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The Jute Industry: From Seed to Finished Cloth by T. Woodhouse and P. Kilgour

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the yarn is wound upon a bare spindle, and the yarn guide has a
rapid traverse in order to obtain the well-known cross-wind so
necessary for making a stable cop. The disposition of the cops in
the winding operation is vertical, but while in some machines the
tapered nose of the cop is in the high position and the spinning
bobbin from which the yarn is being drawn is in the low position, in
other machines these conditions are opposite. Thus, in the cop
winding frame made by Messrs. Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd., Arbroath,
and illustrated in Fig. 25, the spinning bobbins are below the cops,
the tapered noses of the latter are upwards in their cones or shapers,
and the yarn guides are near the top of the machine. This view shows
about three-fourths of the full width of a 96-spindle machine, 48
spindles on each side, two practically full-length cops and one
partially built. The illustration in Fig. 26 is the above-mentioned
opposite type, and the one most generally adopted, with the spinning
bobbins as shown near the top of the frame, the yarn guides in the
low position, and the point or tapered nose of the cop pointing
downwards. Six spindles only appear in this view, which represents
the machine made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee,
but it will be understood that all machines are made as long as
desired within practicable and economic limits.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd_.

The spindles of cop machines are gear driven as shown clearly in Fig.
26; the large skew bevel wheels are keyed to the main shaft, while
the small skew bevel wheels are loose on their respective spindles.
The upper face of each small skew bevel wheel forms one part of a
clutch; the other part of the clutch is slidably mounted on the
spindle. When the two parts of the clutch are separated, as they are
when the yarn breaks or runs slack, when it is exhausted, or when
the cop reaches a predetermined length, the spindle stops; but when
the two parts of the clutch are in contact, the small skew bevel
wheel drives the clutch, the latter rotates the spindle, and the
spindle in turn draws forward the yarn from the bobbin, and in
conjunction with the rapidly moving yarn guide and the inner surface
of the cone imparts in rapid succession new layers on the nose of
the cop, and thus the formed layers of the latter increase the
length proportionately to the amount of yarn drawn on, and the
partially completed cop moves slowly away from its cup or cone until
the desired length is obtained when the spindle is automatically
stopped and the winding for that particular spindle ceases. Cops may
be made of any length and any suitable diameter; a common size for
jute shuttle is 10 in. long, and 1-5/8 in. diameter, and the
angle formed by the two sides of the cone is approximately 30 degrees.

[Illustration: FIG 26 COP WINDING MACHINE _By permission of Messrs.
Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd_.]


There are a few distinct methods of preparing warp threads on the
weaver's beam. Stated briefly, the chief methods are--

1. The warp is made in the form of a chain on a warping mill, and
when the completed chain is removed from the mill it is transferred
on to the weaver's beam.

2. The warp is made in the form of a chain on a linking machine, and
then beamed on to a weaver's beam.

3. The warp yarns are wound or beamed direct from the large
cylindrical "rolls" or "spools" on to a weaver's beam.

4. The warp yarns are starched, dried and beamed simultaneously on
to a weaver's beam.

The last method is the most extensively adapted; but we shall
describe the four processes briefly, and in the order mentioned.

For mill warping, as in No. 1 method, from 50 to 72 full spinning
bobbins are placed in the bank or creel as illustrated to the right
of each large circular warping mill in Fig. 27. The ends of the
threads from these bobbins are drawn through the eyes of two leaves
of the "heck," and all the ends tied together. The heck, or
apparatus for forming what is known as the weaver's lease, drawer's
lease, or thread-by-thread lease, is shown clearly between the
bobbin bank and the female warper in the foreground of the
illustration. The heck is suspended by means of cords, or chains,
and so ranged that when the warping mill is rotated in one direction
the heck is lowered gradually between suitable slides, while when
the mill is rotated in the opposite direction the heck is raised
gradually between the same slides. These movements are necessary in
order that the threads from the bobbins may be arranged spirally
round the mill and as illustrated clearly on all the mills in the
figure. The particular method of arranging the ropes, or the gearing
if chains are used, determines the distance between each pair of
spirals; a common distance is about 1-1/2 in. There are about
42 spirals or rounds on the nearest mill in Fig. 27, and this number
multiplied by the circumference of the mill represents the length of
the warp.


At the commencement, the heck is at the top, and when the weaver's
lease has been formed on the three pins near the top of the mill
with the 50 to 72 threads (often 56), the mill is rotated by means
of the handle and its connections shown near the bottom of the mill.
As the mill rotates, the heck with the threads descends gradually
and thus the group of threads is disposed spirally on the vertical
spokes of the mill until the desired length of the warp is reached.
A beamer's lease or "pin lease" is now made on the two lower pegs;
there may be two, three, four or more threads in each group of the
pin lease; a common number is 7 to 9. When this pin lease has been
formed, one section of the warp has been made, the proportion
finished being (50 to 72)/x where x is the total number of threads
required for the cloth. The same kind of lease must again be made on
the same two pins at the bottom for the beginning of the next
section of 50 to 72 threads, and the mill rotated in the opposite
direction in order to draw up the heck, and to cause the second
group of 50 to 72 threads to be arranged spirally and in close touch
with the threads of the first group. When the heck reaches the top of
the mill, the single-thread lease is again made, all the threads
passed round the end pin, and then all is ready for repeating the
same two operations until the requisite number of threads has been
introduced on to the mill. If it is impossible to accommodate all the
threads for the cloth on the mill, the warp is made in two or more
parts or chains. It will be noticed that the heck for the nearest
mill is opposite about the 12th round of threads from the bobbin,
whereas the heck for the second mill is about the same distance from
the top. A completed warp or chain is being bundled up opposite the
third mill. When the warp is completed it is pulled off the mill and
simultaneously linked into a chain.

A very similar kind of warp can be made more quickly, and often
better, on what is termed the linking machine mentioned in No. 2
method. Such a machine is illustrated in Fig. 28, and the full
equipment demands the following four distinct kinds of apparatus--a
bank capable of holding approximately 300 spools, a frame for
forming the weaver's lease and the beamer's lease, machine for
drawing the threads from the spools in the bank and for measuring
the length and marking the warp at predetermined intervals, and
finally the actual machine which links the group of threads in the
form of a chain.

In Fig. 28 part of the large bank, with a few rows of spools, is
shown in the extreme background. The two sets of threads, from the
two wings of the bank, are seen distinctly, and the machine or frame
immediately in front of the bank is where the two kinds of lease are
made when desired, i.e. at the beginning and at the end of the warp.
Between this leasing frame and the linking machine proper, shown in
the foreground, is the drawing, measuring and marking machine. Only
part of this machine is seen--the driving pulleys and part of the
frame adjoining them. All these frames and machines are necessary,
but the movements embodied in them, or the functions which they
perform, are really subsidiary to those of the linker shown in the
foreground of Fig. 28.


Although the linking machine is composed of only a few parts, it is
a highly-ingenious combination of mechanical parts; these parts
convert the straight running group of 300 threads into a linked chain,
and the latter is shown distinctly descending from the chute on to
the floor in the figure. Precisely the same kind of link is made by
the hand wrappers when the warps indicated in Fig. 27 are being
withdrawn from the mills. Two completed chains are shown tied up in
Fig. 28, and a stock of rolls or spools appear against the wall near
the bank.

The completed chain from the warping mill or the linking machine is
now taken to the beaming frame, and after the threads, or rather the
small groups of threads, in the pin lease have been disposed in a
kind of coarse comb or reed, termed an veneer or radial, and
arranged to occupy the desired width in the veneer, they are
attached in some suitable way to the weaver's beam. The chain is
held taut, and weights applied to the presser on the beam while the
latter is rotated. In this way a solid compact beam of yarn is
obtained. The end of the warp--that one that goes on to the beam
last--contains the weaver's lease, and when the completed beam is
removed from the beaming or winding-on frame, this single-thread
lease enables the next operative to select the threads individually
and to draw the threads, usually single, but sometimes in pairs, in
which case the lease would be in pairs, through the eyes of the
camas or HEALDS, or to select them for the purpose of tying them to
the ends of the warp in the loom, that is to the "thrum" of a cloth
which has been completed.

Instead of first making a warp or chain on the warping mill, or on
the linking machine, and then beaming such warp on to the weaver's
beam or loom beam as already described, two otherwise distinct
processes of warping and beaming may be conducted simultaneously.
Thus, the total number of threads required for the manufacture of any
particular kind of cloth--unless the number of threads happens to be
very high--may be wound on to the loom beam direct from the spools.
Say, for example, a warp was required to be 600 yards long, and that
there should be 500 threads in all. Five hundred spools of warp yarn
would be placed in the two wings of a V-shaped bank, and the threads
from these spools taken in regular order, and threaded through the
splits or openings of a reed which is placed in a suitable position
in regard to the winding-on mechanism. Some of the machines which
perform the winding-on of the yarn are comparatively simple, while
others are more or less complicated. In some the loom beam rotates
at a fixed number of revolutions per minute, while in others the
beam rotates at a gradually decreasing number of revolutions per
minute. One of the latter types made by MESSRS Urquhart, Lindsay & Co.,
Ltd., Dundee, is illustrated in Fig. 29, and the mechanism displayed
is identical with that employed for No. 4 method of preparing warps.

The V-shaped bank with its complement of spools (500 in our example)
would occupy a position immediately to the left of Fig. 29. The
threads would pass through a reed and then in a straight wide sheet
between the pair of rollers, these parts being contained in the
supplementary frame on the left. A similar frame appears on the
extreme right of the figure, and this would be used in conjunction
with another V-shaped bank, not shown, but which would occupy a
position further to the right, i.e. if one bank was not large enough
to hold the required number of spools. The part on the extreme right
can be ignored at present.

The threads are arranged in exactly the same way as indicated in Fig.
28 from the bank to the reed in front of the rollers in Fig. 29,
and on emerging from the pair of rollers are taken across the
stretch between the supplementary frame and the main central frame,
and attached to the weavers beam just below the pressing rollers. It
may be advisable to have another reed just before the beam, so that
the width occupied by the threads in the beam may be exactly the
same as the width between the two flanges of the loom beam.

permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co. Ltd_.]

The speed of the threads is determined by the surface speed of the
two rollers in the supplementary frame, the bottom roller being
positively driven from the central part through the long horizontal
shaft and a train of wheels caged in as shown. The loom beam, which
is seen clearly immediately below the pressing rollers, is driven by
friction because the surface speed of the yarn must be constant;
hence, as the diameter over the yarn on the beam increases, the
revolutions per minute of the beam must decrease, and a varying
amount of slip takes place between the friction-discs and their

As the loom beam rotates, the threads are arranged in layers between
the flanges of the loom beam. Thus, the 500 threads would be
arranged side by side, perhaps for a width of 45 to 46 in., and
bridging the gap between the flanges of the beam; the latter is thus,
to all intents and purposes, a very large bobbin upon which 500
threads are wound at the same time, instead of one thread as in the
ordinary but smaller bobbin or reel. It will be understood that in
the latter case the same thread moves from side to side in order to
bridge the gap, whereas in the former case each thread maintains a
fixed position in the width.

The last and most important method of making a warp, No. 4 method,
for the weaver is that where, in addition to the simultaneous
processes of warping and beaming as exemplified in the last example,
all the threads are coated with some suitable kind of starch or size
immediately they reach the two rollers shown in the supplementary
frame in Fig. 29. The moistened threads must, however, be dried
before they reach the loom beam. When a warp is starched, dried and
beamed simultaneously, it is said to be "dressed."

In the modern dressing machine, such as that illustrated in Fig. 30,
there are six steam-heated cylinders to dry the starched yarns
before the latter reach the loom beams. Both banks, or rather part
of both, can be seen in this view, from which some idea will be
formed of the great length occupied. Several of the threads from the
spools in the left bank are seen converging towards the back reed,
then they pass between the two rollers--the bottom one of which is
partially immersed in the starch trough--and forward to the second
reed. After the sheet of threads leaves the second reed, it passes
partially round a small guide roller, then almost wholly round each
of three cylinders arranged deg.o deg., and finally on to the loom beam.
Each cylinder is 4 feet diameter, and three of them occupy a
position between the left supplementary frame, and the central frame
in Fig. 29, while the remaining three cylinders are similarly
disposed between the central frame and the supplementary frame of
the right in the same illustration.

The number of steam-heated cylinders, and their diameter, depend
somewhat upon the type of yarn to be dressed, and upon the speed
which it is desired to run the yarn. A common speed for
ordinary-sized jute is from 18 to 22 yards per minute.


A different way of arranging the cylinders is exemplified in Fig. 31.
This view, which illustrates a machine made by Messrs. Charles Parker,
Sons & Co., Dundee, has been introduced to show that if the warps
under preparation contain a comparatively few threads, or if the
banks are made larger than usual, two warps may be dressed at the
same time. In such a case, three cylinders only would be used for
each warp, and the arrangement would be equivalent to two single
dressing machines. The two weaver's beams, with their pressing
rollers, are shown plainly in the centre of the illustration. Some
machines have four cylinders, others have six, while a few have eight.
A very similar machine to that illustrated in Fig. 31 is made so that
all the six cylinders may be used to dry yarns from two banks, and
all the yarns wound on to one weaver's beam, or all the yarns may be
wound on to one of the beams in the machine in Fig. 31 if the number
of threads is too many for one bank.

SIMULTANEOUSLY _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co_.]

Suppose it is desired to make a warp of 700 threads instead of 500,
as in the above example; then 350 spools would be placed in each of
the two banks, the threads disposed as already described to use as
much of the heating surface of the cylinder as possible, and one
sheet of threads passed partially round what is known as a measuring
roller. Both sheets of threads unite into one sheet at the centre of
the machine in Fig. 31, and pass in this form on to one of the loom

It has already been stated that the lower roller in the starch box
is positively driven by suitable mechanism from the central part of
the machine, Fig. 29, while the upper roller, see Fig. 30, is a
pressing roller and is covered with cloth, usually of a flannel type.
Between the two rollers the sheet of 350 threads passes, becomes
impregnated with the starch which is drawn up by the surface of the
lower roller, and the superfluous quantity is squeezed out and
returns to the trough, or joins that which is already moving upwards
towards the nip of the rollers. The yarn emerges from the rollers
and over the cylinders at a constant speed, which may be chosen to
suit existing conditions, and it must also be wound on to the loom
beam at the same rate. But since the diameter of the beam increases
each revolution by approximately twice the diameter of the thread,
it is necessary to drive the beam by some kind of differential motion.

The usual way in machines for dressing jute yarns is to drive the
beam support and the beam by means of friction plates. A certain
amount of slip is always taking place--the drive is designed for
this purpose--and the friction plates are adjusted by the yarn
dresser during the operation of dressing to enable them to draw
forward the beam, and to slip in infinitesimal sections, so that the
yarn is drawn forward continuously and at uniform speed.

During the operation, the measuring roller and its subsequent train
of wheels and shafts indicates the length of yarn which has passed
over, also the number of "cuts" or "pieces" of any desired length; in
addition, part of the measuring and marking mechanism uses an
ink-pad to mark the yarn at the end of each cut, such mark to act as
a guide for the weaver, and to indicate the length of warp which has
been woven. Thus if the above warp were intended to be five cuts,
each 120 yards, or 600 yards in all, the above apparatus would
measure and indicate the yards and cuts, and would introduce a mark
at intervals of 120 yards on some of the threads. And all this is
done without stopping the machine. At the time of marking, or
immediately before or after, just as desired, a bell is made to ring
automatically so that the attendant is warned when the mark on the
warp is about to approach the loom beam. This bell is shown in Fig.
29, near the right-hand curved outer surface of the central frame.

As in hand warping or in linking, a single-thread lease is made at
the end of the desired length of warp, or else what is known as a
pair of "clasp-rods" is arranged to grip the sheet of warp threads.

After the loom beam, with its length of warp, has been removed from
the machine, the threads are either drawn through the eyes or mails
of the cambs (termed gears, healds or heddles in other districts)
and through the weaving reed, or else they are tied to the ends of
the threads of the previous warp which, with the weft, has been
woven into cloth. These latter threads are still intact in the cambs
and reed in the loom.


If all the threads of the newly-dressed warp can be tied on to the
ends of the warp which has been woven, it is only necessary, when
the tying-on process is completed, to rotate the loom beam slowly,
and simultaneously to draw forward the threads until all the knots
have passed through the cambs and the reed, and sufficiently far
forward to be clear of the latter when it approaches its full forward,
or beating up, position during the operation of weaving.

If, on the other hand, the threads of the newly-dressed, or
newly-beamed, warp had to be drawn-in and reeded, these operations
would be performed in the drawing-in and reeding department, and,
when completed, the loom beam with its attached warp threads, cambs
and reed, would be taken bodily to the loom where the "tenter,"
"tackler" or "tuner" adjusts all the parts preparatory to the actual
operation of weaving. The latter work is often termed "gaiting a web."

There is a great similarity in many of the operations of weaving the
simpler types of cloth, although there may be a considerable
difference in the appearance of the cloths themselves. In nearly all
the various branches of the textile industry the bulk of the work in
the weaving departments of such branches consists of the manufacture
of comparatively simple fabrics. Thus, in the jute industry, there
are four distinct types of cloth which predominate over all others;
these types are known respectively as hessian, bagging, tarpauling
and sacking. In addition to these main types, there are several
other simple types the structure of which is identical with one or
other of the above four; while finally there are the more elaborate
types of cloth which are embodied in the various structures of
carpets and the like.

It is obviously impossible to discuss the various makes in a work of
this kind; the commoner types are described in _Jute and Linen
Weaving Calculations and Structure of Fabrics_; and the more
elaborate ones, as well as several types of simple ones, appear in
_Textile Design: Pure and Applied_, both by T. Woodhouse and T.

Six distinct types of jute fabrics are illustrated in Fig. 32. The
technical characteristics of each are as follows--


H.--An ordinary "HESSIAN" cloth made from comparatively fine single
warp and single weft, and the threads interlaced in the simplest
order, termed "plain weave." A wide range of cloths is made from the
scrims or net-like fabrics to others more closely woven than that

B.--A "BAGGING" made from comparatively fine single warp arranged in
pairs and then termed "double warp." The weft is thick, and the
weave is also plain.

T.--A "TARPAULING" made from yarns similar to those in bagging,
although there is a much wider range in the thickness of the weft.
It is a much finer cloth than the typical bagging, but otherwise the
structures are identical.

S.--A striped "SACKING" made from comparatively fine warp yarns,
usually double as in bagging, but occasionally single, with medium
or thick weft interwoven in 3-leaf or 4-leaf twill order. The weaves
are shown in Fig. 33.

C.--One type of "CARPET" cloth made exclusively from two-ply or
two-fold coloured warp yarns, and thick black single weft yarns. The
threads and picks are interwoven in two up, two down twill, directed
to right and then to left, and thus forming a herring-bone pattern,
or arrow-head pattern.

P.-An uncut pile fabric known as "BRUSSELLETTE." The figuring warp
is composed of dyed and printed yarns mixed to form an indefinite
pattern, and works in conjunction with a ground warp and weft. The
weave is again plain, although the structure of the fabric is quite
different from the other plain cloths illustrated. The cloth is
reversible, the two sides being similar structure but differing
slightly in colour ornamentation.

As already indicated, there are several degrees of fineness or
coarseness in all the groups, particularly in the types marked H, B,
T and S. The structure or weave in all varieties of any one group is
constant and as stated.

All the weaves are illustrated in the usual technical manner in Fig.
33, and the relation between the simplest of these weaves and the
yarns of the cloth is illustrated in Fig. 34. In Fig. 33, the unit
weaves in A, B, C, D, E and F are shown in solid squares, while the
repetitions of the units in each case are represented by the dots.



A is the plain weave, 16 units shown, and used for fabrics H and P,
Fig. 32.

B is the double warp plain wave, 8 units shown, and shows the method
of interlacing the yarns h patterns B and T, Fig. 32. When the warp
is made double as indicated in weave _B_, the effect in the cloth
can be produced by using the mechanical arrangements employed for
weave _A_. Hence, the cloths _H_, _B_ and _T_ can be woven without
any mechanical alteration in the loom.

_C_ is the 3-leaf double warp sacking weave and shows 4 units;
since each pair of vertical rows of small squares consists of two
identical single rows, they may be represented as at _D_. The actual
structure of the cloth _S_ in Fig. 32 is represented on design paper
at _C_, Fig. 33.

_D_ is the single warp 3-leaf sacking weave, 4 units shown, but
the mechanical parts for weaving both _C_ and _D_ remain constant.

_E_ is the double warp 4-leaf sacking, 2 units shown, while

_F_ is the single warp 4-leaf sacking, 4 units shown.

The patterns or cloths for _E_ and _F_ are not illustrated.

_G_ is a "herring-bone" design on 24 threads and 4 picks, two
units shown. It is typical of the pattern represented at _C_, Fig. 32,
and involves the use of 4 leaves in the loom.

The solid squares in weave _A_, Fig. 33, are reproduced in the
left-hand bottom corner of Fig. 34. A diagrammatic plan of a plain
cloth produced by this simple order of interlacing is exhibited in
the upper part by four shaded threads of warp and four black picks
of weft (the difference is for distinction only). The left-hand
intersection shows one thread interweaving with all the four picks,
while the bottom intersection shows all the four threads
interweaving with one pick. The two arrows from the weave or design
to the thread and pick respectively show the connection, and it will
be seen that a mark (solid) on the design represents a warp thread
on the surface of the cloth, while a blank square represents a weft
shot on the surface, and _vice versa_.

A weaving shed full of various types of looms, and all driven by
belts from an overhead shaft, is illustrated in Fig. 35. The loom in
the foreground is weaving a 3-leaf sacking similar to that
illustrated at _S_, Fig. 32. while the appearance of a full weaver's
warp beam is shown distinctly in the second loom in Fig. 35. There
are hundreds of looms in this modern weaving shed.


During the operation of weaving, the shuttle, in which is placed a
cop of weft, similar to that on the cop winding machine in Fig. 25,
and with the end of the weft threaded through the eye of the shuttle,
is driven alternately from side to side of the cloth through the
opening or "shed" formed by two layers of the warp. The positions of
the threads in these two layers are represented by the designs, see
Fig. 33, and while one layer occupies a high position in the loom
the other layer occupies a low position. The threads of the warp are
placed in these two positions by the leaves of the camb (termed
healds and also gears in other districts) and it is between these
two layers that the shuttle passes, forms a selvage at the edge each
time it makes a journey across, and leaves a trail or length of weft
each journey. The support or lay upon which the shuttle travels
moves back to provide room for the shuttle to pass between the two
layers of threads, and after the shuttle reaches the end of each
journey, the lay with the reed comes forward again, and thus pushes
successively the shots of weft into close proximity with the ones
which preceded.

permission of The English Electric Co., Ltd._]

The order of lifting and depressing the threads of the warp is, as
already stated, demonstrated on the design paper in Fig. 33, and the
selected order determines, in the simplest cases, the pattern on the
surface of the cloth when the warp and weft yarns are of the same
colour. A great diversity of pattern can be obtained by the method
of interlacing the two sets of yarn, and a still greater variety of
pattern is possible when differently-coloured threads are added to
the mode of interlacing.

To illustrate the contrast in the general appearance of a weaving
shed in which all the looms are driven by belts from overhead
shafting as in Fig. 35, and in a similar shed in which all the looms
are individually driven by small motors made by the English Electric
Co., Ltd. we introduce Fig. 36. This particular illustration shows
cotton weaving shed, but precisely the same principle of driving is
being adopted in many jute factories.

A great variety of carpet patterns of a similar nature to that
illustrated at C, Fig. 32, can be woven in looms such as those
illustrated in Fig. 35; indeed, far more elaborate patterns than
that mentioned and illustrated are capable of being produced in
these comparatively simple looms. When, however, more than 4 leaves
are required for the weaving of a pattern, a dobby loom, of the
nature of that shown in Fig. 37, is employed; this machine is made
by Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co., Ltd., Dundee. The dobby itself,
or the apparatus which lifts the leaves according to the
requirements of the design, is fixed on the upper part of the
frame-work, and is designed to control 12 leaves, that is, it
operates 12 leaves, each of which lifts differently from the others.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co_.

A considerable quantity of Wilton and Brussels carpets is made from
jute yarns, and Fig. 38 illustrates a loom at work on this
particular branch of the trade. The different colours of warp for
forming the pattern me from small bobbins in the five frames at the
back of the loom (hence the term 5-frame Brussels or Wilton carpet)
and the ends passed through "mail eyes" and then through the reed.
The design is cut on the three sets of cards suspended in the
cradles in the front of the loom, and these cards operate on the
needles of the jacquard machine to raise those colours of yarn which
e necessary to produce the colour effect in the cloth t correspond
with the colour effect on the design paper made by the designer.
This machine weaves the actual Brussels and Wilton fabrics, and
these cloths are quite different from that illustrated at _P_, Fig.
32. In both fabrics, however, ground or foundation warps are
required. It need hardly be said that there is a considerable
difference between the two types of cloth, as well as between the
designs and the looms in which they are woven.[2]

[Footnote 2: For structure of carpets, _see_ pp. 394-114, _Textile
Design: Pure and Applied_, by T. Woodhouse and T. Milne.]


In the weaving department there are heavy warp beams to be placed in
the looms, and in the finishing department there are often heavy
rolls of cloth to be conveyed from the machines to the despatch room.
Accidents often happen when these heavy packages, especially the
warp beams, are being placed in position. In order to minimize the
danger to workpeople and to execute the work more quickly and with
fewer hands, some firms have installed Overhead Runway Systems, with
suitable Lifting Gear, by means of which the warp beams are run from
the dressing and drawing-in departments direct to the looms, and
then lowered quickly and safely into the bearings. Such means of
transport are exceedingly valuable where the looms are set close to
each other and where wide beams are employed; indeed, they are
valuable for all conditions, and are used for conveying cloth direct
from the looms as well as warp beams to the looms. Fig. 39 shows the
old wasteful and slow method of transferring warp beams from place
to place, while Fig. 40 illustrates the modern and efficient method.
The latter figure illustrates one kind of apparatus, supplied by
Messrs. Herbert Morris, Ltd., Loughborough, for this important
branch of the industry.

[Illustration: FIG. 39. THE OLD WAY]

[Illustration: FIG. 40. THE NEW WAY _By permission of Messrs.
Herbert Morris, Ltd_.]


The finishing touches are added to the cloth after the latter leaves
the loom. The first operation is that of inspecting the cloth,
removing the lumps and other undesirables, as well as repairing any
damaged or imperfect parts. After this, the cloth is passed through
a cropping machine the function of which is to remove all projecting
fibres from the surface of the cloth, and so impart a clean, smart
appearance. It is usual to crop both sides of the cloth, although
there are some cloths which require only one side to be treated,
while others again miss this operation entirely.

A cropping machine is shown in the foreground of Fig. 41, and in
this particular case there are two fabrics being cropped or cut at
the same time; these happen to be figured fabrics which have been
woven in a jacquard loom similar to that illustrated in Fig. 38. The
fabrics are, indeed, typical examples of jute Wilton carpets. The
illustration shows one of the spiral croppers in the upper part of
the machine in Fig. 41. Machines are made usually with either two or
four of such spirals with their corresponding fixed blades.


The cloth is tensioned either by threading it over and under a
series of stout rails, or else between two in a specially adjustable
arrangement by means of which the tension may be varied by rotating
slightly the two rails so as to alter the angle formed by the cloth
in contact with them. This is, of course, at the feed side; the
cloth is pulled through the machine by three rollers shown
distinctly on the right in Fig. 42. This view illustrates a double
cropper in which both the spirals are controlled by one belt. As the
cloth is pulled through, both sides of it are cropped by the two
spirals.[3] When four spirals are required, the frame is much wider,
and the second set of spirals is identical with those in the
machines illustrated.

[Illustration: FIG 42 DOUBLE CROPPING MACHINE _By permission of
Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co., Ltd_.]

[Footnote 3: For a full description of all finishing processes,
see _The Finishing of Jute and Linen Fabrics_, by T. Woodhouse.
(Published by Messrs. Emmott & Co., Ltd., Manchester.)]

The cropped cloth is now taken to the clamping machine, and placed
on the floor on the left of the machine illustrated in Fig. 43,
which represents the type made by Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons &, Co.,
Dundee. The cloth is passed below a roller near to the floor, then
upwards and over the middle roller, backwards to be passed under and
over the roller on the left, and then forwards to the nip of the
pulling rollers, the bottom one of which is driven positively by
means of a belt on the pulleys shown. While the cloth is pulled
rapidly through this machine, two lines of fine jets spray water on
to the two sides of the fabric to prepare it for subsequent processes
in which heat is generated by the nature of the finishing process.
At other times, or rather in other machines, the water is
distributed on the two sides of the cloth by means of two rapidly
rotating brushes which flick the water from two rollers rotating in
a tank of water at a fixed level. In both cases, both sides of the
fabric are "damped," as it is termed, simultaneously. The damped
fabric is then allowed to lie for several hours to condition, that is,
to enable the moisture to spread, and then it is taken to the

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co.,

The calenders for jute almost invariably contain five different
rollers, or "bowls," as they are usually termed; one of these bowls,
the smallest diameter one, is often heated with steam. A five-bowl
calender is shown on the extreme right in Fig. 41, and in the
background, while a complete illustration of a modern 5-bowl calender,
with full equipment, and made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd.,
Dundee, appears in Fig. 44.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd_.

The cloth is placed on the floor between the two distinct parts of
the calender, threaded amongst the tension rails near the bottom
roller or bowl, and then passed over two or more of the bowls
according to the type of finish desired. For calender finish, the
bowls flatten the cloth by pressing out the threads and picks, so
that all the interstices which appear in most cloths as they leave
the loom, and which are exaggerated in the plan view in Fig. 34, are
eliminated by this calendering action. The cloth is then delivered
at the far side of the machine in Fig. 44. If necessary, the surface
speed of the middle or steam-heated roller may differ from the
others so that a glazed effect--somewhat resembling that obtained by
ordinary ironing--is imparted to the surface of the fabric. The
faster moving roller is the steam-heated one. For ordinary calender
finish, the surface speed of all the rollers is the same.

Another "finish" obtained on the calender is known as "chest finish"
or "round-thread finish." In this case, the whole length of cloth is
wound either on to the top roller, or the second top one, Fig. 44,
and while there is subjected to the degree of pressure required; the
amount of pressure can be regulated by the number of weights and the
way in which the tension belt is attached to its pulley. The two
sets of weights are seen clearly on the left in Fig. 44, and these
act on the long horizontal levers, usually to add pressure to the
dead weight of the top roller, but occasionally, for very light
finishes, to decrease the effective weight of the top bowl. After
the cloth has been chested on one or other of the two top bowls, it
is stripped from the bowl on to a light roller shown clearly with
its belt pulley in Fig. 41.

There are two belt pulleys shown on the machine in Fig. 44; one is
driven by an open belt, and the other by a crossed belt. Provision
is thus made for driving the calender in both directions. The
pulleys are driven by two friction clutches, both of which are
inoperative when the set-on handle is vertical as in the figure.
Either pulley may be rotated, however, by moving the handle to a
oblique position.

The compound leverage imparted to the bearings of the top bowl, and
the weights of the bowls themselves, result in the necessary pressure,
and this pressure may be varied according to the number of small
weights used. The heaviest finish on the calender, i.e. the
chest-finish on the second top roller, imitates more or less the
"mangle finish."

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd_.

A heavy hydraulic mangle with its accumulator and made by Messrs.
Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee, is illustrated in Fig. 45.
The cloth is wound or beamed by the mechanism in the front on to
what is termed a "mangle pin"; it is reality a thick iron bowl; when
the piece is beamed, it is automatically moved between two huge
rollers, and hydraulic pressure applied. Four narrow pieces are
shown in Fig. 45 on the pin, and between the two rollers. There are
other four narrow pieces, already beamed on another pin, in the
beaming position, and there is still another pin at the delivery
side with a similar number of cloths ready for being stripped. The
three pins are arranged thus o deg.o, and since all three are
moved simultaneously, when the mangling operation is finished, each
roller or pin is moved through 120 deg.. Thus, the stripped pin will be
placed in the beaming position, the beamed pin carried into the
mangling position, and the pin with the mangled cloth taken to the
stripping position.

While the operation of mangling is proceeding, the rollers move
first in one direction and then in the other direction, and this
change of direction is accomplished automatically by mechanism
situated between the accumulator and the helical-toothed gearing
seen at the far end of the mangle. And while this mangling is taking
place, the operatives are beaming a fresh set, while the previously
mangles pieces are being stripped by the plaiting-down apparatus
which deposits the cloth in folds. This operation is also known as
"cuttling" or "faking." It will be, understood that a wide mangle,
such as that illustrated in Fig. 45. is constructed specially for
treating wide fabrics, and narrow fabrics are mangled on it simply
because circumstances and change of trade from time to time demand it.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co.

The high structure on the left is the accumulator, the manipulation
of this and the number of wide weights which are ingeniously brought
into action to act on the plunger determine the pressure which is
applied to the fabrics between the bowls or rollers.

Cloths both from the calender and the mangle now pass through a
measuring machine, the clock of which records the length passed
through. There are usually two hands and two circles of numbers on
the clock face; one hand registers the units up to 10 on one circle
of numbers, while the slower-moving hand registers 10, 20, 30, up to
100. The measuring roller in these machines is usually one yard in

If the cloth in process of being finished is for use as the backing
or foundation of linoleum, it is invariably wound on to a wooden
centre as it emerges from the bowls of the calender, measured as well,
and the winding-on mechanism is of a friction drive somewhat similar
to that mentioned in connection with the dressing machine. Cloths
for this purpose are often made up to 600 yards in length; indeed,
special looms, with winding appliances, have been constructed to
weave cloths up to 2,000 yards in length. Special dressing machines
and loom beams have to be made for the latter kind. When the
linoleum backing is finished at the calender, both cloth and centre
are forwarded direct to the linoleum works. The empty centres are
returned periodically.

Narrow-width cloths are often made up into a roll by means of a
simple machine termed a calenderoy, while somewhat similar cloth,
and several types of cloths of much wider width, are lapped or
folded by special machines such as that illustrated in Fig. 46. The
cloth passes over the oblique board, being guided by the discs shown,
to the upper part of the carrier where it passes between the two bars.
As the carrier is oscillated from side to side (it is the right hand
side in the illustration) the cloth is piled neatly in folds on the
convex table. The carriers may be adjusted to move through different
distances, so that any width or length of fold, between limits, may
be made.

Comparatively wide pieces can be folded on the above machine, but
some merchants prefer to have wide pieces doubled lengthwise, and
this is done by machines of different kinds. In all cases, however,
the operation is termed "crisping" in regard to jute fabrics. Thus,
Fig. 47, illustrates one type of machine used for this purpose, and
made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Ca., Ltd., Dundee. The
full-width cloth on the right has obviously two prominent
stripes--one near each side. The full width cloth passes upwards
obliquely a triangular board, and when the cloth reaches the apex it
is doubled and passed between two bars also set obliquely on the left.
The doubled piece now passes between a pair of positively driven
drawing rollers, and is then "faked," "cuttled," or pleated as
indicated. The machine thus automatically, doubles the piece, and
delivers it as exemplified in folds of half width. In other
industries, this operation is termed creasing and, rigging. Some of
the later types of crisping or creasing machines double the cloth
lengthwise as illustrated in Fig. 47, and, in addition, roll it at
the same time instead of delivering it in loose folds.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart Lindsay & Co. Ltd_.

If the cloth is intended to be cut up into lengths, say for the
making of bags of various kinds, and millions of such bags are made
annually, it is cut up into the desired lengths, either by hand,
semi-mechanically, or wholly mechanically, and then the lengths are
sewn at desired places by sewing machines, and in various ways
according to requirements.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co. Ltd_

Fig. 48 illustrates one of the semi-mechanical machines for this
purpose; this particular type being made by Messrs. Urquhart,
Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee. About eight or nine different cloths
are arranged in frames behind the cutting machine, and the ends of
these cloths passed between the horizontal bars at the back of the
machine. They are then led between the rollers, under the cutting
knife, and on to the table. The length of cloth is measured as it
passes between the rollers, and different change pinions are
supplied so that practically any length may be cut. Eight or nine
lengths are thus passed under the knife frame simultaneously, and
when the required length has been delivered, the operative inserts
the knife in the slot of the knife frame, and pushes it forward by
means of the long handle shown distinctly above the frame and table.
He thus cuts eight or nine at a time, after which a further length
is drawn forward, and the cycle repeated. Means are provided for
registering the number passed through; from 36,000 yards to 40,000
yards can be treated per day.

The bags may be made of different materials, e.g. the first four in
Fig. 32. When hessian cloth, II, Fig. 32, is used, the sewing is
usually done by quick-running small machines, such as the Yankee or
Union; each of these machines is capable of sewing more than 2,000
bags per day. For the heavier types of cloth, such as sacking,
_S_, Fig. 32, the sewing is almost invariably done by the Laing or
overhead sewing machine, the general type of which is illustrated in
Fig. 49, and made by Mr. D. J. Macdonald, South St. Roque's Works,
Dundee. This is an absolutely fast stitch, and approximately 1,000
bags can be sewn in one day.

permission of Mr. D. J. Macdonald_]

The distinctive marks in bags for identification often take the form
of coloured stripes woven in the cloth, and as illustrated at
_S_, Fig. 32. It is obvious that a considerable variety can be
made by altering the number of the stripes, their position, and
their width, while if different coloured threads appear in the same
cloth, the variety is still further increased.

Many firms, however, prefer to have their names, trade marks, and
other distinctive features printed on the bags; in these cases, the
necessary particulars are printed on the otherwise completed bag by
a sack-printing machine of the flat-bed or circular roller type. The
latter type, which is most largely used, is illustrated in Fig. 50.
It is termed a two-colour machine, and is made by Mr. D. J. Macdonald,
Dundee; it will be observed that there are two rollers for the two
distinct colours, say red and black. Occasionally three and
four-colour machines are used, but the one-colour type is probably
the most common.

[Illustration: _By Permission of Mr. D. J. Macdonald_. FIG 50 SACK

The ownership of the bags can thus be shown distinctly by one of the
many methods of colour printing, and if any firm desires to number
their bags consecutively in order to provide a record of their stock,
or for any other purpose, the bags may be so numbered by means of a
special numbering machine, also made by Mr. D. J. Macdonald.

The last operation, excluding the actual delivery of the goods, is
that of packing the pieces or bags in small compass by means of a
hydraulic press. The goods are placed on the lower moving table upon
a suitable wrapping of some kind of jute cloth; when the requisite
quantity has been placed thereon, the top and side wrappers are
placed in position, and the pumps started in order to raise the
bottom table and to squeeze the content between it and the top fixed
table. From 1 1/2 ton to 2 tons per square inch is applied
according to the nature of the goods and their destination. While
the goods are thus held securely in position between the two plates,
the wrappers a sewn together. Then specially prepared hoops or metal
bands are placed round the bale, and an ingenious and simple system,
involving a buckle and two pins, adopted for fastening the bale. The
ends of the hoop or band are bent in a small press, and these bent
ends are passed through a rectangular hole in the buckle and the
pins inserted in the loops. As soon as the hydraulic pressure is
removed, the bale expands slightly, and the buckled hoop grips the
bale securely.

Such is in brief the routine followed in the production of the fibre,
the transformation of this fibre, first into yarn, and then into
cloth, and the use of the latter in performing the function of the
world's common carrier.


Assorting jute fibre.

Bale opener
Baling cloth
Bast layer (see also Fibrous layer)
carts or stalls
Beamer's lease
(dry) direct from bank,
Bobbin winding
Botanical features of jute plants
Breaker card
Brussels carpet
Bundle of jute.

CALCUTTA, jute machinery introduced into
Card waste
Cargoes of jute
Chest finish
Conditioning fibre
Cop winding
Corchorus capsularis
Crisping and crisping machines
Cropping machine
Cultivation of jute
Cutting knife for jute fibre

DAMPING machine
Defects in fibre and in handling
Designs or weaves
Differential motion
Dobby loom
different kinds of
Dressing and dressing machine
Drying jute fibre
Dust shaker.

EAST India Co.
Exports of jute from India.

Farming operations
the five main
imports of jute.

Fibrous layer
Finisher card
folding machine.

Glazed finish
Grading jute fibre
Gunny bags.

Hand batching
Harvesting the plants
Height of jute plants
Hydraulic mangle

Identification marks on bags
Imports of jute.

Jacquard loom
Jute crop
exports from India
fibre, imports of
plants, botanical and physical features of
cultivation of
height of

Lapping machine
Linking machine
Lubrication of fibre.

Machine batching
Machinery for jute manufacture introduced into Calcutta
Mangle finish
Marks of jute (_see_ jute marks)
Measuring and marking machine
machine for cloth
the warp
Methods of preparing warps
Multiple-colour printing machines.

Numbering machine for bags.

Opening jute heads
Overhead runway systems
sewing machine (Laing's).

Packing goods
Physical features of jute plants
Plaiting machine
Plants, thinning of
weeding of
Ploughs for jute cultivation
Point-paper designs
Porcupine feed
Printing machine.

Round-thread finish
Roving frame
Roxburgh, Dr.

Sack-cutting frame, semi-mechanical
Sack making
printing machine
Sand bags
per acre, amount of
sowing of
Sewing machines
Snipping machine
Softening machines
Spool or roll winding
Spools (_see_ Rolls)
Standard bale
Starching (_see_ Dressing)
Steeping (_see_ Retting)
Striker-up (_see_ Batcher)

Tell (of yarn)
Thinning of plants
Time for harvesting the plants
Two-colour printing machine
Typical jute fabrics.

Union Or Yankee sewing machine
Unloading bales of jute from ship.

Variations in jute
Varieties of jute fibre

Warp dressing (_see_ Dressing)
Warping, beaming and dressing
Weaves or designs
Weaver's lease
Weeding of plants
Wilton carpet
Winding (bobbin) machine
from hank
(large roll) machine
(ordinary size from hanks) machine
rolls and cops
World's great war.

Yankee or Union sewing machine
Yarn table
Yield of fibre.

_Printed by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., Bath, England_

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