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The Koran by Mohammed

Part 10 out of 14

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sun and the moon for computing time! The ordinance of the Mighty, the Wise!

And it is He who hath ordained the stars for you that ye may be guided
thereby in the darknesses of the land and of the sea! clear have we made our
signs to men of knowledge.

And it is He who hath produced you from one man, and hath provided for you an
abode and resting-place!26 Clear have we made our signs for men of insight.

And it is He who sendeth down rain from Heaven: and we bring forth by it the
buds of all the plants, and from them bring we forth the green foliage, and
the close growing grain, and palm trees with sheaths of clustering dates, and
gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate, like and unlike.27 Look
ye on their fruits when they fruit and ripen. Truly herein are signs unto
people who believe.

Yet have they assigned the Djinn to God as his associates, though He created
them; and in their ignorance have they falsely ascribed to him sons and
daughters. Glory be to Him! And high let Him be exalted above that which they
attribute to Him!

Sole maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! how, when He hath no consort,
should He have a son? He hath created everything, and He knoweth everything!

This is God your Lord. There is no God but He, the creator of all things:
therefore worship Him alone;–and He watcheth over all things.

No vision taketh in Him, but He taketh in all vision:28 and He is the
Subtile, the All-informed.

Now have proofs that may be seen, come to you from your Lord; whoso seeth
them, the advantage will be his own: and whoso is blind to them, his own will
be the loss: I am not made a keeper over you.

Thus variously do we apply our signs,29 that they may say, "Thou hast studied
deep:" and that to people of understanding we may make them clear.

Follow thou that which hath been revealed to thee by thy Lord: there is no
god but He! and withdraw from those who join other gods with Him.

Had God pleased, they had not joined other gods with Him: and we have not
made thee keeper over them, neither art thou a guardian over them.

Revile not those whom they call on beside God,30 lest they, in their
ignorance, despitefully revile Him. Thus have we planned out their actions
for every people; then shall they return to their Lord, and He will declare
to them what those actions have been.

With their most solemn oath have they sworn by God, that if a sign come unto
them they will certainly believe it; SAY: Signs are in the power of God
alone; and He teacheth you not thereby, only because when they were wrought,
ye did not believe.31

And we will turn their hearts and their eyes away from the truth, because
they did not believe therein at first, and we will leave them in their
transgressions, wandering in perplexity.

And though we had sent down the angels to them, and the dead had spoken to
them, and we had gathered all things about them in tribes, they had not
believed, unless God had willed it! but most of them do not know it.

Thus have we given an enemy to every prophet Satans among men and among
Djinn: tinsel discourses do they suggest the one to the other, in order to
deceive: and had thy Lord willed it, they would not have done it. Therefore,
leave them and their vain imaginings–

And let the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come incline
thereto, and let them find their content in this, and let them gain what they
are gaining.

What! shall I seek other judge than God, when it is He who hath sent down to
you the distinguishing Book? They to whom we have given the Book know that it
is sent down from thy Lord with truth. Be not thou then of those who doubt.

And the words of thy Lord are perfect in truth and in justice: none can
change his words: He is the Hearing, Knowing.

But if thou obey most men in this land, from the path of God will they
mislead thee: they follow but a conceit, and they are only liars.

Thy Lord! He best knoweth those who err from his path, and He knoweth the
rightly guided.

Eat32 of that over which the name of God hath been pronounced, if ye believe
in his signs.

And why eat ye not of that over which the name of God hath been pronounced,
since He hath made plain to you what He hath forbidden you, save as to that
which is forced upon you? But indeed many mislead others by their appetites,
through lack of knowledge. Verily, thy Lord! He best knoweth the

And abandon the semblance of wickedness, and wickedness itself.33 They,
verily, whose only acquirement is iniquity, shall be rewarded for what they
shall have gained.

Eat not therefore of that on which the name of God has not been named, for
that is assuredly a crime: the Satans will indeed suggest to their votaries
to wrangle with you; but if ye obey them, ye will indeed be of those who join
gods with God.

Shall the dead, whom we have quickened, and for whom we have ordained a light
whereby he may walk among men, be like him, whose likeness is in the
darkness, whence he will not come forth? Thus have the doings of the
unbelievers been prepared for them.

Even so have we placed in every city, ringleaders of its wicked ones, to
scheme therein: but only against themselves shall they scheme! and they know
it not.

And when a sign cometh to them they say, "We will not believe, till the like
of what was accorded to the apostles of God, be accorded to us." God best
knoweth where to place his mission. Disgrace with God, and a vehement
punishment shall come on the transgressors for their crafty plottings.

And whom God shall please to guide, that man's breast will He open to Islam;
but whom He shall please to mislead, strait and narrow will He make his
breast, as though he were mounting up into the very Heavens! Thus doth God
inflict dire punishment on those who believe not.

And this is the right way of thy Lord. Now have we detailed our signs unto
those who will consider.

For them is a dwelling of peace with their Lord! and in recompense for their
works, shall he be their protector.

On the day whereon God shall gather them all together . . . "O race of
Djinn," will He say, "much did ye exact from mankind." And their votaries
from among men shall say, "O our Lord! we rendered one another mutual
services: but we have reached our set term, which thou hast set for us." He
will say, "Your abode the fire! therein abide ye for ever: unless as God
shall will." Verily, thy Lord is Wise, Knowing.

Even thus place we some of the wicked over others, as the meed of their

O race of Djinn and men! came not apostles to you from among yourselves,
rehearsing my signs to you, and warning you of the meeting of this your day?
They shall say, "We bear witness against ourselves." This world's life
deceived them; and they shall bear witness against themselves that they were

This,34 because thy Lord would not destroy the cities in their sin, while
their people were yet careless.

And for all, are grades of recompense as the result of their deeds; and of
what they do, thy Lord is not regardless.

And thy Lord is the Rich one, full of compassion! He can destroy you if He
please, and cause whom He will to succeed you, as he raised you up from the
offspring of other people:

Verily, that which is threatened you shall surely come to pass, neither shall
ye weaken its might.

SAY: O my people! Act as ye best can: I verily will act my part, and
hereafter shall ye know

Whose will be the recompense of the abode! Verily, the ungodly shall not

Moreover, they set apart a portion of the fruits and cattle35 which he hath
produced, and say, "This for God"–so deem they–"And this for his companions,
whom we associate with Him." But that which is for these companions of
theirs, cometh not to God; yet that which is for God, cometh to the
companions! Ill do they judge.

Thus have the companion-gods induced many of these, who join them with God,
to slay their children, that they might ruin them, and throw the cloak of
confusion over their religion. But if God had pleased, they had not done
this. Therefore, leave them and their devices.

They also say, "These cattle and fruits are sacred: none may taste them but
whom we please:" so deem they–"And there are cattle, whose backs should be
exempt from labour." And there are cattle over which they do not pronounce
the name of God: inventing in all this a lie against Him. For their
inventions shall He reward them.

And they say, "That which is in the wombs of these cattle is allowed to our
males, and forbidden to our wives;" but if it prove abortive, both partake of
it. God shall reward them for their distinctions! Knowing, Wise is He.

Lost are they who, in their ignorance, have foolishly slain their children,
and have forbidden that which God hath given them for food, devising an
untruth against God! Now have they erred; and they were not rightly guided.

He it is who produceth gardens of the vine trellised and untrellised, and the
palm trees, and the corn of various food, and olives, and pomegranates, like
and unlike. Eat of their fruit when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof
on the day of its ingathering: and be not prodigal, for God loveth not the

And there are cattle for burdens and for journeys. Eat of what God hath given
you for food; and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared

You have four sorts of cattle in pairs: of sheep a pair, and of goats a pair.
SAY: Hath He forbidden the two males or the two females; or that which the
wombs of the two females enclose? Tell me with knowledge, if ye speak the

And of camels a pair, and of oxen a pair. SAY: Hath He forbidden the two
males or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females
enclose?36 Were ye witnesses when God enjoined you this? Who then is more
wicked than he who, in his ignorance, inventeth a lie against God, to mislead
men? God truly guideth not the wicked.

SAY: I find not in what hath been revealed to me aught forbidden to the eater
to eat, except it be that which dieth of itself, or blood poured forth, or
swine's flesh; for this is unclean or profane, being slain in the name of
other than God. But whoso shall be a forced partaker, if it be without
wilfulness, and not in transgression,–verily, thy Lord is Indulgent,

To the Jews did we forbid every beast having an entire hoof, and of both
bullocks and sheep we forbade them the fat, save what might be on their
backs, or their entrails, and the fat attached to the bone. With this have we
recompensed them, because of their transgression: and verily, we are indeed

If they treat thee as an impostor, then SAY: Your Lord is of all-embracing
mercy: but his severity shall not be turned aside from the wicked.

They who add gods to God will say, "If God had pleased, neither we nor our
fathers had given him companions, nor should we have interdicted anything."
Thus did they who flourished before them charge with imposture, until they
had tasted our severity! SAY: Have ye any knowledge that ye can produce to
us? Verily, ye follow only a conceit: ye utter only lies!

SAY: Peremptory proof is God's! Had He pleased He had guided you all aright.

SAY: Bring hither your witnesses who can witness that God hath forbidden
these animals; but if they bear witness, witness not thou with them, nor
witness to the conceits of those who charge our signs with falsehood, and who
believe not in the life to come, and give equals to our Lord.

SAY: Come, I will rehearse what your Lord hath made binding on you–that ye
assign not aught to Him as partner; and that ye be good to your parents; and
that ye slay not your children, because of poverty: for them and for you will
we provide:37 and that ye come not near to pollutions, outward or inward:38
and that ye slay not anyone whom God hath forbidden you, unless for a just
cause. This hath he enjoined on you, to the intent that ye may understand.

And come not nigh to the substance of the orphan, but to improve it, until he
come of age: and use a full measure, and a just balance: We will not task a
soul beyond its ability. And when ye give judgment, observe justice, even
though it be the affair of a kinsman, and fulfil the covenant of God. This
hath God enjoined you for your monition–

And, "this is my right way." Follow it then; and follow not other paths lest
ye be scattered from His path. This hath he enjoined you, that ye may fear

Then39 gave we the Book to Moses–complete for him who should do right, and a
decision for all matters, and a guidance, and a mercy, that they might
believe in the meeting with their Lord.

Blessed, too, this Book which we have sent down. Wherefore follow it and fear
God, that ye may find mercy:

Lest ye should say, "The Scriptures were indeed sent down only unto two
peoples before us, but we were not able to go deep into their studies:"40

Or lest ye should say, "If a book had been sent down to us, we had surely
followed the guidance better than they." But now hath a clear exposition come
to you from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy. Who then is more wicked
than he who treateth the signs of God as lies, and turneth aside from them?
We will recompense those who turn aside from our signs with an evil
punishment, because they have turned aside.

What wait they for, but the coming of the angels to them, or the coming of
thy Lord Himself, or that some of the sings of the Lord should come to pass?
On the day when some of thy Lord's signs shall come to pass, its faith shall
not profit a soul which believed not before, nor wrought good works in virtue
of its faith. SAY: Wait ye. Verily, we will wait also.

As to those who split up their religion and become sects, have thou nothing
to do with them: their affair is with God only. Hereafter shall he tell them
what they have done.

He who shall present himself with good works shall receive a tenfold reward;
but he who shall present himself with evil works shall receive none other
than a like punishment: and they shall not be treated unjustly.

SAY: As for me, my Lord hath guided me into a straight path; a true religion,
the creed of Abraham, the sound in faith; for he was not of those who join
gods with God.

SAY: My prayers and my worship and my life and my death are unto God, Lord of
the Worlds. He hath no associate. This am I commanded, and I am the first of
the Muslims.

SAY: Shall I seek any other Lord than God, when He is Lord of all things? No
soul shall labour but for itself; and no burdened one shall bear another's
burden. At last ye shall return to your Lord, and he will declare that to you
about which you differ.

And it is He who hath made you the successors of others on the earth, and
hath raised some of you above others by various grades, that he may prove you
by his gifts. Verily thy Lord is swift to punish. But He is also Gracious,


1 Lit. their affair would have been decided. In that case there would no
longer have been an opportunity for the warnings of the prophets and for
repentance, but the angels would at once have executed the divine judgments.

2 See Sura xli. 13, p. 193.

3 See Sura [xc.] xiii. 36.

4 This denunciation is repeated in eleven other passages of the Koran, and
coupled with the known reverence of the early Muslims for what they
considered as the word of God, must have greatly tended to secure the
revelations of the Prophet from being in any way tampered with and corrupted.

5 They are self-convicted of their own hypocrisy and of the hollowness of
their professions.

6 The Resurrection, etc.

7 Abu Jahl had said: "Muhammad speaks truth, and he never said a falsehood;
but, if the Banu Chosai, who enjoy already the offices of bearing the
standard, of providing the pilgrims with water, and of keeping the keys of
the Kaaba, should also obtain the Prophetship, what would remain for the
other Koreisch." Kashaf in 1.

8 See Sura lii. 38, p. 65. These passages may allude to the ladder set up in
a tower by Wacih ben Salamah, one of the ancient doorkeepers of the Caaba, by
which he professed to mount up to God and receive divine Oracles. Freyt.
Einl. p. 371.

9 A community. Comp. Prov. xxx. 25, 26. Animals as well as mankind are under
the control of God, are held within the limits of his decrees, are
accountable to him, and will stand before him in the judgment.

10 Of the Eternal decrees.

11 Or, embellished, made it fair-seeming.

12 Lit. openly, i.e. preceded by some sign.

13 The Rabbins speak of the three keys in the hand of God. Tr. Tanith, fol.

14 On the preserved tablet, on which are written the decrees of God.

15 That is, during sleep. See Sura xxxix. 43, p. 258. Or, layeth to rest.
Mar. renders literally, defungi faciet vos, id est, obdormiscere. Thus also
Beidh. But see the use of the same word in the next verse.

16 Or, to perplex you (by dividing you into) sects.

17 Comp. Sura [cx.] 1x. 13.

18 Azar. This form is probably borrowed from Athar, as Terah is called by
Eusebius. See Maracci Prodr. iv. 90. Compare a similar narrative (Midr.
Rabbah on Gen. par. 17) in which Abraham is given over by his idolatrous
father Zarah to Nimrod, who says, "We will adore the Fire:" "Rather," said
Abraham, "the water which puts out fire." "The Water then"–"Rather the clouds
that bear the water." "The Clouds then"–"Rather the wind which scatters the
clouds." "The Wind then"–"Rather man who endures the wind." Whereupon Abraham
was thrown into the furnace. It is quite possible that in what follows,
Muhammad may have intended to imply that Abraham had renounced the Sabian
starworship of his fathers, and to vindicate him from the habit of consulting
the stars attributed to him by the Talmudists. Shabbath, fol. 156, col. 1.
"Abraham replied, I have consulted my Astrology." Comp. Rashi on Gen. xv. 5.
See Maim. Yad Hachaz. vii. 6.

19 Comp. Gen. xv. 5.

20 See Sura xxi. 52.

21 Lit. unless that my Lord shall will anything.

22 Or, confuse not their faith with wrong, injustice, i.e. idolatry.

23 Koran.

24 This verse and the following were probably added at Medina after the
Hejira; at least it is difficult to conceive that Muhammad would have
ventured thus to have written at Mecca.

25 This verse is said to have been revealed at Medina and to be aimed at the
false prophets Moseilama, Aswad and Amsi; also at Abdallah Ibn Saad,
Muhammad's secretary, who for corrupting the sacred text and apostacy, was
one of the ten proscribed at the taking of Mecca.

26 In the womb.

27 Of all sorts.

28 Lit. attaineth to. Mr. Lane renders, "the eyes see not Him, but He seeth
the eyes."

29 The verses of the Koran.

30 Comp. Ex. xxii. 28.

31 Notwithstanding this disclaimer, the Muslim tradition, etc. speak of many
of their Prophet's miracles. See Maracci's Prodr. p. ii. p. 16, and 30 46.

32 Verses 118-121 seem misplaced, and should probably follow 154.

33 Lit. the outside of iniquity and its inside. Some understand these words
of open sins, and secret sins.

34 That is, God's method of dealing with the guilty was to send apostles
previous to the execution of his judgments.

35 It appears to have been the custom of the idolatrous Arabs to set apart
one portion of their fields for the Supreme God, and the other for the
inferior gods represented by their idols. If any of the fruit happened to
fall from the part consecrated to the idols into that consecrated to God,
they restored it, but if the reverse occurred, they gave it to the idols.
God, said they, is rich and can dispense with it. The secret, however, was
that the idols' portion was reserved for the priests, Beidhawi. Freytag
mentions the names of 73 idols worshipped by the Arab tribes, previous to
Islam (Einl. pp. 270 and 342 357) and generally with Allah, as Supreme God.

36 Comp. Sura [cxiv.] v. 102.

37 Comp. Sura xvii. 33, p. 167.

38 See verse 120 above.

39 This very abrupt transition to Jewish history seems to indicate that a
passage between this and the preceding verse is lost.

40 Lit. we were careless of their studies


MECCA.–43 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

ELIF. LAM. MIM. RA.1 These, the signs of the Book! And that which hath been
sent down to thee from thy Lord is the very truth: But the greater part of
men will not believe.

It is God who hath reared the Heavens without pillars thou canst behold; then
mounted his throne, and imposed laws on the sun and moon: each travelleth to
its appointed goal. He ordereth all things. He maketh his signs clear, that
ye may have firm faith in a meeting with your Lord.

And He it is who hath outstretched the earth, and placed on it the firm
mountains, and rivers: and of every fruit He hath placed on it two kinds: He
causeth the night to enshroud the day. Verily in this are signs for those who

And on the earth hard by each other are its various portions: gardens of
grapes and corn, and palm trees single or clustered. Though watered by the
same water, yet some make we more excellent as food than other: Verily in all
this are signs for those who understand.

If ever thou dost marvel, marvellous surely is their saying, "What! when we
have become dust, shall we be restored in a new creation?"

These are they who in their Lord believe not: these! the collars shall be on
their necks; and these shall be inmates of the fire, to abide therein for

To hasten evil rather than good will they challenge thee: but, before their
time have been like examples. Full, truly, of mercy is thy Lord unto men,
despite their sins; but verily, thy Lord is right vehement to punish.

And they who believe not say: "If a sign from his Lord be not sent down to
him . . . !" Thou art a warner only. And every people hath its guide.

God knoweth the burden of every female, and how much their wombs lessen and
enlarge: with Him everything is by measure:

Knower of the Hidden and the Manifest! the Great! the Most High!

Alike to Him is that person among you who concealeth his words, and he that
telleth them abroad: he who hideth him in the night, and he who cometh forth
in the day.

Each hath a succession of Angels before him and behind him, who watch over
him by God's behest. Verily, God will not change his gifts to men, till they
change what is in themselves: and when God willeth evil unto men, there is
none can turn it away, nor have they any protector beside Him.

He it is who maketh the lightning to shine unto you; for fear and hope: and
who bringeth up the laden clouds.

And the THUNDER uttereth his praise, and the Angels also, for awe of Him: and
he sendeth his bolts and smiteth with them whom he will2 while they are
wrangling about God! Mighty is he in prowess.

Prayer is His of right: but these deities to whom they pray beside Him give
them no answer, otherwise than as he is answered who stretcheth forth his
hands to the water that it may reach his mouth, when it cannot reach it! The
prayer of the Infidels only wandereth, and is lost.

And unto God doth all in the Heavens and on the Earth bow down in worship,
willingly or by constraint: their very shadows also morn and even!

SAY: Who is Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth? SAY: God. SAY: Why then
have ye taken beside Him protectors, who even for their own selves have no
power for help or harm? SAY: What! shall the blind and the seeing be held
equal? Shall the darkness and the light be held equal? Or have they given
associates to God who have created as He hath created, so that their creation
appear to them like His? SAY: God is the Creator of all things! He is the
One! the Conquering!

He sendeth down the rain from Heaven: then flow the torrents in their due
measure, and the flood beareth along a swelling foam. And from the metals
which are molten in the fire for the sake of ornaments or utensils, a like
scum ariseth. In this way doth God depict (set forth) truth and falsehood. As
to the foam, it is quickly gone: and as to what is useful to man, it
remaineth on the earth. Thus doth God set forth comparisons! To those who
respond to their Lord shall be an excellent reward; but those who respond not
to his call, had they all that the earth containeth twice over, they would
surely give it for their ransom. Evil their reckoning! and Hell their home!
And wretched the bed!

Shall he then who knoweth that what hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord
is the truth, act like him who is blind? Men of insight only will bear this
in mind,

Who fulfil their pledge to God, and break not their compact:

And who join together what God hath bidden to be joined, and who fear their
Lord, and dread an ill reckoning;

And who, from desire to see the face of their Lord, are constant amid trials,
and observe prayer and give alms, in secret and openly, out of what we have
bestowed upon them, and turn aside evil by good: for these is the recompense
of that abode,

Gardens of Eden–into which they shall enter together with the just of their
fathers, and their wives, and their descendants: and the angels shall go in
unto them at every portal:

"Peace be with you!" say they, "because ye have endured all things!" Charming
the recompense of their abode!

But those who, after having contracted it, break their covenant with God, and
cut asunder what God hath bidden to be united, and commit misdeeds on the
earth, these, a curse awaiteth them, and an ill abode!

God is open-handed with supplies to whom he will, or is sparing. They rejoice
in the life that now is, but this present life is but a passing good, in
respect of the life to come!3

And they who believe not say, "Unless a sign be sent down to him from his
Lord. . . ." SAY: God truly will mislead whom he will; and He will guide to
Himself him who turneth to Him,

Those who believe, and whose hearts rest securely on the thought of God.
What! Shall not men's hearts repose in the thought of God? They who believe
and do the things that be right–blessedness awaiteth them, and a goodly home.

Thus have we sent thee to a people whom other peoples have preceded, that
thou mightest rehearse to them our revelations to thee. Yet they believe not
on the God of Mercy.4 SAY: He is my Lord. There is no God but He. In Him do I
put my trust. To Him must I return.

If there were a Koran by which the mountains could be set in motion, or the
earth cleft, or the dead be made to speak ! But all sovereignty is in the
hands of God. Do then believers doubt5 that had He pleased God would
certainly have guided all men aright?

Misfortune shall not cease to light on the unbelievers for what they have
done, or to take up its abode hard by their dwellings, until the threat of
God come to pass. Verily, God will not fail his plighted word.

Before thee indeed have apostles been mocked at; but though I bore long with
the unbelievers, at last I seized upon them;–and how severe was my

Who is it then that is standing over every soul to mark its actions? Yet have
they set up associates with God. SAY: Name them. What! Would ye inform God of
that which He knoweth not on the Earth? Or are they not a mere empty name?
But prepared of old for the infidels was this fraud of theirs; and they are
turned aside from the path; and whom God causeth to err, no guide shall there
be for him!

Chastisement awaiteth them in this present life, and more grievous shall be
the chastisement of the next: and none shall screen them from God.

A picture of the Paradise which God hath promised to them that fear Him. The
rivers flow beneath its bowers: its food and its shades are perpetual. This
is the reward of those who fear God; but the reward of the unbelievers is the

They to whom we have given the Book rejoice6 in what hath been sent down to
thee; yet some are banded together who deny a part of it. SAY: I am commanded
to worship God, and not to associate any creature with Him. On Him do I call,
and to Him shall I return.

Thus, then, as a code in the Arabic tongue have we sent down the Koran; and
truly, if after the knowledge that hath reached thee thou follow their
desires, thou shalt have no guardian nor protector against God.

Apostles truly have we already sent before thee, and wives and offspring have
we given them. Yet no apostle had come with miracles unless by the leave of
God. To each age its Book.

What He pleaseth will God abrogate or confirm: for with Him is the source of

Moreover, whether we cause thee to see the fulfilment of part of our menaces,
or whether we take thee hence, verily, thy work is preaching only, and ours
to take account.

See they not that we come into their land and cut short its borders?8 God
pronounceth a doom, and there is none to reverse his doom. And swift is He to
take account.

Those who lived before them made plots: but all plotting is controlled by
God: He knoweth the works of every one, and the infidels shall know whose
will be the recompense of the abode.

The infidels, moreover, will say; Thou art not sent of God. SAY: God is
witness enough betwixt me and you, and, whoever hath knowledge of the Book.


1 See Sura 1xviii. p. 32.

2 This is said by the traditionists and commentators generally, to refer to
Amir and Arbad ben Kais, who in the year 9 or 10 conspired against Muhammad's
life, and were struck dead by lightning. See the authorities in Nöld. p. 120:
Weil, 256; Caussin, iii. 295. But this explanation may have been suggested by
the words of the text, which must, if the comment be correct, have been
revealed at Medina.

3 Thus, "one hour of bliss in the world to come is better than all life in
this world." Mischnah Aboth, iv. 17. Comp. Sura [cxiii.] ix. 38.

4 See Sura xvii. 109. This verse is said to have been occasioned by the
refusal of the Meccans at Hudaibiya to adopt the formula prescribed by
Muhammad–In the Name of the God of Mercy, the Merciful–declaring that they
knew not who the God of Mercy (Arrahman) was. This was in Hej. 6. See n. p.

5 Lit. despair.

6 That is, the Jews, who at this period of Muhammad's prophetic function,
must have been highly gratified at the strong leaning towards, and respect
for, their Scriptures and Histories, which shews itself increasingly in the
later Meccan Suras.

7 Lit. Mother, or Prototype of the Book. Either God's knowledge or
Prescience, or the fabled preserved tablet, on which is written the original
of the Koran, and all God's decrees. The Jews have a tradition that the Law
existed before the Creation. Midr. Jalkut, 7.

8 That is, the progressive conquests of the Muslims trench more and more on
the territories of the idolatrous Arabians.


MEDINA.–286 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

ELIF. LAM. MIM.2 No doubt is there about this Book: It is a guidance to the

Who believe in the unseen,3 who observe prayer, and out of what we have
bestowed on them, expend for God;

And who believe in what hath been sent down to thee, and in what hath been
sent down before thee, and full faith have they in the life to come:

These are guided by their Lord; and with these it shall be well.

As to the infidels, alike is it to them whether thou warn them or warn them
not–they will not believe:

Their hearts and their ears hath God sealed up; and over their eyes is a
covering. For them, a severe chastisement!

And some4 there are who say, "We believe in God, and in the latter day:" Yet
are they not believers!

Fain would they deceive God and those who have believed; but they deceive
themselves only, and know it not.

Diseased are their hearts! And that disease hath God increased creased to
them. Their's a sore chastisement, for that they treated their prophet as a

And when it is said to them, "Cause not disorders in the earth:" they say,
"Nay, rather do we set them right."

Is it not that they are themselves the authors of disorder? But they perceive
it not!

And when it is said to them, "Believe as other men have believed;" they say,
"Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" Is it not that they are
themselves the fools? But they know it not!

And when they meet the faithful they say, "We believe;" but when they are
apart with their Satans5 they say, "Verily we hold with you, and at them we
only mock."

God shall mock at them, and keep them long in their rebellion, wandering in

These are they who have purchased error at the price of guidance: but their
traffic hath not been gainful, neither are they guided at all.

They are like one6 who kindleth a fire, and when it hath thrown its light on
all around him. . . . God taketh away their light and leaveth them in
darkness–they cannot see!–

Deaf, dumb, blind: therefore they shall not retrace their steps from error!

Or like those who, when there cometh a storm-cloud out of the Heaven, big
with darkness thunder and lightning, thrust their fingers into their ears
because of the thunder-clap, for fear of death! God is round about the

The lightning almost snatcheth away their eyes! So oft as it gleameth on them
they walk on in it, but when darkness closeth upon them, they stop! And if
God pleased, of their ears and of their eyes would he surely deprive them:
verily God is Almighty! O men of Mecca7 adore your Lord, who hath created you
and those who were before you: haply ye will fear Him

Who hath made the earth a bed for you, and the heaven a covering, and hath
caused water to come down from heaven, and by it hath brought forth fruits
for your sustenance! Do not then wittingly give peers to God.

And if ye be in doubt as to that which we have sent down to our servant, then
produce a Sura like it, and summon your witnesses, beside God, if ye are men
of truth:

But if ye do it not, and never shall ye do it, then fear the fire prepared
for the infidels, whose fuel is men and stones:8

But announce to those who believe and do the things that are right, that for
them are gardens 'neath which the rivers flow! So oft as they are fed
therefrom with fruit for sustenance, they shall say, "This same was our
sustenance of old:" And they shall have its like given to them.9 Therein
shall they have wives of perfect purity, and therein shall they abide for

Verily God is not ashamed to set forth as well the instance of a gnat10 as of
any nobler object: for as to those who have believed, they know it to be the
truth from their Lord; but as to the unbelievers, they will say, "What
meaneth God by this comparison?" Many will He mislead by such parables and
many guide: but none will He mislead thereby except the wicked,

Who, after its establishment, violate the covenant of God,11 and cut in
sunder what God hath bidden to be joined, and act disorderly on the Earth.
These are they who shall suffer loss!

How can ye withhold faith from God? Ye were dead and He gave you life; next
He will cause you to die; next He will restore you to life: next shall ye
return to Him!

He it is who created for you all that is on Earth, then proceeded to the
Heaven, and into seven12 Heavens did He fashion it: and He knoweth all

When thy Lord said to the angels, "Verily, I am about to place one in my
stead on earth,"13 they said, "Wilt thou place there one who will do ill
therein and shed blood, when we celebrate thy praise and extol thy holiness?"
God said, "Verily, I know what ye know not."

And he taught Adam the names of all things, and then set them before the
angels,14 and said, "Tell me the names of these, if ye are endued with

They said, "Praise be to Thee! We have no knowledge but what Thou hast given
us to know. Thou! Thou art the Knowing, the Wise."

He said, "O Adam, inform them of their names." And when he had informed them
of their names, He said, "Did I not say to you that I know the hidden things
of the Heavens and of the Earth, and that I know what ye bring to light, and
what ye hide?"

And when we said to the angels, "Bow down and worship Adam," then worshipped
they all, save Eblis.16 He refused and swelled with pride, and became one of
the unbelievers.

And we said, "O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye
plentifully therefrom wherever ye list; but to this tree come not nigh, lest
ye become of the transgressors."

But Satan17 made them slip from it, and caused their banishment from the
place in which they were. And we said, "Get ye down, the one of you an enemy
to the other: and there shall be for you in the earth a dwelling-place, and a
provision for a time."

And words of prayer learned Adam from his Lord: and God turned to him; for He
loveth to turn, the Merciful.

We said, "Get ye down from it, all together: and if

Guidance shall come to you from me, whoso shall follow my guidance, on them
shall come no fear, neither shall they be grieved:

But they who shall not believe, and treat our signs as false-hoods, these
shall be inmates of the fire; in it shall they remain for ever."

O children of Israel! remember my favour wherewith I shewed favour upon you,
and be true to your covenant with me; I will be true to my covenant with you;
me therefore, revere me! and believe in what I have sent down confirming your
Scriptures, and be not the first to disbelieve it, neither for a mean price
barter my signs: me therefore, fear ye me!

And clothe not the truth with falsehood, and hide not the truth when ye know

And observe prayer and pay the legal impost, and bow down with those who bow.

Will ye enjoin what is right upon others, and forget yourselves? Yet ye read
the Book: will ye not understand?

And seek help with patience and prayer: a hard duty indeed is this, but not
to the humble,

Who bear in mind that they shall meet their Lord, and that unto Him shall
they return.

O children of Israel! remember my favour wherewith I shewed favour upon you;
for verily to you above all human beings have I been bounteous.

And fear ye the day when soul shall not satisfy for soul at all, nor shall
any intercession be accepted from them, nor shall any ransom be taken,
neither shall they be helped.

And remember when we rescued you from the people of Pharaoh, who had laid on
you a cruel chastisement. They slew your male children, and let only your
females live: and in this was a great trial from your Lord:

And when we parted the sea for you, and saved you, and drowned the people of
Pharaoh, while ye were looking on:

And when we were in treaty with Moses forty nights: then during his absence
took ye the calf and acted wickedly:

Yet after this we forgave you, that ye might be grateful:

And when we gave Moses the Book and the Illumination19 in order to your

And remember when Moses said to his people, "O my people! verily ye - have
sinned to your own hurt, by your taking the calf to worship it: Be turned
then to your creator, and slay the guilty among you;20 this will be best for
you with your creator:" Then turned He unto you, for He is the one who
turneth, the Merciful:

And when ye said, "O Moses! we will not believe thee until we see God
plainly;" the thunderbolt fell upon you while ye were looking on:

Then we raised you to life after ye had been dead,21 that haply ye might give

And we caused the clouds to overshadow you, and we sent down manna and quails
upon you;–"Eat of the good things we have give you for sustenance;"–and they
injured not us but they injured themselves.22

And when we said, "Enter this city,23 and eat therefrom plentifully, at your
will, and enter the gate with prostrations, and say, 'Forgiveness;' and we
will pardon you your sins, and give an increase to the doers of good:"–

But the evil-doers changed that word into another than that spoken to them,24
and we sent down upon those evil-doers wrath from heaven, for that they had
done amiss:

And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, "Strike the rock with thy
rod;" and from it there gushed twelve fountains: each tribe25 knew their
drinking-place:–"Eat and drink," said we, "of what God hath supplied, and do
no wrong on the earth by licentious deeds:"

And when ye said, "O Moses! we will not put up with one sort of food: pray,
therefore, thy Lord for us, that He would bring forth for us of that which
the earth groweth, its herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils
and its onions:" He said, "What! will ye exchange that which is worse for
what is better? Get ye down into Egypt;–for ye shall have what ye have
asked:" Vileness and poverty were stamped upon them, and they returned with
wrath from God: This, for that they disbelieved the signs of God, and slew
the Prophets26 unjustly: this, for that they rebelled and transgressed!

Verily, they who believe (Muslims), and they who follow the Jewish religion,
and the Christians, and the Sabeites27–whoever of these believeth in God and
the last day, and doeth that which is right, shall have their reward with
their Lord: fear shall not come upon them, neither shall they be grieved.

Call to mind also when we entered into a covenant with you, and lifted up the
mountain28 over you:–"Take hold," said we, "on what we have revealed to you,
with resolution, and remember what is therein, that ye may fear:"

But after this ye turned back, and but for God's grace and mercy toward you,
ye had surely been of the lost! Ye know too those of you who transgressed on
the Sabbath, and to whom we said, "Be changed into scouted apes:"29

And we made them a warning to those of their day, and to those who came after
them, and a caution to the God-fearing:

And when Moses said to his people, "Verily, God bids you sacrifice a COW;"30
they said, "Makest thou a jest of us?" He said, "God keep me from being one
of the foolish." They said, "Call on thy Lord for us that He would make plain
to us what she is." He said, "God saith, 'She is a cow neither old nor young,
but of the middle age between the two:' do therefore what ye are bidden."

They said, "Call on your Lord for us, that he would make plain to us what is
her colour." He said, "God saith, 'She is a fawn-coloured cow; her colour is
very bright; she rejoiceth the beholders.' "

They said, "Call on they Lord for us that He would make plain to us what cow
it is–for to us are cows alike,–and verily, if God please, we shall be guided

He said, "God saith, 'She is a cow not worn by ploughing the earth or
watering the field, sound, no blemish in her.' " They said, "Now hast thou
brought the truth:" Then they sacrificed her; Yet nearly had they done it

And when ye slew a man, and strove among yourselves about him, God brought to
light what he had hidden:

For we said, "Strike the corpse with part of her." So God giveth life to the
dead, and sheweth you his signs, that haply ye may understand.

Then after that your hearts became hard like rocks, or harder still: for
verily, from rocks have rivers gushed; others, verily, have been cleft, and
water hath issued from them; and others, verily, have sunk down through fear
of God: And God is not regardless of your actions.

Desire ye then that for your sakes31 the Jews should believe? Yet a part of
them heard the word of God, and then, after they had understood it, perverted
it, and knew that they did so.

And when they fall in with the faithful, they say, "We believe;" but when
they are apart32 one with another, they say, "Will ye acquaint them with what
God hath revealed to you, that they may dispute with you about it in the
presence of your Lord?" Understand ye their aim?

Know they not that God knoweth what they hide, as well as what they bring to

But there are illiterates among them who are unacquainted with the Book,33
but with lies only, and have but vague fancies. Woe to those who with their
own hands transcribe the Book corruptly, and then say, "This is from God,"
that they may sell it for some mean price! Woe then to them for that which
their hands have written! and, Woe to them for the gains which they have

And they say, "Hell fire shall not touch us, but for a few days:"34 SAY: Have
ye received such a promise from God? for God will not revoke his promise: or,
Speak ye of God that which ye know not?

But they whose only gains are evil works, and who are environed by their
sins,–they shall be inmates of the fire, therein to abide for ever:

But they who have believed and done the things that be right, they shall be
the inmates of Paradise,–therein to abide for ever.

And when we entered into covenant with the children of Israel, we said,
"Worship none but God, and be good to your parents and kindred, and to
orphans, and to the poor, and speak with men what is right, and observe
prayer, and pay the stated alms." Then turned ye away, except a few of you,
and withdrew afar off.

And when we made a covenant with you that ye should not shed your own
blood,35 nor expel one another from your abodes, then ye ratified it and
yourselves were witnesses.

Then were ye the very persons who slew one another; and ye drove out a part
of your own people from their abodes; ye lent help against them with wrong
and hatred; but if they come captives to you, ye redeem them!–Yet it was
forbidden you to drive them out.36 Believe ye then part of the Book, and deny
part? But what shall be the meed of him among you who doth this, but shame in
this life? And on the day of the Resurrection they shall be sent to the most
cruel of torments, for God is not regardless of what ye do.

These are they who purchase this present life at the price of that which is
to come: their torment shall not be lightened, neither shall they be helped.

Moreover, to Moses gave we "the Book," and we raised up apostles after him;
and to Jesus, son of Mary, gave we clear proofs of his mission, and
strengthened him by the Holy Spirit.37 So oft then as an apostle cometh to
you with that which your souls desire not, swell ye with pride, and treat
some as impostors, and slay others?

And they say, "Uncircumcised are our hearts." Nay! God hath cursed them in
their infidelity: few are they who believe!

And when a Book had come to them from God, confirming that which they had
received already–although they had before prayed for victory over those who
believed not–yet when that Koran come to them, of which they had knowledge,
they did not recognise it. The curse of God on the infidels!

For a vile price have they sold themselves, by not believing what God hath
sent down, envious of God's sending down his grace on such of his servants as
he pleaseth:38 and they have brought on themselves wrath upon wrath. And for
the unbelievers is a disgraceful chastisement.

And when it is said to them, "Believe in what God hath sent down," they say,
"In that which hath been sent down to us we believe:" but what hath since
been sent down they disbelieve, although it be the truth confirmatory of
their own Scriptures. SAY: Why then have ye of old slain God's prophets,39 if
ye are indeed believers?

Moreover, Moses came unto you with proofs of his mission. Then in his absence
ye took the calf for your God, and did wickedly.

And when we accepted your covenant, and uplifted40 the mountain over you, we
said, "Take firm hold on what we have given you, and hearken." They said, "We
have hearkened and have rebelled:" then were they made to drink down the calf
into their hearts for their ingratitude. SAY: A bad thing hath your faith
commanded you, if ye be indeed believers.

SAY: If the future dwelling place with God be specially for you, but not for
the rest of mankind, then wish for death, if ye are sincere:

But never can they wish for it, because of that which their own hands have
sent on before them!41 And God knoweth the offenders.

And thou wilt surely find them of all men most covetous of life, beyond even
the polytheists. To be kept alive a thousand years might one of them desire:
but that he may be preserved alive, shall no one reprieve himself from the
punishment! And God seeth what they do.

SAY: Whoso is the enemy of Gabriel–For he it is who by God's leave hath
caused the Koran to descend on thy heart, the confirmation of previous
revelations, and guidance, and good tidings to the faithful–

Whoso is an enemy to God or his angels, or to Gabriel, or to Michael, shall
have God as his enemy: for verily God is an enemy to the Infidels.

Moreover, clear signs have we sent down to thee, and none will disbelieve
them but the perverse.

Oft as they have formed an engagement with thee, will some of them set it
aside? But most of them believe not.

And when there came to them an apostle from God, affirming the previous
revelations made to them, some of those to whom the Scriptures were given,
threw the Book of God behind their backs as if they knew it not:

And they followed what the Satans read42 in the reign of Solomon: not that
Solomon was unbelieving, but the Satans were unbelieving. Sorcery did they
teach to men, and what had been revealed to the two angels, Harut and Marut,
at Babel. Yet no man did these two teach until they had said, "We are only a
temptation. Be not then an unbeliever." From these two did men learn how to
cause division between man and wife: but unless by leave of God, no man did
they harm thereby. They learned, indeed, what would harm and not profit them;
and yet they knew that he who bought that art should have no part in the life
to come! And vile the price for which they have sold themselves,–if they had
but known it!

But had they believed and feared God, better surely would have been the
reward from God,–if they had but known it!

O ye who believe! say not to our apostle, "Raina"43 (Look at us); but say,
"Ondhorna" (Regard us). And attend to this; for, the Infidels shall suffer a
grievous chastisement.

The unbelievers among the people of the Book, and among the idolaters, desire
not that any good should be sent down to you from your Lord: but God will
shew His special mercy to whom He will, for He is of great bounty.

Whatever verses we cancel,44 or cause thee to forget, we bring a better or
its like. Knowest thou not that God hath power over all things?

Knowest thou not that the dominion of the Heavens and of the Earth is God's?
and that ye have neither patron nor helper, save God?

Would ye ask of your apostle what of old was asked of Moses? But he who
exchangeth faith for unbelief,45 hath already erred from the even way.

Many of the people of the Book desire to bring you back to unbelief after ye
have believed, out of selfish envy, even after the truth hath been clearly
shewn them. But forgive them, and shun them till God shall come in with His
working. Truly God hath power over all things.

And observe prayer and pay the legal impost:46 and whatever good thing ye
have sent on before for your soul's sake, ye shall find it with God. Verily
God seeth what ye do.

And they say, "None but Jews or Christians shall enter Paradise:" This is
their wish. SAY: Give your proofs if ye speak the truth.

But they who set their face with resignation Godward, and do what is right,–
their reward is with their Lord; no fear shall come on them, neither shall
they be grieved.

Moreover, the Jews say, "The Christians lean on nought:" "On nought lean the
Jews," say the Christians: Yet both are readers of the Book. So with like
words say they who have no knowledge.47 But on the resurrection day, God
shall judge between them as to that in which they differ.

And who committeth a greater wrong than he who hindereth God's name from
being remembered in his temples, and who hasteth to ruin them?48 Such men
cannot enter them but with fear. Their's is shame in this world, and a severe
torment in the next.

The East and the West is God's: therefore, whichever way ye turn, there is
the face of God:49 Truly God is immense and knoweth all.

And they say, "God hath a son:" No! Praise be to Him! But–His, whatever is
in the Heavens and the Earth! All obeyeth Him,

Sole maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! And when He decreeth a thing, He
only saith to it, "Be," and it is.

And they who have no knowledge say, "Unless God speak to us, or thou shew us
a sign . . . !" So, with like words, said those who were before them: their
hearts are alike: Clear signs have we already shewn for those who have firm

Verily, with the Truth have we sent thee, a bearer of good tidings and a
warner: and of the people of Hell thou shalt not be questioned.

But until thou follow their religion, neither Jews nor Christians will be
satisfied with thee. SAY: Verily, guidance of God,–that is the guidance! And
if, after "the Knowledge" which hath reached thee, thou follow their desires,
thou shalt find neither helper nor protector against God.

They to whom we have given the Book, and who read it as it ought to be read,–
these believe therein: but whoso believeth not therein, shall meet with

O children of Israel! remember my favour wherewith I have favoured you, and
that high above all mankind have I raised you:

And dread the day when not in aught shall soul satisfy for soul, nor shall
any ransom be taken from it, nor shall any intercession avail, and they shall
not be helped.

When his Lord made trial of Abraham by commands which he fulfilled, He said,
"I am about to make thee an Imâm to mankind:" he said, "Of my offspring
also:" "My covenant," said God, "embraceth not the evil doers."

And remember when we appointed the Holy House50 as man's resort and safe
retreat, and said, "Take ye the station of Abraham for a place of prayer:"
And we commanded Abraham and Ismael, "Purify my house for those who shall go
in procession round it, and those who shall abide there for devotion, and
those who shall bow down and prostrate themselves."

And when Abraham said, "Lord! make this secure land, and supply its people
with fruits, such of them as believe in God and in the last day:" He said,
"And whoso believeth not, for a little while will I bestow good things on
him; then will I drive him to the torment of the Fire!" An ill passage!

And when Abraham, with Ismael, raised the foundations51 of the House, they
said, "O our Lord! accept it from us; for thou art the Hearer, the Knower.

O our Lord! make us also Muslims, and our posterity a Muslim people; and
teach us our holy rites, and be turned towards us, for thou art He who
turneth, the Merciful.

O our Lord! raise up among them an apostle52 who may rehearse thy signs unto
them, and teach them 'the Book,' and Wisdom, and purify them: for thou art
the Mighty, the Wise."

And who but he that hath debased his soul to folly will mislike the faith of
Abraham, when we have chosen him in this world, and in the world to come he
shall be of the Just?

When his Lord said to him, "Resign thyself to me," he said, "I resign myself
to the Lord of the Worlds."

And this to his children did Abraham bequeath, and Jacob also, saying, "O my
children! truly God hath chosen a religion for you; so die not unless ye be
also Muslims."

Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death?53 when he said to his
sons, "Whom will ye worship when I am gone?" They said, "We will worship thy
God and the God of thy fathers Abraham and Ismael and Isaac, one God, and to
Him are we surrendered (Muslims)."

That people have now passed away; they have the reward of their deeds, and ye
shall have the meed of yours: but of their doings ye shall not be questioned.

They say, moreover, "Become Jews or Christians that ye may have the true
guidance." SAY: Nay! the religion of Abraham, the sound in faith,54 and not
one of those who join gods with God!

Say ye: "We believe in God, and that which hath been sent down to us, and
that which hath been sent down to Abraham and Ismael and Isaac and Jacob and
the tribes: and that which hath been given to Moses and to Jesus, and that
which was given to the prophets from their Lord. No difference do we make
between any of them: and to God are we resigned (Muslims)."

If therefore they believe even as ye believe, then have they true guidance;
but if they turn back, then do they cut themselves off from you: and God will
suffice to protect thee against them, for He is the Hearer, the Knower.55

Islam is the Baptism of God,56 and who is better to baptise than God? And Him
do we serve.

SAY: Will ye dispute with us about God? when He is our Lord and your Lord! We
have our works and ye have your works; and we are sincerely His.

Will ye say, "Verily Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the
tribes, were Jews or Christians?" SAY: Who knoweth best, ye, or God? And who
is more in fault than he who concealeth the witness which he hath from God?
But God is not regardless of what ye do.

That people have now passed away: they have the reward of their deeds, and
for you is the meed of yours; but of their doings ye shall not be questioned.

The foolish ones will say, "What hath turned them from the kebla which they
used?" SAY: The East and the West are God's. He guideth whom he will into the
right path.

Thus have we made you a central people,57 that ye may be witnesses in regard
to mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness in regard to you.

We appointed the kebla which thou formerly hadst, only that we might know him
who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth on his heels: The change is a
difficulty, but not to those whom God hath guided. But God will not let your
faith58 be fruitless; for unto man is God Merciful, Gracious.

We have seen thee turning thy face towards every part of Heaven; but we will
have thee turn to a kebla which shall please thee. Turn then thy face towards
the sacred Mosque,59 and wherever ye be, turn your faces towards that part.
They, verily, to whom "the Book" hath been given, know this to be the truth
from their Lord: and God is not regardless of what ye do.

Even though thou shouldest bring every kind of sign to those who have
received the Scriptures, yet thy kebla they will not adopt; nor shalt thou
adopt their kebla; nor will one part of them adopt the kebla of the other.
And if, after the knowledge which hath come to thee, thou follow their
wishes, verily then wilt thou become of the unrighteous.

They to whom we have given the Scriptures know him–the apostle–even as they
know their own children: but truly a part of them do conceal the truth,
though acquainted with it.60

The truth is from thy Lord. Be not then of those who doubt.

All have a quarter of the Heavens to which they turn them; but wherever ye
be, hasten emulously after good: God will one day bring you all together;
verily, God is all-powerful.

And from whatever place thou comest forth, turn thy face toward the sacred
Mosque; for this is the truth from thy Lord; and God is not inattentive to
your doings.

And from whatever place thou comest forth, turn thy face toward the sacred
Mosque; and wherever ye be, to that part turn your faces, lest men have cause
of dispute against you: but as for the impious among them, fear them not; but
fear me, that I may perfect my favours on you, and that ye may be guided

And we sent to you an apostle from among yourselves to rehearse our signs
unto you, and to purify you, and to instruct you in "the Book," and in the
wisdom, and to teach you that which ye knew not:

Therefore remember me: I will remember you; and give me thanks and be not

O ye who believe! seek help with patience and with prayer, for God is with
the patient.

And say not of those who are slain on God's path61 that they are Dead; nay,
they are Living! But ye understand not.

With somewhat of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth, and lives, and fruits,
will we surely prove you: but bear good tidings to the patient,

Who when a mischance chanceth them, say, "Verily we are God's, and to Him
shall we return:"62

On them shall be blessings from their Lord, and mercy: and these!–they are
the rightly guided.

Verily, Safa and Marwah63 are among the monuments of God: whoever then maketh
a pilgrimage to the temple, or visiteth it, shall not be to blame if he go
round about them both. And as for him who of his own accord doeth what is
good–God is Grateful, Knowing.

They who conceal aught that we have sent down, either of clear proof or of
guidance, after what we have so clearly shewn to men in the Book,64 God shall
curse them, and they who curse shall curse them.

But as for those who turn to me, and amend and make known the truth, even
unto them will I turn me, for I am He who Turneth, the Merciful.

Verily, they who are infidels and die infidels,–these! upon them shall be the
malison of God and of angels and of all men:

Under it shall they remain for ever: their torment shall not be lightened,
and God will not even look upon them!

Your God is one God:65 there is no God but He, the Compassionate, the

Assuredly in the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth; and in the
alternation of night and day; and in the ships which pass through the sea
with what is useful to man; and in the rain which God sendeth down from
Heaven, giving life by it to the earth after its death, and by scattering
over it all kinds of cattle; and in the change of the winds, and in the
clouds that are made to do service between the Heaven and the Earth;–are
signs for those who understand.

Yet there are men who take to them idols along with God, and love them with
the love of God: But stronger in the faithful is the love of God. Oh! the
impious will see, when they see their chastisement, that all power is God's,
and that God is severe in chastising.

When those who have had followers66 shall declare themselves clear from their
followers after that they have seen the chastisement, and when the ties
between them shall be cut asunder;

The followers shall say, "Could we but return to life we would keep ourselves
clear from them, as they have declared themselves clear of us." So will God
shew them their works! Sighing is upon them! but, forth from the fire they
come not.

Oh men! eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth, but follow not the
steps of Satan, for he is your avowed enemy:

He only enjoineth you evil and wickedness, and that ye should aver of God
that which ye know not.

And when it is said to them, "Follow ye that which God hath sent down;" they
say, "Nay, we follow the usages which we found with our fathers." What!
though their fathers were utterly ignorant and devoid of guidance?

The infidels resemble him who shouteth aloud to one who heareth no more than
a call and cry! Deaf, Dumb, blind: therefore they have no understanding.

O ye who believe! eat of the good things with which we have supplied you, and
give God thanks if ye are His worshippers.

But that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that over
which any other name than that of God hath been invoked, is forbidden you.
But he who shall partake of them by constraint, without lust or wilfulness,
no sin shall be upon him. Verily God is Indulgent, Merciful.

They truly who hide the Scriptures which God hath sent down, and barter them
for a mean price–these shall swallow into their bellies nought but fire. God
will not speak to them, or assoil them, on the day of the Resurrection: and
theirs shall be a grievous torment.

These are they who have bartered guidance for error, and pardon for torment;
But how great their endurance in fire!67

This shall be their doom, because God had sent down "the Book" with the very
truth. And verily they who dispute about that Book are in a far-gone
severance from it.

There is no piety in turning your faces toward the east or the west, but he
is pious who believeth in God, and the last day, and the angles, and the
Scriptures, and the prophets; who for the love of God disburseth his wealth
to his kindred, and to the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and
those who ask, and for ransoming; who observeth prayer, and payeth the legal
alms, and who is of those who are faithful to their engagements when they
have engaged in them, and patient under ills and hardships, and in time of
trouble: these are they who are just, and these are they who fear the Lord.

O believers! retaliation for bloodshedding is prescribed to you: the free man
for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the woman for the woman: but
he to whom his brother shall make any remission,68 is to be dealt with
equitably; and to him should he pay a fine with liberality.

This is a relaxation69 from your Lord and a mercy. For him who after his
shall transgress,70 a sore punishment!

But in this law of retaliation is your security for life, O men of
understanding! to the intent that ye may fear God.

It is prescribed to you, when any one of you is at the point of death, if he
leave goods, that he bequeath equitably to his parents and kindred. This is
binding on those who fear God. But as for him who after he hath heard the
bequest shall change it, surely the wrong of this shall be on those who
change it: verily, God Heareth, Knoweth.

But he who feareth from the testator any mistake or wrong, and shall make a
settlement between the parties–that shall be no wrong in him: verily, God is
Lenient, Merciful.

O believers! a Fast is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before
you, that ye may fear God,

For certain days. But he among you who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall
fast that same number of other days: and as for those who are able to keep it
and yet break it, the expiation of this shall be the maintenance of a poor
man. And he who of his own accord performeth a good work, shall derive good
from it: and good shall it be for you to fast if ye knew it.

As to the month Ramadhan in which the Koran was sent down to be man's
guidance, and an explanation of that guidance, and of that illumination,71 as
soon as any one of you observeth the moon, let him set about the fast; but he
who is sick, or upon a journey, shall fast a like number of other days. God
wisheth you ease, but wisheth not your discomfort, and that you fulfil the
number of days, and that you glorify God for his guidance, and that you be

And when my servants ask thee concerning me, then will I be nigh unto them. I
will answer the cry of him that crieth, when he crieth unto me: but let them
hearken unto me, and believe in me, that they may proceed aright.

You are allowed on the night of the fast to approach your wives: they are
your garment and ye are their garment.72 God knoweth that ye defraud
yourselves therein, so He turneth unto you and forgiveth you! Now, therefore,
go in unto them with full desire for that which God hath ordained for you;
and eat and drink until ye can discern a white thread from a black thread73
by the daybreak: then fast strictly till night, and go not in unto them, but
rather pass the time in the Mosques. These are the bounds set up by God:
therefore come not near them. Thus God maketh his signs clear to men that
they may fear Him.74

Consume not your wealth among yourselves in vain things, nor present it to
judges that ye may consume a part of other men's wealth unjustly, while ye
know the sin which ye commit.

They will ask thee of the new moons. SAY: They are periods fixed for man's
service and for the Pilgrimage. There is no piety in entering your houses at
the back,75 but piety consists in the fear of God. Enter your houses then by
their doors; and fear God that it may be well with you.

And fight for the cause of God against those who fight against you: but
commit not the injustice of attacking them first: God loveth not such

And kill them wherever ye shall find them, and eject them from whatever place
they have ejected you; for civil discord76 is worse than carnage: yet attack
them not at the sacred Mosque, unless they attack you therein; but if they
attack you, slay them. Such the reward of the infidels.

But if they desist, then verily God is Gracious, Merciful.

Fight therefore against them until there be no more civil discord, and the
only worship be that of God: but if they desist, then let there be no
hostility, save against the wicked.

The sacred month and the sacred precincts are under the safeguard of
reprisals:77 whoever offereth violence to you, offer ye the like violence to
him, and fear God, and know that God is with those who fear Him.

Give freely for the cause of God, and throw not yourselves with your own
hands into ruin;78 and do good, for God loveth those who do good.

Accomplish the Pilgrimage and the Visitation79 of the holy places in honour
of God: and if ye be hemmed in by foes, send whatever offering shall be the
easiest: and shave not your heads until the offering reach the place of
sacrifice. But whoever among you is sick, or hath an ailment of the head,
must satisfy by fasting, or alms, or an offering. And when ye are safe from
foes, he who contents himself with the Visitation of the holy places, until
the Pilgrimage, shall bring whatever offering shall be the easiest. But he
who findeth nothing to offer, shall fast three days in the Pilgrimage itself,
and seven days when ye return: they shall be ten days in all. This is binding
on him whose family shall not be present at the sacred Mosque. And fear God,
and know that God is terrible in punishing.

Let the Pilgrimage be made in the months already known:80 whoever therefore
undertaketh the Pilgrimage therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress,
nor wrangle in the Pilgrimage. The good which ye do, God knoweth it. And
provide for your journey; but the best provision is the fear of God: fear me,
then, O men of understanding!

It shall be no crime in you if ye seek an increase from your Lord;81 and when
ye pour swiftly on from Arafat, then remember God near the holy monument; and
remember Him, because He hath guided you who before this were of those who
went astray:

Then pass on quickly82 where the people quickly pass, and ask pardon of God,
for God is Forgiving, Merciful.

And when ye have finished your holy rites, remember God as ye remember your
own fathers, or with a yet more intense remembrance! Some men there are who
say, "O our Lord! give us our portion in this world:" but such shall have no
portion in the next life:

And some say, "O our Lord! give us good in this world and good in the next,
and keep us from the torment of the fire."

They shall have the lot which they have merited: and God is swift to reckon.

Bear God in mind during the stated days: but if any haste away83 in two days,
it shall be no fault in him: And if any tarry longer, it shall be no fault in
him, if he fear God. Fear God, then, and know that to Him shall ye be

A man there is84 who surpriseth thee by his discourse concerning this life
present. He taketh God to witness what is in his heart; yet is he the most
zealous in opposing thee:

And when he turneth his back on thee, he runneth through the land to enact
disorders therein, and layeth waste the fields and flocks: but God loveth not
the disorder.

And when it is said to him, "Fear God," the pride of sin seizeth him: but he
shall have his fill of Hell; and right wretched the couch!

A man, too, there is85 who selleth his very self out of desire to please God:
and God is good to his servants.

O believers! enter completely into the true religion, and follow not the
steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy.

But if ye lapse after that our clear signs86 have come to you, know that God
is Mighty, Wise.

What can such expect but that God should come down to them overshadowed with
clouds, and the angels also, and their doom be sealed? And to God shall all
things return.

Ask the children of Isreal how many clear signs we have given them. But if
any man shall alter the boon87 of God after it shall have reached him,
assuredly God will be vehement in punishing him.

This present life is prepared for those who believe not, and who mock at the
faithful. But they who fear God shall be above them on the day of
resurrection; and God is bounteous without measure to whom He will.

Mankind was but one people;88 and God sent prophets to announce glad tidings
and to warn; and He sent down with them the Book of Truth, that it might
decide the disputes of men; and none disputed but those to whom the Book had
been given, after the clear tokens had reached them,–being full of mutual
jealousy. And God guided those who believed to the truth of that about which,
by his permission, they had disputed; for God guideth whom he pleaseth into
the straight path.

Think ye to enter Paradise, when no such things have come upon you, as on
those who flourish before you? Ills and troubles tried them; and so tossed
were they by trials, that the Apostle and they who shared his faith, said,
"When will the help of God come?"–Is not the help of God nigh?

They will ask thee what they shall bestow in alms. SAY: Let the good which ye
bestow be for parents, and kindred, and orphans, and the poor, and the
wayfarer; and whatever good ye do, of a truth God knoweth.

War is prescribed to you: but from this ye are averse.

Yet haply ye are averse from a thing, though it be good for you, and haply ye
love a thing though it be bad for you: And God knoweth; but ye, ye know not.

They will ask thee concerning war in the Sacred Month. SAY: To war therein is
bad, but to turn aside from the cause of God, and to have no faith in Him,
and in the Sacred Temple, and to drive out its people, is worse in the sight
of God; and civil strife is worse than bloodshed. They will not cease to war
against you until they turn you from your religion, if they be able: but
whoever of you shall turn from his religion and die an infidel, their works
shall be fruitless in this world, and in the next: they shall be consigned to
the fire; therein to abide for aye.

But they who believe, and who fly their country, and fight in the cause of
God may hope for God's mercy: and God is Gracious, Merciful.

They will ask thee concerning wine89 and games of chance. SAY: In both is
great sin, and advantage also, to men; but their sin is greater than their
advantage. They will ask thee also what they shall bestow in alms:

SAY: What ye can spare. Thus God sheweth you his signs that ye may ponder

On this present world, and on the next. They will also ask thee concerning
orphans. SAY: Fair dealing with them is best;

But if ye mix yourselves up (in their affairs)–they are your brethren: God
knoweth the foul dealer from the fair: and, if God pleased, he could indeed
afflict you! Verily, God is Mighty, Wise.

Marry not idolatresses until they believe; a slave who believeth is better
than an idolatress, though she please you more. And wed not your daughters to
idolaters until they believe; for a slave who is a believer, is than better
an idolater, though he please you.

They invite to the Fire; but God inviteth to Paradise, and to pardon, if he
so will, and maketh clear his signs to men that they may remember.

They will also question thee as to the courses of women. SAY: They are a
pollution. Separate yourselves therefore from women and approach them not,
until they be cleansed. But when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God
hath ordained for you. Verily God loveth those who turn to Him, and loveth
those who seek to be clean.

Your wives are your field: go in, therefore, to your field as ye will; but do
first some act for your souls' good: and fear ye God, and know that ye must
meet Him; and bear these good tidings to the faithful.

Swear not by God, when ye make oath, that ye will be virtuous and fear God,
and promote peace among men; for God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.

God will not punish you for a mistake in your oaths: but He will punish you
for that which your hearts have done. God is Gracious, Merciful.

They who intend to abstain from their wives shall wait four months; but if
they go back from their purpose, then verily God is Gracious, Merciful:

And if they resolve on a divorce, then verily God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.

The divorced shall wait the result, until they have had their courses thrice,
nor ought they to conceal what God hath created in their wombs, if they
believe in God and the last day; and it will be more just in their husbands
to bring them back when in this state, if they desire what is right. And it
is for the women to act as they (the husbands) act by them, in all fairness;
but the men are a step above them. God is Mighty, Wise.

Ye may divorce your wives twice: Keep them honourably, or put them away with
kindness. But it is not allowed you to appropriate to yourselves aught of
what ye have given to them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the
bounds90 set up by God. And if ye fear that they cannot observe the
ordinances of God, no blame shall attach to either of you for what the wife
shall herself give for her redemption. These are the bounds of God: therefore
overstep them not; for whoever oversteppeth the bounds of God, they are evil

But if the husband divorce her a third time, it is not lawful for him to take
her again, until she shall have married another husband; and if he also
divorce her, then shall no blame attach to them if they return to each other,
thinking that they can keep within the bounds fixed by God. And these are the
bounds of God; He maketh them clear to those who have knowledge.

But when ye divorce women, and the time for sending them away is come, either
retain them with generosity, or put them away with generosity: but retain
them not by constraint so as to be unjust towards them. He who doth so, doth
in fact injure himself. And make not the signs of God a jest; but remember
God's favour toward you, and the Book and the Wisdom which He hath sent down
to you for your warning, and fear God, and know that God's knowledge
embraceth everything.

And when ye divorce your wives, and they have waited the prescribed time,
hinder them not from marrying their husbands when they have agreed among
themselves in an honourable way. This warning is for him among you who
believeth in God and in the last day. This is most pure for you, and most
decent. God knoweth, but ye know not.

Mothers, when divorced, shall give suck to their children two full years,91
if the father desire that the suckling be completed; and such maintenance and
clothing as is fair for them, shall devolve on the father. No person shall be
charged beyond his means. A mother shall not be pressed unfairly for her
child, nor a father for his child: And the same with the father's heir. But
if they choose to wean the child by consent and by bargain, it shall be no
fault in them. And if ye choose to have a nurse for your children, it shall
be no fault in you, in case ye pay what ye promised her according to that
which is fair. Fear God, and know that God seeth what ye do.

If those of you who die leave wives, they must await their state during four
months and ten days; and when this their term is expired, you shall not be
answerable for the way in which they shall dispose of themselves fairly. And
God is cognisant of what ye do.

And then shall no blame attach to you in making proposals of marriage92 to
such women, or in keeping such intention to yourselves? God knoweth that ye
will not forget them. But promise them not in secret, unless ye speak
honourable words;

And resolve not on the marriage tie until the prescribed time be reached; and
know that God knoweth what is in your minds: therefore, beware of Him; and
know that God is Gracious, Mild!

It shall be no crime in you if ye divorce your wives so long as ye have not
consummated the marriage, nor settled any dowry on them. And provide what is
needful for them he who is in ample circumstances according to his means, and
he who is straitened, according to his means–with fairness: This is binding
on those who do what is right.

But if ye divorce them before consummation, and have already settled a dowry
on them, ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless they make a
release, or he make a release in whose hand is the marriage tie. But if ye
make a release, it will be nearer to piety. And forget not generosity in your
relations one towards another; for God beholdeth your doings.

Observe strictly the prayers, and the middle93 prayer, and stand up full of
devotion towards God.

And if you have any alarm, then pray on foot or riding: but when you are
safe, then remember God, how he hath made you to know what ye knew not.

And94 such of you as shall die and leave wives, shall bequeath their wives a
year's maintenance without causing them to quit their homes; but if they quit
them of their own accord, then no blame shall attach to you for any
disposition they may make of themselves in a fair way. And God is Mighty,

And for the divorced let there be a fair provision. This is a duty in those
who fear God.

Thus God maketh his signs clear to you that ye may understand.

Hast thou not thought on those who quitted their dwellings–and they were
thousands–for fear of death?95 God said to them, "Die:" then He restored them
to life, for full of bounty towards man is God. But most men give not thanks!

Fight for the cause of God; and know that God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.

Who is he that will lend to God a goodly loan? He will double it to him again
and again: God is close, but open handed also: and to Him shall ye return.

Hast thou not considered96 the assembly of the children of Israel after the
death of Moses, when they said to a prophet of theirs, "Set up for us a king;
we will do battle for the cause of God?" He said, "May it not be that if to
fight were ordained you, ye would not fight?" They said, "And why should we
not fight in the cause of God, since we and our children are driven forth
from our dwellings?" But when fighting was commanded them, they turned back,
save a few of them: But God knew the offenders!

And their prophet said to them, "Now hath God set (Talout) Saul king over
you." They said, "How shall he reign over us, when we are more worthy of the
kingdom than he, and of wealth he hath no abundance?" He said, "Verily God
hath chosen him to be over you, and hath given him increase in knowledge and
stature; God giveth his kingdom to whom he pleaseth; and God is Liberal,

And their prophet said to them, "Verily, the sign of his kingship shall be
that the Ark shall come to you: in it is a pledge of security97 from your
Lord and the relics98 left by the family of Moses, and the family of Aaron;
the angels shall bear it: Truly herein shall be a sign indeed to you if ye
are believers."

And when Saul marched forth with his forces, he said, "God will test you by a
river: He who drinketh of it shall not be of my band; but he who shall not
taste it, drinking a drink out of the hand excepted, shall be of my band."99
And, except a few of them, they drank of it. And when they had passed it, he
and those who believed with him, the former said, "We have no strength this
day against (Djalout) Goliath and his forces:" But they who held it as
certain that they must meet God, said, "How oft, by God's will, hath a small
host vanquished a numerous host! and God is with the steadfastly enduring."

And when they went forth against Goliath and his forces, they said, "O our
Lord! pour out steadfastness upon us, and set our feet firm, and help us
against the infidels!"

And by the will of God they routed them; and (Daood) David slew Goliath; and
God gave him the kingship and wisdom, and taught him according to His will:
and were it not for the restraint of one by means of the other, imposed on
men by God, verily the earth had been utterly corrupted. But God is bounteous
to his creatures.

Such are the signs of God: with truth do we rehearse them to thee, for one of
the Sent Ones art Thou.

Some of the apostles we have endowed more highly than others: Those to whom
God hath spoken, He hath raised to the loftiest grade, and to Jesus the Son
of Mary we gave manifest signs, and we strengthened him with the Holy
Spirit.100 And if God had pleased, they who came after them would not have
wrangled, after the clear signs had reached them. But into disputes101 they
fell: some of them believed, and some were infidels; yet if God had pleased,
they would not have thus wrangled: but God doth what he will.

O Believers! give alms of that with which we have supplied you, before the
day cometh when there shall be no trafficking, nor friendship, nor
intercession. And the infidels are the wrong-doers.

God! There is no God but He; the Living, the Eternal; Nor slumber seizeth
Him, nor sleep; His, whatsoever is in the Heavens and whatsoever is in the
Earth! Who is he that can intercede with Him but by His own permission? He
knoweth what hath been before them and what shall be after them; yet nought
of His knowledge shall they grasp, save what He willeth. His Throne reacheth
over the Heavens and the Earth, and the upholding of both burdeneth Him not;
and He is the High, the Great!

Let there be no compulsion in Religion.102 Now is the right way made distinct
from error. Whoever therefore shall deny Thagout103 and believe in God–he
will have taken hold on a strong handle that shall not be broken: and God is
He who Heareth, Knoweth.

God is the patron of believers: He shall bring them out of darkness into

As to those who believe not, their patrons are Thagout: they shall bring them
out of light into darkness: they shall be given over to the fire: they shall
abide therein for ever.

Hast thou not thought on him104 who disputed with Abraham about his Lord,
because God had given him the kingdom? When Abraham said, "My Lord is He who
maketh alive and cause to die:" He said, "It is I who make alive and cause to
die!" Abraham said, "Since God bringeth the sun from the East, do thou, then,
bring it from the West." The infidel was confounded; for God guideth not the
evil doers:

Or how he105 demeaned him who passed by a city which had been laid in
ruins.106 "How," said he, "shall God give life to this city, after she hath
been dead?" And God caused him to die for an hundred years, and then raised
him to life. And God said, "How long hast thou waited?" He said, "I have
waited a day or part of a day." He said, "Nay, thou hast waited an hundred
years. Look on thy food and thy drink; they are not corrupted; and look on
thine ass: we would make thee a sign unto men: And look on the bones of thine
ass, how we will raise them, then clothe them with flesh." And when this was
shewn to him, he said, "I acknowledge that God hath power to do all things."

When Abraham said, "O Lord, shew me how thou wilt give life to the dead!" He
said, "Hast thou not believed?"

He said, "Yes; but I have asked thee, that my heart may be well assured." He
said, "Take, then, four birds,107 and draw them towards thee, and cut them in
pieces; then place a part of them on every mountain; then call them and they
shall come swiftly to thee: and know thou that God is Might, Wise!"

The likeness of those who expend their wealth for the cause of God, is that
of a grain of corn which produceth seven ears, and in each ear a hundred
grains; and God will multiply to whom He pleaseth: God is Liberal, Knowing!

They who expend their wealth for the cause of God, and never follow what they
have laid out with reproaches or harm, shall have their reward with their
Lord; no fear shall come upon them, neither shall they be put to grief.

A kind speech and forgiveness is better than alms followed by injury. God is
Rich, Clement.

O ye who believe! make not your alms void by reproaches and injury, like him
who spendeth his substance to be seen of men, and believeth not in God and in
the latter day. The likeness of such an one is that of a rock with a thin
soil upon it, on which a heavy rain falleth but leaveth it hard: No profit
from their works shall they be able to gain; for God guideth not the
unbelieving people.

And the likeness of those who expend their substance from a desire to please
God, and for the stablishing of their souls, is as a garden on a hill, on
which the heavy rain falleth, and it yieldeth its fruits twofold; and even if
a heavy rain fall not on it, yet is there a dew: God beholdeth your actions.

Desireth any one of you a garden of palms and vines through which rivers
flow, in which he may have every fruit, and that old age should surprise him
there, and that his offspring should be weakly, and that then a fiery violent
wind shall strike it so that it shall be burned? Thus God maketh plain his
signs to you that ye may reflect.

O ye who believe! bestow alms of the good things which ye have acquired, and
of that which we have brought forth for you out of the earth, and choose not
the bad for almsgiving,

Such as ye would accept yourselves only by connivance: and know that God is
Rich, Praiseworthy.

Satan menaceth you with poverty,108 and enjoineth base actions: but God
promiseth you pardon from himself and abundance: God is All-bounteous,

He giveth wisdom to whom He will: and he to whom wisdom is given, hath had
much good given him; but none will bear it in mind, except the wise of heart.

And whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow, of a truth God
knoweth it: but they who act unjustly shall have no helpers. Give ye your
alms openly?109 it is well. Do ye conceal them and give them to the poor?
This, too, will be of advantage to you, and will do away your sins: and God
is cognisant of your actions.

Their guidance is not thine affair, O Muhammad; but God guideth whom he
pleaseth. And the good that ye shall give in alms shall redound unto
yourselves; and ye shall not give but as seeking the face of God; and
whatever good thing ye shall have given in alms, shall be repaid you, and ye
shall not be wronged. There are among you the poor, who being shut up to
fighting for the cause of God, have it not in their power to strike out into
the earth for riches. Those who know them not, think them rich because of
their modesty. By this their token thou shalt know them–they ask not of men
with importunity: and of whatever good thing ye shall give them in alms, of a
truth God will take knowledge.

They who give away their substance in alms, by night and day, in private and
in public, shall have their reward with their Lord: no fear shall come on
them, neither shall they be put to grief.

They who swallow down usury, shall arise in the resurrection only as he
ariseth whom Satan hath infected by his touch. This, for that they say,
"Selling is only the like of usury:" and yet God hath allowed selling, and
forbidden usury. He then who when this warning shall come to him from his
Lord, abstaineth, shall have pardon for the past, and his lot shall be with
God. But they who return to usury, shall be given over to the fire; therein
shall they abide for ever.

God will bring usury to nought, but will increase alms with usury, and God
loveth no infidel, or evil person. But they who believe and do the things
that are right, and observe the prayers, and pay the legal impost, they shall
have their reward with their Lord: no fear shall come on them, neither shall
they be put to grief.

O believers! fear God and abandon your remaining usury, if ye are indeed

But if ye do it not, then hearken for war on the part of God and his apostle:
yet if ye repent, ye shall have the principal of your money. Wrong not, and
ye shall not be wronged.

If any one find difficulty in discharging a debt, then let there be a delay
until it be easy for him: but if ye remit it as alms it will be better for
you, if ye knew it.

Fear the day wherein ye shall return to God: then shall every soul be
rewarded according to its desert, and none shall have injustice done to them.

O ye who believe! when ye contract a debt (payable) at a fixed date, write it
down, and let the notary faithfully note between you: and let not the notary
refuse to note, even as God hath taught him; but let him note it down, and
let him who oweth the debt dictate, and let him fear God his Lord, and not
diminish aught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt be foolish or weak, or
be not able to dictate himself, let his friend dictate for him with fairness;
and call to witness two witnesses of your people: but if there be not two
men, let there be a man, and two women of those whom ye shall judge fit for
witnesses: if the one of them should mistake, the other may cause her to
recollect. And the witnesses shall not refuse, whenever they shall be
summoned. And disdain not to put the debt in writing, be it large or small,
with its time of payment: this will be more just for you in the sight of God,
better suited for witnessing, and the best for avoiding doubt. But if the
goods be there present, and ye pass them from hand to hand–then it shall be
no fault in you not to write it down. And have witnesses when ye sell, and
harm not writer or witness: it will be a crime in you to do this. But fear
God and God will give you knowledge, for God hath knowledge of all things.

And if ye be on a journey and shall find no notary, let pledges be taken: but
if one of you trust the other, let him who is trusted, restore what he is
trusted with, and fear God his Lord. And refuse not to give evidence. He who
refuseth is surely wicked at heart: and God knoweth your deeds.

Whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth is God's: and whether ye bring
forth to light what is in your minds or conceal it, God will reckon with you
for it; and whom He pleaseth will He forgive, and whom He pleaseth will He
punish; for God is All-powerful.

The apostle believeth in that which hath been sent down from his Lord, as do
the faithful also. Each one believeth in God, and His Angels, and His Books,
and His Apostles: we make no distinction between any of His Apostles.110 And
they say, "We have heard and we obey. Thy mercy, Lord! for unto thee must we

God will not burden any soul beyond its power. It shall enjoy the good which
it hath acquired, and shall bear the evil for the acquirement of which it
laboured. O our Lord! punish us not if we forget, or fall into sin; O our
Lord! and lay not on us a load like that which thou hast laid on those who
have been before us; O our Lord! and lay not on us that for which we have not
strength: but blot out our sins and forgive us, and have pity on us. Thou art
our protector: give us victory therefore over the infidel nations.


1 The greater part of this, the oldest of the Medina Suras, was revealed in
the early part of the second year of the Hejira and previously to the battle
of Bedr.–The Hejira took place in the beginning of Muharram, or middle of
April, A.D. 622. The numbers who emigrated with Muhammad at first, were about
150 persons. Medina is 250 miles north of Mecca, and ten days' journey.

2 Said to mean A mara li Muhammad, i.e. at the command of Muhammad; but see
Sura 1xviii. p. 32.

3 Death, Resurrection, Judgment, etc.

4 The Jews.

5 The Jews and Christians, hostile to the mission of Muhammad.

6 Lit. the similitude of them is as the similitude of, etc.

7 The people of Medina are generally addressed with "O ye who believe;" the
Meccans, with "O men." Hence it has been inferred that from verse 19 (O men)
to 37 inclusively, is of the Meccan period. The subjects treated of also lead
to this conclusion.

8 The statues of false gods.

9 It will be an agreeable surprise to the blessed to have fruits, which at
first sight resemble those of earth, but are infinitely more delicious,.

10 Muhammad had been reproached for having drawn illustrations from the Ant,
Bee, Spider, etc.

11 Concerning faith in Muhammad. See verse 39 below, note.

12 The number of the Heavens is borrowed from the Talmud, or traditions based
upon it; but the idea probably has its root in the Scriptural expression,
"Heaven of Heavens."

13 Lit. a caliph, vicegerent. "When the Holy One, Blessed be He, would create
man, He took counsel with the Angels and said to them, We will make man in
our image." Midr. Rabbah on Numb. iv. par. 19. Comp. Midr. on Gen. 1, par. 8,
17. Sanhedr. 38.

14 "God said to the Angels, 'His wisdom is greater than yours.' Then brought
he before them beasts, cattle, and birds, and asked for their names, but they
knew them not. But when he had created man," etc. Midr. as above.

15 Or, if ye are truthful, or can make good a better claim to the

16 In the name Eblis (diabolos) and in the honour claimed for Adam as a kind
of Godman, there are traces of a Christian original, as well as in the
identification of the serpent with Satan. Comp. Ps. civ. 4; Heb. i. 6. The
Talmudists also enlarge on the honour paid to Adam. "Adam sat in the garden
and the Angels brought him flesh and cooling wine." Sanhedr. 29. "In the hour
when the Holy One, Blessed be He, created man, the Angels went astray in
regard to him, and essayed to say before him, 'O Holy One!' then God
permitted sleep to fall on him, and all knew that he was of earth." Midr.
Rabbah on Gen. par. 8. It is possible that the Arabic word balas, a
profligate, wicked person, may have influenced Muhammad in the formation of
the word Eblis. See note, p. 185. Eblis is used in the Arabic version of the
New Testament, for the probable date of which, see Tischendorf, Prol. p. 78.

17 Observe the change from Eblis, the calumniator, to Satan, the hater.

18 Muhammad rarely accused the Jews and Christians of corrupting, but often
of misinterpreting, their Sacred Books, in order to evade his claims. His
charges, however, are always very vaguely worded, and his utterances upon
this subject are tantamount to a strong testimony in favour of the
unimpeachable integrity of the sacred books, both of the Jews and Christians,
so far as he knew them. See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 168, and v. 73 below.

19 See Sura [lxv.] xxi. 49.

20 Lit. slay one another.

21 The Talmudists relate how the Israelites who had died, on hearing the

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