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The International Jewish Cook Book by Florence Kreisler Greenbaum

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Thoroughly mix six ounces of flour with an ounce of olive oil, the yolk
of an egg, and a pinch of salt. Stir in one gill of tepid water and
allow the whole to stand for half an hour in a cool place. Next beat the
white of an egg stiff and stir into the batter. Dip each fish into the
mixture, then roll in bread crumbs and cook in boiling oil. Butter must
not be used. In frying fish do not allow the fish to remain in the
spider after it has been nicely browned, for this absorbs the fat and
destroys the delicate flavor. Be sure that the fish is done. This rule
applies to fish that is sauted.


Clean fish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in flour or cornmeal and
cook in spider with just enough hot butter to prevent it sticking to the
pan. Shake the pan occasionally. Brown well on under side, then turn and
brown on the other side.


Boil three tablespoons of vinegar, one sliced onion, six whole peppers,
salt, one piece of stick cinnamon, and a little water, then add sliced
fish. When fish has boiled twenty minutes remove and arrange on platter.
Strain the gravy and add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, juice of two
lemons, sugar to taste and twelve grated almonds. Let all come to a
boil, then pour over the fish, sprinkle finely chopped parsley on top
and garnish with sliced lemons. Bluefish, mackerel, shad, salmon and
porgies may be cooked with this sauce.


First cut up and salt the fish. Shad, trout or carp can be used. Put on
fish kettle with one and one-half cups of water and one cup of vinegar,
add one onion cut in round slices, one dozen raisins, one lemon cut in
round slices, two bay leaves, six cloves. When this mixture begins to
boil, lay in your fish and cook thoroughly. When done remove fish to

Put liquor back on stove, add three tablespoons of granulated sugar
(which has been melted and browned in a pie plate without water), then
add two tablespoons of flour which has been rubbed smooth with a little
water. Let boil well and pour over fish. If not sweet enough add more
sugar. Serve cold.


Place the fish in strong salt water for one hour before cooking. Take
three parts of water and one of vinegar, put in saucepan with some
sliced onions and some raisins, and let boil until tender. Add brown
sugar to taste, a piece of rye bread from which the crust has been
removed, and some molasses. Boil the sauce, then place the fish in and
let all cook twenty minutes. When done, arrange on platter with sliced
lemon and chopped parsley.


Put on to boil in fish kettle, one glass water, one-half glass vinegar,
two tablespoons of brown sugar, one-half dozen cloves, one-half teaspoon
of ground cinnamon, one onion cut in round slices. Boil thoroughly, then
strain and add to it one lemon cut in round slices, one goblet of red
wine, one dozen raisins, one tablespoon of pounded almonds; put on stove
again, and when it comes to a boil, add fish that has been cut up and
salted. Cook until done, remove fish to a platter, and to the liquor add
a small piece Leb-kuchen or ginger cake, and stir in the well-beaten
yolks of four eggs; stir carefully or it will curdle. If not sweet
enough add more sugar. Pour over fish. Shad or trout is the best fish to


Put in a saucepan a tablespoon of butter or butter substitute, add a
tablespoon each of chopped onion, carrot and turnip. Fry them without
browning, then add fish-bones, head, and trimmings, a stalk of celery,
sprigs of parsley and of thyme, a bay-leaf, a tomato or a slice of
lemon. Cover with water and let them simmer for an hour or more. Season
with salt and pepper and strain.


Clean the fish thoroughly, and wash it in hot water, wipe dry and salt
inside and out. If you heat the salt it will penetrate through the meat
of the fish in less time. Take a kettle, lay in it a piece of butter
about the size of an egg; cut up an onion, some celery root, parsley
root and a few slices of lemon, lay the fish in, either whole or cut up
in slices; boil in enough water to just cover the fish, and add more
salt if required, add a dozen whole peppers, black or white; season with
ground white pepper. Let the fish boil quickly. In the meantime beat up
the yolks of two eggs, and pound a dozen almonds to a paste, add to the
beaten yolks, together with a tablespoon of cold water. When done remove
the fish to a large platter; but to ascertain whether the fish has
cooked long enough, take hold of the fins, if they come out readily your
fish has cooked enough. Strain the sauce through a sieve, taking out the
slices of lemon and with them garnish the top of the fish; add the
strained sauce to the beaten eggs, stirring constantly as you do so;
then return the sauce to the kettle, and stir until it boils, remove
quickly and pour it over the fish. When it is cold garnish with curly


Prepare trout, pickerel or pike in the following manner: After the fish
has been scaled and thoroughly cleaned, remove all the meat that adheres
to the skin, being careful not to injure the skin; take out all the meat
from head to tail, cut open along the backbone, removing it also; but do
not disfigure the head and tail; chop the meat in a chopping bowl, then
heat about a quarter of a pound of butter in a spider, add two
tablespoons chopped parsley, and some soaked white bread; remove from
the fire and add an onion grated, salt, pepper, pounded almonds, the
yolks of two eggs, also a very little nutmeg grated. Mix all thoroughly
and fill the skin until it looks natural. Boil in salt water, containing
a piece of butter, celery root, parsley and an onion; when done remove
from the fire and lay on a platter. The fish should be cooked for one
and one-quarter hours, or until done. Thicken the sauce with yolks of
two eggs, adding a few slices of lemon.

This fish may be baked but must be rolled in flour and dotted with bits
of butter.


Take three pounds of fish (weakfish or carp, pickerel or haddock or
whitefish, any fat fish with a fish poor in it). Remove skin and bones
from the fish and chop flesh very fine, add a good-sized onion, minced
or grated, make a depression in the centre of the chopped fish and add
three-quarters cup of water, one-half cup of soft bread crumbs, salt and
pepper to taste, one-fourth cup of sugar, two egg whites and two
tablespoons of melted butter. Chop until very smooth and form into cakes
containing a generous tablespoonful each. Put the bones and skins into a
saucepan with an onion sliced and a tablespoon of butter and add the
fish cakes. Cover with water and simmer for one and a quarter hours.
Then remove the cakes and strain off the gravy into the two egg yolks
which have been slightly beaten together with one teaspoon of sugar;
stir over the heat until thickened, but do not boil it. Pour over fish
cakes and serve either hot or cold. The butter and sugar may be omitted
if so desired.


Cut a five-pound haddock into four-inch slices. Cut a big hole into each
slice, preserving the backbone and skin. Put this meat, cut from the
fish, into a wooden tray, add to it four large onions and a sprig of
parsley. Chop until very fine, then add two eggs, a dash of pepper and
cinnamon, a pinch of salt, and a tablespoon of sugar. To this add enough
cracker dust to stiffen it. Put this filling into the holes cut in the

Take a saucepan, put in one sliced onion, a sprig of parsley, a small
sliced carrot, a dash of pepper, and a pinch of salt. Put the fish into
the saucepan, cover with cold water, and let it boil slowly for one
hour. At the end of the hour take out the fish, and put on a platter.
Preserve the water or gravy in which the fish was boiled for the sauce.

Egg sauce for fish: Beat the yokes of two eggs thoroughly. Into the
beaten yolks slowly pour the gravy in which the fish was boiled,
stirring constantly. Stand this on the back of the stove to boil for
five minutes, stirring constantly so as to prevent burning.


No. 1. Bone some fat fish, boil in salt and water; when done take a
little of the fish soup, one egg, beat until light, add gradually the
juice of one-half lemon.


No. 2. Steam the fish and bone. Take four good-sized tomatoes, cut them
up, add chopped parsley, scallions or leeks cut in small pieces, a
little celery, salt and pepper to taste and four eggs well-beaten; mix
all these ingredients very well with the boned fish, form in omelet
shape. Place in oven in pan greased with olive oil and bake until well


This fish is best prepared "scharf." Clean your fish thoroughly and salt
the day previous; wrap it in a clean towel and lay it on ice until
wanted. Line a kettle with celery and parsley roots; cut up an onion,
add a lump of fresh butter, and pack the fish in the kettle, head first,
either whole or cut up; sprinkle a little salt and white pepper over all
and add about a dozen peppercorns; put on enough water to just cover,
and add a whole lemon cut in slices. Do not let the fish boil quickly.
Add about a dozen pounded almonds. By this time the fish will be ready
to turn, then beat up the yolks of two eggs in a bowl, to be added to
the sauce after the fish is boiled. Try the fish with a fork and if the
meat loosens readily it is done. Take up each peace carefully, if it has
been cut up, and arrange on a large platter, head first and so on, make
the fish appear whole, and garnish with the slices of lemon and sprigs
of parsley; then mince up some parsley and garnish top of the fish,
around the lemon slices. Thicken the gravy by adding the beaten yolks,
add a tablespoon of cold water to the yolks before adding to the boiling
sauce; stir, remove from the fire at once and pour over the fish. If you
prefer the sauce strained, then strain before adding the yolks of the
eggs and almonds.

Haddock, sea-bass, pike, perch, weakfish and porgies may be cooked


Cut into pieces ready to serve, after which salt them for an hour. Into
the fish kettle put a quantity of water, large onion sliced, carrot also
sliced, turnip, celery root, and boil fifteen minutes. Add the fish and
two tablespoons of butter, tiny piece of cinnamon, pepper to taste. Boil
fifteen minutes longer, then add teaspoon of flour mixed with cold
water. Boil up well and add salt or pepper if needed. Remove fish and
arrange on platter. Beat yolks of two eggs with a tablespoon of cold
water; after straining out vegetables, add the hot gravy in which fish
was boiled. Return to fire and stir till thick enough. Garnish with
chopped parsley.


Mix some tomato sauce, olive oil, parsley, salt and pepper. Boil sauce
first, and add boiled sea-bass or flounders.


Cut up a celery root, one onion, and a sprig of parsley, tie the fish in
a napkin and lay it on this bed of roots; pour in enough water to cover
and add a dash of vinegar--the vinegar keeps the fish firm--then boil
over a quick fire and add more salt to the water in which the fish has
been boiled. Lay your fish on a hot platter and prepare the following
sauce: set a cup of sweet cream in a kettle, heat it, add a tablespoon
of fresh butter, salt and pepper, and thicken with a tablespoon of flour
which has been wet with a little cold milk, stir this paste into the
cream and boil about one minute, stirring constantly; pour over the
fish. Boil two eggs, and while they are boiling, blanch about a dozen or
more almonds and stick them into the fish, points up; cover the eggs
with cold water, peel them, separate the whites from the yolks, chop
each separately; garnish the fish, first with a row of chopped yolks,
then whites, until all is used: lay chopped parsley all around the

Fresh cod and striped bass may be cooked in this way.


Cook any large fish in salt water--salmon is particularly nice prepared
in this style--add one cup of vinegar, onions, celery root and parsley.
When the fish is cooked enough, remove it from the fire, kettle and
all--letting the fish remain in its sauce until the following sauce is

Take the yolks of two eggs, one-half teaspoon of Colman's mustard (dry),
salt, pepper, a tablespoon of butter, a tablespoon of vinegar, one-half
glass water and some fish gravy. Boil in double boiler until thick. Take
some parsley, green onions, capers, shallots and one large vinegar
pickle and some astragon, chop all up very fine; chop up the hard-boiled
whites separately and then add the sauce; mix all this together
thoroughly, then taste to see if seasoned to suit.


Take the remains of some boiled salmon or a small can of salmon, three
tablespoons of mashed potatoes, one of bread crumbs, one of chopped
parsley, a little flour, mace, an egg, pepper and salt.

Mix the ingredients well together, bind with the egg, let stand an hour,
then form into little flat cutlets, roll in bread crumbs and fry in hot
oil, drain on paper and send to table garnished with parsley.


Slice and salt three pounds of carp. Steam four sliced onions with one
cup of water, to which has been added one teaspoon of paprika, add the
sliced carp and cook very slowly until the fish is done.


Scale thoroughly, salt and pepper inside and out, and lay upon ice,
wrapped in a clean cloth overnight. When ready to cook cut up the celery
or parsley root, or both, two large onions, a carrot or two, and let
this come to a boil in about one quart of water, then lay in the fish,
whole or in pieces; let the water almost cover the fish; add a lump of
fresh butter and three or four tomatoes (out of season you may use
canned tomatoes, say three or four large spoonfuls); let the fish boil
half an hour, turning it occasionally. Try it by taking hold of the
fins, if they come out readily, the fish is done. Take it up carefully;
lay on a large platter and strain the sauce; let it boil, thicken it
with the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, adding the sauce gradually to
the eggs and stirring constantly. Garnish the fish with chopped parsley,
letting a quantity mix with the sauce.

Redsnapper is also very good fried.


Take a dozen raw smelts; split them from the back lengthwise, leaving
the head and tail intact; take out the large center bone without opening
the stomach and season with salt. Put four ounces of butter into a
saucepan, and when quite hot place the smelts in it, so that the side
which was cut open is underneath. When they have attained a nice color,
turn them over and finish cooking. When ready, arrange them on a very
hot dish, pour the butter in which they were cooked over them, squeeze a
little lemon on them, then add over all some finely chopped green
parsley. Serve.


Clean three pounds of fresh salmon, bone, salt and let stand several
hours. Place in fish kettle with boiling salt water (one teaspoon of
salt to one quart of water), and let boil one-half hour or until well
cooked. Lift out carefully, place on hot platter and pour over
one-fourth cup of melted butter and sprinkle well with one tablespoon of
parsley. Serve in a separate bowl the following sauce; a large spoonful
with each portion of fish: Peel one-half pound of horseradish root,
grate and mix well with one pint of cream beaten stiff. The fish must
be hot and the sauce cold.


Fry an onion in butter (or vegetable oil), add sauerkraut and cook. Boil
the fish in salt water, then bone and shred. Fry two minced onions in
butter or oil, put them into the kettle with the fish, add two egg
yolks, butter or oil, a little pepper and a tablespoon of breadcrumbs;
steam for half hour and serve with the kraut.


Thoroughly wash and pick over a pound of spinach, put it over the fire
with no more water than clings to the leaves and cook for ten minutes;
at the end of that time drain the spinach and chop it fine. Have ready
thin fillets of flounder, halibut, or whitefish. Cover them with
acidulated warm water--a slice of lemon in the water is all that is
wanted, and add a slice of onion, a sprig of parsley and a bit of bay
leaf. Simmer for ten minutes and drain. Put the minced spinach into the
bottom of the buttered baking-dish, arrange the fillets on it, cover
with a cream sauce to which a tablespoon of grated cheese has been
added, and brown in the oven.


Fillet some large flounders, and have fishman send you all the bones;
put the bones on to boil; wash, dry, and season the fillets; roll them
(putting in some bits of butter), and fasten each one with a wooden
toothpick. Strain the water from the bones; thicken with a little brown
flour and onion; add to this one-half can of tomatoes, a little cayenne
pepper, salt, and chopped green peppers. Let this sauce simmer for a
couple of hours (this need not be strained); put the fillets in a
casserole, and pour some of this sauce over them, and put in the oven
for about fifteen minutes. Then pour over the rest of the tomato sauce,
sprinkle a little chopped parsley and serve. One can add a few mushrooms
to the sauce. The mushrooms must be fried in butter before being added
to the sauce.


After having carefully cleaned, salt well and lay it in the baking-pan
with a small cup of water, and strew flakes of butter on top, also salt,
pepper and a little chopped parsley. Bake about one hour, basting often
until brown. Serve on a heated platter; garnish with parsley and lemon
and make a sauce by adding a glass of sherry, a little catsup and
thicken with a teaspoon of flour, adding this to fish gravy. Serve
potatoes with fish, boiled in the usual way, making a sauce of two
tablespoons of butter. Add a bunch of parsley chopped very fine, salt
and pepper to taste, a small cup of sweet cream thickened with a
tablespoon of flour. Pour over potatoes.


Clean, wipe dry, add salt and pepper and lay them in a pan; put flakes
of butter on top, an onion cut up, some minced celery and a few bread
crumbs. A cup of hot water put into the pan will prevent burning. Baste
often; bake until brown.


Remove the scales and clean. Do not remove the head, tail, or fins. Put
into a double boiler one tablespoon of butter, two cups of stale bread
crumbs, one tablespoon of chopped onion, one teaspoon of chopped
parsley, two teaspoons of chopped capers, one-fourth cup of sherry. Heat
all the above ingredients, season with paprika and salt, and stuff the
bass with the mixture. Sew up the fish, put into a hot oven, bake and
baste with sherry wine and butter.

A fish weighing four or five pounds is required for the above recipe.


Take perch and stuff with steamed onion to which has been added one
well-beaten egg, two tomatoes cut up in small pieces, some bread crumbs,
chopped parsley or celery, salt and pepper to taste. Bake until the fish
is nicely browned.


Fry any fish in oil, and serve the following:--

Beat very well two whole eggs, add two tablespoons of flour diluted with
cold water, add gradually the juice of one lemon.


Heat one teaspoon of oil, add one tablespoon of flour, add slowly
one-half cup of vinegar diluted with water; season with salt and sugar.
If no other fish can be procured, salt herring may be used.


Parboil the roe in salted water ten minutes. Drain; season with salt,
pepper and melted butter; form into balls, roll in beaten egg and
cracker crumbs and fry in hot oil or any butter substitute.

The roe can be baked and served with tomato sauce.


Clean and split a three-pound shad. Place in a buttered dripping pan.
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, brush with melted butter and bake in a
hot oven thirty minutes.


Boil three large roes in water with a little vinegar for ten minutes.
Plunge into cold water; wipe the roe dry. Mash the yolks of three
hard-boiled eggs into a cup of melted butter, teaspoon of anchovy paste,
tablespoon of chopped parsley, juice of half a lemon, salt and pepper to
taste. Add a cup of bread crumbs and then mix in lightly the roe that
has been broken into pieces. Put all in baking dish, cover with bread
crumbs and flakes of butter, and brown in oven.


Split fish, clean, and remove head and tail. Put in buttered pan,
sprinkle with salt and pepper and dot over with butter (allowing one
tablespoon to a medium-sized fish), pour over two-thirds of a cup of
milk. Bake twenty-five minutes in a hot oven.


Make a dressing of two tablespoons of bread crumbs, one tablespoon of
chopped parsley, two tablespoons of butter, juice of one-half lemon, and
pepper and salt to taste. Add enough hot water to make soft. Fill the
herrings, roll up, tie in shape. Cover with greased paper and bake ten
to fifteen minutes.


Clean, salt fish one half hour, wash and dry with a clean cloth; cut
garlic very thin, rub over fish; place in oven to bake; bake until odor
of garlic has disappeared; then let fish cool.


Soak herring one hour in water and then one and a half in sweet milk,
skin, bone and chop; cut up a medium-sized onion, fry in butter until
golden brown, add a cup of cream, two egg yolks and one-fourth cup of
white bread crumbs, then put in a little more cream. Butter pan,
sprinkle with crumbs or cracker dust, then put in herring, pepper
slightly. Bake in moderate oven three-quarters of an hour.


Take new Holland herring, remove the heads and scales, wash well, open
them and take out the milch and lay the herring and milch in milk or
water over night. Next day lay the herring in a stone jar with alternate
layers of onions cut up, also lemon cut in slices, a few cloves, whole
peppers and a few bay leaves, some capers and whole mustard seed. Take
the milch and rub it through a hair sieve, the more of them you have the
better for the sauce; stir in a spoon of brown sugar and vinegar and
pour it over the herring.


Soak salt herring over night in cold water, that the salt may be drawn
out. Drain and serve with boiled potatoes, or bone and place in kettle
of cold water, let come to a boil and let simmer a few minutes until
tender, drain and pour melted butter over them and serve hot with boiled
or fried potatoes.


Freshen the fish by soaking it over night in cold water, with the skin
uppermost. Drain and wipe dry, remove the head and tail; place it upon a
butter broiler, and slowly broil to a light brown. Place upon a hot
dish, add pepper, bits of butter, a sprinkling of parsley and a little
lemon juice.


Soak mackerel over night in cold water, with the skin side up, that the
salt may be drawn out, change the water often, and less time is
required. Drain. Place mackerel in shallow kettle, pour water over to
cover and boil ten to fifteen minutes or until flesh separates from the
bone. Remove to platter and pour hot, melted butter over and serve with
hot potatoes.

They may also be boiled and served with a White Sauce.


Take pickerel, pike or any fish that is not fat, cut into two-inch
slices, wash well, salt and set aside in a cool place for a few hours.
When ready to cook, wash slightly so as not to remove all salt from
fish. Take heads and set up to boil with a whole onion for twenty-five
minutes, then add the other pieces and two cups of vinegar, one cup of
water, four bay leaves and twelve allspice, a little pepper and ginger.
Cook for thirty-five minutes longer. Taste fish, add a little water or a
little more vinegar to taste. Then remove fish carefully so as not to
break the pieces and let cool. Strain the sauce, return fish to same,
adding a few bay leaves and allspice. Set in a cool place until sauce
forms a jelly around the fish. Can be kept covered and in a cool place
for some time.


Split and half three herrings, roll and tie them up. Place them in a pie
plate, pour over them a cup of vinegar, add whole peppers, salt, cloves
to taste and two bay leaves. Bake in a slow oven until soft (about
twenty minutes).


Blend together one can of salmon, one cup of grated bread crumbs, two
beaten eggs, one cup of milk, one teaspoon of lemon juice, one-half
teaspoon of paprika, one-half teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of
chopped parsley and one tablespoon of onion juice. Place in a greased
baking dish. Sprinkle top with thin layer of bread crumbs. Bake in hot
oven for thirty minutes or until the crumbs that cover the dish are
browned. Serve with a white sauce.


Remove salmon from the can, place it in a colander and wash under
running water or scald with boiling water. Break into small pieces, stir
into one cup of hot cream sauce; bring all to a boil and serve in patty
cups or on toasted bread or crackers.


Take equal parts of vinegar, white wine and water. Boil these with a
little mace, a clove or two, a bit of ginger root, one or two whole
peppers and some grated horseradish. Take out the last named ingredient
when sufficiently boiled, and pour the pickle over the salmon,
previously boiled in strong salt and water.


Cut up in small pieces about a pound of any kind of cooked fish except
herring. Boil two eggs hard and chop up. Take one cup of rice and boil
in the following manner:--After washing it well and putting it on in
boiling water, with a little salt, let it boil for ten minutes, drain it
almost dry and let it steam with the lid closely shut for ten minutes
longer without stirring. Take a clean pot and put in the fish, eggs,
rice, a good dessertspoon of butter, and pepper and salt to taste. Stir
over the fire until quite hot. Press into a mould and turn it out at
once and serve.


Mix smoothly in one cup of cold water a teaspoon of flour. Stir it into
one cup of boiling milk and when thick and smooth add the meat of any
cold fish, picked free from skin and bones. Season with salt, pepper and
a tablespoon of butter. If the cream is desired to be extra rich one
well-beaten egg may be added one minute before removing from the fire.
Serve hot. A pinch of cayenne or a saltspoon of paprika is relished by


Put the fish to soak over night in lukewarm water. Change again in the
morning and wash off all the salt. Cut into pieces and boil about
fifteen minutes, pour off this water and put on to boil again with
boiling water. Boil twenty minutes this time, drain off every bit of
water, put on a platter to cool and pick to pieces as fine as possible,
removing every bit of skin and bone. When this is done, add an equal
quantity of mashed potatoes, a tablespoon of butter, a very little salt
and pepper, beat up one egg and a little milk, if necessary, mix with a
fork. Flour your hands well and form into biscuit-shaped balls. Fry in
hot oil.


Parboil ten minutes and then broil like fresh fish.

To bake, place the fish in a pan, add one cup of milk and one cup of
water; cover. Cook ten minutes in hot oven. Remove cover, drain, spread
with butter and season with pepper.


Break up and cook until tender about a package of macaroni. Pick up the
finnan haddie until you have about three-quarters as much as you have
macaroni. Mix in a greased baking-dish and pour over a drawn butter
sauce, made with cornstarch or with any good milk or cream dressing,
then cover with bread or cracker crumbs or leave plain to brown in oven.
Bake from twenty to thirty minutes.


Line a buttered baking-dish with cold flaked fish. Sprinkle with salt
and pepper; add a layer of cold cooked rice, dot with butter; repeat and
cover with cracker or bread crumbs. Bake fifteen to twenty minutes.


Butter a dish, place in a layer of cold cooked fish, sprinkle with bread
crumbs, parsley, salt, butter and pepper; repeat. Cover with white
sauce, using one tablespoon of flour to two tablespoons of butter and
one cup of milk. Sprinkle top with buttered bread crumbs and bake.


These sauces are made by combining butter and flour and thinning with
water or other liquid. A sauce should never be thickened by adding a
mixture of flour and water, as in that case the flour is seldom well
cooked; or by adding flour alone, as this way is certain to cause lumps.
The flour should be allowed to cook before the liquid is added.

All sauces containing butter and milk should be cooked in a double

If so desired, any neutral oil--that is, vegetable or nut oil--may be
substituted for the butter called for in the recipe.

Care in preparation of a sauce is of as much importance as is the
preparation of the dish the sauce garnishes.


Melt two tablespoons of butter and stir in two tablespoons of flour. Add
carefully one cup of boiling water, then season with one-half teaspoon
of salt and a dash of pepper and paprika.

Many sauces are made with drawn butter as a foundation. For caper sauce
add three tablespoons of capers.

For egg sauce add one egg, hard-boiled and chopped fine.


There are several ways of making Bearnaise sauce. This is one very
simple rule: Bring to the boil two tablespoons each of vinegar and
water. Simmer in it for ten minutes a slice of onion. Take out the onion
and add the yolks of three eggs beaten very light. Take from the fire,
add salt and pepper to season, and four tablespoons of butter beaten to
a cream, and added slowly.

*Quick Bearnaise Sauce.*--Beat the yolks of four eggs with four
tablespoons of oil and four of water. Add a cup of boiling water and
cook slowly until thick and smooth. Take from the fire, and add minced
onion, capers, olives, pickles, and parsley and a little tarragon


Pare two large cucumbers; remove seeds, if large; chop fine and squeeze
dry. Season with salt, vinegar, paprika and add one-half cup of cream.


Mix one tablespoon of butter and one of flour in a saucepan and add
gradually half a pint of boiling water. Stir until it just reaches the
boiling point; take from the fire and add the yolks of two eggs. Into
another saucepan put a slice of onion, a bay leaf, and a clove of
garlic; add four tablespoons of vinegar, and stand this over the fire
until the vinegar is reduced one-half. Turn this into the sauce, stir
for a moment; strain through a fine sieve; add half a teaspoon of salt
and serve. This sauce may be varied by adding lemon juice instead of
vinegar, or by using the water in which the fish was boiled. It is one
of the daintiest of all sauces.


Mix two tablespoons of vinegar and one of mustard, one teaspoon of oil
or butter melted, pepper and salt to taste. Add this to two hard-boiled
eggs chopped fine, with a small onion and about the same quantity of
parsley as eggs; and mix all well together.


Work into one-half cup of butter all the lemon juice it will take, and
add a teaspoon of minced parsley.


Cream two tablespoons of butter, add one teaspoon of salt and one
tablespoon of chopped pickle. A speck of red pepper may be added.


Brown a spoon of flour in heated fat, add a quantity of hot fish stock
and a few sardellen chopped fine, which you have previously washed in
cold water, also a finely-chopped onion. Let this boil a few minutes,
add a little vinegar and sugar; strain this sauce through a wire sieve
and add a few capers and a wineglass of white wine and let it boil up
once again and thicken with the yolk of one egg.


Rub the mixing bowl with a clove of garlic, add one-half teaspoon of
salt, dash of white pepper, and a teaspoon of cold water or a bit of
ice, then four tablespoons of oil. Mix until the salt is dissolved,
remove the ice and add ten drops of tabasco sauce, two tablespoons
tarragon vinegar, one tablespoon grated onion, one tablespoon chopped
parsley and one chopped gherkin.


Mix six tablespoons of melted butter and one and one-half teaspoons
anchovy paste, place in double boiler and allow to boil for about six
minutes. Flavor with lemon juice.


To one pint of drawn butter add one tablespoon each of vinegar and lemon
juice and two tablespoons each of chopped capers, pickles, and olives,
one-half teaspoon onion juice, a few grains cayenne pepper.


Add to a half pint of well-made mayonnaise dressing two olives, one
gherkin and one small onion, chopped fine. Chop sufficient parsley to
make a tablespoonful, crush it in a bowl and add it first to the
mayonnaise. Stir in at least a tablespoon of drained capers and serve
with fried or broiled fish.


Place two tablespoons of butter in a saucepan; stir until melted: add
two tablespoons of flour mixed with one-fourth of a teaspoon of salt and
a few grains of pepper. Stir until smooth. Add one cup of milk gradually
and continue to stir until well mixed and thick. Chopped parsley may be
added. Used for creamed vegetables--potatoes, celery, onion, peas, etc.


Make white sauce as directed above. Mix one tablespoon of mustard with a
teaspoon of cold water and stir into the sauce about two minutes before
serving. The quantity of mustard may be increased or diminished, as one
may desire the flavor strong or mild.


Use one teaspoon of curry in the flour while making white sauce.


Cook one onion and green pepper chopped fine in hot butter; add four
tablespoons of flour, stir until smooth. Add two cups of strained
tomatoes. Season with salt and pepper.


Brown one tablespoon butter with one minced onion, then add one
tablespoon of flour. When brown stir in two cups of tomatoes which have
previously been cooked and strained, add also one teaspoon of sugar, a
pinch of salt, pepper, and red pepper, also one tablespoon of vinegar
and one tablespoon of tomato catsup.



Pare and quarter tart apples. Put them in a saucepan with just enough
water to keep them from burning; bring to a boil quickly and cook until
the pieces are soft. Then press through a colander and add four
tablespoons of sugar (or less) to each pint of apples.

If desired, cinnamon or grated nutmeg may be sprinkled over the top
after the apple sauce is in the serving dish, or a little stick cinnamon
or lemon peel may be cooked with the apples. Serve with goose.


Fry one tablespoon chopped onion in one tablespoon fat. Add one
tablespoon of flour, one cup of soup stock, one teaspoon lemon juice,
salt and pepper to taste. Strain before serving.

The following sauces can be made by using brown sauce as a foundation:

*Mushroom Sauce.*--Add one-half cup mushrooms.

*Olive Sauce.*--Add a dozen olives, chopped fine.

*Wine Sauce.*--Add one-half cup wine and one tablespoon currant jelly.
Thicken with flour.


To one pint of cranberries take one and one-quarter cups of water.

Put the cranberries on with the water and cook until soft; strain
through a cloth; weigh and add three-fourths of a pound of sugar to
every pint of juice. Cook ten minutes; pour into molds and set aside to
cool. Serve with poultry, game or mutton.


Boil together one and one-half cups of sugar and one cup of water for
seven minutes, then add three cups of cranberries, well washed and
picked, and cook until the berries burst. Serve the same as cranberry


Nice for broiled steaks. Take one medium-sized onion, chopped very fine
and browned in fat; add a cup of strong beef gravy and a cup of claret
or white wine; add pepper, salt and a trifle of finely-chopped parsley;
allow this to simmer and thicken with a little browned flour.


Heat a tablespoon drippings in a spider; add a little flour; stir smooth
with a cup of soup stock, added at once, and half a teaspoon of caraway


Stew some finely-chopped onions in fat; you may add half a clove of
garlic, cut extremely fine; brown a very little flour in this, season
with salt and pepper and add enough soup stock to thin it.


Boil some soup stock with a few slices of lemon, a little sugar and
grated nutmeg; add chopped parsley; thicken with a teaspoon of flour or
yolk of egg. Mostly used for stewed poultry.


Chop some mint fine; boil half a cup of vinegar with one tablespoon of
sugar; throw in the mint and boil up once; pour in a sauceboat and cool
off a little before serving.


Brown some fat in a spider, stir in a tablespoon of flour; stir until it
becomes a smooth paste; then add hot soup, stirring constantly; add a
handful of raisins, some pounded almonds, a few slices of lemon, also a
tablespoon of vinegar; brown sugar to taste: flavor with a few cloves
and cinnamon, and if you choose to do so, grate in part of a stick of
horseradish and the crust of a rye loaf. Very nice for fat beef.


Grate a good-sized stick of horseradish; take some soup stock and a
tablespoon of fat, salt and pepper to taste, a little grated stale
bread, a few pounded almonds. Let all boil up and then add the meat.


Heat one tablespoon of fat in a frying-pan, when hot cut up one-quarter
of an onion in it, and fry light brown, then brown one tablespoon
cracker meal or flour and add two tablespoons of grated horseradish;
let this brown a bit, then add some soup stock, one tablespoon of brown
sugar, two cloves, two bay leaves, salt, pepper and two tablespoons of
vinegar. Let cook a few minutes then add one more tablespoon of
horseradish and if necessary a little more sugar or vinegar. Lay the
meat in this sauce and cover on back of stove until ready to serve. If
gas stove is used, place over the simmering flame.


Heat a tablespoon of drippings, either of meat or goose in a frying-pan;
cut up one or two cloves of garlic very fine and let it brown slightly
in the heated fat; add a tablespoon of flour, a cup of soup stock or
warm water, salt, pepper to taste.


Take a heaping tablespoon of drippings or goose-fat, heat it in a
spider, stir two teaspoons of flour into this, then add gradually and
carefully a small cup of hot soup or water, the former is preferable;
add some chopped parsley, also the juice of a lemon; salt and pepper;
stir up well. May be used either with roast or boiled meats.



All scraps of bread should be saved for crumbs, the crusts being
separated from the white part, then dried, rolled, and sifted, and put
away until needed in a covered glass jar.

The brown crumbs are good for the first coating, the white ones for the
outside, as they give better color. Cracker crumbs give a smooth
surface, but for most things bread crumbs are preferable.

For meats a little salt and pepper, and for sweet articles, a little
sugar, should be mixed with the crumbs. Crumbs left on the board should
be dried, sifted, and kept to be used again.


Frying is cooking in very hot fat or oil, and the secret of success is
to have the fat hot enough to harden the outer surface of the article to
be fried immediately and deep enough to cover these articles of food. As
the fat or oil can be saved and used many times, the use of a large
quantity is not extravagant.

To fry easily one must have, in addition to the deep, straight-sided
frying-pan, a frying-basket, made from galvanized wire, with a side
handle. The bale handles are apt to become heated, and in looking for
something to lift them, the foods are over-fried. The frying-pan must be
at least six inches deep with a flat bottom; iron, granite ware or
copper may be used, the first two are preferable. There must be
sufficient fat to wholly cover the articles fried, but the pan must not
be too full, or there is danger of overflow when heavy articles are put
in. After each frying, drain the fat or oil, put it into a receptacle
kept for the purpose, and use it over and over again as long as it
lasts. As the quantity begins to lessen, add sufficient fresh fat or oil
to keep up the amount.

Always put the fat or oil in the frying-pan before you stand it over the

Wait until it is properly heated before putting in the articles to be

Fry a few articles at a time. Too many will cool the fat or oil below
the point of proper frying and they will absorb grease and be

Put articles to be fried in the wire frying-basket and lower into the
boiling hot fat or oil. Test the fat by lowering a piece of stale bread
into it, if the bread browns in thirty seconds the fat is sufficiently

Fry croquettes a light brown; drain over the fat, lift the frying-basket
from the hot fat to a round plate, remove the articles from the basket
quickly to brown paper, drain a moment and serve.

When frying fish or any food that is to be used at a milk meal, use oil.
Olive oil is the best, but is very expensive for general use. Any other
good vegetable oil or nut oil will do as substitute.

When the food is intended for a meat meal; fat may be prepared according
to the following directions and used in the same manner as oil.


Cut the fat into small pieces. Put in a deep, iron kettle and cover with
cold water. Place on the stove uncovered; when the water has nearly all
evaporated, set the kettle back and let the fat try out slowly. When the
fat is still and scraps are shriveled and crisp at the bottom of the
kettle, strain the fat through a cloth into a stone crock, cover and set
it away in a cool place. The water may be omitted and the scraps slowly
tried out on back of stove or in moderate oven. When fat is tried out,
pour in crock.

Several slices of raw potato put with the fat will aid in the

All kinds of fats are good for drippings except mutton fat, turkey fat
and fat from smoked meats which has too strong a flavor to be used for
frying, but save it with other fat that may be unsuitable for frying,
and when six pounds are collected make it into hard soap.


Save every scrap of fat each day; try out all that has accumulated;
however small the quantity. This is done by placing the scraps in a
frying-pan on the back of the range. If the heat is low, and the grease
is not allowed to get hot enough to smoke or burn, there will be no odor
from it. Turn the melted grease into tin pails and keep them covered.
When six pounds of fat have been obtained, turn it into a dish-pan; add
a generous amount of hot water, and stand it on the range until the
grease is entirely melted. Stir it well together; then stand it aside to
cool. This is clarifying the grease. The clean grease will rise to the
top, and when it has cooled can be taken off in a cake, and such
impurities as have not settled in the water can be scraped off the
bottom of the cake of fat.

Put the clean grease into the dish-pan and melt it. Put a can of
Babbitt's lye in a tin pail; add to it a quart of cold water, and stir
it with a stick or wooden spoon until it is dissolved. It will get hot
when the water is added; let it stand until it cools. Remove the melted
grease from the fire, and pour in the lye slowly, stirring all the time.
Add two tablespoons of ammonia. Stir the mixture constantly for twenty
minutes or half an hour, or until the soap begins to set.

Let it stand until perfectly hard; then cut it into square cakes. This
makes a very good, white hard soap which will float on water.



Combine ingredients as directed in the recipe, roll the mixture lightly
between the hands into a ball. Have a plentiful supply of bread crumbs
spread evenly on a board; roll the ball lightly on the crumbs into the
shape of a cylinder, and flatten each end by dropping it lightly on the
board; put it in the egg (to each egg add one tablespoon of water, and
beat together), and with a spoon moisten the croquette completely with
the egg; lift it out on a knife-blade, and again roll lightly in the
crumbs. Have every part entirely covered, so there will be no opening
through which the grease may be absorbed. Where a light yellow color is
wanted, use fresh white crumbs grated from the loaf (or rubbed through a
puree sieve) for the outside, and do not use the yolk of the egg. Coarse
fresh crumbs are used for fish croquettes, which are usually made in the
form of chops, or half heart shape. A small hole is pricked in the
pointed end after frying, and a sprig of parsley inserted. Have all the
croquettes of perfectly uniform size and shape, and lay them aside on a
dish, not touching one another, for an hour or more before frying. This
will make the crust more firm.

The white of an egg alone may be used for egging them, but not the yolk
alone. Whip the egg with the water, just enough to break it, as
air-bubbles in the egg will break in frying, and let the grease
penetrate. Serve the croquettes on a platter, spread them on a napkin
and garnish with sprigs of parsley.


Cook one-half tablespoon of flour in one tablespoon chicken-fat, add
one-half cup of soup stock gradually, and one-half teaspoon each of
onion juice, lemon juice, salt, and one-quarter teaspoon of pepper, one
and one-half cups of veal or chicken, chopped very fine, one pair of
brains which have been boiled, mix these well, remove from the fire and
add one well-beaten egg. Turn this mixture out on a flat dish and place
in ice-box to cool. Then roll into small cones, dip in beaten egg, roll
again in powdered bread or cracker crumbs and drop them into boiling
fat, fry until a delicate brown.


Chop the chicken very fine, using the white meat alone, or the dark meat
alone, or both together. Season with salt, pepper, onion-juice, and
lemon-juice. Chopped mushrooms, sweetbreads, calf's brains, tongue, or
truffles are used with chicken, and a combination of two or more of them
much improves the quality of the croquettes.


Lay the brains in salt water an hour, or until they look perfectly
white, then take out one at a time, pat with your hands to loosen the
outer skin and pull it off. Beat or rub them to a smooth paste with a
wooden spoon, season with salt and pepper and a very little mace; add a
beaten egg and about one-half cup of bread crumbs. Heat fat in a spider
and fry large spoonfuls of this mixture in it.


Veal, mutton, lamb, beef and turkey croquettes may be prepared in the
same way as chicken croquettes.


Equal proportions.


Cut the boiled sweetbreads into small dice with a silver knife. Mix with
mushrooms, using half the quantity of mushrooms that you have of
sweetbreads. Use two eggs in the sauce.


Veal is often mixed with chicken, or is used alone as a substitute for
chicken. Season in same manner and make the same combinations.


Finely chop cold cooked cauliflower, mix in one small, finely chopped
onion, one small bunch of parsley finely chopped, one-half cup of bread
crumbs and one well-beaten egg. Carefully mix and mold into croquette
forms, dip in cracker dust and fry in deep, smoking fat until a light


Peel the eggplant, place in hot water and boil until tender, drain, add
two eggs, salt, pepper, two tablespoons of matzoth or white flour or
bread crumbs, beat together; fry in butter or oil by tablespoonfuls.


Take any kind of boiled fish, separate it from the bones carefully, chop
with a little parsley, salt and pepper to taste. Beat up one egg with
one teaspoon of milk and flour. Roll the fish into balls and turn them
in the beaten egg and cracker crumbs or bread. Fry a light brown. Serve
with any sauce or a mayonnaise.


Work into two cups of mashed potatoes, a tablespoon of melted butter,
until smooth and soft; add one egg well-beaten and beat all together
with a wooden spoon. Season with salt and nutmeg. Roll each in beaten
egg then in bread crumbs, fry in hot oil or butter substitute. If
desired chicken-fat may be substituted for the butter and the croquettes
fried in deep fat or oil.


Press through a ricer sufficient hot baked sweet potatoes to measure one
pint. Place over the fire. Add one teaspoon of butter or drippings, the
beaten yolks of two eggs, pepper and salt to taste, and beat well with a
fork until the mixture leaves the sides of the pan. Cool slightly, form
into cones, roll in fine bread crumbs; dip in beaten eggs, roll again in
crumbs and fry in hot oil or fat.


To one cup of freshly cooked rice allow one cup of peanut butter, four
tablespoons of minced celery, one teaspoon of grated onion, one
tablespoon of canned tomatoes, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix well;
add the white of one egg, reserving the yolk for coating the croquettes.
Shape into croquettes and let stand in a cold place for an hour, then
coat with the egg yolk mixed with one tablespoon of water and roll in
stale bread crumb dust until well covered. Fry in any hot oil or butter


Separate the white and yolk of one egg and reserve about half the yolk
for coating the croquette. Beat the rest with the white. Mix with two
cups of boiled or steamed rice and one-half teaspoon of salt, form into
oblong croquettes or small balls. Mix the reserved part of the egg yolk
with a tablespoon of cold water. Dip croquettes in this and then roll in
fine bread crumbs. Repeat until well-coated, then fry brown in deep


Put on with cold water one cup of rice, and let boil until tender.
Drain, and mix with the rice, one tablespoon of butter, yolks of three
eggs, and pinch of salt. About one tablespoon of flour may be added to
hold the croquettes together. Beat the whites of the three eggs to a
stiff froth, reserving some of the beaten white for egging croquettes,
mix this in last, shape into croquettes and fry in hot oil or butter
substitute. Place on platter and serve with a lump of jelly on each


Lay the brains in ice-water and then skin. They will skin easily by
taking them up in your hands and patting them, this will help to loosen
all the skin and clotted blood that adheres to them. Lay in cold salted
water for an hour at least, then put on to boil in half vinegar and half
water (a crust of rye bread improves the flavor of the sauce). Add one
onion, cut up fine, ten whole peppers, one bay leaf, one or two cloves
and a little salt, boil altogether about fifteen minutes. Serve on a
platter and decorate with parsley. Eat cold.


Clean as described in calf's brains cooked sour; wipe dry, roll in
rolled cracker flour, season with salt and pepper and fry as you would


Clean as described above. Lay in ice-cold salted water for an hour. Cut
up an onion, a few slices of celery root, a few whole peppers, a little
salt and a crust of rye bread. Lay the brains upon this bed of herbs and
barely cover with vinegar and water. Boil about fifteen minutes, then
lift out the brains, with a perforated skimmer, and lay upon a platter
to cool. Take a "lebkuchen," some brown sugar, a tablespoon of molasses,
one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, a few seedless raisins and a few pounded
almonds. Moisten this with vinegar and add the boiling sauce. Boil the
sauce ten minutes longer and pour scalding over the brains. Eat cold and
decorate with slices of lemon.


Put one tablespoon of fat in skillet, and when hot add two tablespoons
of flour, rub until smooth, and brown lightly, then add one-half can of
tomatoes, season with salt, pepper, finely-chopped parsley, and a dash
of cayenne pepper, and the brains which have previously been cleaned,
scalded with boiling water, and cut in small pieces. Cook a few minutes,
and then fill the shells with the mixture. Over each shell sprinkle
bread crumbs, and a little chicken-fat. Put shells in pan and brown
nicely. Serve with green peas.


Wash brains well, skin, boil fifteen minutes in salt water; slice in
stew-pan some onions, salt, pepper, ginger and a cup of stock. Put in
the brains with a little marjoram; let it cook gently for one-half hour.
Mix yolks of two eggs, juice of a lemon, a teaspoon of flour, a little
chopped parsley; when it is rubbed smooth, stir it into saucepan; stir
well to prevent curdling.


Boil a chicken in as little water as possible until the meat falls from
the bones, chop rather fine and season with pepper and salt. Put into a
mold a layer of the chopped meat and then a layer of hard-boiled eggs,
cut in slices. Fill the mold with alternate layers of meat and eggs
until nearly full. Boil down the liquor left in the kettle until half
the quantity. While warm, add one-quarter of a cup aspic, pour into the
mold over the meat. Set in a cool place overnight to jelly.


Boil one or more chickens just as you would for fricassee, using as
little water as possible. When tender remove all the meat from the bone
and take off all the skin. Chop as fine as possible in a chopping bowl
(it ought to be chopped as fine as powder). Add all the liquor the
chicken was boiled in, which ought to be very little and well seasoned.
Press it into the shape of a brick between two platters, and put a heavy
weight over it so as to press hard. Set away to cool in ice-chest and
garnish nicely with parsley and slices of lemon before sending to the
table. It should be placed whole upon the table, and sliced as served.
Serve pickles and olives with it. Veal may be pressed in the same way,
some use half veal and half chicken, which is equally nice.


Boil till tender one large chicken. Have two quarts of stock left when
chicken is done. Remove chicken and cut into medium-sized pieces. Into
the stock pour gradually one cup of corn meal or farina, stirring until
it thickens. If not the proper consistency, add a little more meal.
Season with one tablespoon of chili sauce, three tablespoons of tomato
catsup, salt, one teaspoon of Spanish pepper sauce. Simmer gently thirty
minutes, then add chicken. Serve in ramekins.


Prepare a rich "Chicken Fricassee" (recipe for which you will find among
poultry recipes), but have a little more gravy than usual. Boil some
noodles or macaroni in salted water, drain, let cold water run through
them, shake them well and boil up once with chicken. Serve together on a
large platter.


Put on some poultry drippings to heat in a saucepan, cut up an onion,
shredded very fine and then put in the sweetbreads, which have been
picked over carefully and lain in salt water an hour before boiling.
Salt and pepper the sweetbreads before putting in the kettle, slice two
tomatoes on top and cover up tight and set on the back of stove to
simmer slowly. Turn once in a while and add a little soup stock. Boil
one-half cup of string beans, half a can of canned peas, one-half cup of
currants, cut up extremely fine, with a tablespoon of drippings, a
little salt and ground ginger. When the vegetables are tender, add to
the simmering sweetbreads. Thicken the sauce with a teaspoon of flour.
Have the sauce boiled down quite thick. Boil the spaghetti in salted
water until tender. Serve with the sweetbreads.


Take the breast of chicken that has been fricasseed, cut up into small
pieces, and add mushrooms. Make brown sauce. Serve in pate shells.


Wash the sweetbreads very carefully and remove all bits of skin and
fatty matter. Cover with cold water, salt and boil for fifteen minutes.
Then remove from the boiling water and cover with cold water. Sprinkle
with salt and pepper, roll in beaten egg and bread crumbs, and fry a
nice brown in hot fat.


Clean sweetbread, boil until tender, and cut in small pieces. Take one
tablespoon of fat, blend in one tablespoon of flour; add half the
liquor of a can of mushrooms and enough soup stock to make the necessary
amount of gravy; add a little catsup, mushroom catsup, and a few drops
of kitchen bouquet, a clove of garlic, and a small onion; salt and
pepper to taste. Cook this about an hour, and then remove garlic and
onion. Add sweetbreads, mushrooms, and two hard-boiled eggs chopped very


Wash and lay your sweetbreads in slightly salted cold water for an hour;
Pull off carefully all the outer skin, wipe dry and sprinkle with salt
and pepper. Heat some goose-fat in a spider, lay in the sweetbreads and
fry slowly on the back of the stove, turning frequently until they are a
nice brown.


Two calf's feet, sawed into joints, seasoned with pepper and salt a day
before using. Place in an iron pot, one-half pound Italian chestnuts
that have been scalded and skinned, then the calf's feet, one-eighth
pound of raisins, one pound of fine prunes, one small onion, one small
head of celery root, two olives cut in small pieces, one-eighth teaspoon
of paprika, one cup of soup stock. Stew slowly for five hours, and add
one hour before serving, while boiling, a wine glass claret and a wine
glass sherry. Do not stir.


Take calf's feet, saw into joints; put on to boil within cold water and
boil slowly until the gristle loosens from the bones. Season with salt,
pepper; and a clove or two of garlic. Serve hot or cold to taste.


After carefully washing one calf's foot, split and put it on with one
quart water. Boil from four to five hours. Strain and let stand
overnight. Put on stove next day and when it begins to boil add the
stiff-beaten whites of two eggs; boil till clear, then strain through
cheesecloth. Add sherry and sugar to taste. Let it become firm before


Take one calf's head and four calf's feet, and clean carefully. Let them
lay in cold water for half an hour. Set on to boil with four quarts of
water. Add two or three small onions, a few cloves, salt, one teaspoon
of whole peppers, two or three bay leaves, juice of a large lemon
(extract the seeds), one cup of white wine and a little white wine
vinegar (just enough to give a tart taste). Let this boil slowly for
five or six hours (it must boil until it is reduced one-half). Then
strain, through a fine hair sieve and let it stand ten or twelve hours.
Remove the meat from the bones and when cold cut into fine pieces. Add
also the boiled brains (which must be taken up carefully to avoid
falling to pieces). Skim off every particle of fat from the jelly and
melt slowly. Add one teaspoon of sugar and the whipped whites of three
eggs, and boil very fast for about fifteen minutes, skimming well.
Taste, and if not tart enough, add a dash of vinegar. Strain through a
flannel bag, do not squeeze or shake it until the jelly ceases to run
freely. Remove the bowl and put another under, into which you may press
out what remains in the bag (this will not be as clear, but tastes quite
as good). Wet your mould, put in the jelly and set in a cool place. In
order to have a variety, wet another mould and put in the bits of meat,
cut up, and the brains and, lastly, the jelly; set this on ice. It must
be thick, so that you can cut it into slices to serve.


Set on to boil two calf's feet, chopped up, one pound of beef and one
calf's head with one quart water and one cup of white wine. Add one
celery root, three small onions, a bunch of parsley, one dozen whole
peppercorns, half a dozen cloves, two bay leaves and a teaspoon of fine
salt. Boil steadily for eight hours and then pour through a fine hair
sieve. When cold remove every particle of fat and set on to boil again,
skimming until clear. Then break two eggs, shells and all, into a deep
bowl, beat them up with one cup of vinegar, pour some of the soup stock
into this and set all back on the stove to boil up once, stirring all
the while. Then remove from the fire and pour through a jelly-bag as you
would jelly. Pour into jelly-glasses or one large mould. Set on ice.


Fry a large goose liver in goose-fat. Season with salt, pepper, a few
whole cloves and a very little onion. Cut it up in slices and mix with
the sulz and the whites of hard-boiled eggs.


After the liver is fried, rub it through a sieve or colander and mix
with sulz.


If very large cut in half, dry well on a clean cloth, after having lain
in salted water for an hour. Season with fine salt and pepper, fry in
very hot goose-fat and add a few cloves. While frying cut up a little
onion very fine and add. Then cover closely and smother in this way
until you wish to serve. Dredge the liver with flour before frying and
turn occasionally. Serve with a slice of lemon on each piece of liver.


Prepare as above and garnish with chestnuts which have been prepared
thus: Scald until perfectly white, heat some goose-fat, add nuts, a
little sugar and glaze a light brown.


Take a large white goose liver, lay in salt water for an hour (this rule
applies to all kinds of liver), wipe dry, salt, pepper and dredge with
flour. Fry in hot goose-fat. Cut up a piece of onion, add a few cloves,
a few slices of celery, cut very fine, whole peppers, one bay leaf, and
some mushrooms. Cover closely and stew a few minutes. Add lemon juice to


Boil in salt water one-half pound calf's liver. Drain and cut into small
cubes. Chop one onion, one tablespoon parsley, some mint; add two
cloves, a little cinnamon, a little tabasco sauce, one tablespoon olive
oil, and one cup of soup stock. Add one cup of bread crumbs which have
been soaked in hot water and then drained. Mix all with the liver and
bring to a boil. Serve with Spanish rice.


Clean the milt thoroughly and boil with your soup meat. Set to boil with
cold water and let it boil about two hours. Then take it out and cut
into finger lengths and prepare the following sauce: Heat one tablespoon
of drippings in a spider. When hot cut up a clove of garlic very fine
and brown slightly in the fat. Add a tablespoon of flour, stirring
briskly, pepper and salt to taste and thin with soup stock, then the
pieces of milt and let it simmer slowly. If the sauce is too thick add
more water or soup stock. Some add a few caraway seeds instead of the
garlic, which is a matter of taste.


Clean the milt by taking off the thin outer skin and every particle of
fat that adheres to it. Lay it on a clean board, make an incision with
a knife through the centre of the milt, taking care not to cut through
the lower skin, and scrape with the edge of a spoon, taking out all the
flesh you can without tearing the milt and put it into a bowl until
wanted. In the meantime dry the bread, which you have previously soaked
in water, in a spider in which you have heated some suet or goose oil,
and cut up part of an onion in it very fine. When the bread is
thoroughly dried, add it to the flesh scraped from the milt. Also two
eggs, one-half teaspoon of salt, pepper, nutmeg and a very little thyme
(leave out the latter if you object to the flavor), and add a speck of
ground ginger instead. Now work all thoroughly with your hands and fill
in the milt. The way to do this is to fill it lengthwise all through the
centre and sew it up; when done prick it with a fork in several places
to prevent its bursting while boiling. You can parboil it after it is
filled in the soup you are to have for dinner, then take it up carefully
and brown slightly in a spider of heated fat; or form the mixture into a
huge ball and bake it in the oven with flakes of fat put here and there,
basting often. Bake until a hard crust is formed over it.


Heat some goose fat in a stew-pan with a close-fitting lid. Cut up an
onion in it and when the onion is of a light yellow color, place in the
liver which you have previously sprinkled with fine salt and dredged
with flour. Add a bay leaf, five cloves and two peppercorns. Cover up
tight and stew the liver, turning it occasionally and when required
adding a little hot water.


Slice three or four livers from chicken or other fowl and dredge well
with flour. Fry one minced onion in one tablespoon of fat until light
brown. Put in the liver and shake the pan over the fire to sear all
sides. Add one-half teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of paprika and
one-half cup of strong soup stock. Allow it to boil up once. Add one
tablespoon claret or sherry and serve immediately on toast.


Buy beef casings of butcher. Make a filling of fat, flour (using
one-third cup fat to one cup flour) and chopped onions. Season well with
salt and pepper, cut them in short lengths, fasten one end, stuff and
then fasten the open end. If they are not already cleaned the surface
exposed after filling the casing is scraped until cleaned after having
been plunged into boiling water. Slice two large onions in a
roasting-pan, and roast the kischkes slowly until well done and well
browned. Baste frequently with liquid in the pan.


Prepare as above. If the large casings are used they need not be cut in
shorter lengths. Boil for three hours in plenty of water and when done,
put in frying-pan with one tablespoon of fat, cover and let brown
nicely. Serve hot.


Lay the lung and heart in water for half an hour and then put on to boil
in a soup kettle with your soap meat intended for dinner. When soft,
remove from the soup and chop up quite fine. Heat one tablespoon of
goose fat in a spider; chop up an onion very fine and add to the heated
fat. When yellow, add the hashed lung and heart, salt, pepper, soup
stock and thicken with flour. You may prepare this sweet and sour by
adding a little vinegar and brown sugar, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon
and one tablespoon of molasses; boil slowly; keep covered until ready to


Boil tripe with onion, parsley, celery, and seasoning; cut in small
pieces, then boil up in the following sauce: Take one tablespoon of fat,
brown it with two tablespoons of flour; then add one can of boiled and
strained tomatoes, one can of mushrooms, salt and pepper to taste. Serve
in ramekins.


Scald and scrape two pounds tripe and cut into inch squares. Take big
kitchen spoon of drippings and put in four large onions quartered and
three small cloves of garlic cut up very fine. Let steam, but not brown.
When onions begin to cook, put in tripe and steam half an hour. Then
cover tripe with water and let cook slowly three hours. Boil a few
potatoes and cut in dice shapes and add to it. Half an hour before
serving, add the following, after taking off as much fat from the tripe
as possible: Three tablespoons of flour thinned with little water; add
catsup, paprika, ginger, and one teaspoon of salt. It should all be
quite thick, like paste, when cooked.


Lay the fresh tongue in cold water for a couple of hours and then put it
on to boil in enough water to barely cover it, adding salt. Boil until
tender. To ascertain when tender run a fork through the thickest part. A
good rule is to boil it, closely covered, from three to four hours
steadily. Pare off the thick skin which covers the tongue, cut into even
slices, sprinkle a little fine salt over each piece and then prepare the
following sauce: Put one tablespoon of drippings in a kettle or spider
(goose fat is very good). Cut up an onion in it, add a tablespoon of
flour and stir, adding gradually about a pint of the liquor in which the
tongue was boiled. Cut up a lemon in slices, remove the seeds, and add
two dozen raisins, a few pounded almonds, a stick of cinnamon and a few
cloves. Sweeten with four tablespoons of brown sugar in which you have
put one-half teaspoon of ground cinnamon, one tablespoon of molasses and
two tablespoons of vinegar. Let this boil, lay in the slices of tongue
and boil up for a few minutes.


Take a pickled tongue, cut it open; chop or grind some corned beef; add
one egg; brown a little onion, and add some soaked bread; fill tongue
with it, and sew it up and boil until done.


Put on to boil in a large kettle, fill with cold water, enough to
completely cover the tongue; keep adding hot water as it boils down so
as to keep it covered with water until done. Keep covered with a lid
while boiling and put a heavy weight on the top of the lid so as not to
let the steam escape. (If you have an old flat iron use it as a weight.)
It should boil very slowly and steadily for four hours. When tongue is
cooked set it outdoors to cool in the liquor in which it was boiled. If
the tongue is very dry, soak overnight before boiling. In serving slice
very thin and garnish with parsley.


Scald tongue, and then skin. Season well with salt and pepper and slice
an onion over it. Let it stand overnight. Put some drippings in a
covered iron pot, and then the tongue, with whatever juice the seasoning
drew. Cover closely and let it cook slowly until tender--about three


Select a large, fresh beef tongue. Soak in cold water one-half hour.
Crush a piece of saltpetre, size of walnut, one teacup of salt, one
teaspoon of pepper, three small cloves of garlic cut fine; mix
seasoning. Drain water off tongue. With a pointed knife prick tongue;
rub in seasoning. Put tongue in crock; add the balance of salt, etc.;
cover with plate and weight. Allow to stand from four to five days.
Without washing off the seasoning, boil in fresh water until tender.


The majority of the cuts of meat which are kosher are those which
require long, slow cooking. These cuts of meat are the most nutritious
ones and by long, slow cooking can be made as acceptable as the more
expensive cuts of meat; they are best boiled or braised.

In order to shut in the juices the meat should at first be subjected to
a high degree of heat for a short time. A crust or case will then be
formed on the outside, after which the heat should be lowered and the
cooking proceed slowly.

This rule holds good for baking, where the oven must be very hot for the
first few minutes only; for boiling, where the water must be boiling and
covered for a time, and then placed where it will simmer only; for
broiling, where the meat must be placed close to the red-hot coals or
under the broiler flame of the gas stove at first, then held farther

Do not pierce the meat with a fork while cooking, as it makes an outlet
for the juices. If necessary, to turn it, use two spoons.


Take a piece of cross-rib or shoulder, about two and one-half to three
pounds, put in a small frying-pan with very little fat; have the pan
very hot, let the meat brown on all sides, turning it continually until
all sides are done, which will require thirty minutes altogether. Lift
the meat out of pan to a hot platter, brown some onions, serve these
with the meat.


Take four pounds of brisket, season with salt, pepper and ginger, add
three tablespoons of tomatoes and an onion cut up. Cover with water in
an iron pot and a close-fitting cover, put in oven and bake from three
to four hours.


Heat some fat or goose fat in a deep iron pot, cut half an onion very
fine and when it is slightly browned put in the meat. Cover up closely
and let the meat brown on all sides. Salt to taste, add a scant half
teaspoon of paprika, half a cup of hot water and simmer an hour longer,
keeping covered closely all the time. Add one-half a sweet green pepper
(seeds removed), one small carrot cut in slices, two tablespoons of
tomatoes and two onions sliced.

Two and a half pounds of brisket shoulder or any other meat suitable for
pot roasting will require three hours slow cooking. Shoulder of lamb may
also be cooked in this style.

When the meat is tender, remove to a warm platter, strain the gravy,
rubbing the thick part through the sieve and after removing any fat
serve in a sauce boat.

If any meat is left over it can be sliced and warmed over in the gravy,
but the gravy must be warmed first and the meat cook for a short time
only as it is already done enough and too much cooking will render it


If the brisket has been used for soup, take it out of the soup when it
is tender and prepare it with a horseradish sauce, garlic sauce or onion
sauce. (See "Sauces for Meats".)


Take about three pounds of fat, young beef (you may make soup stock of
it first), then take out the bones, salt it well and lay it in the
bottom of a kettle, put a quart of sauerkraut on top of it and let it
boil slowly until tender. Add vinegar if necessary, thicken with a
grated raw potato and add a little brown sugar. Some like a few caraway
seeds added.


Take a piece of cross-rib or middle cut of chuck about three pounds, and
put it in a deep earthen jar and pour enough boiling vinegar over it to
cover; you may take one-third water. Add to the vinegar when boiling
four bay leaves, some whole peppercorns, cloves and whole mace. Pour
this over the meat and turn it daily. In summer three days is the
longest time allowed for the meat to remain in this pickle; but in
winter eight days is not too long. When ready to boil, heat one
tablespoon drippings in a stew-pan. Cut up one or two onions in it; stew
until tender and then put in the beef, salting it on both sides before
stewing. Stew closely covered and if not acid enough add some of the
brine in which it was pickled. Stew about three hours and thicken the
gravy with flour.


Take one pound and one-half of tenderloin, sprinkle it with parsley and
onion; season with pepper and salt; roll and tie it. Place it in a pan
with soup stock (or water if you have no stock), carrot and bay leaf
and pot roast for one and one-half hours. Serve with tomato or brown


Take the tenderloin, lay it flat on a board after removing the fat. Make
a stuffing as for poultry. See "To Stuff Poultry". Spread this mixture
on the meat evenly; then roll and tie it with white twine; turn in the
ends to make it even and shapely.

Cut into dice an onion, turnip, and carrot, and place them in a
baking-pan; lay the rolled meat on the bed of vegetables; pour in enough
stock or water to cover the pan one inch deep; add a bouquet made of
parsley, one bay leaf and three cloves; cover with another pan, and let
cook slowly for four hours, basting frequently. It can be done in a pot
just as well, and should be covered as tight as possible; when cooked,
strain off the vegetables; thicken the gravy with one tablespoon of
flour browned in fat and serve it with the meat. Long, slow cooking is
required to make the meat tender. If cooked too fast it will not be


Have the bones cut into pieces two or three inches long; scrape and wash
them very clean; spread a little thick dough on each end to keep the
marrow in; then tie each bone in a piece of cloth and boil them for one
hour. Remove the cloth and paste, and place each bone on a square of
toast; sprinkle with red pepper and serve very hot. Or the marrow-bone
can be boiled without being cut, the marrow then removed with a spoon
and placed on squares of hot toast. Serve for luncheon.


Take prime rib roast. Cut up a small onion, a celery root and part of a
carrot into rather small pieces and add to these two or three sprigs of
parsley and one bay leaf. Sprinkle these over the bottom of the
dripping-pan and place your roast on this bed. The oven should be very
hot when the roast is first put in, but when the roast is browned
sufficiently to retain its juices, moderate the heat and roast more
slowly until the meat is done. Do not season until the roast is browned,
and then add salt and pepper. Enough juice and fat will drop from the
roast to give the necessary broth for basting. Baste frequently and turn
occasionally, being very careful, however, not to stick a fork into the


Season meat with salt and paprika. Dredge with flour. Place on rack in
dripping-pan with two or three tablespoons fat, in hot oven, to brown
quickly. Reduce heat and baste every ten minutes with the fat that has
fried out. When meat is about half done, turn it over, dredge with
flour, finish browning. If necessary, add a small quantity of water.
Allow fifteen to twenty minutes for each pound of meat.

Three pounds is the smallest roast practicable.


Place a piece of cross-rib or shoulder weighing three pounds in
roasting-pan, slice some onions over it, season with salt and pepper,
add some water and let it cook well. Then peel a few potatoes and put
them under the meat. When the meat becomes brown, turn it and cook until
it browns on the other side.


Take a shoulder, have the bone taken out and then pound the meat well
with a mallet. Lay it in vinegar for twenty-four hours. Heat some fat or
goose oil in a deep pan or kettle which has a cover that fits air tight
and lay the meat in the hot fat and sprinkle the upper side with salt,
pepper and ginger. Put an onion in with the meat; stick about half a
dozen cloves in the onion and add one bay leaf. Now turn the meat over
and sprinkle the other side with salt, pepper and ginger. Cut up one or
two tomatoes and pour some soup stock over all, and a dash of white
wine. Cover closely and stew very slowly for three or four hours,
turning the meat now and then; in doing so do not pierce with the fork,
as this will allow the juice to escape. Do not add any water. Make
enough potato pancakes to serve one or two to each person with "Wiener


Wipe steak with a damp cloth. Trim off the surplus fat. When the oven
has been heated for from five to seven minutes, lay steak on a rack,
greased, as near the flame as possible, the position of the rack
depending on the thickness of the steak. Let the steak sear on each
side, thereby retaining the juice. Then lower the rack somewhat, and
allow the steak to broil to the degree required. Just before taking from
the oven, salt and pepper and spread with melted chicken fat.

You can get just as good results in preparing chops and fish in the
broiling oven.


Heat the gridiron, put in the steak, turn the gridiron over the hot
coals at intervals of two minutes and then repeatedly at intervals of
one minute. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve on a hot platter.

Chops are done in the same way, but the gridiron is turned twice at
intervals of two minutes and six times at intervals of one minute.


Season the steak with salt and pepper, and dredge with flour. If tough,
chop on both sides with a sharp knife. Lay in a pan of hot fat, when
brown on one side, turn and brown on the other. While the steak is
frying, heat some fat in another fryer and drop in four of five white
onions that have been cut up. Fry crisp but not black. Remove the steak
to a hot platter, stir one tablespoon of flour in the fryer until
smooth, add one-half cup of boiling water. Lay the crisp onions over the
steak, then over all pour the brown gravy.


Take third cut of chuck or the tenderloin. Have the spider very hot, use
just enough fat to grease the spider. Lay in the steak, turning very
often to keep in the juice, season with salt and pepper. Serve on a hot


Cook one pound of brisket of beef and three pounds of young chicken with
one pint of soup stock or water, one pint of Lima beans, four ears of
cut corn (cut from cob), three potatoes diced, two tomatoes quartered;
one small onion, one teaspoon of paprika and one teaspoon of salt. Let
all these simmer until tender, and before serving remove the meat and
any visible chicken bones.

This stew may be made of breast of veal omitting the chicken and


Get the small ribs and put on with plenty of water, an onion, pepper and
salt. After boiling about one and one-half hours add a large yellow
turnip cut in small pieces; one-half hour before serving add six
potatoes cut in small pieces. Water must be added as necessary. A little
sugar will improve flavor, and as it simmers the turnip will soften and
give the whole dish the appearance of a stew.


Have a flank steak cut in three inch squares. Spread each piece with the
following dressing: one cup of bread crumbs, two tablespoons of minced
parsley; one chopped onion, a dash of red pepper and one teaspoon of
salt. Moisten with one-fourth cup of melted fat. Roll up and tie in
shape. Cover with water and simmer until meat is tender. Take the olives
from the sauce and brown in the oven. Thicken the sauce with one-fourth
cup of flour moistened with water to form a thin paste.


Get the small ribs of beef and put on with water enough to cover,
seasoning with salt, pepper, an onion and a tiny clove of garlic. Let it
cook about two hours, then add a can of tomatoes and season highly
either with red peppers or paprika. Cook at least three hours.


Two oxtails, jointed and washed; six onions sliced and browned in pot
with oxtails. When nicely browned add water enough to cover and stew
slowly one hour; then add two carrots, if small; one green pepper, sprig
of parsley, one-half cup of tomatoes and six small potatoes, and cook
until tender. Thicken with browned flour. Cook separately eight lengths
of macaroni; place cooked macaroni on dish and pour ragout over it and
serve hot.

To brown flour take one-half cup of flour, put in pan over moderate heat
and stir until nicely browned.


Have two pounds of beef cut into one inch squares. Dredge in flour and
fry until brown. Cover with water and simmer for two hours; the last
half-hour add one tablespoon of salt and one-eighth of a teaspoon of
pepper. Make a sauce by cooking one cup of tomatoes and one stalk of
celery cut in small pieces, a bay leaf and two whole cloves, for
twenty-five minutes; rub through a sieve, add to stock in which meat was
cooked. Thicken with four tablespoons of flour moistened with two
tablespoons of water. Serve meat with cooked diced potatoes, carrots,
and green and red peppers cut in strips.


To one pound beef, free from fat and cut up as pan stew, add one chopped
green pepper, one large onion, two blades of garlic (cut fine), pepper
and salt, with just enough water to cover. Let this simmer until meat is
very tender. Add a little water as needed. Put in medium sized can of
tomatoes an hour or so before using and have ready two cups of cooked
spaghetti or macaroni and put this into the meat until thoroughly

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