold his face. It is not for thee in anything to judge of their
motives, nor for them in anything to judge of thee. If thou thrust them away
thou wilt be of the doers of wrong.
Thus have we made proof of some of them by others, that they may say, "Are
these they among us to whom God hath been gracious?" Doth not God best know
And when they who believe in our signs come to thee, SAY: Peace be upon you!
Your Lord hath laid down for himself a law of mercy; so that if any one of
you commit a fault through ignorance, and afterwards turn and amend, He
surely will be Gracious, Merciful.
Thus have we distinctly set forth our signs, that the way of the wicked might
be made known.
SAY: Forbidden am I to worship those whom ye call on beside God. SAY: I will
not follow your wishes; for then should I have gone astray, and should not be
of the guided.
SAY: I act upon proofs from my Lord, but ye treat them as falsehoods. That
punishment which ye desire to be hastened is not in my power; judgment is
with God only: He will declare the truth; and He is the best settler of
SAY: If what ye would hasten on, were in my power, the matter between me and
you had been decided: but God best knoweth the impious.
And with Him are the keys13 of the secret things; none knoweth them but He:
He knoweth whatever is on the land and in the sea; and no leaf falleth but He
knoweth it; neither is there a grain in the darknesses of the earth, nor a
thing green or sere, but it is noted in a distinct writing.14
It is He who taketh your souls at night,15 and knoweth what ye have merited
in the day: then he awaketh you therein, that the set life-term may be
fulfilled: then unto Him shall ye return; and then shall be declare to you
that which ye have wrought.
Supreme over his servants, He sendeth forth guardians who watch over you,
until, when death overtaketh any one of you, our messengers take his soul,
and fail not:
Then are they returned to God their Lord, the True. Is not judgment His?
Swiftest He, of those who take account!
SAY: Who rescueth you from the darkness of the land and of the sea, when
humbly and secretly ye cry to Him–"If thou rescue us from this, we will
surely be of the thankful?"
SAY: God rescueth you from them, and from every strait: yet afterwards ye
give Him companions!
SAY: It is He who hath power to send on you a punishment from above you, or
from beneath your feet, or to clothe you with discord,16 and to make some of
you to taste the violence of others. See how variously we handle the wondrous
verses, that haply they may become wise!
But thy people hath accused the Koran of falsehood, though it be the truth:
SAY: I am not in charge of you: To every prophecy is its set time, and bye-
and-bye ye shall know it!
And when thou seest those who busy themselves with cavilling at our signs,
withdraw from them till they busy themselves in some other subject: and if
Satan cause thee to forget this, sit not, after recollection, with the
Not that they who fear God are to pass any judgment upon them, but the object
of recollection is that they may continue to fear Him.
And quit those who make their religion a sport and a pastime, and whom this
present life hath deceived: warn them hereby that every soul will be
consigned to doom for its own works: patron or intercessor, beside God, shall
it have none: and could it compensate with fullest compensation, it would not
be accepted from it. They who for their deeds shall be consigned to doom–for
them are draughts of boiling water, and a grievous torment; for that they
SAY: Shall we, beside God, call upon those who can neither help nor hurt us?
Shall we turn upon our heel after that God hath guided us? Like some
bewildered man whom the Satans have spell-bound in the desert, though his
companions call him to the true guidance, with, "Come to us!" SAY: Verily,
guidance from God, that is the true guidance; and we are commanded to
surrender ourselves to the Lord of the Worlds.
And observe ye the times of prayer, and fear ye God: for it is He to whom ye
shall be gathered.
And it is He who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, in truth, and when
He saith to a thing, "Be," it is.
His word is the truth: and His the kingdom, on the day when there shall be a
blast on the trumpet: He knoweth alike the unseen and the seen: and He is the
Wise, the Cognisant.
And remember when Abraham said to his father Azar,18 Takest thou images as
gods? Verily, I see that thou and thy people are in manifest error.
And thus did we shew Abraham the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth,19
that he might be stablished in knowledge.
And when the night overshadowed him, he beheld a star. "This," said he, "is
my Lord:" but when it set, he said, "I love not gods which set."
And when he beheld the moon uprising, "This," said he, "is my Lord:" but when
it set, he said, "Surely, if my Lord guide me not, I shall surely be of those
who go astray."
And when he beheld the sun uprise, he said, "This is my Lord; this is
greatest." But when it set, he said, "O my people! I share not with you the
guilt of joining gods with God;
I turn my face to him who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, following
the right religion:20 I am not one of those who add gods to God."
And his people disputed with him.–He said: "Dispute ye with me about God,
when He hath guided me? And I fear not the deities whom ye join with Him, for
only by the will of my Lord have they any power:21 My Lord embraceth all
things in His knowledge. Will ye not then consider?
And how should I fear what ye have joined with God, since ye fear not for
having joined with Him that for which He hath sent you down no warranty?
Which, therefore, of the two parties is more worthy of safety? Know ye that?
They who believe, and who clothe not their faith with error.22 theirs is
safety, and they are guided aright."
This is our reasoning with which we furnished Abraham against his people: We
uplift to grades of wisdom whom we will; Verily thy Lord is Wise, Knowing.
And we gave him Isaac and Jacob, and guided both aright; and we had before
guided Noah; and among the descendants of Abraham, David and Solomon, and Job
and Joseph, and Moses and Aaron: Thus do we recompense the righteous:
And Zachariah, John, Jesus, and Elias: all were just persons:
And Ismael and Elisha and Jonas and Lot: all these have we favoured above
And some of their fathers, and of their offspring, and of their brethren: and
we chose them, and guided them into the straight way.
This is God's guidance: He guideth by it such of his servants as he will: But
if they join others god with Him, vain assuredly shall be all their works.
These are they to whom we gave the Scripture and Wisdom and Prophecy: but if
these their posterity believe not therein, we will entrust these gifts to a
people who will not disbelieve therein.
These are they whom God hath guided: follow therefore their guidance. SAY: No
pay do I ask of you for this:23 Verily it is no other than the teaching for
No just estimate do they form of God when they say, "Nothing hath God sent
down to man." SAY: Who sent down the Book which Moses brought, a light and
guidance to man, which ye set down on paper, publishing part, but concealing
most: though ye have now been taught that which neither ye nor your fathers
knew? SAY: It is God: then leave them in their pastime of cavillings.24
And this Book which we have sent down is blessed, confirming that which was
before it; and in order that thou mightest warn the mother-city and those who
dwell round about it. They who believe in the next life will believe in It,
and will keep strictly to their Prayers.
But is any more wicked than he who deviseth a lie of God, or saith, "I have
had a revelation," when nothing was revealed to him?25 And who saith, "I can
bring down a book like that which God hath sent down"? But couldst thou see
when the ungodly are in the floods of death, and the angels reach forth their
hands, saying, "Yield up your souls:–this day shall ye be recompensed with a
humiliating punishment for your untrue sayings about God, and for proudly
rejecting his signs!"
"And now are ye come back to us, alone, as we created you at first, and ye
leave behind you the good things which we had given you, and we see not with
you your intercessors whom ye regarded as the companions of God among you.
There is a severance between you now, and those whom ye regarded as partners
with God have deserted you."
Verily God causeth the grain and the date stone to put forth: He bringeth
forth the living from the dead, and the dead from the living! This is God!
Why, then, are ye turned aside from Him?
He causeth the dawn to appear, and hath ordained the night for rest, and the