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The Koran by Mohammed

Part 12 out of 14

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54 This is an answer to the taunt that Muhammad could not distinguish true
believers from hypocrites.

55 This was the taunt of the Jews of the tribe of Kainoka, when Muhammad
demanded tribute of them in the name of God.

56 That is, who rejoice in their successful corruptions of their own sacred
books, especially the testimony of Moses to Muhammad, and in their own
fancied righteousness. Thus some of the commentators.

57 Lit. some of you are from others. These words were occasioned by one of
the Prophet's wives having told him that God often praised the men, but not
the women, who had fled their country for the faith. Beidh.

58 Lit. their movements, their comings and goings. Hence, the success of the
Meccans in their trading journeys. This may point to the comparative freedom
from trade and general independence of the Meccans after the affair at Ohod.


MEDINA.–14 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

ALL that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth praiseth God. He is
the Mighty, the Wise!

Believers! why profess ye that which ye practise not?1

Most hateful is it to God that ye say that which ye do not.

Verily God loveth those who, as though they were a solid wall, do battle for
his cause in serried lines!

And bear in mind when Moses said to his people, "Why grieve ye me, O my
people, when ye know that I am God's apostle unto you?" And when they went
astray, God led their hearts astray; for God guideth not a perverse people:

And remember when Jesus the son of Mary said, "O children of Israel! of a
truth I am God's apostle to you to confirm the law which was given before me,
and to announce an apostle that shall come after me whose name shall be
Ahmad!"2 But when he (Ahmad) presented himself with clear proofs of his
mission, they said, "This is manifest sorcery!"

But who more impious than he who when called to Islam deviseth a falsehood
concerning God? God guideth not the wicked!

Fain would they put out the light of God with their mouths! but though the
Infidels hate it, God will perfect his light.

He it is who hath sent his apostle with guidance and the religion of truth,
that, though they hate it who join other gods with God, He may make it
victorious over every other religion.

O ye who believe! shall I shew you a merchandise that shall deliver you from
the sore torment?

Believe in God and his apostle, and do valiantly in the cause of God with
your wealth and with your persons! This, did ye but know it, will be best for

Your sins will He forgive you, and He will bring you into gardens beneath
whose shades the rivers flow–into charming abodes in the gardens of Eden:
This shall be the great bliss.–

And other things which ye desire will he bestow, Help from God and speedy
conquest!3 Bear thou these tidings to the faithful.

O ye who believe! be helpers (ansars) of God; as said Jesus the son of Mary
to his apostles, "Who will come to the help of God?" "We," said the apostles,
"will be helpers of God." And a part of the children of Israel believed, and
a part believed not. But to those who believed gave we the upperhand over
their foes, and soon did they prove victorious.


1 Addressed to the Muslims who had turned their backs to the enemy at Ohod.

2 Muhammad had no doubt heard that Jesus had promised a Paracletos, John xvi.
7. This title, understood by him, probably from the similarity of sound, as
equivalent to Periclytos, he applied to himself with reference to his own
name Muhammad (i.e. praised, glorified) from the same root and of the same
meaning as Ahmad, also one of the Prophet's names. It may be here remarked
that the name Muhammad, if pronounced Muhammed, "might be understood by an
Arab in an active instead of a passive sense." (Lane, Kor. p. 52.) Other
passages of Scripture understood by Muslims of their Prophet are Deut.
xxxiii. 2, where Paran is said to mean Islam; Isai. xxi. 6, where the "rider
on the ass" is Jesus, the "rider on the camel" Muhammad; Matt. xx. 1-16,
where the morning, noon, and even are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; John
iv. 21; 1 John iv. 2, 3, where Muhammad is said to be "the spirit that is of
God," because he proclaimed that Jesus was a true man and not God.

3 If this allude to a meditated attack on the Banu Nadir (see Sura [cii.]
lix.) we have a clue to the probable date of the Sura. The promise, however,
may be general. But the tone of verse 9 evidently points to a period when, as
at Medina, the prospects of Islam were becoming hopeful.


MEDINA.1–29 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

ALL that is in the Heavens and in the Earth praiseth God, and He is the
Mighty, the Wise!

His the Kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth; He maketh alive and killeth;
and He hath power over all things!

He is the first and the last; the Seen and the Hidden;2 and He knoweth all

It is He who in six days created the Heavens and the Earth, then ascended His
throne. He knoweth that which entereth the earth, and that which goeth forth
from it, and what cometh down from Heaven, and what mounteth up to it; and
wherever ye are, He is with you; and God beholdeth all your actions!

His the kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth; and to God shall all things

He causeth the night to pass into the day, and He causeth the day to pass
into the night: and He knoweth the very secrets of the bosom!

Believe in God and his apostle, and bestow in alms of that whereof God hath
made you heirs: for whoever among you believe and give alms–their's shall be
a great recompense.

What hath come to you that ye believe not in God, although the apostle
exhorteth you to believe in your Lord, and He hath accepted your alliance–if
ye are true believers?

He it is who hath sent down clear tokens upon His servant, that He may bring
you out of darkness into light; and truly, Kind, Merciful to you is God.

And what hath come to you that ye expend not for the cause of God? since the
heritage of the Heavens and of the Earth is God's only! Those among you who
contributed before the victory, and fought, shall be differently treated from
certain others among you! Such shall have a nobler grade than those who
contributed and fought after it. But a goodly recompense hath God promised to
all; and God is fully informed of your actions.

Who is he that will lend a generous loan to God? So will He double it to him,
and he shall have a noble reward.

One day thou shalt see the believers, men and women, with their light running
before them, and on their right hand.3 The angels shall say to them, "Good
tidings for you this day of gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flow, in
which ye shall abide for ever!" This the great bliss!

On that day the hypocrites, both men and women, shall say to those who
believe, "Tarry for us, that we may kindle our light at yours." It shall be
said, "Return ye back, and seek light for yourselves." But between them shall
be set a wall with a gateway, within which shall be the Mercy, and in front,
without it, the Torment. They shall cry to them, "Were we not with you?" They
shall say, "Yes! but ye led yourselves into temptation, and ye delayed, and
ye doubted, and the good things ye craved deceived you, till the doom of God
arrived:–and the deceiver deceived you in regard to God."

On that day, therefore, no ransom shall be taken from you or from those who
believe not:–your abode the fire!–This shall be your master!4 and wretched
the journey thither!

Hath not the time come, for those who believe, to humble their hearts at the
warning of God and at the truth which he hath sent down? and that they be not
as those to whom the Scriptures were given heretofore, whose lifetime was
prolonged, but whose hearts were hardened, and many of them were perverse?

Know that God quickeneth the earth after its death! Now have we made these
signs clear to you, that ye may understand.

Verily, they who give alms, both men and women, and they who lend a generous
loan to God,–doubled shall it be to them–and they shall have a noble

And they who believed in God and his apostle are the men of truth, and the
witnesses in the presence of their Lord;5 They shall have their recompense
and their light: But as for the infidels, and those who give the lie to our
signs, these shall be the inmates of Hell.

Know ye that this world's life is only a sport, and pastime, and show, and a
cause of vainglory among you! And the multiplying of riches and children is
like the plants which spring up after rain–Their growth rejoiceth the
husband-man; then they wither away, and thou seest them all yellow; then they
become stubble. And in the next life is a severe chastisement,

Or else pardon from God and His satisfaction: and this world's life is but a
cheating fruition.6

Vie in hasting after pardon from your Lord, and Paradise–whose outspread is
as the outspread of the Heaven and of the Earth: Prepared is it for those who
believe in God and His apostles: Such is the bounty of God: to whom He will
He giveth it: and of immense bounty is God!

No mischance chanceth either on earth or in your own persons, but ere we
created them, it was in the Book;7–for easy is this to God–

Lest ye distress yourselves if good things escape you, and be over joyous for
what falleth to your share. God loveth not the presumptuous, the boaster,

Who are covetous themselves and incite others to covetousness. But whose
turneth away from almsgiving–Ah! God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy.

We have sent our apostles with the clear tokens, and we have caused the Book
and the balance8 to descend with them, that men might observe fairness. And
we have sent down IRON. Dire evil9 resideth in it, as well as advantage, to
mankind! God would know who will assist Him and his apostle in secret.
Verily, God is Powerful, Strong.

And of old sent we Noah and Abraham, and on their seed conferred the gift of
prophecy, and the Book; and some of them we guided aright; but many were evil

Then we caused our apostles to follow in their footsteps; and we caused Jesus
the son of Mary to follow them; and we gave him the Evangel,10 and we put
into the hearts of those who followed him kindness and compassion: but as to
the monastic life, they invented it themselves. The desire only of pleasing
God did we prescribe to them, and this they observed not as it ought to have
been observed: but to such of them as believed gave we their reward, though
many of them were perverse.

O ye who believe! fear God and believe in his apostle: two portions of his
mercy will He give you. He will bestow on you light to walk in, and He will
forgive you: for God is Forgiving, Merciful;

That the people of the Book may know that they have no control over aught of
the favours of God, and that these gifts of grace11 are in the hands of God,
and that He vouchsafeth them to whom he will; for God is of immense bounty.


1 The general tone of this Sura shews it to have been revealed at Medina, and
from verse 22 it may be inferred that its true date lies between the battle
of Ohod and the battle of the Ditch.

2 Lit. the exterior and the interior.

3 To guide them on their route to paradise.

4 Patronus. Mar. Beschutzer. Ullm. Or, what ye have deserved.

5 Against the infidels.

6 Supellex deceptionis. Mar.

7 Of our eternal decrees.

8 Brought by Gabriel to Noah, who imparted its use to his posterity. So say
the commentators. But the expression seems rather to be figurative. Comp.
Sura lv. 6, p. 74.

9 Or, mighty warlike strength, but the antithesis requires the rendering
given in the text. Comp. Gen. iv. 22, and Michna Tr. Aboth, 5, 9.

10 We are not to understand by the word Evangel the actual volume of the New
Testament, or any one of its component parts, but rather the revelation made
to Jesus by God himself, which Muhammad may have imagined to have been
committed to writing subsequently, in the same way as his own Koran.

11 The word in the original is the same for favours, gifts of grace, bounty.
The reference is to the gift of prophecy (Beidh.) mentioned verse 27.


MEDINA.–175 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

O MEN! fear your Lord, who hath created you of one man (nafs, soul), and of
him created his wife, and from these twain hath spread abroad so many men and
WOMEN. And fear ye God, in whose name ye ask mutual favours,–and reverence
the wombs that bare you. Verily is God watching over you!

And give to the orphans their property; substitute not worthless things of
your own for their valuable ones, and devour not their property after adding
it to your own; for this is a great crime.

And if ye are apprehensive that ye shall not deal fairly with orphans, then,
of other women who seem good in your eyes, marry but two, or three, or four;2
and if ye still fear that ye shall not act equitably, then one only; or the
slaves whom ye have acquired: this will make justice on your part easier.
Give women their dowry freely; but if of themselves they give up aught
thereof to you, then enjoy it as convenient, and profitable:

And entrust not to the incapable the substance which God hath placed with you
for their support; but maintain them therewith, and clothe them, and speak to
them with kindly speech.

And make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage; and if ye
perceive in them a sound judgment, then hand over their substance to them;
but consume ye it not wastefully, or by hastily entrusting it to them;

Because they are growing up. And let the rich guardian not even touch it; and
let him who is poor use it for his support (eat of it) with discretion.

And when ye make over their substance to them, then take witnesses in their
presence: God also maketh a sufficient account.

Men ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leave; and women3
a part of what their parents and kindred leave: whether it be little or much,
let them have a stated portion.

And when they who are of kin are present at the division, and the orphans and
the poor, let them too have a share; and speak to them with kindly speech.

And let those be afraid to wrong the orphans, who, should they leave behind
them weakly offspring, would be solicitous on their account. Let them,
therefore, fear God, and let them propose what is right.

Verily they who swallow the substance of the orphan wrongfully, shall swallow
down only fire into their bellies, and shall burn in the flame!

With regard to your children, God commandeth you to give the male the portion
of two females; and if they be females more than two, then they shall have
two-thirds of that which their father hath left: but if she be an only
daughter, she shall have the half; and the father and mother of the deceased
shall each of them have a sixth part of what he hath left, if he have a
child; but if he have no child, and his parents be his heirs, then his mother
shall have the third: and if he have brethren, his mother shall have the
sixth, after paying the bequests he shall have bequeathed, and his debts. As
to your fathers, or your children, ye know not which of them is the most
advantageous to you. This is the law of God. Verily, God is Knowing, Wise!

Half of what your wives leave shall be your's, if they have no issue; but if
they have issue, then a fourth of what they leave shall be your's, after
paying the bequests they shall bequeath, and debts.

And your wives shall have a fourth part of what ye leave, if ye have no
issue; but if ye have issue, then they shall have an eighth part of what ye
leave, after paying the bequests ye shall bequeath, and debts.

If a man or a woman make a distant relation their heir, and he or she have a
brother or a sister, each of these two shall have a sixth; but if there are
more than this, then shall they be sharers in a third, after payment of the
bequests he shall have bequeathed, and debts,

Without loss to any one. This is the ordinance of God, and God is Knowing,

These are the precepts of God; and whoso obeyeth God and his prophet, him
shall God bring into gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flow, therein to
abide for ever: and this, the great blessedness!

And whoso shall rebel against God and his apostle, and shall break His
bounds, him shall God place in the fire to abide therein for ever; and his
shall be a shameful torment.

If any of your women be guilty of whoredom, then bring four witnesses against
them from among yourselves; and if they bear witness to the fact, shut them
up within their houses till death release them,4 or God make some way for

And if two men among you commit the same crime, then punish them both; but if
they turn and amend, then let them be: for God is He who turneth, Merciful!

With God himself will the repentance of those who have done evil ignorantly,
and then turn speedily unto Him, be accepted. These! God will turn unto
them:for God is Knowing, Wise!

But no place of repentance shall there be for those who do evil, until, when
death is close to one of them, he saith, "Now verily am I turned to God;" nor
to those who die unbelievers. These! we have made ready for them a grievous

O believers! it is not allowed you to be heirs of your wives against their
will; nor to hinder them from marrying, in order to take from them part of
the dowry you had given them, unless they have been guilty of undoubted
lewdness; but associate kindly with them: for if ye are estranged from them,
haply ye are estranged from that in which God hath placed abundant good.

And if ye be desirous to exchange one wife for another, and have given one of
them a talent, make no deduction from it. Would ye take it by slandering her,
and with manifest wrong?

How, moreover, could ye take it, when one of you hath gone in unto the other,
and they have received from you a strict bond of union?

And marry not women whom your fathers have married: for this is a shame, and
hateful, and an evil way: though what is past5 may be allowed.

Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and
your aunts, both on the father and mother's side, and your nieces on the
brother and sister's side, and your foster-mothers, and your foster-sisters,
and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters who are your wards,
born of your wives to whom ye have gone in: (but if ye have not gone in unto
them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them;) and the wives of your sons
who proceed out of your loins; and ye may not have two sisters; except where
it is already done. Verily, God is Indulgent, Merciful!

Forbidden to you also are married women, except those who are in your hands
as slaves: This is the law of God for you. And it is allowed you, beside
this, to seek out wives by means of your wealth, with modest conduct, and
without fornication. And give those with whom ye have cohabited their dowry.
This is the law. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and
above the law. Verily, God is Knowing, Wise!

And whoever of you is not rich enough to marry free believing women, then let
him marry such of your believing maidens as have fallen into your hands as
slaves; God well knoweth your faith. Ye are sprung the one from the other.
Marry them, then, with the leave of their masters, and give them a fair
dower: but let them be chaste and free from fornication, and not entertainers
of lovers.

If after marriage they commit adultery, then inflict upon them half the
penalty enacted for free married women. This law is for him among you who is
afraid of doing wrong:6 but if ye abstain,7 it will be better for you. And
God is Lenient, Merciful.

God desireth to make this known to you, and to guide you into the ways of
those who have been before you, and to turn Him unto you in mercy. And God is
Knowing, Wise!

God desireth thus to turn him unto you: but they who follow their own lusts,
desire that with great swerving should ye swerve! God desireth to make your
burden light: for man hath been created weak.

O believers! devour not each other's substance in mutual frivolities;8 unless
there be a trafficking among you by your own consent: and commit not
suicide:–of a truth God is merciful to you.

And whoever shall do this maliciously and wrongfully, we will in the end cast
him into the fire; for this is easy with God.

If ye avoid the great sins which ye are forbidden, we will blot out your
faults, and we will cause you to enter Paradise with honourable entry.

Covet not the gifts by which God hath raised some of you above others. The
men shall have a portion according to their deserts, and the women a portion
according to their deserts. Of God, therefore, ask his gifts. Verily, God
hath knowledge of all things.

To every one have we appointed kindred, as heirs of what parents and
relatives, and those with whom ye have joined right hands in contract, leave.
Give therefore, to each their portion. Verily, God witnesseth all things.

Men are superior to women on account of the qualities with which God hath
gifted the one above the other, and on account of the outlay they make from
their substance for them. Virtuous women are obedient, careful, during the
husband's absence, because God hath of them been careful.9 But chide those
for whose refractoriness ye have cause to fear; remove them into beds apart,
and scourage them: but if they are obedient to you, then seek not occasion
against them: verily, God is High, Great!

And if ye fear a breach between man and wife, then send a judge chosen from
his family, and a judge chosen from her family: if they are desirous of
agreement, God will effect a reconciliation between them; verily, God is
knowing, apprised of all!

Worship God, and join not aught with Him in worship. Be good to parents,10
and to kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and to a neighbour, whether
kinsman or new-comer, and to a fellow traveller, and to the wayfarer, and to
the slaves whom your right hands hold; verily, God loveth not the proud, the
vain boaster,

Who are niggardly themselves, and bid others be niggards, and hide away what
God of his bounty hath given them. We have made ready a shameful chastisement
for the unbelievers,

And for those who bestow their substance in alms to be seen of men, and
believe not in God and in the last day. Whoever hath Satan for his companion,
an evil companion hath he!

But what blessedness would be theirs, if they should believe in God and in
the last day, and bestow alms out of what God hath vouchsafed them; for God
taketh knowledge of them!

God truly will not wrong any one of the weight of a mote; and if there be any
good deed, he will repay it doubly; and from his presence shall be given a
great recompense.

How! when we shall bring up against them witnesses from all peoples, and when
we shall bring thee up as witness against these? On that day they who were
Infidels and rebelled against the prophet, shall wish that the earth were
levelled with them! But nothing shall they hide from God.

O ye true believers,11 come not to prayer when ye are drunken, but wait till
ye can understand what ye utter; nor when ye are polluted, unless ye be
travelling on the road, until ye have washed you. If ye be sick, or on a
journey, or have come from the unclean place, or have touched a woman, and ye
find not water, then rub pure sand, and bathe your face and your hands with
it: verily, God is Lenient, Merciful.

Hast thou not remarked those12 to whom a part of the Scriptures hath been
given? Vendors are they of error, and are desirous that ye go astray from the
way. But God knoweth your enemies; and God is a sufficient patron, and God is
a sufficient helper!

Among the Jews are those who displace the words of their Scriptures, and say,
"We have heard, and we have not obeyed. Hear thou, but as one that heareth
not; and LOOK AT US;"13 perplexing with their tongues, and wounding the Faith
by their revilings.

But if they would say, "We have heard, and we obey; hear thou, and REGARD
US;" it were better for them, and more right. But God hath cursed them for
their unbelief. Few only of them are believers!

O ye to whom the Scriptures have been given! believe in what we have sent
down confirmatory of the Scripture which is in your hands, ere we efface your
features, and twist your head round backward, or curse you as we cursed the
sabbath-breakers:14 and the command of God was carried into effect.

Verily, God will not forgive the union of other gods with Himself! But other
than this will forgive to whom He pleaseth. And He who uniteth gods with God
hath devised a great wickedness.

Hast thou not marked those who hold themselves to be righteous? But God
holdeth righteous whom He will; and they shall not be wronged the husk of a
date stone.

Behold how they devise a lie of God! Therein is wickedness manifest enough!

Hast thou not observed those to whom a part of the Scriptures hath been
given?15 They believe in Djibt and Thagout, and say of the infidels, "These
are guided in a batter path than those who hold the faith."

These are they whom God hath cursed: and for him whom God hath cursed, thou
shalt by on means find a helper.

Shall they have a share in the kingdom who would not bestow on their fellow
men even the speck in a date stone?

Envy they other men what God of his bounty hath given them? We gave of old
the Scriptures and wisdom to the line of Abraham, and we gave them a grand

–Some of them believe on the prophet and some turn aside from him:–the flame
of Hell is their sufficing punishment!

Those who disbelieve our signs we will in the end cast into the fire: so oft
as their skins shall be well burnt,16 we will change them for fresh skins,
that they may taste the torment. Verily God is Mighty, Wise!

But as for those who have believed, and done the things that are right, we
will bring being them into gardens 'neath which the rivers flow therein to
abide eternally;–therein shall they have wives of stainless purity: and we
will bring them into aye-shadowing shades.

Verily, God enjoineth you to give back your trusts to their owners, and when
ye judge between men, to judge with fairness. Excellent is the practice to
which God exhorteth you. God Heareth, Beholdeth!

O ye who believe! obey God and obey the apostle, and those among you invested
with authority; and if in aught ye differ, bring it before God and the
apostle, if ye believe in God and in the latter day. This is the best and
fairest way of settlement.

Hast thou not marked those who profess that they believe in what hath been
sent down to thee, and what hath been sent down before thee? Fain would they
be judged before Thagout, though commanded not to believe in him; and fain
would Satan make them wander with wanderings wide of truth.

And when it is said to them, "Accede to that which God hath sent down, and to
the apostle," thou seest the hypocrites avert them from thee with utter

But how, when some misfortune shall fortune them, for their previous
handywork? Then will they come to thee, swearing by God, "We desire nothing
but to promote good and concord!"

These are they whose hearts God knoweth. Therefore break off from them, and
warn them, speak words that may penetrate their souls.

We have not sent any apostle but to be obeyed, it God so will: but if they,
after they have sinned to their own hurt by unbelief, come to thee and ask
pardon of God, and the apostle ask pardon for them, they shall surely find
that God is He who turneth unto man, Merciful.

And they will not–I swear by thy Lord–they will not believe, until they have
set thee up as judge between them on points where they differ. Then shall
they not find in their own minds any difficulty in thy decisions, and shall
submit with entire submission.

Had we laid down such a law for them as "Kill yourselves, or abandon your
dwellings," but few of them would have done it. But had they done that to
which they were exhorted, better and it been for them, and stronger for the
confirmation of their faith.

In that case we had surely given them from ourself a great recompense, and on
the straight path should we surely have guided them.

And whoever shall obey God and the Apostle, these shall be with those of the
Prophets, and of the Sincere, and of the Martyrs, and of the Just, to whom
God hath been gracious. These are a goodly band!

This is the bounty of God; and in knowledge doth God suffice.

O ye who believe! make use of precautions; and advance in detachments, or ,
advance in a body.

There is of you who will be a laggard: and if a reverse befall you he saith,
"Now hath God dealt graciously with me, since I was not with you in the

But if a success from God betide you, he will say, as if there had never been
any friendship between you and him, "Would I had been with them! a rich prize
should I have won!"

Let those then fight on the path of God, who barter this present life for
that which is to come; for whoever fighteth on God's path, whether he be
slain or conquer, we will in the end give him a great reward.

But what hath come to you that ye fight not on the path of God, and for the
weak among men, women and children, who say, "O our Lord! bring us forth from
this city17 whose inhabitants are oppressors; give us a champion from thy
presence; and give us from thy presence a defender."

They who believe, fight on the path of God; and they who believe not, fight
on the path of Thagout: Fight therefore against the friends of Satan. Verily
craft of Satan shall be powerless!

Hast thou not marked those to whom it was said, "Withhold your hands awhile
from war; and observe prayer, and pay the stated alms." But when war is
commanded them, lo! a portion of them fear men as with the fear of God, or
with a yet greater fear, and say: "O our Lord! why hast thou commanded us
war? Couldst thou not have given us respite till our not distant end?" SAY:
Small the fruition of this world; but the next life is the true good for him
who feareth God! and ye shall not be wronged so much as the skin of a date

Wherever ye be, death will overtake you–although ye be in lofty towers! If
good fortune betide them, they say, "This is from God;" and if evil betide
them, they say, "This is from thee." SAY: All is from God: But what hath come
to these people that they are not near to understanding what is told them?

Whatever good betideth thee is from God, and whatever betideth thee of evil
is from thyself; and we have sent thee to mankind as an apostle: God is thy
sufficing witness.

Whoso obeyeth the Apostle, in so doing obeyeth God: and as to those who turn
back from thee, we have not sent thee to be their keeper.

Moreover, they say: "Obedience!" but when they come forth from thy presence,
a party of them brood by night over other than thy words; but God writeth
down what they brood over: therefore separate thyself from them, and put thou
thy trust in God. is a sufficient protector!

Can they not consider the Koran? Were it from any other than God, they would
surely have found in it many contradictions.

And when tidings, either of security or alarm, reach them, they tell them
abroad; but if they would report them to the apostle, and to those who are in
authority among them, those who desire information would learn it from them.
But for the goodness and mercy of God towards you, ye would have followed
Satan except a few!

Fight, therefore, on God's path: lay not burdens on any but thyself; and stir
up the faithful. The might of the infidels haply will god restrain, for God
is the stronger in prowess, and the stronger to punish.

He who shall mediate between men for a good purpose shall be the gainer by
it. But he who shall mediate with an evil mediation shall reap the fruit of
it. And God keepeth watch over everything.

If ye are greeted with a greeting, then greet ye with a better greeting, or
at least return it: God taketh count of all things.

God! there is no god but He! He will certainly assemble you on the day of
resurrection. There is no doubt of it. And whose word is more true than

Why are ye two parties on the subject of the hypocrites, when God hath cast
them off for their doings? Desire ye to guide those whom god hath led astray?
But for him whom God leadeth astray, thou shalt by no means find a pathway.

They desire that ye should be infidels as they are infidels, and that ye
should be alike. Take therefore none of them for friends, till they have fled
their homes for the cause of God. If they turn back, then seize them, and
slay them wherever ye find them; but take none of them as friends or helpers,

Except those who shall seek and asylum among your allies, and those who come
over to you–their hearts forbidding them to make war on you, or to make war
on their own people. Had God pleased, he would have given them power against
you, and they would have made war upon you! But, if they depart from you, and
make not war against you and offer you peace, the God alloweth you no
occasion against them.

Ye will find others who seek to gain your confidence as well as that of their
own people: So oft as they return to sedition, they shall be overthrown in
it: But if they leave you not, nor propose terms or peace to you nor withhold
their hands, then seize them, and slay them, wherever ye find them. Over
these have we given you undoubted power.

A believer killeth not a believer but by mischance: and whoso killeth a
believer by mischance shall be bound to free a believer from slavery; and the
blood-money shall be paid to the family of the slain, unless they convert it
into alms. But if the slain believer be of a hostile people, then let him
confer freedom on a slave who is a believer; and if he be of a people between
whom and yourselves there is an alliance, then let the blood-money be paid to
his family, and let him set free a slave who is a believer: and let him who
hath not the means, fast two consecutive months. This is the penance enjoined
by God; and God is Knowing, Wise!

But whoever shall kill a believer of set purpose, his recompense shall be
hell; for ever shall he abide in it; God shall be wrathful with him, and
shall curse him, and shall get ready for him a great torment.

O believers! when ye go forth to the fight for the cause of God, be
discerning, and say not to every one who meeteth you with a greeting, "Thou
art not a believer"18 in your greed after the chance good things of this
present life! With God are abundant spoils. Such hath been your wont in times
past; but god hath been gracious to you. Be discerning, then, for God well
knoweth what ye do.

Those believers who sit at home free from trouble, and those who do valiantly
in the cause of God with their substance and their persons, shall not be
treated alike. God hath assigned to those who contend earnestly with their
persons and with their substance, a rank above those who sit at home. Goodly
promises hath He made to all. But God hath assigned to the strenuous a rich
recompense, above those who sit still at home,

Rank of his own bestowal, and forgiveness, and mercy; for God is Indulgent,

The angels,19 when they took the souls of those who had been unjust to their
own weal, demanded, "What hath been your state?"20 They said, "We were the
weak ones21 of the earth." They replied, "Was not God's earth broad enough
for you to flee away in?" These! their home shall be Hell, and evil the
passage to it–

Except the men and women and children who were not able, through their
weakness, to find the means of escape, and were not guided on their way.
These haply God will forgive: for God is Forgiving, Gracious.

Whoever flieth his country for the cause of God, will find in the earth many
under like compulsion, and abundant resources; and if any one shall quit his
home and fly to God and his apostle, and then death overtake him,–his reward
from God is sure: for God is Gracious, Merciful!

And when ye go forth to war in the land, it shall be no crime in you to cut
short your prayers,22 if ye fear lest the infidels come upon you; Verily, the
infidels are your undoubted enemies!

And when thou, O apostle! shalt be among them, and shalt pray with them, then
let a party of them rise up with thee, but let them take their arms; and when
they shall have made their prostrations, let them retire to your rear: then
let another party that hath not prayed come forward, and let them pray with
you; but let them take their precautions and their arms. Pleased would the
infidels be for you to neglect your arms and your baggage, that they might
turn upon you at once! And it shall be no crime in you to lay down your arms
if rain annoy you, or if ye be sick. But take your precautions.23 Verily, God
hath made ready a shameful torment for the infidels.

And when ye shall have ended the prayer, make mention of God, standing, and
sitting, and reclining: and as soon as ye are secure, observe prayer; for to
the faithful, prayer is a prescribed duty, and for stated hours.

Slacken not in pursuit of the foe. If ye suffer, assuredly they suffer also
as ye suffer; but ye hope from God for what they cannot hope! And God is
Knowing, Wise!

Verily, we have sent down the Book to thee with the truth, thou that mayest
judge between men according as God hath given thee insight: But with the
deceitful ones dispute not: and implore pardon of God. Verily, God is
Forgiving, Merciful.24

And plead not with us for those who are self-deceivers; for God loveth not
him who is deceitful, criminal.

From men they hide themselves; but they cannot hide themselves from God: and
when they hold nightly discourses which please Him not, He is with them. God
is round about their doings!

Oh! ye are they who plead in their favour in this present life; but who shall
plead with God for them on the day of the resurrection? Who will be the
guardian over them?

Yet he who doth evil, or shall have acted against his own weal, and then
shall ask pardon of God, will find God Forgiving, Merciful:

And whoever committeth a crime, committeth it to his own hurt. And God is
Knowing, Wise!

And whoever committeth an involuntary fault or a crime, and then layeth it on
the innocent, shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and of a manifest crime.

But for the grace and mercy of God upon thee, a party among them had resolved
to mislead thee, but they shall only mislead themselves; nor in aught shall
they harm thee. God hath caused the Book and the wisdom to descend upon thee:
and what thou knowest not He hath caused thee to know: and the grace of God
toward thee hath been great.

In most of their secret talk is nothing good; but only in his who enjoineth
almsgiving, or that which is right, or concord among men. Whoso doth this,
out of desire to please God, we will give him at the last a great reward:

But whoso shall sever himself from the prophet after that "the guidance" hath
been manifested to him, and shall follow any other path than that of the
faithful, we will turn our back on him as he hath turned his back on us, and
we will cast him into Hell;–an evil journey thither!

God truly will not forgive the joining other gods with Himself. Other sins He
will forgive to whom He will: but he who joineth gods with God, hath erred
with far-gone error.

They call, beside Him, upon mere goddesses! they invoke a rebel Satan!

On them is the malison of God. For he said, "A portion of thy servants will I
surely take, and will lead them astray, and will stir desires within them,
and will command them and they shall cut the ears of animals;25 and I will
command them, and they shall alter the creation of God."26 He who taketh
Satan rather than God for his patron, is ruined with palpable ruin:

He hath made them promises, and he hath stirred desires within them; but
Satan promiseth, only to beguile!

These! their dwelling Hell! no escape shall they find from it!

But they who believe and do the things that are right, we will bring them
into gardens beneath which the rivers flow; For ever shall they abide
therein. Truly it is the promise of God: And whose word is more sure than

Not according to your wishes, or the wishes of the people of the Book, shall
these things be. He who doth evil shall be recompensed for it. Patron or
helper, beside God, shall he find none.

But whoso doth the things that are right, whether male or female, and he or
she a believer,–these shall enter Paradise, nor shall they be wronged the
skin of a date stone.

And who hath a better religion than he who resigneth himself to God, who doth
what is good, and followeth the faith of Abraham in all sincerity? And God
took Abraham for his friend.

All that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth is God's: and God
encompasseth all things!

Moreover, they will consult thee in regard to women: SAY: God hath instructed
you about them; and His will is rehearsed to you, in the Book, concerning
female orphans to whom ye give not their legal due, and whom ye refuse to
marry; also with regard to weak children; and that ye deal with fairness
towards orphans. Ye cannot do a good action, but verily God knoweth it.

And if a wife fear ill usage or aversion on the part of her husband, then
shall it be no fault in them if they can agree with mutual agreement, for
agreement is best. Men's souls are prone to avarice; but if ye act kindly and
fear God, then, verily, your actions are not unnoticed by God!

And ye will not have it at all in your power to treat your wives alike, even
though you fain would do so; but yield not wholly to disinclination, so that
ye leave one of them as it were in suspense; if ye come to an understanding,
and fear God, then, verily, God is Forgiving, Merciful;

But if they separate, God can compensate both out of His abundance; for God
is Vast, Wise;

And whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth is God's! We have already
enjoined those to whom the Scriptures were given before you, and yourselves,
to fear God. But if ye become unbelievers, yet know that whatever is in the
Heavens and in the Earth is God's: and God is Rich, Praiseworthy.

All that is in Heaven and all that is in Earth is God's! God is a sufficient

If he pleased, he could cause you to pass away, O mankind! and create others
in your stead: for this hath God power.

If any one desire the reward of this world, yet with God is the reward of
this world and of the next! And God Heareth, Beholdeth.

O ye who believe! stand fast to justice, when ye bear witness before God,
though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kindred, whether
the party be rich or poor. God is nearer than you to both. Therefore follow
not passion, lest ye swerve from truth. And if ye wrest your testimony or
stand aloof, God verily is well aware of what ye do.

O ye who believe! believe in God and his Apostle, and the Book which he hath
sent down to his Apostle, and the Book which he hath sent down aforetime.
Whoever believeth not on God and his Angels and his Books and his Apostles,
and in the last day, he verily hath erred with far-gone error.

Verily, they who believed, then became unbelievers, then believed, and again
became unbelievers, and then increased their unbelief–it is not God who will
forgive them or guide them into the way.

Announce27 to the hypocrites that a dolorous torment doth await them.

Those who take the unbelievers for friends besides the faithful–do they seek
honour at their hands? Verily, all honour belongeth unto God!

And already hath He sent this down to you in the Book28 "WHEN YE SHALL HEAR
not therefore with such, until they engage in other discourse; otherwise, ye
will become like them. Verily God will gather the hypocrites and the infidels
all together in Hell.

They watch you narrowly. Then if God grant you a victory, they say, "Are we
not with you?" and if the infidels meet with a success, they say to them,
"Were we not superior to you: and did we not defend you from those
believers?" God shall judge betwixt ye on the day of the resurrection, and
God will by no means make a way for the infidels over the believers.

The hypocrites would deceive God, but He will deceive them! When they stand
up for prayer, they stand carelessly, to be seen of men, and they remember
God but little:

Wavering between the one and the other–belonging neither to these nor those!
and by no means shalt thou find a path for him whom God misleadeth.

O believers! take not infidels for friends rather than believers. Would ye
furnish God with clear right to punish you?

Verily the hypocrites shall be in the lowest abyss of the fire: and, by no
means shalt thou find a helper for them;

Save for those who turn and amend, and lay fast hold on God, and approve the
sincerity of their religion to God; these shall be numbered with the
faithful, and God will at last bestow on the faithful a great reward.

Why should God inflict a chastisement upon you, if ye are grateful, and
believe? God is Grateful, Wise!

God loveth not that evil be matter of public talk, unless any one hath been
wronged: God it is who Heareth, Knoweth!

Whether ye publish what is good, or conceal it, or pardon evil, verily God is
Pardoning, Powerful!

Of a truth they who believe not on God and his Apostles, and seek to separate
God from his Apostles, and say, "Some we believe, and some we believe not,"
and desire to take a middle way;

These! they are veritable infidels! and for the infidels have we prepared a
shameful punishment.

And they who believe on God and his Apostles, and make no difference between
them these! we will bestow on them their reward at last. God is Gracious,

The people of the Book will ask of thee to cause a Book to come down unto
them out of Heaven. But a greater thing than this did they ask of Moses! for
they said, "Shew us God plainly!" and for this their wickedness did the fire-
storm lay hold on them. Then took they the calf as the object of their
worship, after that our clear tokens had come to them; but we forgave them
this, and conferred on Moses undoubted power.

And we uplifted the mountain 29 over them when we made a covenant with them,
and we said to them, "Enter the gate adoring:"and we said to them,
"Transgress not on the Sabbath," and we received from them a strict covenant.

So, for that they have broken their covenant, and have rejected the signs of
God, and have put the prophets to death unjustly, saying the while, "Our
hearts are uncircumcised,"–Nay, but God hath sealed them up for their
unbelief, so that but few believe.

And for their unbelief,–and for their having spoken against Mary a grievous

And for their saying, "Verily we have slain the Messiah, Jesus the son of
Mary, an Apostle of God." Yet they slew him not, and they crucified him not,
but they had only his likeness.30 And they who differed about him were in
doubt concerning him: No sure knowledge had they about him, but followed only
an opinion, and they did not really slay him, but God took him up to Himself.
And God is Mighty, Wise!

There shall not be one of the people of the Book but shall believe in Him
before his death, and in the day of resurrection, He will be a witness
against them.

For the wickedness of certain Jews, and because they turn many from the way
of God, we have forbidden them goodly viands which had been before allowed

And because they have taken usury, though they were forbidden it, and have
devoured men's substance in frivolity, we have got ready for the infidels
among them a grievous torment.

But their men of solid knowledge, and the believers who believe in that which
hath been sent down to thee, and in what hath been sent down before thee, and
who observe prayer, and pay the alms of obligation, and believe in God and
the latter day,–these! we will give them a great reward.

Verily we have revealed to thee as we revealed to Noah and the Prophets after
him, and as we revealed to Abraham, and Ismaël, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the
tribes, and Jesus, and Job, and Jonah, and Aaron, and Solomon; and to David
gave we Psalms.

Of some apostles we have told thee before: of other apostles we have not told
thee–And discoursing did God discourse with Moses–

Apostles charged to announce and to warn, that men, after those apostles,
might have no plea against God. And God is Mighty, Wise!

But God is himself witness of what He hath sent down to thee: In His
knowledge hath He sent it down to thee. The angels are also its witnesses:
but God is a sufficient witness!

Verily, they who believe not and pervert from the way of God, have indeed
erred with error wide of truth.

Verily, those who believe not, and act wrongfully, God will never pardon, and
never will he guide them on path,

Than the path to Hell, in which they shall abide for ever! And this is easy
for God.

O men! now hath an apostle come to you with truth from your Lord. Believe
then, it will be better for you. But if ye believe not, then, all that is in
the Heavens and the Earth is God's; and God is Knowing, Wise!

O ye people of the Book! overstep not bounds in your religion;31 and of God,
speak only truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is only an apostle of God,
and his Word which he conveyed into Mary, and a Spirit32 proceeding from
himself. Believe therefore in God and his apostles, and say not, "Three:"
(there is a Trinity)–Forbear–it will be better for you. God is only one God!
Far be it from His glory that He should have a son! His, whatever is in the
Heavens, and whatever is in the Earth! And God is a sufficient Guardian.

The Messiah disdaineth not to be a servant of God, nor do the angels who are
nigh unto Him.

And whoso disdaineth His service, and is filled with pride, God will gather
them all to Himself.

And to those who believe and do the things that are right, will He pay them
their due recompense, and out of His bounty will He increase them: but as for
those who are disdainful and proud, with a grievous chastisement will He
chastise them;

And none beside God shall they find to protect or to help them.

O men! now hath a proof come to you from your Lord, and we have sent down to
you a clear light. As to those who believe in God and lay fast hold on Him,
these will He cause to enter into his mercy and grace, and along the straight
way unto Himself will He guide them.

They will consult thee. SAY: God instructeth you as to distant kindred. If a
man die childless, but have a sister, half what he shall have shall be her's;
and if she die childless he shall be her heir. But if there be two sisters,
two-third parts of what he shall have shall be theirs; and if there be both
brothers and sisters, the male shall have the portion of two females. God
teacheth you plainly, that ye err not! God knoweth all things.


1 Most of the events alluded to in this Sura fall between the end of the
third and the close of the fifth year after the Flight to Medina.

2 Muhammad assumed to himself the privilege of having a yet greater number of
wives. But in doing so, he was probably actuated by a desire for male
offspring. Chadijah was his only wife until quite a late period of his
career. Comp. Arbah Turim. Ev. Hazaer 1, "A man may marry many wives, for
Rabba saith it is lawful to do so, if he can provide for them. Nevertheless,
the wise men have given good advice, that a man should not marry more than
four wives." See also Yad Hachazakah Hilchoth Ishuth. 14, 3.

3 Verses 8 and 12 are said by the commentators to have been revealed in
consequence of the complaints of Omm Kuhha that, in accordance with the ante-
Islamitic custom, she had been excluded from any portion of her deceased
husband's property. The unsatisfactory nature of the Muhammadan traditions
may be inferred from the fact, that no less than six different names are
assigned to him. It is, however, probable that these and similar laws
relative to inheritances were given at a time when many heads of families had
fallen, as at Ohod, in battle. This remark applies to verses 33-45.

4 Women found guilty of adultery and fornication were punished at the first
rise of Islam, by being literally immured. But this was exchanged, in the
case of a maiden, for one year's banishment and 100 stripes; and in the case
of a married woman, for stoning.

5 What took place in the times of ignorance, previous to the revelation of
the Koran. See Freytag's Einl. p. 201, as to the incestuous nature of the
ante-Islamitic Arabian marriages.

6 By marrying without means adequate to the support of a free wife, or by
remaining single.

7 From marrying slaves.

8 Games of chance, usury, etc.

9 By providing for them a home and the protection of a husband. Or, of that
which God would have them care for.

10 An undutiful child is very seldom heard of among the Egyptians, or the
Arabs in general. Sons scarcely ever sit, or sit, or eat, or smoke, in the
presence of the father unless bidden to do so; and they often wait upon him
and upon his guests at meals and on other occasions: they do not cease to act
thus when they have become men. Lane's Mod. Egypt. vol. i. p. 69.

11 The Koranic precepts as to prayer savour of Jewish origin. Thus, "Prayer
should be said standing" is a Rabbinic precept.–Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 240.–
Misch.Berachoth 10–may be shortened in dangerous places, ib. iv. 10–is
forbidden to the drunken, ib. 31, 2. Erubin, 64–and to the polluted;
Berachoth iii. 4–and is to be preceded, in this case, by washings with water
or sand. See Sura xvii. 110, note 2, p. 173. 1 Cor. xi. 21.

12 The Jews and their Rabbis.

13 See Sura [xci.] ii. 98.

14 Lit. the companions of the sabbath. See [xci.] ii. 61.

15 This refers to certain renegade Jews, who out of hatred against Muhammad,
went over to the Koreisch. See Nöldeke. p. 149.

16 Lit. ripened.

17 Mecca.

18 And therefore a fit subject for plunder.

19 Some of the Meccans after embracing Islam did not thoroughly break with
the infidels and fly their country. These persons were miraculously slain by
angels at Bedr. Others suppose the angels to be Nakir and Monkir, who examine
the dead in the grave.

20 That is, to what religion did ye belong?

21 And therefore could not resist the unbelievers.

22 Thus the Rabbins Tr. Berachoth, iv. 4, "He that goeth in a dangerous place
may pray a short prayer."

23 See Mischna Tr. Berachoth, 10.

24 This verse is said to have been revealed when Muhammad was about to acquit
a Muslim who had committed theft, and laid the guilt at the door of a Jew.
But the particulars are given in a very contradictory manner. See Nöldeke, p.

25 In allusion to an idolatrous and superstitious custom of the old Arabians.

26 By the mutilation of slaves, branding their bodies, filing the teeth, etc.

27 See Sura lxxxiv. 24, p. 47, note.

28 Sura vi.

29 See Sura [xci.] ii.7.

30 Lit. one was made to appear to them like (Jesus). Comp. [xcvii.] iii.48.
Photius, Bibl. Cod. cxiv.says that the Apocr. Book, [Greek text]–This
individual according to the Basilidans was-Simon of Cyrene; according to the
Evang. Barnab‘, Judas.–Mani, Ep. Fund. ap. Evodium: "Princeps itaque
tenebrarum cruci est affixus, idemque coronam spineam portavit."

31 By believing too much, like the Christians who regarded Jesus as God; or
too little, like the Jews who would not believe on Muhammad.

32 That is, a Being possessing a Spirit.


MECCA.–12 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

O PROPHET! when ye divorce women, divorce them at their special times. And
reckon those times exactly, and fear God your Lord. Put them not forth from
their houses, nor allow them to depart, unless they have committed a proven
adultery. This is the precept of God; and whoso transgresseth the precept of
God, assuredly imperilleth his own self. Thou knowest not whether, after
this, God may not cause something new to occur which may bring you together

And when they have reached their set time, then either keep them with
kindness, or in kindness part from them. And take upright witnesses from
among you, and bear witness as unto God. This is a caution for him who
believeth in God and in the latter day. And whoso feareth God, to him will He
grant a prosperous issue, and will provide for him whence he reckoned not
upon it.

And for him who putteth his trust in Him will God be all-sufficient. God
truly will attain his purpose. For everything hath God assigned a period.

As to such of your wives as have no hope of the recurrence of their times, if
ye have doubts in regard to them, then reckon three months, and let the same
be the term of those who have not yet had them. And as to those who are with
child, their period shall be until they are delivered of their burden. God
will make His command easy to him who feareth Him.

This is God's command which He hath sent down to you: Whoso feareth God, his
evil deeds will He cancel and will increase his reward.

Lodge the divorced wherever ye lodge, according to your means; and distress
them not by putting them to straits. And if they are pregnant, then be at
charges for the them till they are delivered of their burden; and if they
suckle your children, then pay them their hire and consult among yourselves,
and act generously: And if herin ye meet with obstacles, then let another
female suckle for him.

Let him who hath abundance of his abundance; let him, too, whose store is
scanty, give of what God hath vouchsafed to him. God imposeth burdens only
according to the means which He hath given. God will cause ease to succeed

How many cities have turned aside from the command of their Lord and of his
apostles! Therefore did we reckon with them in a severe reckoning, and
chastised them with a stern chastisement;

And they tasted the harmfulness of their own conduct: and the end of their
conduct was ruin.

A vehement chastisement hath God prepared for them! Fear God, then, O ye men
of understanding!2

Believers! Now hath God sent down to you a warning! a prophet, who reciteth
to you the clear signs of God, that he may bring those who believe, and do
the things that are right, out of the darkness into the light. And-whoso
believeth in God, and doeth the things that are right, God will cause them to
enter the gardens beneath which the rivers flow, to remain therein for aye! A
goodly provision now hath God made for him.

It is God who hath created seven heavens and as many earths.3 The Divine
command cometh down through them all, that ye may know that God hath power
over all things, and that God in his knowledge embraceth all things!


1 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 228, which this Sura is perhaps intended to
supplement. Wahidi and Beidhawi state that it was revealed on account of Ibn
Omar who had divorced his wife at improper time, and was obliged to take her

2 In order to make good the rhyme, verse 10 ought to be continued to the end
of the first clause of verse II.

3 Lit. and of the earth, their likes. The style of this verse resembles that
of the Meccan Suras. Hence, probably; a tradition in Omar ben Muhammad makes
the whole Sura Meccan.


MEDINA.–24 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

ALL that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth praiseth God! He, the
Mighty, the Wise!

He it is who caused the unbelievers among the people of the Book to quit
their homes and join those who had EMIGRATED previously.1 Ye did not think
that they would quit them; and they on their part thought that their
fortresses would protect them against God: But God came upon them whence they
looked not for Him, and cast such fear into their hearts that by their own
hands as well as by the hands of the victorious believers they demolished
their houses! Profit by this example ye who are men of insight!

And were it not that God had decreed their exile, surely in this world would
he have chastised them: but in the world to come the chastisement of the fire
awaiteth them.

This because they set them against God and his apostle; and whoso setteth him
against God. . . . ! God truly is vehement in punishing.

Your cutting down some of their palm trees and sparing others was by God's
permission, and to put the wicked to shame.

After the spoils of these Jews which God hath assigned to his apostle, ye
pressed not with horse or camel.2 But God giveth his apostles power over what
he will. God is Almighty.

The spoil taken from the people of the towns and assigned by God to his
apostle, belongeth to God, and to the apostle, and to his kindred, and to the
orphan, and to the poor, and to the wayfarer, that none of it may circulate
among such of you only as are rich: What the apostle hath given you, take:
What he hath refused you, refuse: And fear ye God, for God is severe in

To the poor refugees (Mohadjerin) also doth a part belong, who have been
driven from their homes and their substance, and who seek favour from God and
his goodwill, and aid God and his apostle. These are the men of genuine

They of Medina who had been in possession of their abodes and embraced the
faith before them, cherish those who take refuge with them; and they find not
in their breasts any desire for what hath fallen to their share: they prefer
them before themselves, though poverty be their own lot. And with such as are
preserved from their own covetousness shall it be well.

And they who have come after them into the faith say, "O our Lord! forgive us
and our brethren who have preceded us in the faith, and put not into our
hearts ill-will against those who believe. O our Lord! thou verily art Kind,

Hast thou not observed the disaffected saying to their unbelieving brethren3
among the people of the Book, "If ye be driven forth, we will go forth with
you; and in what concerneth you, never will we obey any one; and if ye be
attacked we will certainly come to your help." But God is witness that they
are liars.

No! if they were driven forth, they would not share their banishment; if they
were attacked they would not help them, or if they help them they will surely
turn their backs: then would they remain unhelped.

Assuredly the fear of you is more intense in their hearts than the fear of
God! This because they are a people devoid of discernment.

They (the Jews) will not fight against you in a body except in fenced towns
or from behind walls. Mighty is their valour among themselves! thou thinkest
them united–but their hearts are divided. This for that they are a people who
understand not.

They act like those who lately preceded them,4 who also tasted the result of
their doings; and a grievous chastisement awaiteth them–

Like Satan when he saith to a man, "Be an infidel:" and when he hath become
an infidel, he saith, "I share not thy guilt:5 verily, I fear God the Lord of
the Worlds."

Of both, therefore, shall the end be that they dwell for ever in the fire:
This is the recompense of the evil doers.

O ye who believe! fear God. And let every soul look well to what it sendeth
on before for the morrow. And fear ye God: Verily, God is cognisant of what
ye do.

And be ye not like those who forget God, and whom He hath therefore caused to
forget their proper selves. Such men are the evil doers.

The inmates of the Fire and the inmates of Paradise are not to be held equal.
The inmates of Paradise only shall be the blissful.

Had we sent down this Koran on some mountain, thou wouldst certainly have
seen it humbling itself6 and cleaving asunder for the fear of God. Such are
the parables we propose to men in order that they may reflect.

He is God beside whom there is no god. He knoweth things visible and
invisible: He is the Compassionate, the Merciful.

He is God beside whom there is no god: He is the King, the Holy, the
Peaceful, the Faithful, the Guardian, the Mighty, the Strong, the Most High!
Far be the Glory of God from that which they unite with Him!

He is God, the Producer, the Maker, the Fashioner! To Him are ascribed
excellent titles. Whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth praiseth Him.
He is the Mighty, the Wise!


1 The Jews of Nadhir, three miles from Medina, had broken a treaty made with
Muhammad, and in the month RabΠof the fourth year of the Hejira were
besieged by him and driven first to the Jews of Kainoka, who had emigrated
previously, under compulsion, after the battle of Bedr, and subsequently out
of Arabia. Weil, Life of M. p.137.n.

2 On which account these spoils were entirely assigned to Muhammad, and not
divided in the usual manner. See Sura [xcv.] viii. 42. Weil, p. 138, 184.

3 To the Jews of the tribe of Nadhir.

4 The idolaters slain at Bedr (Djal.) or the Jews of Kainoka, who had been
plundered previously to those of Nadhir.

5 Lit. I am clear of thee.

6 This may be derived from the Rabbinical idea that Mount Sinai was chosen,
on account of its lowness, to be the scene of the revelation to Moses, in
order to shew that God loves the humble.


MEDINA.–73 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

O PROPHET, fear thou God, and obey not the unbelievers and the hypocrites;–
Truly God is Knowing, Wise:

But follow what is revealed to thee from thy Lord: Cognisant truly is He of
all your actions–

And put thou thy trust in God, for a sufficient guardian is God.

God hath not given a man two hearts within him; neither hath he made your
wives whom ye divorce2 to be as your mothers; nor hath he made your adopted
sons to be as your own sons. Such words are indeed in your mouths; but God
speaketh the truth, and in the right way He guideth.

Name them after their fathers: this will be more right before God. But if ye
know not who their fathers are, then let them be your brethren in the faith,
and your comrades. And unless made with intent of heart, mistakes in this
matter shall be no crime in you: for God is Lenient, Merciful.

Nearer of kin to the faithful is the Prophet, than they are to their own
selves. His wives are their mothers. According to the Book of God, they who
are related by blood, are nearer the one to the other than other believers,
and than those who have fled their country3 for the cause of God: but
whatever kindness ye shew to your kindred, shall be noted down in the Book.

And remember that we have entered into covenant with the Prophets, and with
thee, and with Noah, and Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus, Son of Mary: and we
formed with them a strict covenant,

That God may question the men of truth as to their truth.4 But a sore torment
hath He prepared for the unbelievers.

O believers!5 remember the goodness of God towards you, when the armies came
against you, and we sent against them a blast, and hosts that ye saw not; for
the eye of God was upon your doings:

When they assailed you from above you, and from below you,6 and when your
eyes became distracted, and your hearts came up into your throat, and ye
thought divers thoughts of God:

Then were the faithful tried, and with strong quaking did they quake:

And when the disaffected and the diseased7 of heart said, "God and his
Apostle have made us but a cheating promise:"

And when a party of them said, "O people of Yathrib!8 there is no place of
safety for you here;9 therefore return into the city." And another party of
you asked the prophet's leave to return, saying, "Our houses are left
defenceless." No! they were not left defenceless: but their sole thought was
to flee away.

If the enemy had effected an entry at all points, and they (the disaffected)
had been asked to promote confusion, they would have done so; but only a
short time would they have remained in it.–(Medina).10

They had before pledged themselves to God that they would not turn their
backs; and a pledge given to God must be enquired of.

SAY: Flight shall not profit you; if ye have fled the death or the slaughter,
yet even then, but a little while shall ye enjoy your good things!

SAY: Who is he that will screen you from God, whether He choose to bring evil
on you, or to shew you mercy? None beside God shall they find to be their
patron or helper.

God well knoweth those among you who cause hindrances, and those who say to
their brethren, "Come hither to us;" and who come not to the fight except a

It is out of covetousness in your regard: for when an alarm cometh, thou
mayest see them look to thee, and roll their eyes like him on whom the
shadows of death have fallen! Yet, when the alarm is passed, with sharp
tongues will they assail you, covetous of the best of the spoil. No faith
have these! God will make their doings of no avail! And easy is this with

They thought that the CONFEDERATES would never retire:11 and were the
confederates to come again, they would fain be dwelling among the Arabs of
the desert, and there ask news about you! for though they were with you, they
fought not except a little.

A noble pattern had ye in God's Apostle, for all who hope in God, and in the
latter day, and oft remember God!

And when the faithful saw the confederates, they said, "This is what God and
His Apostle promised us,12 and God and His Apostle spoke truly:" and it only
increased their faith and self-devotion.

Some were there among the faithful who made good what they had promised to
God. Some have fulfilled their course, and others await its fulfilment, and
have not been changelings who change–

That God may reward the faithful for their faithfulness, and may punish the
hypocrites, if He so please, or be turned unto them: for God is Forgiving,

And God drove back the infidels in their wrath; they won no advantage; God
sufficed the faithful in the fight: for God is Strong, Mighty!

And He caused those of the people of the Book (the Jews), who had aided the
confederates, to come down out of their fortresses, and cast dismay into
their hearts: some ye slew, others ye took prisoners.13

And He gave you their land, and their dwellings, and their wealth, for an
heritage–even a land on which ye had never set foot: for the might of God is
equal to all things.

O Prophet! say to thy wives,14 If ye desire this present life and its
braveries, come then, I will provide for you, and dismiss you with an
honourable dismissal.

But if ye desire God and His Apostle, and a home in the next life, then,
truly, hath God prepared for those of you who are virtuous, a great reward.

O wives of the Prophet! should any of you be guilty of a proven lewdness,
doubly shall her chastisement be doubled: and with God this is easy.

But whoever of you shall obey God and His Apostle, and shall do that which is
right, twice over will we give her her reward, and we have prepared for her a
noble provision.

O wives of the Prophet! ye are not as other women. If ye fear God, be not too
complaisant of speech, lest the man of unhealthy heart should lust after you,
but speak with discreet speech.

And abide still in your houses, and go not in public decked as in the days of
your former ignorance,15 but observe prayer, and pay the impost, and obey God
and the Apostle: for God only desireth to put away filthiness from you16 as
his household, and with cleansing to cleanse you.

And recollect what is rehearsed to you in your houses of the Book of God, and
of wisdom: for God is keen-sighted, cognisant of all.

Truly the men who resign themselves to God (Muslims), and the women who
resign themselves, and the believing men and the believing women, and the
devout men and the devout women, and the men of truth, and the women of
truth, and the patient men and the patient women, and the humble men and the
humble women, and the men who give alms and the women who give alms, and the
men who fast and the women who fast, and the chaste men and the chaste women,
and the men and the women who oft remember God: for them hath God prepared
forgiveness and a rich recompense.

And it is not for a believer, man or woman, to have any choice in their
affairs, when God and His Apostle have decreed a matter: and whoever
disobeyeth God and His Apostle, erreth with palpable error.

And, remember, when thou saidst to him unto whom God had shewn favour,17 and
to whom thou also hadst shewn favour, "Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear
God;" and thou didst hide in thy mind what God would bring to light.18 and
thou didst fear man; but more right had it been to fear God. And when Zaid
had settled concerning her to divorce her, we married her to thee, that it
might not be a crime in the faithful to marry the wives of their adopted
sons, when they have settled the affair concerning them. And the behest of
God is to be performed.

No blame attacheth to the prophet where God hath given him a permission. Such
was the way of God with those prophets who flourished before thee; for God's
behest is a fixed decree–

Who fulfilled the mission with which God had charged them,19 and feared Him,
and feared none but God. And God taketh a sufficient account.

Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of
God, and the seal of the prophets: and God knoweth all things.

O Believers! remember God with frequent remembrance, and praise Him morning
and evening.

He blesseth you, and His angels intercede for you, that He may bring you
forth out of darkness into light: and Merciful is He to the Believers.

Their greeting on the day when they shall meet Him shall be "Peace!" And He
hath got ready for them a noble recompense.

O Prophet ! we have sent thee to be a witness, and a herald of glad tidings,
and a warner;

And one who, through His own permission, summoneth to God, and a light-giving

Announce, therefore, to believers, that great boons do await them from God;

And obey not the Infidels and Hypocrites–yet abstain from injuring them: and
put thou thy trust in God, for God is a sufficient guardian.

O Believers! when ye marry believing women, and then divorce them before ye
have consummated the marriage, ye have no term prescribed you, which ye must
fulfil towards them: provide for them, and dismiss them with a reputable

O Prophet! we allow thee thy wives whom thou hast dowered, and the slaves
whom thy right hand possesseth out of the booty which God hath granted thee,
and the daughters of thy uncle, and of thy paternal and maternal aunts who
fled with thee to Medina, and any believing woman who hath given herself up
to the Prophet, if the Prophet desired to wed her–a Privilege for thee above
the rest of the Faithful.

We well know what we have settled for them, in regard to their wives and to
the slaves whom their right hands hold, that there may be no fault on thy
part:20 and God is Indulgent, Merciful!

Thou mayst decline for the present whom thou wilt of them, and thou mayest
take to thy bed her whom thou wilt, and whomsoever thou shalt long for of
those thou shalt have before neglected; and this shall not be a crime in
thee. Thus will it be easier to give them the desire of their eyes, and not
to put them to grief, and to satisfy them with what thou shalt accord to each
of them. God knoweth what is in your hearts, and God is Knowing, Gracious.

It is not permitted thee to take other wives hereafter,21 nor to change thy
present wives for other women, though their beauty charm thee, except slaves
whom thy right hand shall possess.22 And God watcheth all things.

O Believers! enter not into the houses of the Prophet,23 save by his leave,
for a meal, without waiting his time. When ye are invited then enter, and
when ye have eaten then disperse at once.24 And engage not in familiar talk,
for this would cause the Prophet trouble, and he would be ashamed to bid you
go; but God is not ashamed to say the truth. And when ye would ask any gift
of his wives, ask it from behind a veil. Purer will this be for your hearts
and for their hearts. And ye must not trouble the Apostle of God, nor marry
his wives, after him, for ever. This would be a grave offence with God.

Whether ye bring a matter to the light or hide it, God truly hath knowledge
of all things.

No blame shall attach to them (your wives) for speaking to their fathers
unveiled, or to their sons, or to their brothers, or to their brothers' sons,
or to their sisters' sons, or to their women, or to the slaves whom their
right hands hold. And fear ye God: for God witnesseth all things.

Verily, God and His Angels bless the Prophet! Bless ye Him, O Believers, and
salute Him with salutations of Peace.

Verily, they who affront God and His Apostle, the curse of God is on them in
this world, and in the world to come: and He hath prepared for them a
shameful chastisement.

And they who shall affront believing men and believing women, for no fault of
theirs, they shall surely bear the guilt of slander, and of a clear wrong.

O Prophet! speak to thy wives and to thy daughters,25 and to the wives of the
Faithful, that they let their veils fall low. Thus will they more easily be
known, and they will not be affronted. God is Indulgent, Merciful!

If the Hypocrites, and the men of tainted heart, and the stirrers of sedition
in Medina desist not, we will surely stir thee up against them. Then shall
they not be suffered to dwell near thee therein, but a little while:

Cursed wherever they are found; they shall be seized and slain with

Such hath been the way of God with those who lived before them; and no change
canst thou find in the way of God.

Men will ask thee of "the Hour." SAY: The knowledge of it is with God alone:
and who can tell thee whether haply the Hour be not nigh at hand?

Verily, God hath cursed the Infidels, and hath got ready for them the flame:

For aye shall they abide therein; none to befriend them, no helper shall they

On the day when their faces shall be rolled in the fire, they shall cry: "Oh!
would that we had obeyed God, and obeyed the Apostle!"

And they shall say: "Oh our Lord! indeed we obeyed our chiefs and our great
ones, and they misled us from the way of God–

O our Lord! give them a double chastisement, and curse them with a heavy

O Believers! be not like those who affronted Moses.26 But God cleared him
from what they said of him, and of God was he highly esteemed.

O Believers! fear God, and speak with well-guided speech.

That God may bless your doings for you, and forgive you your sins. And whoso
obeyeth God and His Apostle with great bliss shall be blessed.

Verily, we proposed to the Heavens, and to the Earth, and to the Mountains to
receive the Faith, but they refused the burden, and they feared to receive
it. Man undertook to bear it, but hath proved unjust, senseless!

Therefore will God punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women,
and the men and the women who join gods with God; but to the believing men
and women will God turn him: for God is Indulgent, Merciful!


1 Medina was besieged, when this Sura was revealed, by certain confederate
tribes at the instigation of the Jews, an. Hej. 5. The first nine verses,
however, have no immediate reference to this event, but to Muhammad's
cotemporary marriage with Zeinab. See below, verse 37.

2 The Arabians had been accustomed, before the time of Muhammad, to divorce
their wives with the words,–thy back be to me as the back of my mother. The
drift and motive of this passage is explained by verse 37 below. It had also
been the custom to hold adopted sons to be as nearly related to them as their
natural ones. See Sura lviii. 2, p. 451.

3 The Mohadjers–those who had emigrated with Muhammad from Mecca. This verse
abrogates Sura [xcv.] viii. 73.

4 How they have discharged their prophetic functions.

5 Verses 9-33 have reference to the events of the year Hej. 5, towards the
close. See next note. His. 688; Waq. 4 f.

6 In the engagement which took place under the walls of Medina, some of the
enemy were posted on a height to the east of the city, others in a valley on
the west. The besiegers were 12,000, the Muslims 3,000 strong, when a violent
storm, which upset the tents, put out the camp fires, and blinded the eyes of
the confederates with sand, turned the scale of victory against them.
Muhammad ascribes the storm to angelic agency.

7 That is, with infidelity.

8 The ancient name of El-Medina.

9 In the trenches which had been dug around the city by the advice of Salmân,
the Persian.

10 They would speedily have quitted the city to attack the faithful in the

11 That is, raise the siege.

12 That is, that through trials we should attain to Paradise, v. 29.

13 After the siege of Medina had been raised, Muhammad made a successful
expedition against the Jews of Koreidha, for their treason and violation of

14 Muhammad's wives having caused him much annoyance by demands of rich
dresses, etc., he gave them the choice of continuing with him as before, or
of divorce. They chose the former. See Abulfeda's Hist. Moh. p. 77, and
Gagnier's Vie de Moh. i. 4, chap. ii.

15 That is, Idolatry. Acts xvii. 30. Freytag (Einl. p. 453) thinks that
previous to Islam, the Arabian women went in public unveiled.

16 The pronoun is in the pl. masc., whereas the pl. fem. is used in the
previous part of the verse. The partisans of Ali quote this passage to prove
the intimate union of Ali and his posterity with the Prophet.

17 That is, to Zaid. The favour of God to Zaid consisted in having caused him
to become a Muslim: the favour of Muhammad in adopting him as his son. Zaid
and Abu Lahab (Sura cxi. p. 29) are the only contemporaries of Muhammad
mentioned by name in the Koran.

18 Thy plan to obtain Zeinab, or Zenobia, Zaid's wife, as thy wife.

19 Lit, who brought the messages of God.

20 If thou makest use of the special prerogative (conferred in verse 49).

21 He had nine wives at this period, beside slaves. The number of wives
allowed to the faithful is four. See note, p. 411. 22 The first slave whom
Muhammad took to wife was Raihana, at the conquest of the Banu Koreidha. His.
693. Weil, 170.

23 Verses 53-55 refer to the conduct of the guests at Muhammad's house after
his marriage with Zeinab. Albuhari passim. Muslim i. 824 ff. Wah. Comp.
Caussir, iii. 151.

24 Ullmann, p. 263, quotes a similar precept from the Talmud, "Do all that
the master of the house biddeth, but wait not to be asked to depart."

25 This verse cannot be of later date than Hej. 8, when Muhammad's daughter
Omm Kulthum died. leaving only Fatima.

26 This may refer to the charge of adultery said by the Rabbins to have been
brought by Korah against Moses. Comp. Tr. Sanhedrin, fol. 110a. and Numbers
xii. 1. The verse is said to have been revealed on account of aspersions
thrown on Muhammad for unfairly dividing spoils, whereupon he said, "God be
merciful to my brother Moses. He was wronged more than this, and bore it with


MEDINA.–11 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

WHEN the Hypocrites come to thee, they say, "We bear witness that thou art
the Sent One of God." God knoweth that thou art His Sent One: but God beareth
witness that the HYPOCRITES do surely lie.

Their faith2 have they used as a cloak, and they turn aside others from the
way of God! Evil are all their doings.

This, for that they believed, then became unbelievers!Therefore hath a seal
been set upon their hearts, and they understand not.

When thou seest them, their persons make thee marvel; and if they speak, thou
listenest with pleasure to their discourse. Like timbers are they leaning
against a wall!3 They think that every shout is against them. They are
enemies–Beware of them then–God do battle with them! How false are they!

And when it is said to them, "Come, the Apostle of God will ask pardon for
you," they turn their heads aside, and thou seest them withdraw in their

Alike shall it be to them whether thou ask forgiveness for them, or ask it
not. By no means will God forgive them: God hath no guidance for a perverse

These are they who say to you of Medina, "Spend not aught upon those who are
with the Apostle of God, and they will be forced to quit him." Yet the
treasures of the Heavens and of the Earth are God's! But the Hypocrites have
no understanding.

They say: "If we return to the city, the mightier will assuredly drive out
the weaker from it." But might is with God, and with the Apostle, and with
the Faithful! Yet the Hypocrites understand not.

O ye who believe! let not your wealth and your children delude you into
forgetfulness of God. Whoever shall act thus, shall surely suffer loss.

And expend in the cause of God out of that with which we have supplied you,
ere death surprise each one of you, and he say, "O Lord! wilt thou not
respite me to a term not far distant, that I may give alms, and become one of
the just?"

And by no means will God respite a soul when its hour hath come! And God is
fully cognisant of what ye do.


1 Revealed shortly after the expedition against the Banu 'l Mustaliq in Hej.
6. See Nöld. p. 156 n. The "Hypocrites" mentioned in the later Suras are the
disaffected portion of the population of Medina, who covertly opposed the
claims of Muhammad to temporal authority over that city. They were gradually
absorbed, as the authority of Islam increased.

2 Or, in accordance with another reading, oaths. Comp. Ps. cix. 18.

3 Like timbers or joists supported in a wall or leaned against it, i.e.,
their persons are bulky, but their hearts so hypocritical and cowardly that
they are afraid of the slightest noise. In the original, saïkat is perhaps an
allusion to the shout of Gabriel, that is to exterminate the wicked.


MEDINA.–64 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

A SURA which we have sent down and sanctioned! Clear signs have we sent down
therein, that ye may take warning.

The whore and the whoremonger–scourge each of them with an hundred stripes;
and let not compassion keep you from carrying out the sentence of God, if ye
believe in God and the last day: And let some of the faithful witness their

The whoremonger shall not marry other than a whore or an idolatress; and the
whore shall not marry other than a whoremonger or an idolater. Such alliances
are forbidden to the faithful.

They who defame virtuous women,2 and bring not four witnesses, scourge them
with fourscore stripes, and receive ye not their testimony for ever, for
these are perverse persons–

Save those who afterwards repent and live virtuously; for truly God is
Lenient, Merciful!

And they who shall accuse their wives, and have no witnesses but themselves,
the testimony of each of them shall be a testimony by God four times
repeated, that he is indeed of them that speak the truth.3

And the fifth time that the malison of God be upon him, if he be of them that

But it shall avert the chastisement from her if she testify a testimony four
times repeated, by God, that he is of them that lie;

And a fifth time to call down the wrath of God on her, if he have spoken the

And but for the goodness and mercy of God towards you, and that God is He who
loveth to turn, Wise . . . . !

Of a truth, they who advanced that lie4 were a large number of you; but
regard it not as an evil to you. No, it is an advantage to you.5 To every man
among them shall it be done according to the offence he hath committed; and
as to that person6 among them who took on himself to aggravate it, a sore
punishment doth await him.

Did not the faithful of both sexes, when ye heard of this, form a favourable
judgment in their own minds, and say,

"This is a manifest lie?"

Have they brought four witnesses of the fact? If they cannot produce the
witnesses, they are the liars in the sight of God.

And but for the goodness of God towards you, and His mercy in this world and
in the next, a severe punishment had come upon you for that which ye spread
abroad, when ye uttered with your tongues, and spake with your mouths that of
which ye had no knowledge. Ye deemed it to be a light matter, but with God it
was a grave one.

And did ye say when ye heard it, "It is not for us to talk of this affair! O
God! By thy Glory, this is a gross calumny?"

God hath warned you that ye go not back to the like of this for ever, if ye
be believers:

And God maketh His signs clear to you: for God is Knowing, Wise.

But as for those who love that foul calumnies should go forth against those
who believe, a grievous chastisement awaits them

In this world and in the next. And God hath knowledge, but ye have not.

And but for the goodness of God towards you and His Mercy, and that God is
Kind, Merciful . . . !

O ye who believe! follow not the steps of Satan, for whosoever shall follow
the steps of Satan, he will enjoin on him what is base and blameworthy; and
but for the goodness of God towards you,7 and His mercy, no one of you had
been cleansed for ever: but God maketh whom He will to be clean, and God
Heareth, Knoweth.

And let not persons of wealth and means among you swear that they will not
give to their kindred, to the poor, and to those who have fled their homes in
the cause of God; let them rather pardon and pass over the offence.8 Desire
ye not that God should forgive you? And God is Gracious, Merciful!

Verily, they who throw out charges against virtuous but careless women, who
yet are believers, shall be cursed in this world and in the world to come;
and a terrible punishment doth await them.

Their own tongues, and hands, and feet, shall one day bear witness against
them of their own doings.9

On that day will God pay them their just due, and they shall know that God is
the clear Truth itself.

Bad women for bad men, and bad men for bad women; but virtuous women for
virtuous men, and virtuous men for virtuous women! These shall be cleared
from calumnies; theirs shall be forgiveness and an honourable provision.

O ye who believe! enter not into other houses10 than your own, until ye have
asked leave, and have saluted its inmates. This will be best for you: haply
ye will bear this in mind.

And if ye find no one therein, then enter it not till leave be given you; and
if it be said to you, "Go ye back," then go ye back. This will be more
blameless in you, and God knoweth what ye do.

There shall be no harm in your entering houses in which no one dwelleth, for
the supply of your needs: and God knoweth what ye do openly and what ye hide.

Speak unto the believers that they restrain their eyes and observe
continence. Thus will they be more pure. God is well aware of what they do.

And speak to the believing women that they refrain their eyes, and observe
continence; and that they display not their ornaments, except those which are
external; and that they throw their veils over their bosoms, and display not
their ornaments, except to their husbands or their fathers, or their
husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' sons, or their brothers,
or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or their
slaves, or male domestics who have no natural force, or to children who note
not women's nakedness. And let them not strike their feet together, so as to
discover their hidden ornaments.11 And be ye all turned to God, O ye
Believers! that it may be well with you.

And marry those among you who are single, and your good servants, and the
handmaidens. If they are poor, God of His bounty will enrich them. God is
all-bounteous, Knowing.

And let those who cannot find a match12 live in continence till God of His
bounty shall enrich them. And to those of your slaves who desire a deed of
manumission, execute it for them, if ye know good in them, and give them a
portion of the wealth of God which He hath given you.13 Force not your female
slaves into sin, in order that ye may gain the casual fruitions of this
world, if they wish to preserve their modesty. Yet if any one compel them,
then Verily to them, after their compulsion, will God be Forgiving, Merciful.

And now have we sent down to you clear signs, and an instance from among
those who flourished before you, and a caution for the God-fearing.14

God is the LIGHT of the Heavens and of the Earth. His Light is like a niche
in which is a lamp–the lamp encased in glass–the glass, as it were, a
glistening star. From a blessed tree is it lighted, the olive neither of the
East nor of the West, whose oil would well nigh shine out, even though fire
touched it not! It is light upon light. God guideth whom He will to His
light, and God setteth forth parables to men, for God knoweth all things.

In the temples which God hath allowed to be reared, that His name may therein
be remembered, do men praise Him morn and even.

Men whom neither merchandise nor traffic beguile from the remembrance of God,
and from the observance of prayer, and the payment of the stated alms,
through fear of the day when hearts shall throb and eyes shall roll:

That for their most excellent works may God recompense them, and of His
bounty increase it to them more and more: for God maketh provision for whom
He pleaseth without measure.

But as to the infidels, their works are like the vapour in a plain which the
thirsty dreameth to be water, until when he cometh unto it, he findeth it not
aught, but findeth that God is with him; and He fully payeth him his account:
for swift to take account is God:

Or like the darkness on the deep sea when covered by billows riding upon
billows, above which are clouds: darkness upon darkness. When a man reacheth
forth his hand, he cannot nearly see it! He to whom God shall not give light,
no light at all hath he!

Hast thou not seen how all in the Heavens and in the Earth uttereth the
praise of God?–the very birds as they spread their wings? Every creature
knoweth its prayer and its praise! and God knoweth what they do.

God's, the Kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth: and unto God the final

Hast thou not seen that God driveth clouds lightly forward, then gathereth
them together, then pileth them in masses? And then thou seest the rain
forthcoming from their midst; and He causeth clouds like mountains charged
with hail, to descend from the heaven, and He maketh it to fall on whom He
will, and from whom He will He turneth it aside.–The brightness of His
lightning all but taketh away the sight!

God causeth the day and the night to take their turn. Verily in this is
teaching for men of insight. And God hath created every animal of water.15
Some go upon the belly; some go upon two feet; some go upon four feet. God

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