Part 6 out of 14
Set not up another god with God, lest thou sit thee down disgraced,
Thy Lord hath ordained that ye worship none but him; and, kindness to your
parents, whether one or both of them attain to old age with thee: and say not
to them, "Fie!" neither reproach them; but speak to them both with respectful
And defer humbly to them12 out of tenderness; and say, "Lord, have compassion
on them both, even as they reared me when I was little."
Your Lord well knoweth what is in your souls; he knoweth whether ye be
And gracious is He to those who return to Him.
And to him who is of kin render his due, and also to the poor and to the
wayfarer; yet waste not wastefully,
For the wasteful are brethren of the Satans, and Satan was ungrateful to his
But if thou turn away from them, while thou thyself seekest boons from thy
Lord for which thou hopest, at least speak to them with kindly speech:
And let not thy hand be tied up to thy neck; nor yet open it with all
openness, lest thou sit thee down in rebuke, in beggary.
Verily, thy Lord will provide with open hand for whom he pleaseth, and will
be sparing. His servants doth he scan, inspect.
Kill not your children for fear of want:13 for them and for you will we
provide. Verily, the killing them is a great wickedness.
Have nought to do with adultery; for it is a foul thing and an evil way:
Neither slay any one whom God hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just
cause: and whosoever shall be slain wrongfully, to his heir14 have we given
powers; but let him not outstep bounds in putting the manslayer to death, for
he too, in his turn, will be assisted and avenged.
And touch not the substance of the orphan, unless in an upright way, till he
attain his age of strength: And perform your covenant; verily the covenant
shall be enquired of:
And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with just balance. This
will be better, and fairest for settlement:
And follow not that of which thou hast no knowledge;15 because the hearing
and the sight and the heart,–each of these shall be enquired of:
And walk not proudly on the earth, for thou canst not cleave the earth,
neither shalt thou reach to the mountains in height:
All this is evil; odious to thy Lord.
This is a part of the wisdom which thy Lord hath revealed to thee. Set not up
any other god with God, lest thou be cast into Hell, rebuked, cast away.
What! hath your Lord prepared sons for you, and taken for himself daughters
from among the angels? Indeed, ye say a dreadful saying.
Moreover, for man's warning have we varied16 this Koran: Yet it only
increaseth their flight from it.
SAY: If, as ye affirm, there were other gods with Him, they would in that
case seek occasion against the occupant of the throne:
Glory to Him! Immensely high is He exalted above their blasphemies!
The seven heavens17 praise him, and the earth, and all who are therein;
neither is there aught which doth not celebrate his praise; but their
utterances of praise ye understand not. He is kind, indulgent.
When thou recitest the Koran we place between thee and those who believe not
in the life to come, a dark veil;
And we put coverings over their hearts lest they should understand it, and in
their ears a heaviness;
And when in the Koran thou namest thy One Lord, they turn their backs in
We well know why they hearken, when they hearken unto thee, and when they
whisper apart; when the wicked say, "Ye follow no other than a man
See what likenesses they strike out for thee! But they are in error, neither
can they find the path.
They also say, "After we shall have become bones and dust, shall we in sooth
be raised a new creation?"
SAY: "Yes, though ye were stones, or iron, or any other creature, to your
seeming, yet harder to be raised." But they will say, "Who shall bring us
back?" SAY: "He who created you at first." And they will wag their heads at
thee, and say, "When shall this be?" SAY: "Haply it is nigh."
On that day shall God call you forth, and ye shall answer by praising Him;
and ye shall seem to have tarried but a little while.
Enjoin my servants to speak in kindly sort: Verily Satan would stir up
strifes among them, for Satan is man's avowed foe.
Your Lord well knoweth you: if He please He will have mercy on you; or if He
please He will chastise you: and we have not sent thee to be a guardian over
Thy Lord hath full knowledge of all in the heavens and the earth. Higher
gifts have we given to some of the prophets than to others, and the Psalter
we gave to David.
SAY: Call ye upon those whom ye fancy to be gods beside Him; yet they will
have no power to relieve you from trouble, or to shift it elsewhere.
Those whom ye call on, themselves desire union with their Lord,18 striving
which of them shall be nearest to him: they also hope for his mercy and fear
his chastisement. Verily the chastisement of thy Lord is to be dreaded.
There is no city which we will not destroy before the day of Resurrection, or
chastise it with a grievous chastisement. This is written in the Book.
Nothing hindered us from sending thee with the power of working miracles,
except that the peoples of old treated them as lies. We gave to Themoud19 the
she-camel before their very eyes, yet they maltreated her! We send not a
prophet with miracles but to strike terror.
And remember when we said to thee, Verily, thy Lord is round about mankind;
we ordained the vision20 which we shewed thee, and likewise the cursed tree
of the Koran, only for men to dispute of; we will strike them with terror;
but it shall only increase in them enormous wickedness:
And when we said to the Angels, "Prostrate yourselves before Adam:" and they
all prostrated them, save Eblis. "What!" said he, "shall I bow me before him
whom thou hast created of clay?
Seest thou this man whom thou hast honoured above me? Verily, if thou respite
me till the day of Resurrection, I will destroy his offspring, except a few."
He said, "Begone; but whosoever of them shall follow thee, verily, Hell shall
be your recompense; an ample recompense!
And entice such of them as thou canst by thy voice; assault them with thy
horsemen and thy footmen;21 be their partner in their riches and in their
children, and make them promises: but Satan shall make them only deceitful
As to my servants, no power over them shalt thou have; And thy Lord will be
their sufficient guardian."
It is your Lord who speedeth onward the ships for you in the sea, that ye may
seek of his abundance; for he is merciful towards you.
When a misfortune befalleth you out at sea, they whom ye invoke are not to be
found: God alone is there: yet when he bringeth you safe to dry land, ye
place yourselves at a distance from Him. Ungrateful is man.
What! are ye sure, then, that he will not cleave the sides of the earth for
you? or that he will not send against you a whirlwind charged with sands?
Then shall ye find no protector.
Or are ye sure that he will not cause you to put back to sea a second time,
and send against you a storm blast, and drown you, for that ye have been
thankless? Then shall ye find no helper against us therein.
And now have we honoured the children of Adam: by land and by sea have we
carried them: food have we provided for them of good things, and with
endowments beyond many of our creatures have we endowed them.
One day we will summon all men with their leaders: they whose book shall be
given into their right hand, shall read their book, and not be wronged a
And he who has been blind here, shall be blind hereafter, and wander yet more
from the way.
And, verily, they had well nigh beguiled thee from what we revealed to thee,
and caused thee to invent some other thing in our name: but in that case they
would surely have taken thee as a friend;22
And had we not settled thee, thou hadst well nigh leaned to them a little:
In that case we would surely have made thee taste of woe23 in life and of woe
in death: then thou shouldest not have found a helper against us.
And truly they had almost caused thee to quit the land, in order wholly to
drive thee forth from it:24 but then, themselves should have tarried but a
little after thee.
This was our way with the Apostles we have already sent before thee, and in
this our way thou shalt find no change.
Observe prayer at sunset, till the first darkening of the night, and the
daybreak reading–for the daybreak reading hath its witnesses,
And watch unto it in the night: this shall be an excess in service:25 it may
be that thy Lord will raise thee to a glorious station:
And say, "O my Lord, cause me to enter26 with a perfect entry, and to come
forth with a perfect forthcoming, and give me from thy presence a helping
And SAY: Truth is come and falsehood is vanished. Verily, falsehood is a
thing that vanisheth.
And we send down of the Koran that which is a healing and a mercy to the
faithful: But it shall only add to the ruin of the wicked.
When we bestow favours on man, he withdraweth and goeth aside; but when evil
toucheth him, he is despairing.
SAY: Every one acteth after his own manner: but your Lord well knoweth who is
best guided in his path.
And they will ask thee of the Spirit.27 SAY: The Spirit proceedeth at my
Lord's command: but of knowledge, only a little to you is given.
If we pleased, we could take away what we have revealed to thee: none couldst
thou then find thee to undertake thy cause with us,
Save as a mercy from thy Lord; great, verily, is his favour towards thee.
SAY: Verily, were men and Djinn assembled to produce the like of this Koran,
they could not produce its like, though the one should help the other.
And of a truth we have set out to men every kind of similitude in this Koran,
but most men have refused everything except unbelief.
And they say, "By no means will we believe on thee till thou cause a fountain
to gush forth for us from the earth;
Or, till thou have a garden of palm-trees and grapes, and thou cause forth-
gushing rivers to gush forth in its midst;
Or thou make the heaven to fall on us, as thou hast given out, in pieces; or
thou bring God and the angels to vouch for thee;
Or thou have a house of gold; or thou mount up into Heaven; nor will we
believe in thy mounting up, till thou send down to us a book which we may
read." SAY: Praise be to my Lord! Am I more than a man, an apostle?
And what hindereth men from believing, when the guidance hath come to them,
but that they say, "Hath God sent a man as an apostle?"
SAY: Did angels walk the earth as its familiars, we had surely sent them an
angel-apostle out of Heaven.
SAY: God is witness enough between you and me. His servants He scanneth,
And He whom God shall guide will be guided indeed; and whom he shall mislead
thou shalt find none to assist, but Him: and we will gather them together on
the day of the resurrection, on their faces, blind and dumb and deaf: Hell
shall be their abode: so oft as its fires die down, we will rekindle the
This shall be their reward for that they believed not our signs and said,
"When we shall have become bones and dust, shall we surely be raised a new
Do they not perceive that God, who created the Heavens and the Earth, is able
to create their like? And he hath ordained them a term; there is no doubt of
it: but the wicked refuse everything except unbelief.
SAY: If ye held the treasures of my Lord's mercy ye would certainly refrain
from them through fear of spending them: for man is covetous.
We therefore gave to Moses nine clear signs. Ask thou, therefore, the
children of Israel how it was when he came unto them, and Pharaoh said to
him, "Verily, I deem thee, O Moses, a man enchanted."
Said Moses, "Thou knowest that none hath sent down these clear signs but the
Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth; and I surely deem thee, O Pharaoh, a
So Pharaoh sought to drive them out of the land; but we drowned him and all
And after his death, we said to the children of Israel, "Dwell ye in the
land:" and when the promise of the next life shall come to pass, we will
bring you both up together to judgment. In truth have we sent down the Koran,
and in truth hath it descended, and we have only sent thee to announce and to
And we have parcelled out the Koran into sections, that thou mightest recite
it unto men by slow degrees, and we have sent it down piecemeal.
SAY: Believe ye therein or believe ye not? They verily to whom knowledge had
been given previously, fall on their faces worshipping when it is recited to
them, and say: "Glory be to God! the promise of our Lord is made good!"
They fall down on their faces weeping, and It increaseth their humility.
SAY: Call upon God (Allah),28 or call upon the God of Mercy (Arrahman), by
whichsoever ye will invoke him: He hath most excellent names. And be not loud
in thy prayer, neither pronounce it too low;29 but between these follow a
And SAY: Praise be to God who hath not begotten a son, who hath no partner in
the Kingdom, nor any protector on account of weakness. And magnify him by
proclaiming His greatness.30
1 Verses 12, 23-41, 75-82, 87, are supposed by many commentators to have
originated at Medina.
2 Waquidy says the night-journey took place on the 17th of Rabhy' 1, a
twelvemonth before the Hejira.
3 Of Jerusalem; and thence through the seven heavens to the throne of God on
the back of Borak, accompanied by Gabriel, according to some traditions;
while others, and those too of early date, regard it as no more than a
vision. It was, however, in all probability a dream. Muir ii. 219; Nöld. p.
102, who give the Muhammadan sources of information.
4 It is probable that as this verse has no real or apparent connection with
the preceding, a verse may have been lost, and that verse 1 has been placed
at the head of the Sura merely because the night-journey is elsewhere alluded
to in it.
5 According to the commentators the slaughter of Isaiah and the imprisonment
of Jeremiah, punished by the invasion of the Assyrians.
6 Over Sennacherib.
7 The slaying Zacharias, John Baptist, and Jesus, punished by the destruction
of Jerusalem by the Romans. Comp. Tr. Gittin, fol. 57, where we read of the
sufferings drawn down upon the Jews in consequence of the former of these
8 That is, if ye return to sin, we will return to punish.
9 Lit. bird.
10 Comp. Mischnah Aboth, 3, 20.
11 Comp. in Heb. Isai. liii. 3.
12 Lit. lower a wing of humility.
13 Comp. Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 151; lxxxi. 8, p. 45. Zaid, the sceptical seeker
after truth, is reported to have discouraged the killing of daughters,
saying, "I will support them." Kitâb al Wackidi, p. 255. See note at Sura
[xcvii.] iii. 18.
14 Or, next of kin.
15 Or, run not after vain things which will avail nought. Or, accuse not any
of a crime if thou art not sure of his guilt.
16 Used a variety of arguments and illustrations.
17 Thus Tr. Chagiga, fol. 9 b. "There are seven heavens (rakian): the veil,
the firmament, the clouds, the habitation, the abode, the fixed seat, the
araboth." See Wetst. on 2 Cor. xii. 2.
18 In obvious allusion to the saint-worship of the Christians.
19 See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 71.
20 See note on v. 1. The tree is Zakkoum, Sura [xlv.] lvi. The Rabbins teach
that food of the bitterest herbs is one of the punishments of Hell. See
Schröder's Rabb. und. Talm. Judenthum, p. 403.
21 That is, with all thy might.
22 Zamakshary relates that this passage was revealed when the Thaqyfites in
framing the document of agreement between themselves and Muhammad, required
that the words requiring the prostrations in worship should not be added. The
writer looked at the prophet, who stood by in silence, when Omar stood up and
drew his sword with menacing words. They replied, We speak not thee but to
Muhammad. Then this verse was revealed. Thus Dr. Sprenger. Life, p. 186. He
renders the last clause, but at the right moment a friend reprehended thee.
23 Lit. weakness, languors.
24 "The Jews, envious of Muhammad's good reception and stay there, told him,
by way of counsel, that Syria was the land of the Prophets, and that if he
was really a prophet, he ought to go there." Sale from Djelal Eddin ap. Mar.
Geiger, p. 12, quotes a Talmudical saying to the same effect, but without any
25 A work of supererogation, and therefore doubly meritorious. Thus Tr.
Berachoth, fol. 4. The word station (mekam) is still used of the nearness to
God, attained in spiritual ecstacies, etc.
26 That is, to enter the Grave or Mecca. Lit. with an entry of truth.
27 The word spirit is probably to be understood of the Angel Gabriel. Comp. 1
Kings xxii. 21. Others understand it of the immaterial soul of man. See note
on Sura [xci.] ii. 81.
28 The infidels hearing Muhammad say, Ya Allah! Ya Rahman! in his prayers,
imagined that he was addressing two Deities; hence this passage. Comp.
[lxxiii.] xvi. 52; [lxvi.] xxv. 61. As this title of God (Rahman) disappears
from the later Suras, it has been inferred that Muhammad's original intention
was to have combined it with Allah, but that through fear lest Allah and
Arrahman should be supposed to be two Gods, he dropped the latter.–This title
was applied to their deities by the Himyarites; and it occurs in Ps. lxxviii.
38, and Ex. xxxiv. 6. The root is not found in Æthiopic.
29 The Talm. Tr. Berachoth, 31, 2, forbids loudness in prayer by the example
30 Lit. magnify Him by magnifying.
SURA XXVII.–THE ANT [LXVIII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
TA. SAD.1 These are the signs (verses) of the Koran and of the lucid Book;
Guidance and glad tidings to the believers who observe prayer and pay the
stated alms, and believe firmly–do they–in the life to come.
As to those who believe not in the life to come, we have made their own
doings fair seeming to them, and they are bewildered therein.
These are they whom the woe of chastisement awaiteth; and in the next life
they shall suffer–yes shall they–greatest loss;
But thou hast certainly received the Koran from the Wise, the Knowing.
Bear in mind when Moses said to his family, "I have perceived a fire;
I will bring you tidings from it, or will bring you a blazing brand, that ye
may warm you."
And when he came to it, he was called to, "Blessed, He who is in the fire,
and He who is about it; and glory be to God, the Lord of the worlds!
O Moses! verily, I am God, the Mighty, the Wise!
Throw down now thy staff." And when he saw that it moved itself as though it
were a serpent, he retreated backward and returned not. "O Moses, fear not;
for the Sent Ones fear not in my presence,
Save he who having done amiss shall afterwards exchange the evil for good;
for I am Forgiving, Merciful.
Put now thy hand into thy bosom: it shall come forth white, yet free from
hurt:2 one of nine signs to Pharaoh and his people; for a perverse people are
And when our signs were wrought in their very sight,3 they said, "This is
And though in their souls they knew them to be true, yet in their wickedness
and pride they denied them. But see what was the end of the corrupt doers!
And of old we gave knowledge to David and Solomon: and they said, "Praise be
to God, who hath made us to excel many of his believing servants!"
And in knowledge Solomon was David's heir. And he said, "O men, we have been
taught the speech of birds,4 and are endued with everything. This is indeed a
clear boon from God."
And to Solomon were gathered his hosts of Djinn5 and men and birds, and they
were marched on in bands,
Till they reached the Valley of Ants. Said AN ANT, "O ye ants, enter your
dwellings, lest Solomon and his army crush you and know it not."
Then smiled Solomon, laughing at her words, and he said, "Stir me up, O Lord,
to be thankful for thy favour which thou hast shewed upon me and upon my
parents, and to do righteousness that shall be well pleasing to thee, and
bring me in, by thy mercy, among thy servants the righteous."
And he reviewed the birds, and said, "How is it that I see not the lapwing?
Is it one of the absent?
Surely, with a severe chastisement will I chastise it, or I will certainly
slaughter it, unless it bring me a clear excuse."
Nor tarried it long ere it came and said, "I have gained the knowledge that
thou knowest not, and with sure tidings have I come to thee from Saba:
I found a woman reigning over them, gifted with everything, and she hath a
And I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of God; and Satan
hath made their works fair seeming to them, so that he hath turned them from
the Way: wherefore they are not guided,
To the worship of God, who bringeth to light the secret things of heaven and
earth, and knoweth what men conceal and what they manifest:
God! there is no god but He! the lord of the glorious throne!"
He said, "We shall see whether thou hast spoken truth, or whether thou art of
them that lie.
Go with this my letter and throw it down to them: then turn away from them
and await their answer."
She said, "O my nobles! an honourable letter hath been thrown down to me:
It is from Solomon; and it is this: 'In the name of God, the Compassionate,
Set not up yourselves against me, but come to me submitting (Muslims).' "
She said, "O my nobles, advise me in mine affair: I decide it not without
They said, "We are endued with strength and are endued with mighty valour.–
But to command is thine: See therefore what thou wilt command us."
She said, "Kings when they enter a city spoil it, and abase the mightiest of
its people: and in like manner will these also do.
But I will send to them with a gift, and await what my envoys bring back."
And when the messenger came to Solomon, he said, "Aid ye me with riches? But
what God hath given to me is better than what he hath given you: yet ye glory
in your gifts:
Return to them: for we will surely come to them with forces which they cannot
withstand, and we will drive them from their land humbled and contemptible."
Said he, "O nobles, which of you will bring me her throne before they come to
me, submitting? (Muslims)."
An Efreet7 of the Djinn said: "I will bring it thee ere thou risest from thy
place: I have power for this and am trusty."
And one who had the knowledge of Scripture said, "I will bring it to thee in
the twinkling of an eye."8 And when he saw it set before him, he said, "This
is of the favour of my Lord, to try me whether I will be thankful or
unthankful. And he who is thankful is thankful to his own behoof; and as for
him who is unthankful–truly my Lord is self-sufficient, bounteous!"
Said he, "Make her throne so that she know it not: we shall see whether she
hath or not guidance."
And when she came he said, "Is thy throne like this?" She said, "As though it
were the same." "And we," said he, "have had knowledge given us before her,
and have been Muslims."
But the gods she had worshipped instead of God had led her astray: for she
was of a people who believe not.
It was said to her,"Enter the Palace:" and when she saw it, she thought it a
lake of water, and bared her legs. He said, "It is a palace paved with
She said, "O my Lord! I have sinned against my own soul, and I resign myself,
with Solomon, to God the Lord of the Worlds."
And of old we sent to Themoud their brother Saleh, with "Serve ye God:"but
lo! they became two sets of disputants wrangling with each other.
He said, "O my people, why, if ye ask not pardon of God that ye may find
mercy, hasten ye on evil rather than good?"
They said,"We augur9 ill concerning thee and those who are with thee." He
said, "The ills of which ye augur10 depend on God. But ye are a people on
And there were in the city nine persons who committed excesses in the land
and did not that which is right.
They said, "Swear ye to one another by God that we will surely fall on him
and on his family by night: then will be say to the avenger of blood, we
witnessed not the destruction of his family: and verily we speak the truth."
And they devised a device, and we devised a device, and they were not aware
And see what was the end of their device! We destroyed them and their whole
And for their sin these their houses are empty ruins: Verily in this is a
sign to those who understand;
And we delivered those who believed and feared.
And Lot, when he said to his people, "What! proceed ye to such filthiness
with your eyes open?
What! come ye with lust unto men rather than to women? Surely ye are an
And the answer of his people was but to say, "Cast out the family of Lot from
your city: they, forsooth, are men of purity!"
So we rescued him and his family: but as for his wife, we decreed her to be
of them that lingered:
And we rained a rain upon them, and fatal was the rain to those who had had
SAY: Praise be to God and peace be on His servants whom He hath chosen! Is
God the more worthy or the gods they join with Him?
Is not He who hath made the Heavens and the Earth, and hath sent down rain to
you from Heaven, by which we cause the luxuriant groves to spring up! It is
not in your power to cause its trees to spring up! What! A god with God? Yet
they find equals for Him!
Is not He, who hath set the earth so firm, and hath made rivers in its midst,
and hath placed mountains upon it, and put a barrier between the two seas?11
What! a god with God? Yet the greater part of them have no knowledge!
Is not He the more worthy who answereth the oppressed when they cry to him,
and taketh off their ills, and maketh you to succeed your sires on the earth?
What! a god with God? How few bear these things in mind!
Is not He, who guideth you in the darkness of the land and of the sea, and
who sendeth forth the winds as the forerunners of His mercy? What! a god with
God? Far from God be what ye join with Him!
Is not He, who created a Being, then reneweth it, and who supplieth you out
of the Heaven and the Earth? What! a god with God? SAY: Bring forth your
proofs if you speak the truth.
SAY: None either in the Heavens or in the Earth knoweth the unseen but God.
And they know not
When they shall be raised.
–Yet they have attained to a knowledge of the life to come:12–yet are they in
doubt about it:–yet are they blind about it!
And the unbelievers say: "When we and our fathers have been dead shall we be
Of old have we been promised this, we and our sires of old it is but fables
of the ancients."
SAY: Go ye through the land, and see what hath been the end of the wicked.
And grieve not thou for them, nor be in distress at their devisings.
And they say, "When will this promise be made good, if ye speak true?"
SAY: Haply a part of what ye desire to be hastened may be close behind you.
And truly thy Lord is full of goodness towards men: But most of them are not
And thy Lord knoweth well what their breasts enshroud, and what they bring to
And there is no secret thing in the Heaven or on the Earth, but it is in the
Truly this Koran declareth to the children of Israel most things wherein they
And it is certainly guidance and a mercy to the faithful.
Verily, by his wisdom will thy Lord decide between them: for He is the
Mighty, the Knowing.
Put thou then thy trust in God: for thou hast clear truth on thy side.13
Thou shalt not make the dead to hear; neither shalt thou make the deaf to
hear the call, when they turn away backward;
Neither art thou the guide of the blind out of their errors: none truly shalt
thou make to hear but those who believe our signs: and they are Muslims.
When the doom shall be ready to light upon them, we will cause a monster14 to
come forth to them out of the earth, and cry to them "Verily men have not
firmly believed our signs."
And on that day shall be gathered out of every nation a company of those who
have gainsaid our signs, in separate bands;
Till they come before God, who will say, "Treated ye my signs as impostures,
although ye embraced them not in your knowledge? or what is it that ye were
And doom shall light upon them for their evil deeds, and nought shall they
have to plead.
See they not that we have ordained the night that they may rest in it, and
the day with its gift of light? Of a truth herein are signs to people who
On that day there shall be a blast on the trumpet, and all that are in the
heavens, and all that the on the earth shall be terror-stricken, save him
whom God pleaseth to deliver; and all shall come to him in humble guise.
And thou shalt see the mountains, which thou thinkest so firm, pass away with
the passing of a cloud! 'Tis the work of God, who ordereth all things! of all
that ye do is He well aware.
To him who shall present himself with good works, shall be a reward beyond
their desert,15 and they shall be secure from the terror on that day;
And they who shall present themselves with evil shall be flung downward on
their faces into the fire. Shall ye be rewarded but as ye have wrought?
SAY: Specially am I commanded to worship the Lord of this land, which He hath
sanctified. All things are His: and I am commanded to be one of those who
surrender them to God (a Muslim)
And to recite the Koran: and whoever is rightly guided, assuredly will be
rightly guided to his own behoof.
And as to him who erreth, SAY, I truly am a warner only.And SAY, Praise be to
God! He will shew you His signs, and ye shall acknowledge them: and of what
ye do, thy Lord is not regardless.
1 See Sura lxviii., p. 32, n.
2 Not really leprous.
3 Lit. when our visible signs came to them.
4 This tradition may be derived from 1 Kings iv. 33. Comp. Geiger, p. 185.
The legend of Solomon's power over the Genii originates in a mistranslation
of Eccl. ii. 8. Comp. also for other points in this story Prov. vi. 6; 1
Kings x. 1-10.
5 "Demons obeyed him (Solomon) . . . and evil spirits were subjected to him."
Targ. 2. on Esther 1, 2. From the same source Muhammad has adopted, with
slight variations, the whole story of Solomon's intercourse with the Queen of
Saba. Comp. also Tr. Gittin, fol. 68, and Midr. Jalkut on 1 Kings vi. ch.
6 Lit. unless ye bear me witness.
7 That is, malignant. "The efreets are generally believed to differ from the
other djinn in being very powerful and always malicious; but to be in other
respects of a similar nature" (Lane's Modern Egyptians, i. 285). "The ghosts
of dead persons are also called by this name" (ib. 289).
8 Or, before thy glance can be withdrawn from an object.
9 Lit. we have consulted the flight of birds: hence presage.
10 Lit. your bird, augury.
11 Comp. Sura [lxvi.] xxv. 55.
12 Lit. their knowledge attaineth to the next life.
13 Lit. art on clear truth.
14 Al Jassaca, the Spy.
15 Or, shall derive advantage from them.
SURA XVIII.–THE CAVE [LXIX.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
PRAISE be to God, who hath sent down the Book to his servant, and hath not
made it tortuous1
But direct; that it may warn of a grievous woe from him, and announce to the
faithful who do the things that are right, that a goodly reward, wherein they
shall abide for ever, awaiteth them;
And that it may warn those who say, "God hath begotten a Son."
No knowledge of this have either they or their fathers! A grievous saying to
come out of their mouths! They speak no other than a lie!
And haply, if they believe not in this new revelation, thou wilt slay
thyself, on their very footsteps, out of vexation.
Verily, we have made all that is on earth as its adornment, that we might
make trial who among mankind would excel in works:
But we are surely about to reduce all that is thereon to dust!
Hast thou reflected that the Inmates of THE CAVE and of Al Rakim2 were on our
When the youths betook them to the cave they said, "O our Lord! grant us
mercy from before thee, and order for us our affair aright."
Then struck we upon their ears with deafness in the cave for many a year:
Then we awaked them that we might know which of the two parties could best
reckon the space of their abiding.
We will relate to thee their tale with truth. They were youths who had
believed in their Lord, and in guidance had we increased them;
And we had made them stout of heart, when they stood up and said, "Our Lord
is Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth: we will call on no other God than
Him; for in that case we had said a thing outrageous.
These our people have taken other gods beside Him, though they bring no clear
proof for them; but, who more iniquitous than he who forgeth a lie of God?
So when ye shall have separated you from them and from that which they
worship beside God, then betake you to the cave: Your Lord will unfold his
mercy to you, and will order your affairs for you for the best."
And thou mightest have seen the sun when it arose, pass on the right of their
cave, and when it set, leave them on the left, while they were in its
spacious chamber. This is one of the signs of God. Guided indeed is he whom
God guideth; but for him whom He misleadeth, thou shalt by no means find a
And thou wouldst have deemed them awake,3 though they were sleeping: and we
turned them to the right and to the left. And in the entry lay their dog with
paws outstretched.4 Hadst thou come suddenly upon them, thou wouldst surely
have turned thy back on them in flight, and have been filled with fear at
So we awaked them that they might question one another. Said one of them,
"How long have ye tarried here?" They said, "We have tarried a day or part of
day." They said, "Your Lord knoweth best how long ye have tarried: Send now
one of you with this your coin into the city, and let him mark who therein
hath purest food, and from him let him bring you a supply: and let him be
courteous, and not discover you to any one.
For they, if they find you out, will stone you or turn you back to their
faith, and in that case it will fare ill with you for ever."
And thus made we their adventure known to their fellow citizens, that they
might learn that the promise of God is true, and that as to "the Hour" there
is no doubt of its coming. When they disputed among themselves concerning
what had befallen them, some said, "Build a building over them; their Lord
knoweth best about them." Those who prevailed in the matter said, "A place of
worship will we surely raise over them."
Some say, "They were three; their dog the fourth:" others say, "Five; their
dog the sixth," guessing at the secret: others say, "Seven; and their dog the
eighth." SAY: My Lord best knoweth the number: none, save a few, shall know
Therefore be clear in they discussions about them,5 and ask not any Christian
Say not thou of a thing, " I will surely do it to-morrow;" without , "If God
will."6 And when thou hast forgotten, call thy Lord to mind; and say, "Haply
my Lord will guide me, that I may come near to the truth of this story with
And they tarried in their cave 300 years, and 9 years over.7
SAY: God best knoweth how long they tarried: With Him are the secrets of the
Heavens and of the Earth: Look thou and hearken unto Him alone.8 Man hath no
guardian but Him, and none may bear part in his judgments:–
And publish what hath been revealed to thee of the Book of thy Lord–none may
change his words,–and thou shalt find no refuge beside Him.
Be patient with those who call upon their Lord at morn and even, seeking his
face: and let not thine eyes be turned away from them in quest of the pomp of
this life;9 neither obey him10 whose heart we have made careless of the
remembrance of Us, and who followeth his own lusts, and whose ways are
And SAY: the truth is from your Lord: let him then who will, believe; and let
him who will, be an infidel. But for the offenders we have got ready the fire
whose smoke shall enwrap them: and if they implore help, helped shall they be
with water like molten brass which shall scald their Wretched the drink! and
an unhappy couch!
But as to those who have believed and done the things that are right,–Verily
we will not suffer the reward of him whose works were good, to perish!
For them, the gardens of Eden, under whose shades shall rivers flow: decked
shall they be therein with bracelets of gold, and green robes of silk and
rich brocade shall they wear, reclining them therein on thrones. Blissful the
reward! and a pleasant couch!11
And set forth to them as a parable two men; on one of whom we bestowed two
gardens of grape vines, and surrounded both with palm trees, and placed corn
fields between them: Each of the gardens did yield its fruit, and failed not
thereof at all:
And we caused a river to flow in their midst: And this man received his
fruit, and said, disputing with him, to his companion, "More have I than thou
of wealth, and my family is mightier."
And he went into his garden–to his own soul unjust. He said, "I do not think
that this will ever perish:
And I do not think that 'the Hour' will come: and even if I be taken back to
my Lord, I shall surely find a better than it in exchange."
His fellow said to him, disputing with him, "What ! hast thou no belief in
him who created thee of the dust, then of the germs of life,12 then fashioned
thee a perfect man?
But God is my Lord; and no other being will I associate with my Lord.
And why didst thou not say when thou enteredst thy garden, 'What God willeth!
There is no power but in God.' Though thou seest that I have less than thou
of wealth and children,
Yet haply my Lord may bestow on me better than thy garden, and may send his
bolts upon it out of Heaven, so that the next dawn shall find it barren dust;
Or its water become deep sunk, so that thou art unable to find it."
And his fruits were encompassed by destruction. Then began he to turn down
the palms of his hands at what he had spent on it; for its vines were falling
down on their trellises, and he said, "Oh that I had not joined any other god
to my Lord!"
And he had no host to help him instead of God, neither was he able to help
Protection in such a case is of God–the Truth: He is the best rewarder, and
He bringeth to the best issue.
And set before them a similitude of the present life. It is as water which we
send down from Heaven, and the herb of the Earth is mingled with it, and on
the morrow it becometh dry stubble which the winds scatter: for God hath
power over all things.
Wealth and children are the adornment of this present life: but good works,
which are lasting, are better in the sight of thy Lord as to recompense, and
better as to hope.
And call to mind the day when we will cause the mountains to pass away,13 and
thou shalt see the earth a levelled plain, and we will gather mankind
together, and not leave of them any one.
And they shall be set before thy Lord in ranks:–"Now are ye come unto us as
we created you at first: but ye thought that we should not make good to you
And each shall have his book put into his hand: and thou shalt see the wicked
in alarm at that which is therein: and they shall say, "O woe to us! what
meaneth this Book? It leaveth neither small nor great unnoted down!" And they
shall find all that they have wrought present to them, and thy Lord will not
deal unjustly with any one.
When we said to the angels, "Prostrate yourselves before Adam," they all
prostrated them save Eblis, who was of the Djinn,14 and revolted from his
Lord's behest. behest.–What! will ye then take him and his offspring as
patrons rather than Me? and they your enemies? Sad exchange for the ungodly!
I made them not witnesses of the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth,
nor of their own creation, neither did I take seducers as my helpers.
On a certain day, God shall say, "Call ye on the companions ye joined with
me, deeming them to be gods:" and they shall call on them, but they shall not
answer them: then will we place a valley of perdition between them:
And the wicked shall see the fire, and shall have a foreboding that they
shall be flung into it, and they shall find no escape from it.
And now in this Koran we have presented to man similitudes of every kind:
but, at most things is man a caviller.
And what, now that guidance is come to them, letteth men from believing and
from asking forgiveness of their Lord–unless they wait till that the doom of
the ancients overtake them, or the chastisement come upon them in the sight
of the universe?
We send not our Sent Ones but to announce and to warn: but the infidels cavil
with vain words in order to refute the truth; and they treat my signs and
their own warnings with scorn.
But who is worse than he who when told of the signs of his Lord turneth him
away and forgetteth what in time past his hands have wrought? Truly we have
thrown veils over their hearts lest they should understand this Koran, and
into their ears a heaviness:
And if thou bid them to "the guidance" yet will they not even then be guided
The gracious one, full of compassion, is thy Lord! if he would have chastised
them for their demerits he would have hastened their chastisement. But they
have a time fixed for the accomplishment of our menaces: and beside God they
shall find no refuge.
And those cities did we destroy when they became impious; and of their coming
destruction we gave them warning.
Remember when Moses said to his servant, "I will not stop till I reach the
confluence of the two seas,15 or for years will I journey on."
But when they reached their confluence, they forgot their fish, and it took
its way in the sea at will.
And when they had passed on, said Moses to his servant, "Bring us our morning
meal; for now have we incurred weariness from this journey."
He said, "What thinkest thou? When we repaired to the rock for rest I forgot
the fish; and none but Satan made me forget it, so as not to mention it; and
it hath taken its way in the sea in a wondrous sort."
He said, "It is this we were in quest of."16 And they both went back
retracing their footsteps.
Then found they one of our servants to whom we had vouchsafed our mercy, and
whom we had instructed with our knowledge.
And Moses said to him, "Shall I follow thee that thou teach me, for guidance,
of that which thou too hast been taught?"
He said, "Verily, thou canst not have patience with me;
How canst thou be patient in matters whose meaning thou comprehendest not?"
He said, "Thou shalt find me patient if God please, nor will I disobey thy
He said, "Then, if thou follow me, ask me not of aught until I have given
thee an account thereof."
So they both went on, till they embarked in a ship, and he–the unknown–staved
it in. "What!" said Moses, "hast thou staved it in that thou mayest drown its
crew? a strange thing now hast thou done!"
He said, "Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not have patience with me?"
He said, "Chide me not that I forgat, nor lay on me a hard command."
Then went they on till they met a youth, and he slew him. Said Moses, "Hast
thou slain him who is free from guilt of blood? Now hast thou wrought a
He said, "Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not have patience with me?"
Moses said, "If after this I ask thee aught, then let me be thy comrade no
longer; but now hast thou my excuse."
They went on till they came to the people of a city. Of this people they
asked food, but they refused them for guests. And they found in it a wall
that was about to fall, and he set it upright. Said Moses, "If thou hadst
wished, for this thou mightest have obtained pay."
He said, "This is the parting point between me and thee. But I will first
tell thee the meaning of that which thou couldst not await with patience.
"As to the vessel, it belonged to poor men who toiled upon the sea, and I was
minded to damage it, for in their rear was a king who seized every ship by
As to the youth his parents were believers, and we feared lest he should
trouble them by error and infidelity.
And we desired that their Lord might give them in his place a child, better
than he in virtue, and nearer to filial piety.
And as to the wall, it belonged to two orphan youths in the city, and beneath
it was their treasure: and their father was a righteous man: and thy Lord
desired that they should reach the age of strength, and take forth their
treasure through the mercy of thy Lord. And not of mine own will have I done
this. This is the interpretation of that which thou couldst not bear with
They will ask thee of Dhoulkarnain [the two-horned17]. SAY: I will recite to
you an account of him.
We stablished his power upon the earth, and made for him a way to everything.
And a route he followed,
Until when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it to set in a miry
fount; and hard by he found a people.
We said, "O Dhoulkarnain! either chastise or treat them generously."
"The impious," said he, "will we surely chastise;" then shall he be taken
back to his Lord, and he will chastise him with a grievous chastisement.
But as to him who believeth and doeth that which is right, he shall have a
generous recompense, and we will lay on them our easy behests.
Then followed he a route,
Until when he reached the rising of the sun he found it to rise on a people
to whom we had given no shelter from it.
Thus it was. And we had full knowledge of the forces that were with him.
Then followed he a route
Until he came between the two mountains, beneath which he found a people who
scarce understood a language.
They said, "O Dhoulkarnain! verily, Gog and Magog18 waste this land; shall we
then pay thee tribute, so thou build a rampart19 between us and them?"
He said, "Better than your tribute is the might wherewith my Lord hath
strengthened me; but help me strenuously, and I will set a barrier between
you and them.
Bring me blocks of iron,"–until when it filled the space between the mountain
sides–"Ply," said he, "your bellows,"–until when he had made it red with heat
(fire), he said,–"Bring me molten brass that I may pour upon it."
And Gog and Magog were not able to scale it, neither were they able to dig
"This," said he, "is a mercy from my Lord:
But when the promise of my Lord shall come to pass, he will turn it to dust;
and the promise of my Lord is true."
On that day we will let them dash like billows one over another; and there
shall be a blast on the trumpet, and we will gather them together in a body.
And we will set Hell on that day close before the infidels,
Whose eyes were veiled from my warning, and who had no power to hear.
What! do the infidels think that they can take my servants as their patrons,
beside Me? Verily, we have got Hell ready as the abode of the infidels.
SAY: Shall we tell you who they are that have lost their labour most?
Whose aim in the present life hath been mistaken, and who deem that what they
do is right?
They are those who believe not in the signs of the Lord, or that they shall
ever meet him. Vain, therefore, are their works; and no weight will we allow
them on the day of resurrection.
This shall be their reward–Hell.20 Because they were unbelievers, and treated
my signs and my Apostles with scorn.
But as for those who believe and do the things that are right, they shall
have the gardens of Paradise21 for their abode:
They shall remain therein for ever: they shall wish for no change from it.
SAY: Should the sea become ink, to write the words of my Lord, the sea would
surely fail ere the words of my Lord would fail, though we brought its like
SAY: In sooth I am only a man like you. It hath been revealed to me that your
God is one only God: let him then who hopeth to meet his Lord work a
righteous work: nor let him give any other creature a share in the worship of
1 Lit. hath not put crookedness into it.
2 The valley, or mountain, in which the Cave of the Seven Sleepers was
situated. Comp. Fundgreiben des Orients, iii. 347-381. Gibbon's Decline and
Fall, ch. xxxiii., especially the concluding sentences.
3 Because they slept with their eyes open. Beidh.
4 The Muhammadans believe that this dog will be admitted into Paradise. One
of its traditional names is Katmir, a word whose letters, it should be
observed, are with one exception identical with Rakim.
5 Lit. dispute not about them unless with clear disputation.
6 Muhammad had omitted to use the qualifying phrase when, in reply to the
Jews who asked for the History of the Seven Sleepers, he simply promised to
give it on the morrow; hence, this verse. Comp. James iv. 13-15.
7 They entered the cavern under Decius and awoke in the time of Theodosius,
according to the tradition; which cannot be reconciled with the number of
years given in the text.
8 Thus Ullm. But the words may be taken with Beidh. and Sale, as ironical.
Make thou him to see and hear.
9 Said to have been promulgated at Medina. Nöld. p. 106
10 Omaya Ibn Chalf, who advised Muhammad to cast off all his poorer
followers, out of respect to the Koreisch.
11 It is probable that this and the numerous similar descriptions of the
enjoyments in Paradise are based upon Muhammad's knowledge, or possibly
personal observation, of the luxurious habits of the Persians, to whom many
Arabian tribes owed allegiance, and with whom they had mercantile
transactions by means of caravans. The word Paradise, the names of cups and
brocade in Sura lvi. pp. 66, 67, and the word sundus in this passage, are all
12 Lit ex spermate.
13 Comp. Isai. xl. 4, etc.
14 Muhammad appears, according to this text, to have considered Eblis not
only as the father of the Djinn, but as one of their number. The truth
appears to be that Muhammad derived his doctrines of the Genii from the
Persian and Indian mythology, and attempted to identify them with the Satan
and demons of the Semitic races. Both the Satans and Djinn represent in the
Koran the principle of Evil. See Sura [xci.] ii. 32, n.
15 The sea of Greece and the sea of Persia. But as no literal interpretation
of the passage seems satisfactory, the Commentators have devised a spiritual
or metaphorical one, and explain it of the two oceans of natural and
supernatural knowledge. There is no trace of this legend in the Rabbinic
16 The loss of our fish is a sign to us of our finding him whom we seek,
namely, El-Khidr, or El-Khadir, the reputed vizier of Dhoulkarnain, and said
to have drunk of the fountain of life, by virtue of which he still lives, and
will live till the day of judgment. He is also said to appear, clad in green
robes, to Muslims in distress, whence his name. Perhaps the name Khidr is
formed from Jethro.
17 Probably Alexander the Great–so called from his expeditions to the East
and West. He seems to be regarded in this passage as invested with a divine
commission for the extirpation of impiety and idolatry. Comp. Dan. viii. and
Tr. Tanith, fol. 32. Hottinger Bibl. Orient. 109.
18 Ar. Yadjoudj and Madjoudj–the barbarous people of E. Asia. See Ibn
Batoutah's Travels, iv. p. 274 (Par.ed.)
19 This rampart has been identified with fortifications which extended from
the W. shore of the Caspian Sea to the Pontus Euxinus, made, as it is said,
by Alexander, and repaired by Yezdegird II. Caussin de Perceval, vol.i.p. 66.
See Sura [lxv.] xxi. 96
20 The form of this word in the Arabic, with the h in the second syllable and
the final m, shews that the word was borrowed from the Hebrew, and not from
the Greek or Syriac.
21 Observe in this expression the same admixture of the Semitic and Indo-
Persian elements as was noticed above in the identification of Satans and
Djinn, verse 48.
SURA XXXII.–ADORATION [LXX.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
ELIF. LAM. MIM.1 This Book is without a doubt a Revelation sent down from the
Lord of the Worlds.
Will they say, He hath forged it? Nay, it is the truth from thy Lord that
thou mayest warn a people to whom no warner hath come before thee, that haply
they may be guided.
God it is who hath created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between
them in six days; then ascended his throne. Save Him ye have no patron, and
none to plead for you. Will ye not then reflect?
From the Heaven to the Earth He governeth all things: hereafter shall they
come up to him on a day whose length shall be a thousand of such years as ye
This is He who knoweth the unseen and the seen; the Mighty, the Merciful,
Who hath made everything which he hath created most good; and began the
creation of man with clay;
Then ordained his progeny from germs of life,3 from sorry water:
Then shaped him, and breathed of His Spirit into him, and gave you hearing
and seeing and hearts: what little thanks do ye return!
And they say, "What! when we shall have lain hidden in the earth, shall we
become a new creation?"
Yea, they deny that they shall meet their Lord.
SAY: The angel of death who is charged with you shall cause you to die: then
shall ye be returned to your Lord.
Couldst thou but see when the guilty shall droop their heads before their
Lord, and cry, "O our Lord! we have seen and we have heard: return us then to
life: we will do that which is right. Verily we believe firmly!"
(Had we pleased we had certainly given to every soul its guidance. But true
shall be the word which hath gone forth from me–I will surely fill hell with
Djinn and men together.)
"Taste then the recompense of your having forgotten the meeting with this
your day. We, too, we have forgotten you: taste then an eternal punishment
for that which ye have wrought."
They only believe in our signs, who, when mention is made of them, fall down
in ADORATION, and celebrate the praise of their Lord, and are not puffed up
Who, as they raise them4 from their couches, call on their Lord with fear and
desire, and give alms of that with which we have supplied them.
No soul knoweth what joy of the eyes is reserved for the good in recompense
of their works.
Shall he then who is a believer be as he who sinneth grossly? they shall not
be held alike.
As to those who believe and do that which is right, they shall have gardens
of eternal abode as the meed of their works:
But as for those who grossly sin, their abode shall be the fire: so oft as
they shall desire to escape out of it, back shall they be turned into it. And
it shall be said to them, Taste ye the torment of the fire, which ye treated
as a lie.
And we will surely cause them to taste a punishment yet nearer at hand,
besides the greater punishment, that haply they may turn to us in penitence.
Who acteth worse than he who is warned by the signs of his Lord, then turneth
away from them? We will surely take vengeance on the guilty ones.
We heretofore gave the Book of the law to Moses: have thou no doubt as to our
meeting with him:5 and we appointed it for the guidance of the children of
And we appointed Imâms from among them who should guide after our command
when they had themselves endured with constancy, and had firmly believed in
Now thy Lord! He will decide between them on the day of resurrection as to
the subject of their disputes.
Is it not notorious to them how many generations, through whose abodes they
walk, we have destroyed before them? Truly herein are sings: will they not
See they not how we drive the rain to some parched land and thereby bring
forth corn of which their cattle and themselves do eat? Will they not then
They say, "When will this decision take place? Tell us, if ye are men of
SAY: On the day of that decision, the faith of infidels shall not avail them,
and they shall have no further respite.
Stand aloof from them then, and wait thou, for they too wait.6
1 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.
2 Comp. Sura [cvii.] xxii. 46, and Ps. xc. 4, which is taken literally by
many of the Talmudists. Comp. e.g. Sanhed. 96, 2.
3 Lit. ex spermate genitali.
4 Lit. their sides are raised.
5 Nöldeke thinks that the word for meeting is used here in the same sense as
in v. 10 above and Sura [lxxi.] xli. 54, and that the clause does not belong
to this verse, p. 108, n.
6 Wait thou for their punishment as they wait for thy downfall.
SURA1 XLI.–THE MADE PLAIN [LXXI.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
HA. MIM.2 A Revelation from the Compassionate, the Merciful!
A Book whose verses (signs) are MADE PLAIN–an Arabic Koran, for men of
Announcer of glad tidings and charged with warnings! But most of them
withdraw and hearken not:
And they say, "Our hearts are under shelter from thy teachings, and in our
ears is a deafness, and between us and thee there is a veil. Act as thou
thinkest right: we verily shall act as we think right."
SAY: I am only a man like you.3 It is revealed to me that your God is one
God: go straight then to Him, and implore his pardon. And woe to those who
join gods with God;
Who pay not the alms of obligation, and in the life to come believe not!
But they who believe and do the things that are right shall receive a
SAY: Do ye indeed disbelieve in Him who in two days created the earth? and do
ye assign Him peers? The Lord of the worlds is He!
And he hath placed on the earth the firm mountains which tower above it; and
He hath blessed it, and distributed food throughout it, for the cravings of
all alike, in four days:
Then He applied himself to the Heaven, which then was but smoke: and to it
and to the Earth He said, "Come ye, whether in obedience or against your
will?" and they both said, "We come obedient."
And He made them seven heavens in two days, and in each heaven made known its
office: And we furnished the lower heaven with lights and guardian angels.
This, the disposition of the Almighty, the All-knowing.
If they turn away, then SAY: I warn you of a tempest, like the tempest of Ad
When the apostles came to them on every side,5 saying, "Worship none but
God," they said, "Had our Lord been pleased to send down, He had surely sent
down angels; and in sooth, your message we do not believe."
As to Ad, they bore them proudly and unjustly in the land, and said, "Who
more mighty than we in prowess?" Saw they not that God their creator was
mightier than they in prowess? And they rejected our signs.
Therefore on ill-omened days did we send against them an impetuous blast that
we might make them taste the chastisement of shame in this world:–but more
shameful shall be the chastisement of the life to come; and they shall not be
And as to Themoud, we had vouchsafed them guidance; but to guidance did they
prefer blindness; wherefore the tempest of a shameful punishment overtook
them for their doings:
But we rescued the believing and the God-fearing:
And warn of the day when the enemies of God shall be gathered6 unto the fire
urged on in bands:
Until when they reach it, their ears and their eyes and their skins shall
bear witness against them of their deeds:
And they shall say to their skins, "Why witness ye against us?" They shall
say, "God, who giveth a voice to all things, hath given us a voice: He
created you at first, and to Him are ye brought back.
And ye did not hide yourselves so that neither your ears nor your eyes nor
your skins should witness against you: but ye thought that God knew not many
a thing that ye did!
And this your thought which ye did think of your Lord hath ruined you, so
that ye are become of those who perish."
And be they patient, still the fire shall be their abode: or if they beg for
favour, yet shall they not be of favoured.
And we will appoint Satans as their fast companions; for it was they who made
their present and future state seem fair and right to them; and the sentence
passed on the peoples of Djinn and men who flourished before them hath become
their due, and they shall perish.
Yet the unbelievers say, "Hearken not to this Koran, but keep up a talking,
that ye may overpower the voice of the reader."
Surely therefore will we cause the unbelievers to taste a terrible
And recompense them according to the worst of their actions.
This the reward of the enemies of God,–the Fire! it shall be their eternal
abode, in requital for their gainsaying our signs.
And they who believed not shall say, "O our Lord! shew us those of the Djinn
and men who led us astray: both of them will we put under out feet, that they
may be of the humbled."
But as for those who say, "Our Lord is God;" and who go straight to Him,7
angels shall descend to them and say, "Fear ye not, neither be ye grieved,
but rejoice ye in the paradise which ye have been promised.
We are your guardians in this life and in the next: your's therein shall be
your soul's desire, and your's therein whatever ye shall ask for,
The hospitality of a Gracious, a Merciful One."
And who speaketh fairer than he who biddeth to God and doth the thing that is
right, and saith, "I for my part am of the Muslims"?
Moreover, good and evil are not to be treated as the same thing. Turn away
evil by what is better, and lo! he between whom and thyself was enmity, shall
be as though he were a warm friend.
But none attain to this save men steadfast in patience, and none attain to it
except the most highly favoured.8
And if an enticement from Satan entice thee, then take refuge in God, for He
is the Hearing, the Knowing.
And among his signs are the night, and the day, and the sun, and the moon.
Bend not in adoration to the sun or the moon, but bend in adoration before
God who created them both, if ye would serve Him.
But if they are too proud for this, yet they who are with thy Lord do
celebrate His praises night and day,9 and cease not.
And among His signs is this, that thou seest the earth drooping: but, when we
send down the rain upon it, it is stirred and swelleth; verily He who giveth
it life, will surely give life to the dead; for His might extendeth over all
They truly who with obloquy disown our signs are not hidden from us. Is he
then who shall be cast into the fire, or he who shall come forth secure on
the day of resurrection, in the better position? Do what ye will: but His eye
is on all your doings.
Verily, they who believe not in "the warning," after it hath come to them . .
. and yet the Koran is a glorious book!
Falsehood, from whatever side it cometh, shall not come night it;11 it is a
missive down from the Wise, the Praiseworthy.
Nothing hath been said to thee which hath not been said of old to apostles
before thee. Verily with thy Lord is forgiveness, and with Him is terrible
Had we made it a Koran in a foreign tongue, they had surely said, "Unless its
signs be made clear . . . !12 What! in a foreign tongue? and the people
Arabian?" SAY: It is to those who believe a guide and a medicine;13 but as to
those who believe not, there is a thickness in their ears, and to them it is
a blindness: they are like those who are called to from afar.
Of old we gave the Book to Moses, and disputes arose about it: and if a
decree of respite from thy Lord had gone before, there would surely have been
a decision between them: for great were their doubts and questionings about
He who doth right–it is for himself:15 and he who doth evil–it is for
himself: and thy Lord will not deal unfairly with his servants.
With Him alone16 is the knowledge of "the Hour." No fruit cometh forth from
its coverings, neither doth any female conceive, nor is she delivered, but
with His knowledge. And on that day He shall call men to Him, saying, "Where
are the companions ye gave me?" They shall say, "We own to thee, there is no
one of us can witness for them."
And what they erst called on shall pass away from them, and they shall
perceive that there will be no escape for them.
Man ceaseth not to pray for good: but if evil betide him he despondeth,
And if we cause him to taste our mercy after affliction hath touched him, he
is sure to say, "This is my due: and I take no thought of the Hour of
Resurrection: and if I be brought back to my Lord, I shall indeed attain with
Him my highest good." But we will then certainly declare their doings to the
Infidels, and cause them to taste a stern punishment.
When we are gracious to man, he withdraweth and turneth him aside: but when
evil toucheth him, he is a man of long prayers.
SAY: What think ye? If this Book be from God and ye believe it not, who will
have gone further astray than he who is at a distance from it?
We will shew them our signs in different countries and among themselves,
until it become plain to them that it is the truth. Is it not enough for thee
that thy Lord is witness of all things?
Are they not in doubt as to the meeting with their Lord? But doth he not
encompass all things?
1 In some MSS. this Sura is entitled Adoration. Thus Beidh. According to His.
186, comp. Caussin 1, 375 f., Muhammad's aim in this Sura was the conversion
of a noble Meccan, Utba ben Rabia, to Islam. The precise year is uncertain.
2 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.
3 Thus SS. Paul and Barnabas, Acts xiv. 15.
4 Or, never failing.
5 Lit. from before them and from behind them.
6 See Sura [lx.] xxxvi. 64, n.
7 Comp. Sura [lxxxviii.] xlvi. 12.
8 Lit. the possessor of great good fortune.
9 Comp. Rev. iv. 8 in the original.
10 Thus Tr. Taanith (init.).
11 Lit. vanity shall not come to it from before it, or from behind it.
12 We will not receive it. The literal rendering of the following words is
what! foreign and Arabian?
13 Comp. Sura [lxvii.] xvii. 83, 84.
14 Lit. verily they were in suspicious doubting about it.
15 Lit. for his soul. See next Sura, v. 14.
16 Lit. to Him is referred.
SURA XLV.–THE KNEELING [LXXII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
HA. MIM.1 This Book is sent down2 from God, the Mighty, the Wise!
Assuredly in the Heavens and the Earth are signs for those who believe:
And in your own creation, and in the beasts which are scattered abroad are
signs to the firm in faith:
And in the succession of night and day, and in the supply which God sendeth
down from the Heaven whereby He giveth life to the earth when dead, and in
the change of the winds, are signs for a people of discernment.
Such are the signs of God: with truth do we recite them to thee. But in what
teaching will they believe, if they reject3 God and his signs?
Woe to every lying sinner,
Who heareth the signs of God recited to him, and then, as though he heard
them not, persisteth in proud disdain! Apprise him of an afflictive
And when he becometh acquainted with any of our signs he turneth them into
ridicule. These! a shameful punishment for them!
Hell is behind them! and neither their gains nor the lords whom they have
adopted beside God shall avail them in the least: and theirs, a great
This is "Guidance:" and for those who disbelieve the signs of their Lord is
the punishment of an afflictive torment.
It is God who hath subjected the sea to you that the ships may traverse it at
his bidding, and that ye may go in quest of the gifts of his bounty, and that
ye may be thankful.
And he hath subjected to you all that is in the Heavens and all that is on
the Earth: all is from him. Verily, herein are signs for those who reflect.
Tell the believers to pardon those who hope not for the days of God4 in which
He purposeth to reward men according to their deeds.
He who doth that which is right, doth it to his own behoof, and whoso doth
evil, doth it to his own hurt. Hereafter, to your Lord shall ye be brought
To the children of Israel gave we of old the Book and the Wisdom, and the
gift of Prophecy, and we supplied them with good things, and privileged them
above all peoples:
And we gave them clear sanctions for our behests: neither did they differ,
through mutual envy, till after they had become possessed of knowledge; but
thy Lord will judge between them on the day of resurrection, as to the
subject of their disputes.
Afterwards we set thee over our divine law:5 follow it then: and follow not
the wishes of those who have no knowledge,
For against God shall they avail thee nothing. And in sooth, the doers of
evil are one another's patrons; but the patron of them that fear Him is God
This Book hath insight for mankind, and a Guidance and Mercy to a people who
are firm in faith.
Deem they whose gettings are only evil, that we will deal with them as with
those who believe and work righteousness, so that their lives and deaths
shall be alike? Ill do they judge.
In all truth hath God created the Heavens and the Earth, that he may reward
every one as he shall have wrought; and they shall not be wronged.
What thinkest thou? He who hath made a God of his passions, and whom God
causeth wilfully to err, and whose ears and whose heart he hath sealed up,
and over whose sight he hath placed a veil–who, after his rejection by God,
shall guide such a one? Will ye not then be warned?
And they say, "There is only this our present life: we die and we live, and
nought but time destroyeth us." But in this they have no knowledge: it is
merely their own conceit.
And when our clear signs are recited to them, their only argument is to say,
"Bring back our fathers, if ye speak the truth."
Say: God giveth you life, then causeth you to die: then will He assemble you
on the day of resurrection: there is no doubt of it: but most men have not
And God's is the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth; and on the day when
the Hour shall arrive, on that day shall the despisers6 perish.
And thou shalt see every nation KNEELING: to its own book shall every nation
be summoned:–”This day shall ye be repaid as ye have wrought.
This our Book will speak of you with truth: therein have we written down
whatever ye have done."
As to those who have believed and wrought righteously, into his mercy shall
their Lord cause them to enter. This shall be undoubted bliss!
But as to the Infidels–"Were not my signs recited to you? but ye proudly
scorned them, and became a sinful people."
And when it was said, "Verily the Promise of God is truth; and as to the
Hour, there is no doubt of it;" ye said, "We know not what the hour is–we
conceive it a mere conceit,–we have no assurance of it."
And the evils they have wrought shall rise up into their view, and that at
which they mocked shall hem them in on every side.
And it shall be said to them, "This day will we forget you as ye forgat your
meeting with us this day, and your abode shall be the fire, and none shall
there be to succour you:–
This, because ye received the signs of God with mockery, and this present
life deceived you." On that day therefore they shall not come out from it;
and they shall not be asked to win the favour of God.
Praise then be to God, Lord of the Heavens and Lord of the Earth; the Lord of
And His be the greatness in the Heavens and on the Earth; for He is the
Mighty, the Wise!
1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32.
2 Lit. the sending down, i.e. the revelation of the Book.
3 Lit. after God.
4 That is, the days of victory. In Scripture phrase, "the days of the right
hand of the Most High."
5 The Arabic amri may be rendered either command or business, i.e. of
6 Lit. the makers vain, i.e. vanitatis arguentes alcoranum. Mar.
SURA XVI.–THE BEE [LXXIII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
THE doom of God cometh to pass. Then hasten it not. Glory be to Him! High let
Him be exalted above the gods whom they join with Him!
By his own behest will He cause the angels to descend with the Spirit on whom
he pleaseth among his servants, bidding them, "Warn that there is no God but
me; therefore fear me."
He hath created the Heavens and the Earth to set forth his truth;1 high let
Him be exalted above the gods they join with Him!
Man hath He created from a moist germ;2 yet lo! man is an open caviller.
And the cattle! for you hath He created them: in them ye have warm garments
and gainful uses; and of them ye eat:
And they beseem you well3 when ye fetch them home and when ye drive them
forth to pasture:
And they carry your burdens to lands which ye could not else reach but with
travail of soul: truly your Lord is full of goodness, and merciful:
And He hath given you horses, mules, and asses, that ye may ride them, and
for your ornament: and things of which ye have no knowledge hath he created.
Of God it is to point out "the Way." Some turn aside from it: but had He
pleased, He had guided you all aright.
It is He who sendeth down rain out of Heaven: from it is your drink; and from
it are the plants by which ye pasture.
By it He causeth the corn, and the olives, and the palm-trees, and the grapes
to spring forth for you, and all kinds of fruits: verily, in this are signs
for those who ponder.
And He hath subjected to you the night and the day; the sun and the moon and
the stars too are subjected to you by his behest; verily, in this are signs
for those who understand:
And all of varied hues that He hath created for you over the earth: verily,
in this are signs for those who remember.
And He it is who hath subjected the sea to you, that ye may eat of its fresh
fish, and take forth from it ornaments to wear–thou seest the ships ploughing
its billows–and that ye may go in quest of his bounties, and that ye might
And He hath thrown firm mountains on the earth, least it move with you; and
rivers and paths for your guidance,
And way marks. By the stars too are men guided.
Shall He then who hath created be as he who hath not created? Will ye not
And if ye would reckon up the favours of God, ye could not count them. Aye!
God is right Gracious, Merciful!
And God knoweth what ye conceal, and what ye bring to light,
While the gods whom they call on beside God, create nothing, but are
Dead are they, lifeless! and they know not
When they shall be raised!
Your God is the one God: and they who believe not in a future life, have
hearts given to denial, and are men of pride:–
Beyond a doubt God knoweth what they conceal and what they manifest:–
He truly loveth not the men of pride.
For when it is said to them, "What is this your Lord hath sent down?" they
say, "Fables of the ancients,"–
That on the day of resurrection they may bear their own entire burden, and
the burden of those whom they, in their ignorance, misled. Shall it not be a
grievous burden for them?
They who were before them did plot of old. But God attacked their building at
its foundation the roof fell on them from above; and, whence they looked not
for it, punishment overtook them:4
On the day of resurrection, too, will He shame them. He will say, "Where are
the gods ye associated with me, the subjects of your disputes?" They to whom
"the knowledge" hath been given will say, Verily, this day shall shame and
evil fall upon the infidels.
The sinners against their own souls whom the angels shall cause to die will
proffer the submission, "No evil have we done." Nay! God knoweth what ye have
Enter ye therefore the gates of Hell to remain therein for ever: and horrid
the abiding place of the haughty ones!
But to those who have feared God it shall be said, "What is this that your
Lord hath awarded?" They shall say, "That which is best. To those who do
good, a good reward in this present world; but better the mansion of the
next, and right pleasant the abode of the God-fearing!"
Gardens of Eden into which they shall enter; rivers shall flow beneath their
shades; all they wish for shall they find therein! Thus God rewardeth those
who fear Him;
To whom, as righteous persons, the angels shall say, when they receive their
souls, "Peace be on you! Enter Paradise as the meed of your labours."
What can the infidels expect but that the angels of death come upon them, or
that a sentence of thy Lord take effect? Thus did they who flourished before
them. God was not unjust to them, but to their ownselves were they unjust;
And the ill which they had done recoiled upon them, and that which they had
scoffed at encompassed them round about.
They who have joined other gods with God say, "Had He pleased, neither we nor
our fathers had worshipped aught but him; nor should we, apart from him, have
forbidden aught." Thus acted they who were before them. Yet is the duty of
the apostles other than public preaching?
And to every people have we sent an apostle saying:–Worship God and turn away
from Taghout.5 Some of them there were whom God guided, and there were others
decreed to err. But go through the land and see what hath been the end of
those who treated my apostles as liars!
If thou art anxious for their guidance, know that God will not guide him whom
He would lead astray, neither shall they have any helpers.
And they swear by God with their most sacred oath that "God will never raise
him who once is dead." Nay, but on Him is a promise binding, though most men
know it not,–
That He may clear up to them the subject of their disputes, and that the
infidels may know that they are liars.
Our word to a thing when we will it, is but to say, "Be," and it is.6
And as to those who when oppressed have fled their country for the sake of
God, we will surely provide them a goodly abode in this world, but greater
the reward of the next life, did they but know it
They who bear ills with patience and put their trust in the Lord!
None have we sent before thee but men inspired ask of those who have Books of
Monition,7 if ye know it not–
With proofs of their mission and Scriptures: and to thee have we sent down
this Book of Monition that thou mayest make clear to men what hath been sent
down to them, and that they may ponder it.
What! Are they then who have plotted mischiefs, sure that God will not cause
the earth to cleave under them? or that a chastisement will not come upon
them whence they looked not for it?
Or that He will not seize upon them in their comings and goings, while they
shall not be able to resist him?
Or that he will not seize them with some slowly wasting scourge? But verily
your Lord is Good, Gracious.
Have they not seen how everything which God hath created turneth its shadow
right and left, prostrating itself before God in all abasement?
And all in the Heavens and all on the Earth, each thing that moveth, and the
very angels, prostrate them in adoration before God, and are free from pride;
They fear their Lord who is above them, and do what they are bidden:
For God hath said, "Take not to yourselves two gods, for He is one God: me,
therefore! yea, me revere!
All in the Heavens and in the Earth is His! His due unceasing service! Will
ye then fear any other than God?
And all your blessings are assuredly from God: then, when trouble befalleth
you, to Him ye turn for help:
Then when He relieveth you of the trouble, lo! some of you join associates
with your Lord:–
To prove how thankless are they for our gifts! Enjoy yourselves then: but in
the end ye shall know the truth.
And for idols, of which they know nothing, they set apart a share of our
bounties! By God ye shall be called to account for your devices!
And they ascribe daughters unto God! Glory be to Him! But they desire them
not for themselves:8
For when the birth of a daughter is announced to any one of them, dark
shadows settle on his face, and he is sad:
He hideth him from the people because of the ill tidings: shall he keep it
with disgrace or bury it in the dust?9 Are not their judgments wrong?
To whatever is evil may they be likened who believe not in a future life;10
but God is to be likened to whatever is loftiest: for He is the Mighty, the
Should God punish men for their perverse doings, he would not leave on earth
a moving thing! but to an appointed term doth He respite them; and when their
term is come, they shall not delay or advance it an hour.
Yet what they loathe themselves do they assign to God; and their tongues
utter the lie, that theirs shall be a goodly lot. But beyond a doubt is it
that the fire awaiteth them, and that they shall be the first sent into it.
By God we have sent Apostles to nations before thee, but Satan prepared their
work for them, and this day is he their liege; and a woeful punishment doth
And we have sent down the Book to thee only, that thou mightest clear up to
them the subject of their wranglings, and as a guidance and a mercy to those
And God sendeth down water from Heaven, and by it giveth life to the Earth
after it hath been dead: verily, in this is a sign to those who hearken.
Ye have also teaching from the cattle. We give you drink of the pure milk,
between dregs and blood, which is in their bellies; the pleasant beverage of
them that quaff it.
And among fruits ye have the palm and the vine, from which ye get wine and
healthful nutriment: in this, verily, are signs for those who reflect.
And thy Lord hath taught the BEE, saying: "Provide thee houses in the
mountains, and in the trees, and in the hives which men do build thee:
Feed, moreover, on every kind of fruit, and walk the beaten paths of thy
Lord." From its belly cometh forth a fluid of varying hues,11 which yieldeth
medicine to man. Verily in this is a sign for those who consider.
And God hath created you; by and bye will he take you to himself; and some
among you will he carry on to abject old age, when all that once was known is
known no longer. Aye, God is Knowing, Powerful.
And God hath abounded to some of you more than to others in the supplies of
life; yet they to whom He hath abounded, impart not thereof to the slaves
whom their right hands possess, so that they may share alike. What! will they
deny, then, that these boons are from God?
God, too, hath given you wives of your own race, and from your wives hath He
given you sons and grandsons, and with good things hath he supplied you.
What, will they then believe in vain idols? For God's boons they are
And they worship beside God those who neither out of the Heavens or Earth can
provide them a particle of food, and have no power in themselves!
Make no comparisons, therefore, with God.12 Verily, God hath knowledge, but
ye have not.
God maketh comparison between a slave13 the property of his lord, who hath no
power over anything, and a free man whom we have ourselves supplies, and who
giveth alms therefrom both in secret and openly. Shall they be held equal?
No: praise be to God! But most men know it not.