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The Iroquois Book of Rites by Horatio Hale

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to the 'two mountains' near which the original town stood. After these
towns were destroyed by the French, in 1666, their people removed to the
north side of the river,--those of the lower town retreating a few miles
up the stream to the rapids; and then for a hundred years this was
generally known Caughnawaga (_Kahnawake_) "At the Rapids." The
Middle or Second Castle was called Gandagaro in 1670, Kanagiro in 1744,
etc. The third appears to have retained its old name in all positions."

"When the Oneidas were first known they occupied a position on the
headwaters of the Oneida inlet, and afterward gradually drew northward
toward the lake. Their great town was usually called by the name of the
tribe, as Onneiot, Onoyut, etc. One site, occupied about 1700, was
called and known generally as Kanowaroghare, said to signify 'a head on
a pole.'"

"The Onondagas, first known in 1615, occupied several sites, from a
point south of the east end of Oneida lake, where they were when first
known, to the Onondaga valley; but in all cases the chief town, when
named, was called Onondaga, from the name of the tribe. Their great
village in the Onondaga valley, according to Zeisberger, was known in
1750 as Tagochsanagecht, but this was a form derived from the name of
the Onondagas as used in council. In all ages this chief town, wherever
located, had other minor towns within from two to five miles, but they
are rarely named. The great town was also divided into districts, one
for each clan, each of which must have been known by the clan name, but
this is seldom referred to. This rule held good also in all the large
towns. A 'Bear village' was not occupied exclusively by members of the
Bear clan; but these predominated and exercised authority."

"The Cayugas in 1656 occupied three villages,--Onnontare, on a hill near
the Canandaigua river,--Thiohero, near the foot of Cayuga lake ('By the
Marsh,' or, 'Where the Rushes are'),--and a third, which generally took
the name of the tribe, Cayuga, but was occasionally divided into three
districts, like the other large towns."

"The Senecas, when visited by the Jesuits, occupied two great towns, and
several minor villages. The eastern of the two towns, near Victor, was
called Gandougarae. The western, on Honcoye creek, nearly always, in all
localities, took the name of the stream, which signifies 'bending.' It
is said that when the League was first formed, it was agreed that the
two great Seneca towns should be called by the names of two principal
sachems; but I am unable to find that this was carried out in
practice. In La Hontan's narrative of the De Nonville expedition, the
great western town was separated into two parts, Thegaronhies and
Danoncaritowi, which were the names of two important chiefs; while De
Nonville's and other accounts describe it as Totiakton, 'at the bend.'
This discrepancy, however, is found in all cases where the several towns
are mentioned, as it was quite common to speak of them by the name of
the principal chief. Thus, Cayuga in 1750 was called Tagayu, from
Togahayu, the well-known chief sachem; Onondaga was called Canasatago's
town, etc."

The frequent changes in the positions and names of Indian towns, thus
well explained and exemplified, will account; for the fact that so few
of the ancient names in the list which the tenacious memories of the
record-keepers retained have come down in actual use to modern
times. The well-known landmark of the Oneida stone seems to have
preserved the name of the town,--_Onenyute,_ "the projecting
rock,"--from which the nation derived its usual designation.
_Deserokenh_, or, as the Jesuit missionaries wrote it,
_Techiroguen_, was situated near the outlet of the Oneida lake, at
the point where the great northern trail crossed this outlet. A village
of some importance is likely to have been always found at or near that
locality. The same may be said of _Deyuhhero,_ or _Tiohero,_
where the main trail which united all the cantons crossed the river
outlet of Lake Cayuga.

In other cases, though the identity of names is clear, that of the
localities is more doubtful. The _Kaneghsadakeh_ of the list, the
"Hill-side town," may be the _Kanasadaga_ of the Senecas; but, as
General Clark remarks, the name might have been applied to any town on
the side of a mountain. In like manner _Deyughsweken_ (or
_Deyohsweken_), which is said to mean "flowing out," may have been
the town from which the Oswego river took its name, or a town at the
mouth of any other river; and _Deyaokenh,_ "the Forks," may have
been Tioga, or any other village at the junction of two
streams. _Fonondese_ ("it is a high hill") is perhaps the same name
as Onontare, which in Charlevoix's map appears as Onnontatacet;
[Footnote: See _"Early Chapters of Cayuga History,"_ p. 48.] but
the name may well have been a common one. A few other apparent
coincidences might be pointed out; but of most of the towns in the list
we can only say that no trace remains in name or known locality, and
that in some cases even the meaning of the names has ceased to be
remembered. General Clark sums up his conclusions on this point in the
following words: "They appear to belong to a remote--I may say a very
remote--age, and not to be referred to any particular known localities;
and this, as it appears to me, is more to the credit of the manuscript
as an archaic work."



[The following is the concluding portion of an essay on "Indian
Migrations, as evidenced by Language," which was read at the Montreal
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in
August, 1882, and published in the "American Antiquarian" for January
and April, 1883. As the views set forth in this extract have a bearing
on the subjects discussed in the present work, the author takes the
opportunity of reproducing them here for the consideration of its

It will be noticed that the evidence of language, and to some extent
that of tradition, leads to the conclusion that the course of migration
of the Indian tribes has been from the Atlantic coast westward and
southward. The Huron-Iroquois tribes had their pristine seat on the
lower St. Lawrence. The traditions of the Algonkins seem to point to
Hudson's Bay and the coast of Labrador. The Dakota stock had its oldest
branch east of the Alleghenies, and possibly (if the Catawba nation
shall be proved to be of that stock), on the Carolina
coast. Philologists are well aware that there is nothing in the language
of the American Indians to favor the conjecture (for it is nothing else)
which derives the race from eastern Asia. But in western Europe one
community is known to exist, speaking a language which in its general
structure manifests a near likeness to the Indian tongues. Alone of all
the races of the old continent the Basques or Euskarians of northern
Spain and southwestern France have a speech of that highly complex and
polysynthetic character which distinguishes the American
languages. There is not, indeed, any such positive similarity, in words
or grammar, as would prove a direct affiliation. The likeness is merely
in the general cast and mould of speech; but this likeness is so marked
as to have awakened much attention. If the scholars who have noticed it
had been aware of the facts now adduced with regard to the course of
migration on this continent, they would probably have been led to the
conclusion that this similarity in the type of speech was an evidence of
the unity of race. There seems reason to believe that Europe--at least
in its southern and western portions--was occupied in early times by a
race having many of the characteristics, physical and mental, of the
American aborigines. The evidences which lead to this conclusion are
well set forth in Dr. Dawson's recent work on "Fossil Man." Of this
early European people, by some called the Iberian race, who were
ultimately overwhelmed by the Aryan emigrants from central Asia, the
Basques are the only survivors that have retained their original
language; but all the nations of southern Europe, commencing with the
Greeks, show in their physical and mental traits a large intermixture of
this aboriginal race. As we advance westward, the evidence of this
infusion becomes stronger, until in the Celts of France and of the
British Islands it gives the predominant cast to the character of the
people. [Footnote: "The Basque may then be the sole surviving relic and
witness of an aboriginal western European population, dispossessed by
the intrusive Indo-European tribes. It stands entirely alone, no kindred
having yet been found for it in any part of the world. It is of an
exaggeratedly agglutinative type, incorporating into its verb a variety
of relations which are almost everywhere else expressed by an
independent word."--"The Basque forms a suitable stepping-stone from
which to enter the peculiar linguistic domain of the New World, since
there is no other dialect of the Old World which so much resembles in
structure the American languages."--Professor Whitney, in _"The Life
and Growth of Language"_ p. 258.]

If the early population of Europe were really similar to that of
America, then we may infer that it was composed of many tribes,
scattered in loose bands over the country, and speaking languages widely
and sometimes radically different, but all of a polysynthetic
structure. They were a bold, proud, adventurous people, good hunters and
good sailors. In the latter respect they were wholly unlike the
primitive Aryans, who, as was natural in a pastoral people of inland
origin, have always had in the east a terror of the ocean, and in Europe
were, within historic times, the clumsiest and least venturous of
navigators. If communities resembling the Iroquois and the Caribs once
inhabited the British islands and the western coasts of the adjacent
continent, we may be sure that their fleets of large canoes, such as
have been exhumed from the peat-deposits and ancient river-beds of
Ireland, Scotland, and France, swarmed along all the shores and
estuaries of that region. Accident or adventure may easily have carried
some of them across the Atlantic, not merely once, but in many
successive emigrations from different parts of western Europe. The
distance is less than that which the canoes of the Polynesians were
accustomed to traverse. The derivation of the American population from
this source presents no serious improbability whatever. [Footnote: The
distance from Ireland to Newfoundland is only sixteen hundred miles. The
distance from the Sandwich Islands to Tahiti (whence the natives of the
former group affirm that their ancestors came) is twenty-two hundred
miles. The distance from the former islands to the Marquesas group, the
nearest inhabited land, is seventeen hundred miles. The canoes of the
Sandwich Islands (as we are assured by Ellis, in his _"Polynesian
Researches"_) "seldom exceed fifty feet in length." In the river-beds
of France, ancient canoes have been found, exceeding forty feet in
length. One was more than forty-five feet long, and nearly four feet
deep. See the particulars in Figuier's _"Primitive Man,"_
Appleton's edit., p. 177. See also Prof. D. Wilson's _"Prehistoric
Man,"_ 2d edit., p. 102, for a full discussion of this question, with
instances of long canoe voyages.]

On the theory which seems thus rendered probable, that the early
Europeans were of the same race as the Indians of America, we are able
to account for certain characteristics of the modern nations of Europe,
which would otherwise present to the student of anthropology a
perplexing problem. The Aryans of Asia, ancient and modern, as we know
them in the Hindoos, the Persians, and the Armenians, with the evidence
afforded by their history, their literature and their present condition,
have always been utterly devoid of the sentiment of political
rights. The love of freedom is a feeling of which they seem
incapable. To humble themselves before some superior power--deity, king,
or brahmin--seems to be with them a natural and overpowering
inclination. Next to this feeling is the love of contemplation and of
abstract reasoning. A dreamy life of worship and thought is the highest
felicity of the Asiatic Aryan. On the other hand, if the ancient
Europeans were what the Basques and the American Indians are now, they
were a people imbued with the strongest possible sense of personal
independence, and, resulting from that, a passion for political freedom.
They were also a shrewd, practical, observant people, with little taste
for abstract reasoning.

It is easy to see that from a mingling of two races of such opposite
dispositions, a people of mixed character would be formed, very similar
to that which has existed in Europe since the advent of the Aryan
emigrants. In eastern Europe, among the Greeks and Sclavonians, where
the Iberian element would be weakest, the Aryan characteristics of
reverence and contemplation would be most apparent. As we advance
westward, among the Latin and Teutonic populations, the sense of
political rights, the taste for adventure, and the observing, practical
tendency, would be more and more manifest; until at length, among the
western Celts, as among the American Indians, the love of freedom would
become exalted to an almost morbid distrust of all governing authority.

If this theory is correct, the nations of modern Europe have derived
those traits of character and those institutions which have given them
their present headship of power and civilization among the peoples of
the globe, not from their Aryan forefathers, but mainly from this other
portion of their ancestry, belonging to the earlier population which the
Aryans overcame and absorbed. That this primitive population was
tolerably numerous is evident from the fact that the Aryans,
particularly of the Latin, Teutonic, and Celtic nations lost in
absorbing it many vocal elements and many grammatical inflections of
their speech. They gained, at the same time, the self-respect, the love
of liberty, and the capacity for selfgovernment, which were unknown to
them in their Asiatic home. Knowing that these characteristics have
always marked the American race, we need not be surprised when modern
researches demonstrate the fact that many of our Indian communities have
had political systems embodying some of the most valuable principles of
popular government. We shall no longer feel inclined to question the
truth of the conclusion which has been announced by Carli, Draper, and
other philosophic investigators, who affirm that the Spaniards, in their
conquest of Mexico, Yucatan, and Peru, destroyed a better form of
society than that which they established in its place. The intellectual
but servile Aryans will cease to attract the undue admiration which they
have received for qualities not their own; and we shall look with a new
interest on the remnant of the Indian race, as possibly representing
this nobler type of man, whose inextinguishable love of freedom has
evoked the idea of political rights, and has created those institutions
of regulated self-government by which genuine civilization and progress
are assured to the world.


The following Glossary comprises all the words of the Canienga text. The
meanings of these words are given as they were, received from the
interpreters. For most of them these definitions are confirmed by the
dictionaries of Bruyas and Cuoq. Some of the words, which are either
archaic forms or peculiar to the Council ceremonies, are not found in
those dictionaries; and in a few instances the precise purport of these
words must be considered doubtful. In some cases, also, the force of a
grammatical inflection or of an affix may not have been correctly
ascertained; but it is believed that the vocabulary will be found, in
general, sufficiently accurate to be of service to the student who may
desire to acquire some knowledge of the Canienga speech.

When the words of John Buck's copy differ in orthography from those of
the Johnson MS., the former are added in brackets. Words cited from the
dictionary of Bruyas are distinguished by the letter B; those from the
lexicon of M. Cuoq by C.


Aerengh [orenh], far. _Heren, ahiren_, B., far; _heren,
aheren_, C., far away.

Aesahhahiyenenhon [ahesahhahiyenennyonhon], if thou hadst fallen (or
perished) by the way. _Aha, oha, ohaha_, road, path;
_gaiennenon_, B., to fall.

Aesayatyenenghdon [ahesayatyenendon], thou mightest have been
destroyed. _Gaiennenon_, B., to fall; _gaien_nenton_, to
cause to fall. _Aesaiatienenton_ is in the perf. subj. passive.

Aghsonh, scarcely, hardly, while.

Ai (excl.), hail! oh!

Aihaigh (excl.), hail! ah! oh! More commonly pronounced _haihai_.

Akare, until.

Akayongh [akcayon], ancient. _Akaion_, C., old, ancient, antique.

Akonikonghkahdeh, they are suffering. _Onikonhra_, mind, and
_oga'te_, B., raw., _i. e._, having a sore mind.

Akotthaghyonnighshon, one who belongs to the Wolf clan. See

Akwah, indeed, truly, very, yea.

Akwekon, all.

Are, again, sometimes.

Ayakawen, one would have said. _En_, B, to say (perf. subj.).

Ayakaweron, one would have thought. _Eron_, B., to think, to wish.

Ayakotyerenhon, one would be startled, surprised. From _katyeren_,
to wonder, be startled.

Ayawenhenstokenghske [ayawenhensthokenske], may it be true. _Enon,
iawennon_, B.,--_iawens_, C., to happen; _togenske_, B.,
_tokenske_, C., it is true. "May it happen to be true!"

Ayuyeukwaroghthake [ayoyenkwarodake], there might have been tobacco
smoke (apparent)., _Oienkwa_, C., tobacco; _garst_, B., to
smoke (ppf. subj.).


Da-edewenhheye [dahedewenheyeh], we may all die. _Genheion,
genheie_, B., to die (subj. mood).

Daghsatkaghthoghseronne [dasatkahthoseronne], thou mightest keep
seeing. See _Tesatkaghthoghserontyc_. _Tasatkahthoseronne_
(as the word would be spelt in modern orthography) appears to be the
aorist subjunctive of _atkahthos_, to see, in the cislocative and
frequentative forms.

Daondayakottondeke, that they may hear. _Athonde_, to hear.

Deghniwenniyu, joint ruler; lit., they two are masters. See

Deghsewenninekenne, thou mayest speak. See _Entyewenninekenneh_.

Dendewatenonghweradon, in our mutual greetings. See

Denghsatkaghdonnyonheke [densatkatonhnyonsekeh], thou wilt be looking
about thee. _Atkahthos_, to see.

Denighroghkwayen [dehnihrohkwayen], let us two smoke. _Garoksa_,
B., _une pipe, touche de petun_. It is conjectured that the name
Iroquois, _i. e._, "Tobacco-people," may have been derived from
this word. See Appendix, Note A.

Dentidewaghneghdoten, we will replace the pine-tree. _Ohnehta_,
pine. _Oten_, as a suffix (according to M. Cuoq), "serves to
express the condition, the manner, the kind, the nature of a thing."

Denyakokwatonghsaeke [tenyakokwennhendonghsaeke], he will be
dying. _Desakkeatouch_, Onon. Dict., I am dying;
_kanoneenton_, B., sick.

Denyontadenakarondako, they shall take off his horns. _Onakara_,

Desahahishonne, thou art coming troubled.

Desakaghsereutonyonne, thou comest weeping. _Gagasera_, B., tear.

Desanyatokenh, in thy throat. _Oniata,_ C., throat, neck.

Desawennawenrate, thy voice coming over. From _owenna,_ C.,
_gauenda_ or _gauenna,_ B., voice, speech, word, and
_auenron,_ B., to pass over. The cislocative prefix _de (te)_
gives the sense of "hither."

Deskenonghweronne [deskenonweronne], I come again to greet and
thank. _Kannonhueron,_ B., to salute any one;
_kannonhueronton,_ to salute or thank by, or for, anything. See
_ante,_ page 149, for an analysis of this word.

Detkanoron [detkanorons], all but, almost. From _kanoron,_ costly,
important, difficult.

Dewadadenonweronh [dewadatenonweron], mutual greeting.
_Kannonhueron,_ B., to salute any one.

Dewaghsadayenhah, in the shade. _Asatagon,_ B., in secret;
_asatakon,_ C., in the dark.

Deyakodarakeh, the two clans. _Ohtara,_ C., tribe, band. (Dual or
duplicative form.)

Deyakonakarondon, wearing horns, _i.e.,_ being chiefs.
_Onnagara,_ B., horn; _kannagaront,_ having horns;
_gannagaronni,_ B., _etre considerable._

Deyughnyonkwarakda [deyohnyonkwaraktah], at the wood's edge; near the
thicket. _Onnionguar,_ B., thorn-bush, bramble; _akta,_ C.,
beside, near to. The word applies to the line of bushes usually found on
the border between the forest and a clearing. With the cislocative
prefix _de_ it means "on this side of the thicket."

Deyughsihharaonh [deyohsiharaonh], there is a stoppage.
_Gasiharon,_ B., to stop up, to close.

Deyunennyatenyon, hostile agencies, opposing; forces.
_Gannenniani,_ B., to surprise or defeat a band; _gannennaton,
ib.,_ to seek to destroy.

Deyunhonghdoyenghdonh [deyonhonghdoyendonh], mourning wampum. This word
appears to be composed of three of Bruyas' radices, viz.,
_gaionni,_ wampum belt (_collier de
porcelaine_),--_gannonton,_ to throw wampum for the dead,--and
_gaienton,_ to strike, whence _skaienton,_ to return the like,
to strike back, and _gaientatonton,_ to give satisfaction for any
one wounded or killed; and the meaning will be "wampum given as a
satisfaction or consolation for a death."

Dhatkonkoghdaghkwanyon. [thatkonkohdakwanyon], in going
through. _Ongoon,_ B., to penetrate, to pass through;
_atongotahkon,_ B., the place through which one passes.

Doghkara [dohkara], only a few. _Tohkara,_ C., only occasionally, a
few, a small number of.

Doka, if, perhaps, either, or. _Toka,_ C., or, if; I don't know.

Donghwenghratstanyonne [donwenratstanyonne], coming
over. _Asenron,_ B., to pass over.


Eghdejisewayadoreghdonh [eghdetsisewayadorehdonh], this ye considered,
ye deliberated about this. _Kaiatefreton,_ B., to examine, to
think, to deliberate about anything.

Eghdeshotiyadoreghton, they again considered. (See the preceding word.)

Eghnikatarakeghne [eghnikadarakene], such were the clans. _Ehni--,_
C., for _ethoni,_ there are, so, it is thus that; _ohtara,_
clan, band.

Eghnikouh, thus, in this way.

Eghnonweh, thither, yonder.

Eghtenyontatitenranyon, they will condole with one another, or, there
will be mutual condolence. _Gentenron,_ B., _kitenre,_ C., to
pity any one. _Atatitenron,_ B., to deplore one's misery.

Eghyendewasenghte, we will let it fall. _Asenon,_ B., to fall;
_asenhton, ib.,_ to cause to fall.

Eghyesaotonnihsen, this was his uncle. See _yeshodonnyk._

Endewaghneghdotako, we will pull up a pine tree. From _onehta,_
pine, and _gataksan, gatako,_ to draw out, B., _sub voce At._

Enghsitskodake, thou wilt be resting, thou wilt remain.
_Gentskote,_ B., to be in any place.

Entyewenninekenneh, the words which will be said. From _Kawenna,_
word (q. v.) and _en,_ B., to say.

Enjerennokden (or enyerennokden), they will finish the song; or, the
hymn will be finished. _Karenna,_ song, hymn; _okte,_ B., the
end; to finish.

Enjeyewendane [enjewendane], they will be comforted.
_Ganeienthon,_ B, to be calm. (This word should probably be written

Enjondatenikonghketsko, they will comfort, lit., will raise the
mind. _Onikonhra,_ mind, spirit, temper, and _gagetskuan,_ B.,
to raise up.

Enjondentyonko. See _Enyonghdentionko._

Enjonkwakaronny, it will cause us trouble. _Gagaronnion,_ B., to do
harm to any one, to cause him some loss.

Enjonkwanekheren, we shall suffer a loss. _Wakenekheren,_ C., not
to know, not to recognize (_i.e._, we shall cease to see some one).

Enskat, one, once.

Entkaghwadasehhon, will be vexed, excited. _Gahuatase,_ B., to
twist, turn round.

Enwadon, it will be allowed. _Watons,_ fut. _enwaton,_ C., to
be possible, feasible, allowed.

Enwadonghwenjadethare, will make a hole through the ground. See

Enyairon, they will say, one will say. From _en,_ B.,
fut. _egiron,_ to say.

Enyakaonkodaghkwe [enyakaonkohdakwe], they shall have
passed. _Ongoon,_ B., to penetrate, pass through; _ongotanni,_
to cause to penetrate, etc.

Enyakodenghte, they (or one) will be miserable. _Genthenteon,_ B.,
to be deserving of pity.

Enyakodokenghse [enyakodokenseh], they (or one) will
discover. _Gatogenon, gatogens,_ B., to know.

Enyakohetsde [enyakohetste], he (or one) will go on. _Kohetstha,_
C., to pass beyond.

Enyakonewarontye, they (or one) will be surprised. _Gannesaron,_
B., to surprise.

Enyeharako, they will carry it. _Gaha,_ B., to carry off.

Enyeken, they will see. _Gagen,_ B., to see.

Enyenikonghkwendarake, they will be mourning. _Onikonhra._ (q. v.)
and _gagsentaron,_ stretched on the ground (_i.e.,_ the mind

Enyerennokden. See _Enjerennokden._

Enyerighwanendon [enyerihwanondon], they will ask (or, will
wonder). From _karihwa_ (q. v.) and _gannendon,_ B., to
wonder, or _annonton,_ to seek. _Garihwanonton,_ B., to ask
the news.

Enyerighwawetharho, the business will be closed. _Karihwa_ (q. v.)
and _otarhon,_ B., to grasp; _kotarhos,_ C., to grasp, to stop
by grasping.

Enyonderennoden, they will sing it thus. _Karenna,_ q. v.
and--_oten,_ C., which "serves to express the condition, manner,
kind, or nature of a thing."

Enyonghdentyonko, he will walk to and fro. _Atention,_ B., to go

Enyononghsaniratston, it will strengthen the house. _Kanonsa,_
house, and _ganniraton,_ B., to strengthen.

Enyontsdaren, they will weep. _Katstaha,_ C., to weep, to shed

Enyontyerenjiok, they will be startled. From _katyeren,_ to wonder,
to be surprised.

Enyurighwadatye [enyorihwadatye], it will continue: the affair will go
on. From _kariwa_ (q. v.) as a verb, in the progressive form and
future tense.

Etho, thus, so.

Ethone, then.

Ethononweh, thither.


Hasekenh, because. _Aseken,_ C., for, because.

Henskerighwatoate [enskerighwatonte], I will frustrate their
purposes. From _karihwa_ (q. v.) and _atoneton,_ B., to cause
to lose, to mislead.

Henyondatsjistayenhaghse [henyondatstsistayenhase], they will hold a
council, lit., they will make a council fire. From _katsista,_
fire; _gatsistaien,_ B., to hold council, to light the council

Hone, also. See _Ony._


Ie [iih], I.

Iese [ise], thou, ye.

Iesewengh, ye have said. _En,_ B., to say.

Issy [hissih], yonder, there, _Isi,_ C., there.


Jadadeken, thy brother (or brothers). _Tsiatatekenha,_ C., ye two
are brothers.

Jadakweniyosaon (or jatagweniyosaon), thou wert the ruler, or, ye were
the rulers. See _Jadakweniyu._

Jadakweniyu, thou art the ruler, or, ye are the rulers. See note to
sec. 28, _ante,_ p. 152.

Jatatawhak, father and son, lit., son of each other. _Gahawak,_
B., to have for child (reciprocal form).

Jathondek (or jatthontek), listen! hearken thou. Imperative sing. of
_kathontats,_ C, _athantaton,_ B., to hear.

Jatthontenyonk, keep listening! continue to hear! The frequentative form
of _jatthontek._

Ji [tsi], that, that which, wherein. See _Jini._

Jidenghnonhon [jidennon], as, like as. _Tennon,_ C., and also, but.

Jinayawenhon, the consequences, the results, lit. what would
happen. _Enon,_ B.,--_iawens,_ C, to happen.

Jinesadawen [tsinesadawen]. See _Jinisadawen._

Jini [_tsini_], that which, such, so, so much.

Jinihotiyerenh, what they did. From _Jini_ (q. v.) and
--_kierha,--wakieren,_ C., to act, do, say. This verb is always
preceded by some particle, such as _kenni_ (see how), _tsini_
(that which) and the like.

Jinikawennakeh, these the words. See _Jini_ and _kawenna._

Jinisayadawen [tsinesayadawenh], that which has befallen
you. _Enon,_ B., to happen; _gaiatasenon,_ to happen to some

Jiniyuneghrakwah [tsiniyohnerakwa], this solemn event.
_Gonneragoon,_ B., to wonder; _jonneragsat,_ that is
wonderful. See _yuneghrakwah._

Jinonweh [tsinonweh], thither, whereto.

Jiratighrotonghkwakwe [tsiradirohtonhkwakwe], where they used to
smoke. _Garst,_ B., to smoke; _otonkwa,_ C., flame. "Where
they lighted their pipes."

Jisanakdade [tsisanakdate], from thy seat. See _Kanakta._

Jiyudakenrokde [tsiodakenrokde], by the fireplace, near the
ashes. _Akenra_, ashes; _okte_, end, edge.

Jiyathondek, listen! hearken! Imperative dual of _kathontats_, I
hear. See _Jathondek_.

Jodenaghstahhere, they made additions to a house; they added a
frame. _Gannasta_, B., poles for making a house; _onasta_, C.,
a framework; _kaheren_, B. to be upon.

Joskawayendon, there is again wilderness, waste ground.
_Gaienthon_, B., to have fields.


Kadon, I say, I speak. _Igatonk_ (_sub voce En_), B., I say;
_katon_, C., to say.

Kady [kadi], therefore, then. _Kati_, C., then, consequently.

Kadykenh, because. See _Katykenh_.

Kaghnekonyon, floods. From _ohneka_, water, in the frequentative
form. _Gannegonnion_, B., there is much water.

Kaghyaton, it is written. _Kiatons_, C., to write. M. Cuoq says:
"the perfect participle takes an _h: kahiaton_, written, it is
written." _Gaiatare_, B., to paint.

Kajatthondek, listen! See _Jathondek_.

Kakeghrondakwe, they were collected; were assembled. _Gageron_,
B., to be together, or, to put things or persons somewhere.

Kanaghsdajikowah [kanastatsikowah], great framework, great
building. From _kanasta_, frame, and _kowa_, great.

Kanakaryonniha, on a pole. _Gannagare_, B., pole, long stick.

Kanakdakwenniyukeh, on the principal seat. From _kanakta_ (q. v.)
and _atakwenniio,_ C, principal.

Kanakdiyuhake, the place (or seat) may be good. From _kanakta,_
place, seat, and--_iyu,_ good (subjunctive mood).

Kanakta, mat,--hence couch, bed, seat, place.

Kaneka, where, somewhere.

Kanekhere, I believe, I suppose; surely, certainly. Probably from
_eron, igere,_ B., to think, or suppose.

Kanhonghdakdeh [kanonhdakdeh], by the wall, or side of the
house. _Onnhonta,_ wall of house, of a cabin; _akte,_ beside,

Kanikonrashon, the minds, a plural form of _Onikonhra_ (q.v.)

Kanikonrakeh, in mind. See _Onikonhra._

Kanonghsakdatye [kanonsakdatye], outside the house. _Kanonsakta,_
near the house; from _Kanonsa,_ house, and _akta,_ near,
beside. The progressive affix _tye_ gives the meaning of "passing
near the house."

Kanonghsakonshon [kanonsakonshon], in the house.

Kanonsa, house.

Kanoron, important, valuable, serious, difficult, painful, afflicting.

Karenna, song, hymn, chant.

Karighwakayonh, in ancient times. From _Karihwa_ (q. v.), and
_akaion_, old. See _Orighwakayongh._

Karighwatchkwenh [karihwahtehkonh], this word, which the interpreters
rendered simply ceremony, probably means "the fire-kindling act," from
_Karihwa_ (q. v.), and _atchken,_ or _atekha_ (_ategen,
ateza,_ B.), to burn.

Karihwa or karighwa (_garihsa,_ B., _kariwa, oriwa,_ C.),
thing, affair, business, action, news, word. This word, in its root-form
of _rihwa_ (_riwa_) or _rihow_ enters largely into
compounds having reference to business, law, office, news, belief, and
the like.

Karonta, tree, log, trunk, post.

Kathonghnonweh [kathonnonweh], I fail, I lose my way. _Atonon_,
B., to lose one's self, to go astray.

Kathonghdeh, away, out of sight. _Atonhton_, B. (sub voce
_atonon_), to cause to lose, to mislead.

Katykenh [kadikenh], how then? _Kati_, C., then (done); _ken_,
interrogative particle.

Kawenna (_gauenda, gattenna_, B.; _owenna_, C.), word, voice,
language, speech.

Kayanerenh, peace, goodness, justice, law, league. _Wakianere,
ioianere_, C., to be good, right, proper (_i.e._, noble);
_roianer_, he is a chief. _Kaianerensera_, law, government,
rule, decree, ordinance. See _ante_, p. 33.

Kayanerenghkowa, great peace, great law, the great
league. _Kayanerenh_ (q. v.) and _kowa_, great.

Kehaghshonha, kehhasaonhah, recent, lately.

Ken (for kento) here.

Kendenyethirentyonnite, here we will place them. See

Kenderentyonnih, this is lying here. Probably from _Garenton_, B.,
to hang down, and _ionni_, to be extended or laid out.

Kendonsayedane (?) returning here, (qu., pausing here). _Gasaien_,
B., to be slow; _gasaiatanne_, to make slow.

Kenenyohdatyadawenghdate, one shall be murdered here. _Aaenthon_,
B., to kill; _Katawenthos_, C, to kill many people, to massacre.

Kenhendewaghnatatsherodarho, we will attach a pouch. _Gannata_,
B., little bag; _otarhon_, to grasp.

Kenkaghnekonyon, here floods. See _kaghnekonyon_.

Kenkarenyakehrondonhah, being hidden here among logs.
_Gagarennion_, B., to remove away; _Karonta_, tree, log.

Kenkine [kenki], thus, in this way.

Kenkisenh [kenhkense], thus, in this way.

Kenkontifaghsoton, here things lying in ambush.

Kenne, thus.

Kennikanaghsesha, small strings of wampum. _Kenni--ha_, C., small,
_kanahses_, (?) a string of wampum.

Kensane, but, however.

Kentekaghronghwanyon [kondekahronwanyon], here obstacles.
_Garonhon_, B., to place (or to be) athwart.

Kentewaghsatayenha, here in the dark. _Asatagon_, C., in the
darkness; _asatagon_, B., in secret.

Kenteyurhoton, here to this opening (or cleared space in a
forest). _Karha_, forest.

Kenthoh (_kento_, C.), here.

Kenwaseraketotanese, here the uplifted hatchet, From _ken_, here,
_wasera (asera, osera)_, hatchet, and _gagetut_, B., to be
shown, to appear above.

Kenwedewayen, we place it here. From _ken_, here, and _gaien_,
B., to put in any place.

Kenyoteranentenyonhah, there is a crevice here. From _ken_, here,
and _ateronnonte_, B., having space, or showing light between two
things not well joined.

Kenyutnyonkwaratonnyon, here many thorns. From _ken_, here, and
_onniongar_, B., thorns, brambles. The word is in the
frequentative form.

Konnerhonyon [konneronyon], they keep thinking. _Eron_, B., to
think, to will. (Frequentative form.)

Konyennetaghkwen [konyennedaghkwen], my child, my offspring. From
_ennet_, B., to hold an infant in one's
bosom. "_Gonyennetakan_, says the Canienga to the Oneida,"
B. _Konyennetakkwen_ is properly a verb of the third conjugation,
in the imperfect tense, and the 1:2 transition: "I nursed thee as a
child." Here it is used idiomatically as a noun.

Kowa, kowane, great.


Nadehhadihne, it was their number. See _Natejonhne_.

Nadekakaghneronnyonghkwe [nedekakanneronnyonkwe], it was commonly looked
at. _Kagannere_, B., to see (frequentative form, imperfect tense).

Nai (exclam.), hail! oh! ah! (It is the exclamation _ai_ or
_hai_, with the particle _ne_ prefixed.)

Nakonikonra, their mind. See _Onikonhra_.

Nakwah, (?) indeed. See _Akwah_.

Natehotiyadoreghtonh, they decided on. _Kajatoreton_, B., to
examine, think, deliberate about anything.

Natejonhne, it was your number; this was the size of your
class. _Teionihes_, C., large, wide; "_ken ok nateionhes_, not
larger than that."

Nayakoghstonde [nayakostonde], by reason of, the pretext
being. _Gastonton_, B., to make a pretext of anything.

Nayawenh, it may be. _Enon, yawenon_, B.,--_iawens_, C., to
happen. See _Nenyawenne_.

Nayeghnyasakenradake,(?) having a white neck. _Onniasa_, B., neck;
_gagenrat_, B., white.

Ne, the, this, that, who, which (rel.). A demonstrative and relative
particle, variously used, but always giving a certain emphasis to the
word which it precedes.

Nedens, either, or.

Nekenne (or _ne kenh ne_), thus.

Nene, the, this, that, these, those, etc. (an emphatic reduplication of

Nenyakoranne, they will keep on, persist, go so far as. _Garaon,
garannne_, B., to find any one; _keras, kerane_, C., to approach
any one, to come to him.

Nenyawenne, it may be; it will happen; it shall be done. Future of
_Nayawenh_, q. v.

Nenyerighwanendon, they will inquire. See _Enyerighwanendon_.

Neok, nok, and, also. (Contracted from _ne_ and _ok_.)

Neony [neoni], also. See _Ne_ and _Oni_.

Niateweghniserakeh, every day. From _niate_, each, every, and
_wehnisera_, (or _wennisera_) day, with the locative
participle _ke_.

Nitthatirighwayerathaghwe [nithariwayerathakwe], they used to do the
work. From _karihwa_, business, and _gaieren_, B., to
do. (Imperfect tense.)

Nityakwenontonh, they search, inquire, pry into. _Annonton,
gannenton_, B., to seek, search, interrogate.

Niutercnhhatye (?) it was startling. From _katyeren_, to wonder, to
be startled.

Niwa, extent, size, number.

Niyakoghswathah, they are mischievous, troublesome. _Gasaton_,
B., _etre mechant_.

Niyawehkowa [niawenhkowa], great thanks. _Niawen_, C., thanks;
_kowa_, great.

Niyawennonh, it happened. See _Nayawenh_.

Niyenhhenwe [niyenhhenwe], in the future.--_nenwe_ relates to the
future, C.

Niyieskahhaghs, being borne. _Gaha_, B., to carry away.

Niyonsakahhawe, he is carried. _Gahawi_, B., to bring.

Noghnaken, hereafter, afterwards, in later times. See _Oghnaken_.

Nonkenh, it may be. _Enon_, B., to happen.

Nonkwaderesera, our grandchildren. See _Saderesera_.

Nonwa, now.

Nyare, while, previously. _Niare_, C., beforehand.


Oghentonh, in the first place, foremost, firstly. _Gahenton_, B.,
to go first; _ohenton_, C, before, foremost, formerly.

Oghnaken [onaken], afterwards. _Ohnaken_, C., behind, backwards,

Oghniyawenhonh, what has happened. From _ohni_, C., what? and
_iawens_, to happen.

Oghnonekenh, dismayed (?) _Kannonhiannion_, B., to fear, to be

Oghseronnih [onhseronni]; together. _Oseronni_, C., together.

Oghsonteraghkowa [aghsonderahkowah], disease, pestilence.

Ohhendonh; see _Oghentonh_.

Ok, and, also, indeed.

Okaghserakonh [okaserakonh], an tears. _Gagasera_, B., tears.

Okaghsery [okaseri], tears. _Okaseri_, C., tear, from
_Okahra_, eye, and _keri_, liquid.

Onakara, horn.

Onekwenghdarihenh, in crimson (_i. e._, in blood).
_Onigentara,_ B., red; onnigensa, blood.

Onenh [onen]. Now; at last; finally.

Onghteh [onhteh], perhaps, probably.

Onghwa, now, at present. _Onwa_, C., now. (Same as _Nonwa_.)

Onghwajok, presently.

Onghwenjakonh [onwenjakon], into the earth. See _Onwentsia._

Onidatkon, deadly.

Onikonhra, mind, character, disposition, thought, opinion,
sentiment. _Gandigonra_, B., _esprit, pensee_.

Onkwaghsotshera [onkwasotsera], our forefathers. The root is _sot_,
meaning grandparent. _Rak'sotha_, C., my grandfather;
_ak'sotha_, my grandmother; _onkwa_, our; _sera_, the
"crement," generalizing the word.

Onkwaghsotsherashonhkenha, our deceased forefathers. See
_Onkwaghsotshera, Shon (son)_ is the plural suffix; _kenha_,
deceased, "the late" (the French _feu_).

Onok, and, and then. See _Ony, Ok_ and _Neok_.

Onokna, and then.

Onwa, now. See _Onghwa_.

Onwentsia, earth, land, field, ground.

Ony [oni], also. See _Neony_.

Orighokonha, few words. From _karihwa_ (q. v.), and _okonha_,
an affix indicating a restricted plural.

Orighwakayongh [oriwakayon], in ancient times. See _Karihwa_ and

Orighwakwekonh [oriwakwekon], all business, all matters, all the
rules. See _Karihwa_ and _Akwekon_.

Owenna. See _Kawenna_.

Oya [oyah], another, another thing.

Oyata (or oyada), body, person, some one, self. _Oiata_, C., body,
person; _gaiata_, B., living thing.

Oyenkondonh, men, warriors (obsolete).


Radiyats. See _Ratiyats_.

Rakowanenh, he is chief (lit. he is a great one). From _kowanen_,
to be great; root, _kowa_, great.

Ranyaghdenghshon [ranyadenhshon], he is of the Tortoise
clan. _Keniahten, C., to be of the Tortoise band.

Ratikowanenghskwe, they were great. 3d person, plural, imperfect of
_kowanen,_ to be great. See _Rakowanenh._

Ratiyanarenyon [radiyanaronnyon], their many footmarks, or
traces. _Gaianna,_ B., _oiana,_ C, track, trace (frequentative
form). _Gaiannaronyon,_ B., there are many tracks.

Ratiyats, they call it. 3d person, plural, of _Gaiason,_ B., to
name, to call.

Raweghniseronnyh [rawenniseronni], he appoints (lit. makes) the
day. From _weghnisera,_ day, and _konnis,_ C., to make.

Rawenniyo [rawenniyoh], God (lit. he is a master). _Keweniio,_ C.,
to be master. See Appendix, note B.

Raxhottahyh, my forefathers. _Rak sotha,_ C., my grandfather.

Roghskenrakeghdekowah, he is a war-chief. _Oskera,_ C., war;
_roskenrakehte,_ warrior; _kowa,_ great.

Rodighskenrakeghdethaghkwe [rodiskenrakedetahkwe], they were
warriors. 3d pers. pl. imperfect of _roskenrakehte,_ he is a

Rokhawah, his son. _Gahaak,_ B., to have for child;
_nihaak,_ my child.

Rokwahhokowah, he is the great wolf. _Okwaho,_ wolf; _kowa,_

Ronarasehsen, they are cousins. See _Yeshonarase._

Ronatennossendonghkwe [rondennoshentonhkwe], they used to meet (lit., to
fraternize). 3d pers. pl. imperfect of _atennossen,_ to be brother
and sister.

Ronenh, they said. _En,_ B. to say (used only in the preterite).

Roneronh, they thought. _Eron,_ B., to think.

Ronkeghsotah, my forefathers. See _Onkwaghsotshera_ and

Roskerewake, he is of the Bear clan. _Akskerewake_, C., to be of
the band of the Bear.

Rotirighwison, they made the rule, they decided. See
_Karihwa_. _Gariheison_; B., to finish a matter, to conclude.


Saderesera, thy grandchildren. _Atere_, grandchild; _sera_,
the crement, generalizing the word. See _Onkwaghsotshera_.

Sahondakon, in thy ears. _Ahonta_, B., ear.

Sanekenh, although, yet, nevertheless.

Sanekherenhonh, thou art losing.

Sanheghtyensera, thy women, thy womankind. _Gannhetien_, B., woman;
_sera_, the generalizing affix. See _Saderesera_.

Sanikonra, thy mind. See _Onikonhra_.

Sathaghyonnishon, thou art of the Wolf clan. _Tahionni_, one of the
Wolf clan.

Senirighwisaanonghkwe, ye two were the founders. See

Seniyatagweniyohkwe, ye two were the principals. See _Jadakweniyu_;
the affix _kwe_ indicates the past tense.

Sewarighwisaanonghkwe [sewarihwisahanonkwe], ye established, ye were the
founders. From _karihwa_, q. v., and _gason_, B., to finish,
to consummate. _Garihwisaani_, B., to accomplish a work, to
complete a business.

Sewatarighwakhaonghkwe, ye were combined in the work, ye joined heartily
in the business. From _karihwa_, (q. v.) and _gagaon_, B., to
find good; _gariheagaon_, B., to like the affair.

Seweghne [sewenghne], ye said. _En_, B., to say.

Seweghniserathagh, for a time, lit, for a day. See _Weghniserade._

Seweryenghskwe, ye who were comrades. (?) Probably from _Oeri,_ C.,
friend, comrade,--here a verb in the imperfect tense.

Shehaweh [shehawa], thy child, or children. See _Rohhawah._

Shekonh, yet, still. _Sekon,_ C., still, moreover.

Shihonadewiraratye, they with their children (lit., they kept on
producing young ones). From _yodewirare,_ a fowl hatching.

Skaendayendon, again a waste place. _Oyente,_ B., woods;
_gaienthon,_ to have fields. (Reiterative form).

Skarenhesekowah, a lofty tree; lit., a great tree-top. From
_garenha,_ B., tree-top, _ese_ (suffix) long, high, and
_kowa,_ great.

Skennen, well, easily, peacefully, pleasantly.

Skennenji, quite well, very peacefully, safely. From _skennen_ and
_tsi,_ C. an augmentative affix.


Tehhodidarakeh, the two clans. See _Tekadarakehne._

Tehotyatakarorenh, acting in two capacities (lit., a person
divided). From _oiata,_ person, and _tioren,_ B., to split.

Tekadarakehne, there were two clans, or, of the two clans. From
_otara_ or _katara,_ clan or totem (in the reduplicate form
and past tense).

Tesatkaghthoghserontye [tesatkahthohserontye], thou sawest in
coming. _Katkathos,_ C., to see, look. The cislocative,
frequentative, and progressive forms are all combined in this expressive
word--"you kept seeing as you came."

Thadenyedane (?), he will stand. _Gataon,_ B., to raise himself

Thadenseghsatkaghthonnyonheke [thadensehsatkatonnyonheke], thou mayest
look about thee. _Katkathos,_ C., to look (frequentative form,
subjunctive mood).

Thadetyatroghkwanekenh, let us two smoke together, From _garoksa,_
B., _kahrokwa,_ C, a pipe. Bruyas gives the derivative form
_tsatrokoannegen,_ but does not explain it; it evidently means,
"let us (pl.) smoke together."

Thensadondeke, thou wilt hear. _Athonte, athontaton,_ B.,
_kathontats,_ C., to hear, obey, consent.

Thienkahhawe, will carry. _Gahawi,_ B., to bring.

Thisayatatirhehon [thisayadadirhehon], thou arrivest.

Thisennekwakenry, thou art sitting in blood. _Gannegse,_ B., blood,
and _gagenrion,_ to roll, to wallow.

Thiwakwekonh [ohtihwakwekonh], all around.

Thiyaensayeken, they will see it again. _Gagen,_ B., to see.

Thiyenjidewatyenghsaeke [thienjidewatyenseke], we shall have reached
home; lit., we shall have taken a seat. _Atient, atien,_ B., to
sit down.

Tsini; see _Jini._

Tsisaronkatah, thy hearing. _Arongen,_ B., to hear, to listen;
_arongaton,_ B., to hear by anything.

Tyewenninekenne, he will speak some words. See

Tyeyadakeron, bodies are lying. _Oyata,_ body; _gageron,_ B.,
to be in any place.

Tyoghnawatenghjihonh [dyonawaghdehtsihonh], a swift
current. _Ohnawa,_ C., current, swift stream of water;
_gannasteton,_ B., swift river; _tsihon,_ an augmentative
suffix,--"exceedingly swift."


Waahkwadewayendonh, taking care, carefully. _Ateseyenton,_ B., to
take care, to do well.

Waghontenhnonterontye, or Wahhondennonterontye, they were as brothers
thenceforth. _Atennonteron_, to be brothers. The word is in the
aorist indicative, 3d pers. pl., progressive form (indicated by the
termination _tye_).

Wahhoronghyaronnon, he put away the clouds. From _aronhia_, sky,
heaven, cloud.

Wakarighwakayone [wakarihwakayonne], it has become old. See

Wakatyerenkowa, I was greatly surprised. From _katyeren_, to
wonder, or be startled, and _kowa_, greatly.

Wakonnyh [wakonnikih], woman, womankind. (Obsolete.)

Wakwenekwenghdarokwanyon, we have washed off the
bloodstains. _Garagsentara_, B., blood, and _garagsan_, to
take away, or _garagsegan_, to efface.

Wakwennyonkoghde, I have stopped for you (as tears). Probably from
_ganniong_, B., the nose; _kannionkon_, to bleed from the
nose, _i.e._, flowing from the nose.

Watidewennakarondonyon, we have put the horns on him (_i.e._, made
him a chief). _Onnagara_, B., horn; _gannagaronni_, B.,
_etre considerable_.

Watyakwasiharako, we have removed the obstruction, we have
unstopped. _Gasiharongsan_, B., to unstop (_desboucher_).

Watyonkwentendane, we have become wretched, or poor. _GenOenteon_,
B., to be worthy of compassion.

Wedeweyennendane (see under Wete--).

Wedewennakeraghdanyon (see under Wete--).

Weghniserade [wenniserade], to-day. _Enniscra_, B., day; _nonwa
wenniserate_, C., to-day.

Wetewayennendane, we have finished. _Gaweyennentaon_, B., to rest,
to cease from working.

Wetewennakeraghdanyon [wedewennakeratanyon], we have made the signs, we
have gone through the ceremonies. _Ganneraton_, B., "_se servir
de regle_."


Yadayakonakarondatye, he may be going with horns. From _onakara_,
horn (progressive form, subjunctive mood).

Yadehninhohhanonghne, they two guarded the door, they two were the
doorkeepers. _Gannhoha_, B., door; _gannonna_, to guard.

Yaghdekakoghsonde [yaghdegagonhsonde], invisible, (lit., without face);
from _yahte_, not, and _kakonhsa_ (_okonsa_) face.

Yaghnonwenh, never. _Iah-nonwenton_, C., never. From _Iah_
(_yah_) not, and _nonwa_ or _onwa_, now.

Yakwenronh, we say. _En_, B., to say.

Yatehhotinhohhataghkwen, they were together at the doorway
(_i. e._, they were the doorkeepers). _Gannhoha_, B., door;
_atakon_, B. (_sub voce At_), "_ce dans quoi il y a_."

Yatenkarighwentaseron, to finish the business. From _karihwa_
(q. v.) and _awentas_, to finish.

Yejisewahhawitonh, ye have taken it with you. _Gahal_, B., to
bring; _gahalton_, to take away.

Yejisewatkonseraghkwanyon, ye have it as a pillow.
_Esakonseraka_, B., thou wilt use as a pillow.

Yejisewayadkeron [yetsisewayatakeron], ye are laid
together. _Gageron_, B., to be together, to place together.

Yejodenaghstahhere, they added a frame. See _Jodennaghstahhere._

Yendewanaghsende, we will drop (or let fall) into it. _Asenon_
(?), B., to fall; _asenhton,_ to cause to fall.

Yenjontahidah, they will follow. _Gatazori, gatazi,_ B., to run.

Yenyontatenoutshine, they are to be led by the hand. Probably from
_gannonna,_ B., to keep, and _atsi,_ comrade.

Yenyontatideron, they shall be placed. _Genteron,_ B., to put any
animate thing in any place.

Yeshodonnyh, or Yeshotonnyh, his uncle (properly, "his father's younger
brother"); also, as pl., his uncles. _'Atonni,_ C., a relative on
the father's side. The prefix _yes,_ in which the signs of the
translocative and reiterative forms are combined, gives the sense of
"the next younger (uncle) but one."

Yeshohawah, or Yeshohawak, his next younger child but one. See
_Rohhawah,_ and _Yeshodonnyh._

Yeshonadadekenah, or Yeshondadekenah, they are
brothers. _Rontatekenha,_ C., they are brothers together. This
word is made up of the prefix _ye,_ the sign of the translocative
form; _s,_ of the reiterative form (see _Yeshodonnyh_);
_ron_ or _rona,_ the plural pronoun (they); _tate,_ the
sign of the reciprocal form; _ken,_ younger brother; and _ha,_
an affectionate diminutive affix, generally added to words expressing

Yeshonarase, his second cousin (lit., they are cousins). _Arase,_
cousin. See _Yeshodonnyh._

Yeshonaraseshen, he was their cousin. See _Yeshonarase._

Yeshotiriwayen, they have again referred the business. From
_karihwa,_ q. v.

Yetsisewanenyadanyon, ye are in your graves. Perhaps from _onenya_,
stone,--ye are under the stones.

Yetsisewanonwadaryon, ye have taken your intellects (lit., brains) with
you. _Ononwara_, C., brain, head.

Yetsisewennitskagwanion, ye have placed it under you.
_Ennitskare_, B., to be seated on anything.

Yondonghs, it is called; they call it. _Katon_, C., to say.

Yonkwakaronny, they are wasting, or injuring, us. _Gagaronnion_,
B., to do harm to any one; to cause him some loss.

Yonkwanikonghtaghkwenne [yonkwennikondakwenne], we depended on them.

Yontkwatkennison, we are assembled. _Atkennison_, B., to be

Yotdakarahon [yotdarahon], things falling on one. _Ga'r"con_, B.,
to fall upon.

Yoyanere, it is good, it is well. From the root _yaner_, noble. See

Yuneghrakwah, solemn event. See _Jiniyuneghrakwah_.


(_Names of authors are printed in small capitals; of races and tribes
in italic._)

Adoption of conquered Enemies

_Agnier,_ French for Canienga

Akahenyonk, Cayuga chief, Tekahenyonk in chant

_Algonkin_ stock

_Algonkins,_ a nomadic people,
their war with the Alligewi,
friendly to the Hurons,
western (Ojibways),
the Lenapes,

Allegheny mountains

Allegheny river

Alliances of Iroquois

_Alligewi,_ or Moundbuilders

_Andastes,_ or _Conestogas,_
among the Iroquois

_Aryans,_ their character,
in Europe and Asia

Ataensic, a Huron divinity

Atotarho, Onondaga chief,
meaning of name,
his opposition to Hiawatha,
joins the League,
myths relating to,
political kinship,
legend of poisonous bird,
story of Hiawatha's daughter,
his name in the chant,
his aids in council,
succession of Atotarhos,

_Attiwandaronks,_ or _Neutrals,_
their country,
their history,
among the Hurons,
their mortuary customs,
cause of their overthrow,

Ball clan,

_Basques,_ their language,
their character

Bear clan

Bearfoot, Rev. Isaac

Beaver clan

Book of Rites,
its contents,
its origin,
its name,
addresses of condolence,
Canienga text,
Onandaga book,
notes on Canienga book,
notes on Onondaga book

Brant, Joseph

BREBEUF, on the Huron character


BRUYAS, his Iroquois dictionary

Buck, George, Onondaga chief

Buck, Chief John

Canandaigua, Lake

Canasatego, Onondaga chief,
rebukes the Delawares

_Canienga,_ meaning of

_Caniengas,_ or _Mokawks,_
their country,
their language,
the oldest Iroquois nation,
war with Mohegans,
their ancient chiefs

_Caniengas_, remove to Canada
their clans
their name in council
their councillors
their towns

Canoe voyages

Cartier, J.


_Cayuga_, meaning not known

Cayuga Lake

_Cayugas_, their country
their origin
assailed by Atotarho
join the League
remove to Canada
their clans
a "younger nation"
their name in council
their councillors
their towns

Champlain in the Huron country
assails the Iroquois

Champlain, Lake

their language
reject the League


Chief, office of
installation of
succession of

Chief matron, her function

_Chippeways_, See _Ojibways_,


Clans, Iroquois
origin of
number of
See _Ball, Bear, Beaver, Deer, Eel, Hawk, Heron,
Snake, Snipe, Tortoise, Wolf_,




Classes in Council

Colden, C.

Condoling council
proceedings in

Condoling song
explanation of
text of

_Conestogas_, See _Andastes_,

Confederacy, See _Iroquois_ and _League_,

Conquered tribes, treatment of

Convention of Founders

Council of League
its formation
number of members
unanimity required
classes in
induction of members
held at Onondaga in 1657
composing quarrels
held in Philadelphia in 1742

Council Fire

number of
how selected
name of
list of
clans and classes of


_Credit River Indians_

Cruelties of Indians
of civilized nations

his philological works
his Iroquois dictionary

Cusick, Albert



David of Schoharie

Deer clan

Dekanawidah, Canienga chief
his origin
joins Hiawatha
has no successor
his claims as founder

_Delawares_, or _Lenapes_
their clans
their subjection
a band received into the League


_Doorkeepers_ (_Senecas_)

Eel clan

Elder nations

ELLIS, "Polynesian Researches"

Era of Iroquois confederacy

Erie, Lake

_Eries_, a Huron-Iroquois nation
their origin
their overthrow
among the Iroquois

_Euskarians_, or _Basques_

Feast of the Dead

Female suffrage

Fidelity to allies


_Five Nations_, See _Iroquois_

Founders of League

Funeral usages

Genesee river

Georgian bay

Grand River Reserve

_Great-Tree People_ (_Oneidas_)

_Great-Pipe People_ (_Cayugas_)

Greenhalgh at Onondaga

Hawk clan


Hayonwatha, See _Hiawatha_


Heron clan

Hiawatha, his history
meaning of name
orthography of name
his projected league
his flight to the Caniengas
reception by Dekanawidah
made a Canienga chief
myths relating to his reforms
his motives
his name in the chant
his daughter
his white canoe

Hill, Abram, Oneida chief

Historical chant

Historical traditions
framers of the League
Hiawatha's daughter


Horns, as insignia
origin of custom

Horse clan

Hudson, voyage of

Hudson river

_Huron-Iroquois nations_
their original country
war with the Alligewi
their dispersion

_Hurons_, or _Wyandots_
their history
among the Iroquois
their mortuary customs
their deities
their character
their flight to the Ojibways
cause of their overthrow
their language

Hymn, national, See _Condoling Song_


Indian character misconception of

Indian social system

Indians and whites

Installation of chiefs

Iroquois, their country
when first known to whites
[Footnote: The date as printed is an error.
"Sixteenth century" should be "seventeenth."]
their migrations
conquer the Eries
expel the Hurons
conquer the Attiwandaronks
their League
formation of League
date of the confederacy
name of League
League broken up

Iroquois, in Canada,
their towns, See _Towns, Iroquois,_
their clans, See _Clans, Iroquois,_
their classes, See _Classes in Council,_
their national hymn, See _Condoling Song,_
their women,
their chiefs, succession of,
their chief divinity,
their character,
their love of peace,
their foreign policy,
object of their League,
their alliances,
causes of their wars,
treatment of subject tribes,
adoption of enemies,
their language, See _Language, Iroquois,_
meaning of "Iroquois,"

Jesuit missionaries,

Jesuit "Relations,"

Johnson, Chief George,

Johnson, Chief J. Smoke,
his office,
preserves the Book of Rites,

Johnson, Sir William,

Jones, Chief Philip,

Juskeha, Huron divinity,

_Kanienke,_ See _Canienga,_

meaning of,
spelt Kanonghsyonny,

Kanyadanyo, Seneca chief,
Skanyadariyo in chant,

Karenna, See _Condoling Song,_

Kayanerenh, meaning of,


La Fort, Daniel,


Language, Iroquois,
its origin and dialects,
description of,
Brebeuf and Max Mtiller on,
works on
abstract nouns,
verbal forms,
permanence of,
analysis and synthesis,

Laws of the League,
as to succession of chiefs,
as to intertribal homicide,
as to mortuary usages,
a "Great Reformation,"


League, See _Iroquois_ and _Laws,_

Leagues common among Indians,

Le Mercier at Onondaga,

Le Moyne at Onondaga,

_Lenapes,_ See _Delawarts,_



Manabozho, Ojibway divinity,

_Maqua,_ meaning of,

Matron, Chief, See _Chief Matron,_


_Mengwe,_ See _Mingo,_

Migrations, Iroquois,

_Mingo,_ meaning of,

Missionaries, English,
Jesuit, See _Jesuit Missionaries,_

received by Iroquois,

Mississippi river,

_Mohawk,_ meaning of,

Mohawk river,

_Mohawks,_ See _Caniengas,_

_Mohegans_, or _Mohicans,_
war with the Iroquois,
protected by Iroquois,


Morgan, L.H.

Mortuary customs,

_Moundbuilders_, See _Alligewi,_
acquainted with wampum,

Mourning Council, See _Condoling Council,_

Mourning customs, See _Funeral usages,_

_Name-carriers_ (_Onondagas_),

_Nanticokes_, admitted into the League,

_Neutral Nation,_ See _Attewandaronks_,

_Nihatirontakowa_, See _Oneidas, name in council,_

Notes on the Canienga Book,

Notes on the Onondaga Book,

Odatshehte, Oneida chief,

Ohio, meaning of,

Ohio River,

allies of Iroquois,
war with,
treaty with,

_Oneida_, meaning of,
their country
their origin
war with Mohegans
join the League
their clans
a "younger nation"
their name in Council
their Councillors
their towns,

meaning of,
Onondaga castle,

their country,
their origin,
ruled by Atotarho,
join the League,
a part remove to Canada,
Reservation near Syracuse, N.Y.
their Book of Rites,
orthography of Book,

their language,
their clans, _et seq._
an "elder nation,"
their name in Council
their councillors
site of their former capital
their towns,

Oswego river,

Oyander, title of


Peace, preservation of;
how restored
love of

Pennsylvania Historical Society,


Pictures, Indian,

Political kinship,


Pre-Aryans in Europe and America,

Preliminary ceremony, the,
Proper names, obsolete,

Protection of weak tribes by Iroquois,



Rawenniyo, name of deity,
meaning of,


Relations, See _Jesuit Relations,_

Religious sentiment,


Roanoke River,

_Ronaninhohonti_, Door-keepers,
See _Senecas, name in council,_

_Rotisennakehte_, name-carriers, See _Onondagas, name in

Royaner, title of,

Sachem, an Algonkin word,

Sakayengwaraton, See _Johnson, J. S._

_Saponies_, or _Saponas_

Scandawati, See _Skanawati_,


_Seneca_, meaning of

Seneca, Lake

their country
their origin
assailed by Atotarho

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