Part 1 out of 4
THE IMITATION OF CHRIST
by Thomas a Kempis
Translated by Rev. William Benham
The treatise "Of the Imitation of Christ" appears to have been
originally written in Latin early in the fifteenth century. Its
exact date and its authorship are still a matter of debate.
Manuscripts of the Latin version survive in considerable numbers
all over Western Europe, and they, with the vast list of
translations and of printed editions, testify to its almost
unparalleled popularity. One scribe attributes it to St. Bernard
of Clairvaux; but the fact that it contains a quotation from St.
Francis of Assisi, who was born thirty years after the death of
St. Bernard, disposes of this theory. In England there exist
many manuscripts of the first three books, called "Musica
Ecclesiastica," frequently ascribed to the English mystic Walter
Hilton. But Hilton seems to have died in 1395, and there is no
evidence of the existence of the work before 1400. Many
manuscripts scattered throughout Europe ascribe the book to Jean
le Charlier de Gerson, the great Chancellor of the University of
Paris, who was a leading figure in the Church in the earlier
part of the fifteenth century. The most probable author,
however, especially when the internal evidence is considered, is
Thomas Haemmerlein, known also as Thomas a Kempis, from his
native town of Kempen, near the Rhine, about forty miles north of
Cologne. Haemmerlein, who was born in 1379 or 1380, was a member
of the order of the Brothers of Common Life, and spent the last
seventy years of his life at Mount St. Agnes, a monastery of
Augustinian canons in the diocese of Utrecht. Here he died on
July 26, 1471, after an uneventful life spent in copying
manuscripts, reading, and composing, and in the peaceful routine
of monastic piety.
With the exception of the Bible, no Christian writing has had
so wide a vogue or so sustained a popularity as this. And yet,
in one sense, it is hardly an original work at all. Its
structure it owes largely to the writings of the medieval
mystics, and its ideas and phrases are a mosaic from the Bible
and the Fathers of the early Church. But these elements are
interwoven with such delicate skill and a religious feeling at
once so ardent and so sound, that it promises to remain, what it
has been for five hundred years, the supreme call and guide to
THE IMITATION OF CHRIST
THE FIRST BOOK
ADMONITIONS PROFITABLE FOR THE SPIRITUAL LIFE
Of the imitation of Christ, and of contempt of the world and all
He that followeth me shall not walk in darkness,(1) saith the
Lord. These are the words of Christ; and they teach us how far
we must imitate His life and character, if we seek true
illumination, and deliverance from all blindness of heart. Let
it be our most earnest study, therefore, to dwell upon the life
of Jesus Christ.
2. His teaching surpasseth all teaching of holy men, and such as
have His Spirit find therein the hidden manna.(2) But there are
many who, though they frequently hear the Gospel, yet feel but
little longing after it, because they have not the mind of
Christ. He, therefore, that will fully and with true wisdom
understand the words of Christ, let him strive to conform his
whole life to that mind of Christ.
3. What doth it profit thee to enter into deep discussion
concerning the Holy Trinity, if thou lack humility, and be thus
displeasing to the Trinity? For verily it is not deep words that
make a man holy and upright; it is a good life which maketh a man
dear to God. I had rather feel contrition than be skilful in the
definition thereof. If thou knewest the whole Bible, and the
sayings of all the philosophers, what should all this profit thee
without the love and grace of God? Vanity of vanities, all is
vanity, save to love God, and Him only to serve. That is the
highest wisdom, to cast the world behind us, and to reach forward
to the heavenly kingdom.
4. It is vanity then to seek after, and to trust in, the riches
that shall perish. It is vanity, too, to covet honours, and to
lift up ourselves on high. It is vanity to follow the desires of
the flesh and be led by them, for this shall bring misery at the
last. It is vanity to desire a long life, and to have little
care for a good life. It is vanity to take thought only for the
life which now is, and not to look forward to the things which
shall be hereafter. It is vanity to love that which quickly
passeth away, and not to hasten where eternal joy abideth.
5. Be ofttimes mindful of the saying,(3) The eye is not satisfied
with seeing, nor the ear with hearing. Strive, therefore, to
turn away thy heart from the love of the things that are seen,
and to set it upon the things that are not seen. For they who
follow after their own fleshly lusts, defile the conscience, and
destroy the grace of God.
(1) John viii. 12. (2) Revelations ii. 17.
(3) Ecclesiastes i. 8.
Of thinking humbly of oneself
There is naturally in every man a desire to know, but what
profiteth knowledge without the fear of God? Better of a surety
is a lowly peasant who serveth God, than a proud philosopher who
watcheth the stars and neglecteth the knowledge of himself. He
who knoweth himself well is vile in his own sight; neither
regardeth he the praises of men. If I knew all the things that
are in the world, and were not in charity, what should it help me
before God, who is to judge me according to my deeds?
2. Rest from inordinate desire of knowledge, for therein is found
much distraction and deceit. Those who have knowledge desire to
appear learned, and to be called wise. Many things there are to
know which profiteth little or nothing to the soul. And foolish
out of measure is he who attendeth upon other things rather than
those which serve to his soul's health. Many words satisfy not
the soul, but a good life refresheth the mind, and a pure
conscience giveth great confidence towards God.
3. The greater and more complete thy knowledge, the more severely
shalt thou be judged, unless thou hast lived holily. Therefore
be not lifted up by any skill or knowledge that thou hast; but
rather fear concerning the knowledge which is given to thee. If
it seemeth to thee that thou knowest many things, and
understandest them well, know also that there are many more
things which thou knowest not. Be not high-minded, but rather
confess thine ignorance. Why desirest thou to lift thyself above
another, when there are found many more learned and more skilled
in the Scripture than thou? If thou wilt know and learn anything
with profit, love to be thyself unknown and to be counted for
4. That is the highest and most profitable lesson, when a man
truly knoweth and judgeth lowly of himself. To account nothing
of one's self, and to think always kindly and highly of others,
this is great and perfect wisdom. Even shouldest thou see thy
neighbor sin openly or grievously, yet thou oughtest not to
reckon thyself better than he, for thou knowest not how long
thou shalt keep thine integrity. All of us are weak and frail;
hold thou no man more frail than thyself.
Of the knowledge of truth
Happy is the man whom Truth by itself doth teach, not by figures
and transient words, but as it is in itself.(1) Our own
judgment and feelings often deceive us, and we discern but
little of the truth. What doth it profit to argue about hidden
and dark things, concerning which we shall not be even reproved
in the judgment, because we knew them not? Oh, grievous folly,
to neglect the things which are profitable and necessary, and to
give our minds to things which are curious and hurtful! Having
eyes, we see not.
2. And what have we to do with talk about genus and species!
He to whom the Eternal Word speaketh is free from multiplied
questionings. From this One Word are all things, and all things
speak of Him; and this is the Beginning which also speaketh unto
us.(2) No man without Him understandeth or rightly judgeth. The
man to whom all things are one, who bringeth all things to one,
who seeth all things in one, he is able to remain steadfast of
spirit, and at rest in God. O God, who art the Truth, make me
one with Thee in everlasting love. It wearieth me oftentimes to
read and listen to many things; in Thee is all that I wish for
and desire. Let all the doctors hold their peace; let all
creation keep silence before Thee: speak Thou alone to me.
3. The more a man hath unity and simplicity in himself, the more
things and the deeper things he understandeth; and that without
labour, because he receiveth the light of understanding from
above. The spirit which is pure, sincere, and steadfast, is not
distracted though it hath many works to do, because it doth all
things to the honour of God, and striveth to be free from all
thoughts of self-seeking. Who is so full of hindrance and
annoyance to thee as thine own undisciplined heart? A man who is
good and devout arrangeth beforehand within his own heart the
works which he hath to do abroad; and so is not drawn away by the
desires of his evil will, but subjecteth everything to the
judgment of right reason. Who hath a harder battle to fight
than he who striveth for self-mastery? And this should be our
endeavour, even to master self, and thus daily to grow stronger
than self, and go on unto perfection.
4. All perfection hath some imperfection joined to it in this
life, and all our power of sight is not without some darkness. A
lowly knowledge of thyself is a surer way to God than the deep
searching of man's learning. Not that learning is to be blamed,
nor the taking account of anything that is good; but a good
conscience and a holy life is better than all. And because many
seek knowledge rather than good living, therefore they go astray,
and bear little or no fruit.
5. O if they would give that diligence to the rooting out of vice
and the planting of virtue which they give unto vain
questionings: there had not been so many evil doings and
stumbling-blocks among the laity, nor such ill living among
houses of religion. Of a surety, at the Day of Judgment it will
be demanded of us, not what we have read, but what we have done;
not how well we have spoken, but how holily we have lived. Tell
me, where now are all those masters and teachers, whom thou
knewest well, whilst they were yet with you, and flourished in
learning? Their stalls are now filled by others, who perhaps
never have one thought concerning them. Whilst they lived they
seemed to be somewhat, but now no one speaks of them.
6. Oh how quickly passeth the glory of the world away! Would
that their life and knowledge had agreed together! For then
would they have read and inquired unto good purpose. How many
perish through empty learning in this world, who care little for
serving God. And because they love to be great more than to be
humble, therefore they "have become vain in their imaginations."
He only is truly great, who hath great charity. He is truly
great who deemeth himself small, and counteth all height of
honour as nothing. He is the truly wise man, who counteth all
earthly things as dung that he may win Christ. And he is the
truly learned man, who doeth the will of God, and forsaketh his
(1) Psalm xciv. 12; Numbers xii. 8. (2) John viii. 25 (Vulg.).
Of prudence in action
We must not trust every word of others or feeling within
ourselves, but cautiously and patiently try the matter, whether
it be of God. Unhappily we are so weak that we find it easier to
believe and speak evil of others, rather than good. But they
that are perfect, do not give ready heed to every news-bearer,
for they know man's weakness that it is prone to evil and
unstable in words.
2. This is great wisdom, not to be hasty in action, or stubborn
in our own opinions. A part of this wisdom also is not to
believe every word we hear, nor to tell others all that we hear,
even though we believe it. Take counsel with a man who is wise
and of a good conscience; and seek to be instructed by one better
than thyself, rather than to follow thine own inventions. A good
life maketh a man wise toward God, and giveth him experience in
many things. The more humble a man is in himself, and the more
obedient towards God, the wiser will he be in all things, and the
more shall his soul be at peace.
Of the reading of Holy Scriptures
It is Truth which we must look for in Holy Writ, not cunning of
words. All Scripture ought to be read in the spirit in which it
was written. We must rather seek for what is profitable in
Scripture, than for what ministereth to subtlety in discourse.
Therefore we ought to read books which are devotional and simple,
as well as those which are deep and difficult. And let not the
weight of the writer be a stumbling-block to thee, whether he be
of little or much learning, but let the love of the pure Truth
draw thee to read. Ask not, who hath said this or that, but look
to what he says.
2. Men pass away, but the truth of the Lord endureth for ever.
Without respect of persons God speaketh to us in divers manners.
Our own curiosity often hindereth us in the reading of holy
writings, when we seek to understand and discuss, where we should
pass simply on. If thou wouldst profit by thy reading, read
humbly, simply, honestly, and not desiring to win a character for
learning. Ask freely, and hear in silence the words of holy men;
nor be displeased at the hard sayings of older men than thou, for
they are not uttered without cause.
Of inordinate affections
Whensoever a man desireth aught above measure, immediately he
becometh restless. The proud and the avaricious man are never
at rest; while the poor and lowly of heart abide in the
multitude of peace. The man who is not yet wholly dead to self,
is soon tempted, and is overcome in small and trifling matters.
It is hard for him who is weak in spirit, and still in part
carnal and inclined to the pleasures of sense, to withdraw
himself altogether from earthly desires. And therefore, when he
withdraweth himself from these, he is often sad, and easily
angered too if any oppose his will.
2. But if, on the other hand, he yield to his inclination,
immediately he is weighed down by the condemnation of his
conscience; for that he hath followed his own desire, and yet in
no way attained the peace which he hoped for. For true peace of
heart is to be found in resisting passion, not in yielding to it.
And therefore there is no peace in the heart of a man who is
carnal, nor in him who is given up to the things that are without
him, but only in him who is fervent towards God and living the
life of the Spirit.
Of fleeing from vain hope and pride
Vain is the life of that man who putteth his trust in men or in
any created Thing. Be not ashamed to be the servant of others
for the love of Jesus Christ, and to be reckoned poor in this
life. Rest not upon thyself, but build thy hope in God. Do what
lieth in thy power, and God will help thy good intent. Trust not
in thy learning, nor in the cleverness of any that lives, but
rather trust in the favour of God, who resisteth the proud and
giveth grace to the humble.
2. Boast not thyself in thy riches if thou hast them, nor in thy
friends if they be powerful, but in God, who giveth all things,
and in addition to all things desireth to give even Himself. Be
not lifted up because of thy strength or beauty of body, for with
only a slight sickness it will fail and wither away. Be not vain
of thy skilfulness or ability, lest thou displease God, from
whom cometh every good gift which we have.
3. Count not thyself better than others, lest perchance thou
appear worse in the sight of God, who knoweth what is in man. Be
not proud of thy good works, for God's judgments are of another
sort than the judgments of man, and what pleaseth man is ofttimes
displeasing to Him. If thou hast any good, believe that others
have more, and so thou mayest preserve thy humility. It is no
harm to thee if thou place thyself below all others; but it is
great harm if thou place thyself above even one. Peace is ever
with the humble man, but in the heart of the proud there is
envy and continual wrath.
Of the danger of too much familiarity
Open not thine heart to every man, but deal with one who is wise
and feareth God. Be seldom with the young and with strangers. Be
not a flatterer of the rich; nor willingly seek the society of
the great. Let thy company be the humble and the simple, the
devout and the gentle, and let thy discourse be concerning things
which edify. Be not familiar with any woman, but commend all good
women alike unto God. Choose for thy companions God and His
Angels only, and flee from the notice of men.
2. We must love all men, but not make close companions of all.
It sometimes falleth out that one who is unknown to us is highly
regarded through good report of him, whose actual person is
nevertheless unpleasing to those who behold it. We sometimes
think to please others by our intimacy, and forthwith displease
them the more by the faultiness of character which they perceive
Of obedience and subjection
It is verily a great thing to live in obedience, to be under
authority, and not to be at our own disposal. Far safer is it to
live in subjection than in a place of authority. Many are in
obedience from necessity rather than from love; these take it
amiss, and repine for small cause. Nor will they gain freedom of
spirit, unless with all their heart they submit themselves for
the love of God. Though thou run hither and thither, thou wilt
not find peace, save in humble subjection to the authority of him
who is set over thee. Fancies about places and change of them
have deceived many.
2. True it is that every man willingly followeth his own bent,
and is the more inclined to those who agree with him. But if
Christ is amongst us, then it is necessary that we sometimes
yield up our own opinion for the sake of peace. Who is so wise
as to have perfect knowledge of all things? Therefore trust not
too much to thine own opinion, but be ready also to hear the
opinions of others. Though thine own opinion be good, yet if for
the love of God thou foregoest it, and followest that of another,
thou shalt the more profit thereby.
3. Ofttimes I have heard that it is safer to hearken and to
receive counsel than to give it. It may also come to pass that
each opinion may be good; but to refuse to hearken to others when
reason or occasion requireth it, is a mark of pride or
Of the danger of superfluity of words
Avoid as far as thou canst the tumult of men; for talk concerning
worldly things, though it be innocently undertaken, is a
hindrance, so quickly are we led captive and defiled by vanity.
Many a time I wish that I had held my peace, and had not gone
amongst men. But why do we talk and gossip so continually,
seeing that we so rarely resume our silence without some hurt
done to our conscience? We like talking so much because we hope
by our conversations to gain some mutual comfort, and because we
seek to refresh our wearied spirits by variety of thoughts. And
we very willingly talk and think of those things which we love or
desire, or else of those which we most dislike.
2. But alas! it is often to no purpose and in vain. For this
outward consolation is no small hindrance to the inner comfort
which cometh from God. Therefore must we watch and pray that
time pass not idly away. If it be right and desirable for thee
to speak, speak things which are to edification. Evil custom and
neglect of our real profit tend much to make us heedless of
watching over our lips. Nevertheless, devout conversation on
spiritual things helpeth not a little to spiritual progress, most
of all where those of kindred mind and spirit find their ground
of fellowship in God.
Of seeking peace of mind and of spiritual progress
We may enjoy abundance of peace if we refrain from busying
ourselves with the sayings and doings of others, and things which
concern not ourselves. How can he abide long time in peace who
occupieth himself with other men's matters, and with things
without himself, and meanwhile payeth little or rare heed to the
self within? Blessed are the single-hearted, for they shall have
abundance of peace.
2. How came it to pass that many of the Saints were so perfect,
so contemplative of Divine things? Because they steadfastly
sought to mortify themselves from all worldly desires, and so
were enabled to cling with their whole heart to God, and be free
and at leisure for the thought of Him. We are too much occupied
with our own affections, and too anxious about transitory things.
Seldom, too, do we entirely conquer even a single fault, nor are
we zealous for daily growth in grace. And so we remain lukewarm
3. Were we fully watchful of ourselves, and not bound in spirit
to outward things, then might we be wise unto salvation, and make
progress in Divine contemplation. Our great and grievous
stumbling-block is that, not being freed from our affections and
desires, we strive not to enter into the perfect way of the
Saints. And when even a little trouble befalleth us, too quickly
are we cast down, and fly to the world to give us comfort.
4. If we would quit ourselves like men, and strive to stand firm
in the battle, then should we see the Lord helping us from Heaven.
For He Himself is alway ready to help those who strive and who
trust in Him; yea, He provideth for us occasions of striving, to
the end that we may win the victory. If we look upon our
progress in religion as a progress only in outward observances
and forms, our devoutness will soon come to an end. But let us
lay the axe to the very root of our life, that, being cleansed
from affections, we may possess our souls in peace.
5. If each year should see one fault rooted out from us, we
should go quickly on to perfection. But on the contrary, we
often feel that we were better and holier in the beginning of our
conversion than after many years of profession. Zeal and
progress ought to increase day by day; yet now it seemeth a great
thing if one is able to retain some portion of his first ardour.
If we would put some slight stress on ourselves at the beginning,
then afterwards we should be able to do all things with ease and
6. It is a hard thing to break through a habit, and a yet harder
thing to go contrary to our own will. Yet if thou overcome not
slight and easy obstacles, how shalt thou overcome greater ones?
Withstand thy will at the beginning, and unlearn an evil habit,
lest it lead thee little by little into worse difficulties. Oh,
if thou knewest what peace to thyself thy holy life should bring
to thyself, and what joy to others, methinketh thou wouldst be
more zealous for spiritual profit.
Of the uses of adversity
It is good for us that we sometimes have sorrows and adversities,
for they often make a man lay to heart that he is only a stranger
and sojourner, and may not put his trust in any worldly thing.
It is good that we sometimes endure contradictions, and are
hardly and unfairly judged, when we do and mean what is good.
For these things help us to be humble, and shield us from
vain-glory. For then we seek the more earnestly the witness of
God, when men speak evil of us falsely, and give us no credit for
2. Therefore ought a man to rest wholly upon God, so that he
needeth not seek much comfort at the hand of men. When a man who
feareth God is afflicted or tried or oppressed with evil
thoughts, then he seeth that God is the more necessary unto him,
since without God he can do no good thing. Then he is heavy of
heart, he groaneth, he crieth out for the very disquietness of
his heart. Then he groweth weary of life, and would fain depart
and be with Christ. By all this he is taught that in the world
there can be no perfect security or fulness of peace.
Of resisting temptation
So long as we live in the world, we cannot be without trouble and
trial. Wherefore it is written in Job, The life of man upon the
earth is a trial.(1) And therefore ought each of us to give heed
concerning trials and temptations, and watch unto prayer, lest
the devil find occasion to deceive; for he never sleepeth, but
goeth about seeking whom he may devour. No man is so perfect in
holiness that he hath never temptations, nor can we ever be
wholly free from them.
2. Yet, notwithstanding, temptations turn greatly unto our
profit, even though they be great and hard to bear; for through
them we are humbled, purified, instructed. All Saints have
passed through much tribulation and temptation, and have profited
thereby. And they who endured not temptation became reprobate
and fell away. There is no position so sacred, no place so
secret, that it is without temptations and adversities.
3. There is no man wholly free from temptations so long as he
liveth, because we have the root of temptation within ourselves,
in that we are born in concupiscence. One temptation or sorrow
passeth, and another cometh; and always we shall have somewhat
to suffer, for we have fallen from perfect happiness. Many who
seek to fly from temptations fall yet more deeply into them.
By flight alone we cannot overcome, but by endurance and
true humility we are made stronger than all our enemies.
4. He who only resisteth outwardly and pulleth not up by the
root, shall profit little; nay, rather temptations will return to
him the more quickly, and will be the more terrible. Little by
little, through patience and longsuffering, thou shalt conquer by
the help of God, rather than by violence and thine own strength
of will. In the midst of temptation often seek counsel; and deal
not hardly with one who is tempted, but comfort and strengthen
him as thou wouldest have done unto thyself.
5. The beginning of all temptations to evil is instability of
temper and want of trust in God; for even as a ship without a
helm is tossed about by the waves, so is a man who is careless
and infirm of purpose tempted, now on this side, now on that.
As fire testeth iron, so doth temptation the upright man.
Oftentimes we know not what strength we have; but temptation
revealeth to us what we are. Nevertheless, we must watch,
especially in the beginnings of temptation; for then is the foe
the more easily mastered, when he is not suffered to enter within
the mind, but is met outside the door as soon as he hath knocked.
Wherefore one saith,
Check the beginnings; once thou might'st have cured,
But now 'tis past thy skill, too long hath it endured.
For first cometh to the mind the simple suggestion, then the
strong imagination, afterwards pleasure, evil affection, assent.
And so little by little the enemy entereth in altogether, because
he was not resisted at the beginning. And the longer a man
delayeth his resistance, the weaker he groweth, and the stronger
groweth the enemy against him.
6. Some men suffer their most grievous temptations in the
beginning of their conversion, some at the end. Some are sorely
tried their whole life long. Some there are who are tempted but
lightly, according to the wisdom and justice of the ordering of
God, who knoweth the character and circumstances of men, and
ordereth all things for the welfare of His elect.
7. Therefore we ought not to despair when we are tempted, but the
more fervently should cry unto God, that He will vouchsafe to
help us in all our tribulation; and that He will, as St. Paul
saith, with the temptation make a way to escape that we may be
able to bear it.(2) Let us therefore humble ourselves under the
mighty hand of God in all temptation and trouble, for He will
save and exalt such as are of an humble spirit.
8. In temptations and troubles a man is proved, what progress he
hath made, and therein is his reward the greater, and his virtue
doth the more appear. Nor is it a great thing if a man be devout
and zealous so long as he suffereth no affliction; but if he
behave himself patiently in the time of adversity, then is there
hope of great progress. Some are kept safe from great
temptations, but are overtaken in those which are little and
common, that the humiliation may teach them not to trust to
themselves in great things, being weak in small things.
(1) Job vii. 1 (Vulg.). (2) 1 Corinthians x. 13.
On avoiding rash judgment
Look well unto thyself, and beware that thou judge not the doings
of others. In judging others a man laboureth in vain; he often
erreth, and easily falleth into sin; but in judging and examining
himself he always laboureth to good purpose. According as a
matter toucheth our fancy, so oftentimes do we judge of it; for
easily do we fail of true judgment because of our own personal
feeling. If God were always the sole object of our desire, we
should the less easily be troubled by the erring judgment of our
2. But often some secret thought lurking within us, or even some
outward circumstance, turneth us aside. Many are secretly
seeking their own ends in what they do, yet know it not. They
seem to live in good peace of mind so long as things go well with
them, and according to their desires, but if their desires be
frustrated and broken, immediately they are shaken and
displeased. Diversity of feelings and opinions very often brings
about dissensions between friends, between countrymen, between
religious and godly men.
3. Established custom is not easily relinquished, and no man is
very easily led to see with the eyes of another. If thou rest
more upon thy own reason or experience than upon the power of
Jesus Christ, thy light shall come slowly and hardly; for God
willeth us to be perfectly subject unto Himself, and all our
reason to be exalted by abundant love towards Him.
Of works of charity
For no worldly good whatsoever, and for the love of no man, must
anything be done which is evil, but for the help of the suffering
a good work must sometimes be postponed, or be changed for a
better; for herein a good work is not destroyed, but improved.
Without charity no work profiteth, but whatsoever is done in
charity, however small and of no reputation it be, bringeth forth
good fruit; for God verily considereth what a man is able to do,
more than the greatness of what he doth.
2. He doth much who loveth much. He doth much who doth well. He
doth well who ministereth to the public good rather than to his
own. Oftentimes that seemeth to be charity which is rather
carnality, because it springeth from natural inclination,
self-will, hope of repayment, desire of gain.
3. He who hath true and perfect charity, in no wise seeketh his
own good, but desireth that God alone be altogether glorified.
He envieth none, because he longeth for no selfish joy; nor doth
he desire to rejoice in himself, but longeth to be blessed in God
as the highest good. He ascribeth good to none save to God only,
the Fountain whence all good proceedeth, and the End, the Peace,
the joy of all Saints. Oh, he who hath but a spark of true
charity, hath verily learned that all worldly things are full of
Of bearing with the faults of others
Those things which a man cannot amend in himself or in others, he
ought patiently to bear, until God shall otherwise ordain.
Bethink thee that perhaps it is better for thy trial and
patience, without which our merits are but little worth.
Nevertheless thou oughtest, when thou findeth such impediments,
to beseech God that He would vouchsafe to sustain thee, that thou
be able to bear them with a good will.
2. If one who is once or twice admonished refuse to hearken,
strive not with him, but commit all to God, that His will may be
done and His honour be shown in His servants, for He knoweth well
how to convert the evil unto good. Endeavour to be patient in
bearing with other men's faults and infirmities whatsoever they
be, for thou thyself also hast many things which have need to be
borne with by others. If thou canst not make thine own self what
thou desireth, how shalt thou be able to fashion another to thine
own liking. We are ready to see others made perfect, and yet we
do not amend our own shortcomings.
3. We will that others be straitly corrected, but we will not be
corrected ourselves. The freedom of others displeaseth us, but
we are dissatisfied that our own wishes shall be denied us. We
desire rules to be made restraining others, but by no means will
we suffer ourselves to be restrained. Thus therefore doth it
plainly appear how seldom we weigh our neighbour in the same
balance with ourselves. If all men were perfect, what then should
we have to suffer from others for God?
4. But now hath God thus ordained, that we may learn to bear one
another's burdens, because none is without defect, none without a
burden, none sufficient of himself, none wise enough of himself;
but it behoveth us to bear with one another, to comfort one
another, to help, instruct, admonish one another. How much
strength each man hath is best proved by occasions of adversity:
for such occasions do not make a man frail, but show of what
temper he is.
Of a religious life
It behoveth thee to learn to mortify thyself in many things, if
thou wilt live in amity and concord with other men. It is no
small thing to dwell in a religious community or congregation,
and to live there without complaint, and therein to remain
faithful even unto death. Blessed is he who hath lived a good
life in such a body, and brought it to a happy end. If thou wilt
stand fast and wilt profit as thou oughtest, hold thyself as an
exile and a pilgrim upon the earth. Thou wilt have to be counted
as a fool for Christ, if thou wilt lead a religious life.
2. The clothing and outward appearance are of small account; it
is change of character and entire mortification of the affections
which make a truly religious man. He who seeketh aught save God
and the health of his soul, shall find only tribulation and
sorrow. Nor can he stand long in peace, who striveth not to be
least of all and servant of all.
3. Thou art called to endure and to labour, not to a life of ease
and trifling talk. Here therefore are men tried as gold in the
furnace. No man can stand, unless with all his heart he will
humble himself for God's sake.
Of the example of the Holy Fathers
Consider now the lively examples of the holy fathers, in whom
shone forth real perfectness and religion, and thou shalt see how
little, even as nothing, is all that we do. Ah! What is our life
when compared to theirs? They, saints and friends of Christ as
they were, served the Lord in hunger and thirst, in cold and
nakedness, in labour and weariness, in watchings and fastings, in
prayer and holy meditations, in persecutions and much rebuke.
2. O how many and grievous tribulations did the Apostles,
Martyrs, Confessors, Virgins, endure; and all others who would
walk in the footsteps of Christ. For they hated their souls in
this world that they might keep them unto life eternal. O how
strict and retired a life was that of the holy fathers who dwelt
in the desert! what long and grievous temptations they did
suffer! how often were they assaulted by the enemy! what
frequent and fervid prayers did they offer unto God! what strict
fasts did they endure! what fervent zeal and desire after
spiritual profit did they manifest! how bravely did they fight
that their vices might not gain the mastery! how entirely and
steadfastly did they reach after God! By day they laboured, and
at night they gave themselves ofttimes unto prayer; yea, even
when they were labouring they ceased not from mental prayer.
3. They spent their whole time profitably; every hour seemed
short for retirement with God; and through the great sweetness of
contemplation, even the need of bodily refreshment was forgotten.
They renounced all riches, dignities, honours, friends, kinsmen;
they desired nothing from the world; they ate the bare
necessaries of life; they were unwilling to minister to the body
even in necessity. Thus were they poor in earthly things, but
rich above measure in grace and virtue. Though poor to the outer
eye, within they were filled with grace and heavenly
4. They were strangers to the world, but unto God they were as
kinsmen and friends. They seemed unto themselves as of no
reputation, and in the world's eyes contemptible; but in the
sight of God they were precious and beloved. They stood fast in
true humility, they lived in simple obedience, they walked in
love and patience; and thus they waxed strong in spirit, and
obtained great favour before God. To all religious men they were
given as an example, and they ought more to provoke us unto good
livings than the number of the lukewarm tempteth to
carelessness of life.
5. O how great was the love of all religious persons at the
beginning of this sacred institution! O what devoutness of
prayer! what rivalry in holiness! what strict discipline was
observed! what reverence and obedience under the rule of the
master showed they in all things! The traces of them that remain
until now testify that they were truly holy and perfect men, who
fighting so bravely trod the world underfoot. Now a man is
counted great if only he be not a transgressor, and if he can
only endure with patience what he hath undertaken.
6. O the coldness and negligence of our times, that we so quickly
decline from the former love, and it is become a weariness to
live, because of sloth and lukewarmness. May progress in
holiness not wholly fall asleep in thee, who many times hast seen
so many examples of devout men!
Of the exercises of a religious man
The life of a Christian ought to be adorned with all virtues,
that he may be inwardly what he outwardly appeareth unto men.
And verily it should be yet better within than without, for God
is a discerner of our heart, Whom we must reverence with all our
hearts wheresoever we are, and walk pure in His presence as do
the angels. We ought daily to renew our vows, and to kindle our
hearts to zeal, as if each day were the first day of our
conversion, and to say, "Help me, O God, in my good resolutions,
and in Thy holy service, and grant that this day I may make a
good beginning, for hitherto I have done nothing!"
2. According to our resolution so is the rate of our progress,
and much diligence is needful for him who would make good
progress. For if he who resolveth bravely oftentimes falleth
short, how shall it be with him who resolveth rarely or feebly?
But manifold causes bring about abandonment of our resolution,
yet a trivial omission of holy exercises can hardly be made
without some loss to us. The resolution of the righteous
dependeth more upon the grace of God than upon their own wisdom;
for in Him they always put their trust, whatsoever they take in
hand. For man proposeth, but God disposeth; and the way of a
man is not in himself.(1)
3. If a holy exercise be sometimes omitted for the sake of some
act of piety, or of some brotherly kindness, it can easily be
taken up afterwards; but if it be neglected through distaste or
slothfulness, then is it sinful, and the mischief will be felt.
Strive as earnestly as we may, we shall still fall short in many
things. Always should some distinct resolution be made by us;
and, most of all, we must strive against those sins which most
easily beset us. Both our outer and inner life should be
straitly examined and ruled by us, because both have to do with
4. If thou canst not be always examining thyself, thou canst at
certain seasons, and at least twice in the day, at evening and at
morning. In the morning make thy resolves, and in the evening
inquire into thy life, how thou hast sped to-day in word, deed,
and thought; for in these ways thou hast often perchance offended
God and thy neighbour. Gird up thy lions like a man against the
assaults of the devil; bridle thine appetite, and thou wilt soon
be able to bridle every inclination of the flesh. Be thou never
without something to do; be reading, or writing, or praying, or
meditating, or doing something that is useful to the community.
Bodily exercises, however, must be undertaken with discretion,
nor are they to be used by all alike.
5. The duties which are not common to all must not be done
openly, but are safest carried on in secret. But take heed that
thou be not careless in the common duties, and more devout in the
secret; but faithfully and honestly discharge the duties and
commands which lie upon thee, then afterwards, if thou hast still
leisure, give thyself to thyself as thy devotion leadeth thee.
All cannot have one exercise, but one suiteth better to this man
and another to that. Even for the diversity of season different
exercises are needed, some suit better for feasts, some for
fasts. We need one kind in time of temptations and others in
time of peace and quietness. Some are suitable to our times of
sadness, and others when we are joyful in the Lord.
6. When we draw near the time of the great feasts, good exercises
should be renewed, and the prayers of holy men more fervently
besought. We ought to make our resolutions from one Feast to
another, as if each were the period of our departure from this
world, and of entering into the eternal feast. So ought we to
prepare ourselves earnestly at solemn seasons, and the more
solemnly to live, and to keep straightest watch upon each holy
observance, as though we were soon to receive the reward of our
labours at the hand of God.
7. And if this be deferred, let us believe ourselves to be as yet
ill-prepared, and unworthy as yet of the glory which shall be
revealed in us at the appointed season; and let us study to
prepare ourselves the better for our end. Blessed is that
servant, as the Evangelist Luke hath it, whom, when the Lord
cometh He shall find watching. Verily I say unto you He will
make him ruler over all that He hath.(2)
(1) Jeremiah x. 23. (2) Luke xii. 43, 44.
Of the love of solitude and silence
Seek a suitable time for thy meditation, and think frequently of
the mercies of God to thee. Leave curious questions. Study such
matters as bring thee sorrow for sin rather than amusement. If
thou withdraw thyself from trifling conversation and idle goings
about, as well as from novelties and gossip, thou shalt find thy
time sufficient and apt for good meditation. The greatest saints
used to avoid as far as they could the company of men, and chose
to live in secret with God.
2. One hath said, "As oft as I have gone among men, so oft have I
returned less a man." This is what we often experience when we
have been long time in conversation. For it is easier to be
altogether silent than it is not to exceed in word. It is easier
to remain hidden at home than to keep sufficient guard upon
thyself out of doors. He, therefore, that seeketh to reach that
which is hidden and spiritual, must go with Jesus "apart from the
multitude." No man safely goeth abroad who loveth not to rest at
home. No man safely talketh but he who loveth to hold his peace.
No man safely ruleth but he who loveth to be subject. No man
safely commandeth but he who loveth to obey.
3. No man safely rejoiceth but he who hath the testimony of a
good conscience within himself. The boldness of the Saints was
always full of the fear of God. Nor were they the less earnest
and humble in themselves, because they shone forth with great
virtues and grace. But the boldness of wicked men springeth from
pride and presumption, and at the last turneth to their own
confusion. Never promise thyself security in this life,
howsoever good a monk or devout a solitary thou seemest.
4. Often those who stand highest in the esteem of men, fall the
more grievously because of their over great confidence.
Wherefore it is very profitable unto many that they should not be
without inward temptation, but should be frequently assaulted,
lest they be over confident, lest they be indeed lifted up into
pride, or else lean too freely upon the consolations of the
world. O how good a conscience should that man keep, who never
sought a joy that passeth away, who never became entangled with
the world! O how great peace and quiet should he possess, who
would cast off all vain care, and think only of healthful and
divine things, and build his whole hope upon God!
5. No man is worthy of heavenly consolation but he who hath
diligently exercised himself in holy compunction. If thou wilt
feel compunction within thy heart, enter into thy chamber and
shut out the tumults of the world, as it is written, Commune with
your own heart in your own chamber and be still.(1) In
retirement thou shalt find what often thou wilt lose abroad.
Retirement, if thou continue therein, groweth sweet, but if thou
keep not in it, begetteth weariness. If in the beginning of thy
conversation thou dwell in it and keep it well, it shall
afterwards be to thee a dear friend, and a most pleasant solace.
6. In silence and quiet the devout soul goeth forward and
learneth the hidden things of the Scriptures. Therein findeth
she a fountain of tears, wherein to wash and cleanse herself each
night, that she may grow the more dear to her Maker as she
dwelleth the further from all worldly distraction. To him who
withdraweth himself from his acquaintance and friends God with
his holy angels will draw nigh. It is better to be unknown and
take heed to oneself than to neglect oneself and work wonders.
It is praiseworthy for a religious man to go seldom abroad, to
fly from being seen, to have no desire to see men.
7. Why wouldest thou see what thou mayest not have? The world
passeth away and the lust thereof. The desires of sensuality
draw thee abroad, but when an hour is past, what dost thou bring
home, but a weight upon thy conscience and distraction of heart?
A merry going forth bringeth often a sorrowful return, and a
merry evening maketh a sad morning? So doth all carnal joy
begin pleasantly, but in the end it gnaweth away and destroyeth.
What canst thou see abroad which thou seest not at home? Behold
the heaven and the earth and the elements, for out of these are
all things made.
8. What canst thou see anywhere which can continue long under the
sun? Thou believest perchance that thou shalt be satisfied, but
thou wilt never be able to attain unto this. If thou shouldest
see all things before thee at once, what would it be but a vain
vision? Lift up thine eyes to God on high, and pray that thy
sins and negligences may be forgiven. Leave vain things to vain
men, and mind thou the things which God hath commanded thee.
Shut thy door upon thee, and call unto thyself Jesus thy beloved.
Remain with Him in thy chamber, for thou shalt not elsewhere find
so great peace. If thou hadst not gone forth nor listened to
vain talk, thou hadst better kept thyself in good peace. But
because it sometimes delighteth thee to hear new things, thou
must therefore suffer trouble of heart.
(1) Psalm iv. 4.
Of compunction of heart
If thou wilt make any progress keep thyself in the fear of God,
and long not to be too free, but restrain all thy senses under
discipline and give not thyself up to senseless mirth. Give
thyself to compunction of heart and thou shalt find devotion.
Compunction openeth the way for many good things, which
dissoluteness is wont quickly to lose. It is wonderful that any
man can ever rejoice heartily in this life who considereth and
weigheth his banishment, and the manifold dangers which beset his
2. Through lightness of heart and neglect of our shortcomings we
feel not the sorrows of our soul, but often vainly laugh when we
have good cause to weep. There is no true liberty nor real joy,
save in the fear of God with a good conscience. Happy is he who
can cast away every cause of distraction and bring himself to the
one purpose of holy compunction. Happy is he who putteth away
from him whatsoever may stain or burden his conscience. Strive
manfully; custom is overcome by custom. If thou knowest how to
let men alone, they will gladly let thee alone to do thine own
3. Busy not thyself with the affairs of others, nor entangle
thyself with the business of great men. Keep always thine eye
upon thyself first of all, and give advice to thyself specially
before all thy dearest friends. If thou hast not the favour of
men, be not thereby cast down, but let thy concern be that thou
holdest not thyself so well and circumspectly, as becometh a
servant of God and a devout monk. It is often better and safer
for a man not to have many comforts in this life, especially
those which concern the flesh. But that we lack divine comforts
or feel them rarely is to our own blame, because we seek not
compunction of heart, nor utterly cast away those comforts which
are vain and worldly.
4. Know thyself to be unworthy of divine consolation, and worthy
rather of much tribulation. When a man hath perfect compunction,
then all the world is burdensome and bitter to him. A good man
will find sufficient cause for mourning and weeping; for whether
he considereth himself, or pondereth concerning his neighbour, he
knoweth that no man liveth here without tribulation, and the more
thoroughly he considereth himself, the more thoroughly he grieveth.
Grounds for just grief and inward compunction there are in our
sins and vices, wherein we lie so entangled that we are but
seldom able to contemplate heavenly things.
5. If thou thoughtest upon thy death more often than how long thy
life should be, thou wouldest doubtless strive more earnestly to
improve. And if thou didst seriously consider the future pains
of hell, I believe thou wouldest willingly endure toil or pain
and fear not discipline. But because these things reach not the
heart, and we still love pleasant things, therefore we remain
cold and miserably indifferent.
6. Oftentimes it is from poverty of spirit that the wretched body
is so easily led to complain. Pray therefore humbly unto the
Lord that He will give thee the spirit of compunction and say in
the language of the prophet, Feed me, O Lord, with bread of
tears, and give me plenteousness of tears to drink.(1)
(1) Psalm lxxv. 5.
On the contemplation of human misery
Thou art miserable wheresoever thou art, and whithersoever thou
turnest, unless thou turn thee to God. Why art thou disquieted
because it happeneth not to thee according to thy wishes and
desires? Who is he that hath everything according to his will?
Neither I, nor thou, nor any man upon the earth. There is no man
in the world free from trouble or anguish, though he were King or
Pope. Who is he who hath the happiest lot? Even he who is
strong to suffer somewhat for God.
2. There are many foolish and unstable men who say, "See what a
prosperous life that man hath, how rich and how great he is, how
powerful, how exalted." But lift up thine eyes to the good
things of heaven, and thou shalt see that all these worldly
things are nothing, they are utterly uncertain, yea, they are
wearisome, because they are never possessed without care and
fear. The happiness of man lieth not in the abundance of
temporal things but a moderate portion sufficeth him. Our life
upon the earth is verily wretchedness. The more a man desireth
to be spiritual, the more bitter doth the present life become to
him; because he the better understandeth and seeth the defects of
human corruption. For to eat, to drink, to watch, to sleep, to
rest, to labour, and to be subject to the other necessities of
nature, is truly a great wretchedness and affliction to a devout
man, who would fain be released and free from all sin.
3. For the inner man is heavily burdened with the necessities of
the body in this world. Wherefore the prophet devoutly prayeth
to be freed from them, saying, Deliver me from my necessities, O
Lord.(1) But woe to those who know not their own misery, and yet
greater woe to those who love this miserable and corruptible
life. For to such a degree do some cling to it (even though by
labouring or begging they scarce procure what is necessary for
subsistence) that if they might live here always, they would care
nothing for the Kingdom of God.
4. Oh foolish and faithless of heart, who lie buried so deep in
worldly things, that they relish nothing save the things of the
flesh! Miserable ones! they will too sadly find out at the
last, how vile and worthless was that which they loved. The
saints of God and all loyal friends of Christ held as nothing the
things which pleased the flesh, or those which flourished in
this life, but their whole hope and affection aspired to the
things which are above. Their whole desire was borne upwards to
everlasting and invisible things, lest they should be drawn
downwards by the love of things visible.
5. Lose not, brother, thy loyal desire of progress to things
spiritual. There is yet time, the hour is not past. Why wilt
thou put off thy resolution? Arise, begin this very moment, and
say, "Now is the time to do: now is the time to fight, now is the
proper time for amendment." When thou art ill at ease and
troubled, then is the time when thou art nearest unto blessing.
Thou must go through fire and water that God may bring thee into
a wealthy place. Unless thou put force upon thyself, thou wilt
not conquer thy faults. So long as we carry about with us this
frail body, we cannot be without sin, we cannot live without
weariness and trouble. Gladly would we have rest from all
misery; but because through sin we have lost innocence, we have
lost also the true happiness. Therefore must we be patient, and
wait for the mercy of God, until this tyranny be overpast,
and this mortality be swallowed up of life.
6. O how great is the frailty of man, which is ever prone to
evil! To-day thou confessest thy sins, and to-morrow thou
committest again the sins thou didst confess. Now dost thou
resolve to avoid a fault, and within an hour thou behavest
thyself as if thou hadst never resolved at all. Good cause have
we therefore to humble ourselves, and never to think highly of
ourselves, seeing that we are so frail and unstable. And quickly
may that be lost by our negligence, which by much labour was
hardly attained through grace.
7. What shall become of us at the end, if at the beginning we are
lukewarm and idle? Woe unto us, if we choose to rest, as though
it were a time of peace and security, while as yet no sign
appeareth in our life of true holiness. Rather had we need that
we might begin yet afresh, like good novices, to be instructed
unto good living, if haply there might be hope of some future
amendment and greater spiritual increase.
(1) Psalm xxv. 17.
Of meditation upon death
Very quickly will there be an end of thee here; take heed
therefore how it will be with thee in another world. To-day man
is, and to-morrow he will be seen no more. And being removed out
of sight, quickly also he is out of mind. O the dulness and
hardness of man's heart, which thinketh only of the present, and
looketh not forward to the future. Thou oughtest in every deed
and thought so to order thyself, as if thou wert to die this day.
If thou hadst a good conscience thou wouldst not greatly fear
death. It were better for thee to watch against sin, than to fly
from death. If to-day thou art not ready, how shalt thou be
ready to-morrow? To-morrow is an uncertain day; and how knowest
thou that thou shalt have a to-morrow?
2. What doth it profit to live long, when we amend so little?
Ah! long life doth not always amend, but often the more
increaseth guilt. Oh that we might spend a single day in this
world as it ought to be spent! Many there are who reckon the
years since they were converted, and yet oftentimes how little is
the fruit thereof. If it is a fearful thing to die, it may be
perchance a yet more fearful thing to live long. Happy is the
man who hath the hour of his death always before his eyes, and
daily prepareth himself to die. If thou hast ever seen one die,
consider that thou also shalt pass away by the same road.
3. When it is morning reflect that it may be thou shalt not see
the evening, and at eventide dare not to boast thyself of the
morrow. Always be thou prepared, and so live that death may
never find thee unprepared. Many die suddenly and unexpectedly.
For at such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh.(1)
When that last hour shall come, thou wilt begin to think very
differently of thy whole life past, and wilt mourn bitterly that
thou hast been so negligent and slothful.
4. Happy and wise is he who now striveth to be such in life as he
would fain be found in death! For a perfect contempt of the
world, a fervent desire to excel in virtue, the love of
discipline, the painfulness of repentance, readiness to obey,
denial of self, submission to any adversity for love of Christ;
these are the things which shall give great confidence of a happy
death. Whilst thou art in health thou hast many opportunities of
good works; but when thou art in sickness I know not how much
thou wilt be able to do. Few are made better by infirmity: even
as they who wander much abroad seldom become holy.
5. Trust not thy friends and kinsfolk, nor put off the work of
thy salvation to the future, for men will forget thee sooner than
thou thinkest. It is better for thee now to provide in time, and
to send some good before thee, than to trust to the help of
others. If thou art not anxious for thyself now, who, thinkest
thou, will be anxious for thee afterwards? Now the time is most
precious. Now is the accepted time, now is the day of salvation.
But alas! that thou spendest not well this time, wherein thou
mightest lay up treasure which should profit thee everlastingly.
The hour will come when thou shalt desire one day, yea, one hour,
for amendment of life, and I know not whether thou shalt obtain.
6. Oh, dearly beloved, from what danger thou mightest free
thyself, from what great fear, if only thou wouldst always live
in fear, and in expectation of death! Strive now to live in such
wise that in the hour of death thou mayest rather rejoice than
fear. Learn now to die to the world, so shalt thou begin to live
with Christ. Learn now to contemn all earthly things, and then
mayest thou freely go unto Christ. Keep under thy body by
penitence, and then shalt thou be able to have a sure confidence.
7. Ah, foolish one! why thinkest thou that thou shalt live long,
when thou art not sure of a single day? How many have been
deceived, and suddenly have been snatched away from the body!
How many times hast thou heard how one was slain by the sword,
another was drowned, another falling from on high broke his neck,
another died at the table, another whilst at play! One died by
fire, another by the sword, another by the pestilence, another by
the robber. Thus cometh death to all, and the life of men
swiftly passeth away like a shadow.
8. Who will remember thee after thy death? And who will entreat
for thee? Work, work now, oh dearly beloved, work all that thou
canst. For thou knowest not when thou shalt die, nor what shall
happen unto thee after death. While thou hast time, lay up for
thyself undying riches. Think of nought but of thy salvation;
care only for the things of God. Make to thyself friends, by
venerating the saints of God and walking in their steps, that
when thou failest, thou mayest be received into everlasting
9. Keep thyself as a stranger and a pilgrim upon the earth, to
whom the things of the world appertain not. Keep thine heart
free, and lifted up towards God, for here have we no continuing
city.(3) To Him direct thy daily prayers with crying and tears,
that thy spirit may be found worthy to pass happily after death
unto its Lord. Amen.
(1) Matthew xxiv. 44. (2) Luke xvi. 9. (3) Hebrews xiii. 14.
Of the judgment and punishment of the wicked
In all that thou doest, remember the end, and how thou wilt stand
before a strict judge, from whom nothing is hid, who is not
bribed with gifts, nor accepteth excuses, but will judge
righteous judgment. O most miserable and foolish sinner, who art
sometimes in fear of the countenance of an angry man, what wilt
thou answer to God, who knoweth all thy misdeeds? Why dost thou
not provide for thyself against the day of judgment, when no man
shall be able to be excused or defended by means of another, but
each one shall bear his burden himself alone? Now doth thy
labour bring forth fruit, now is thy weeping acceptable, thy
groaning heard, thy sorrow well pleasing to God, and cleansing to
2. Even here on earth the patient man findeth great occasion of
purifying his soul. When suffering injuries he grieveth more for
the other's malice than for his own wrong; when he prayeth
heartily for those that despitefully use him, and forgiveth them
from his heart; when he is not slow to ask pardon from others;
when he is swifter to pity than to anger; when he frequently
denieth himself and striveth altogether to subdue the flesh to
the spirit. Better is it now to purify the soul from sin, than
to cling to sins from which we must be purged hereafter. Truly
we deceive ourselves by the inordinate love which we bear towards
3. What is it which that fire shall devour, save thy sins? The
more thou sparest thyself and followest the flesh, the more heavy
shall thy punishment be, and the more fuel art thou heaping up
for the burning. For wherein a man hath sinned, therein shall he
be the more heavily punished. There shall the slothful be
pricked forward with burning goads, and the gluttons be tormented
with intolerable hunger and thirst. There shall the luxurious
and the lovers of pleasure be plunged into burning pitch and
stinking brimstone, and the envious shall howl like mad dogs for
4. No sin will there be which shall not be visited with its own
proper punishment. The proud shall be filled with utter
confusion, and the covetous shall be pinched with miserable
poverty. An hour's pain there shall be more grievous than a
hundred years here of the bitterest penitence. No quiet shall be
there, no comfort for the lost, though here sometimes there is
respite from pain, and enjoyment of the solace of friends. Be
thou anxious now and sorrowful for thy sins, that in the day of
judgment thou mayest have boldness with the blessed. For then
shall the righteous man stand in great boldness before the face
of such as have afflicted him and made no account of his
labours.(1) Then shall he stand up to judge, he who now
submitteth himself in humility to the judgments of men. Then
shall the poor and humble man have great confidence, while the
proud is taken with fear on every side.
5. Then shall it be seen that he was the wise man in this world
who learned to be a fool and despised for Christ. Then shall all
tribulation patiently borne delight us, while the mouth of the
ungodly shall be stopped. Then shall every godly man rejoice,
and every profane man shall mourn. Then the afflicted flesh
shall more rejoice than if it had been alway nourished in
delights. Then the humble garment shall put on beauty, and the
precious robe shall hide itself as vile. Then the little poor
cottage shall be more commended than the gilded palace. Then
enduring patience shall have more might than all the power of the
world. Then simple obedience shall be more highly exalted than
all worldly wisdom.
6. Then a pure and good conscience shall more rejoice than
learned philosophy. Then contempt of riches shall have more
weight than all the treasure of the children of this world. Then
shalt thou find more comfort in having prayed devoutly than in
having fared sumptuously. Then thou wilt rather rejoice in
having kept silence than in having made long speech. Then holy
deeds shall be far stronger than many fine words. Then a strict
life and sincere penitence shall bring deeper pleasure than all
earthly delight. Learn now to suffer a little, that then thou
mayest be enabled to escape heavier sufferings. Prove first
here, what thou art able to endure hereafter. If now thou art
able to bear so little, how wilt thou be able to endure eternal
torments? If now a little suffering maketh thee so impatient,
what shall hell-fire do then? Behold of a surety thou art not
able to have two Paradises, to take thy fill or delight here in
this world, and to reign with Christ hereafter.
7. If even unto this day thou hadst ever lived in honours and
pleasures, what would the whole profit thee if now death came to
thee in an instant? All therefore is vanity, save to love God
and to serve Him only. For he who loveth God with all his heart
feareth not death, nor punishment, nor judgment, nor hell,
because perfect love giveth sure access to God. But he who still
delighteth in sin, no marvel if he is afraid of death and
judgment. Nevertheless it is a good thing, if love as yet cannot
restrain thee from evil, that at least the fear of hell should
hold thee back. But he who putteth aside the fear of God cannot
long continue in good, but shall quickly fall into the snares of
(1) Wisd. v. 1.
Of the zealous amendment of our whole life
Be thou watchful and diligent in God's service, and bethink thee
often why thou hast renounced the world. Was it not that thou
mightest live to God and become a spiritual man? Be zealous,
therefore, for thy spiritual profit, for thou shalt receive
shortly the reward of thy labours, and neither fear nor sorrow
shall come any more into thy borders. Now shalt thou labour a
little, and thou shalt find great rest, yea everlasting joy. If
thou shalt remain faithful and zealous in labour, doubt not that
God shall be faithful and bountiful in rewarding thee. It is thy
duty to have a good hope that thou wilt attain the victory, but
thou must not fall into security lest thou become slothful or
2. A certain man being in anxiety of mind, continually tossed
about between hope and fear, and being on a certain day
overwhelmed with grief, cast himself down in prayer before the
altar in a church, and meditated within himself, saying, "Oh! if
I but knew that I should still persevere," and presently heard
within him a voice from God, "And if thou didst know it, what
wouldst thou do? Do now what thou wouldst do then, and thou
shalt be very secure." And straightway being comforted and
strengthened, he committed himself to the will of God and the
perturbation of spirit ceased, neither had he a mind any more to
search curiously to know what should befall him hereafter, but
studied rather to inquire what was the good and acceptable will
of God, for the beginning and perfecting of every good work.
3. Hope in the Lord and be doing good, saith the Prophet; dwell
in the land and thou shalt be fed(1) with its riches. One thing
there is which holdeth back many from progress and fervent
amendment, even the dread of difficulty, or the labour of the
conflict. Nevertheless they advance above all others in virtue
who strive manfully to conquer those things which are most
grievous and contrary to them, for there a man profiteth most and
meriteth greater grace where he most overcometh himself and
mortifieth himself in spirit.
4. But all men have not the same passions to conquer and to
mortify, yet he who is diligent shall attain more profit,
although he have stronger passions, than another who is more
temperate of disposition, but is withal less fervent in the
pursuit of virtue. Two things specially avail unto improvement
in holiness, namely firmness to withdraw ourselves from the sin
to which by nature we are most inclined, and earnest zeal for
that good in which we are most lacking. And strive also very
earnestly to guard against and subdue those faults which
displease thee most frequently in others.
5. Gather some profit to thy soul wherever thou art, and wherever
thou seest or hearest good examples, stir thyself to follow them,
but where thou seest anything which is blameworthy, take heed
that thou do not the same; or if at any time thou hast done it,
strive quickly to amend thyself. As thine eye observeth others,
so again are the eyes of others upon thee. How sweet and
pleasant is it to see zealous and godly brethren temperate and of
good discipline; and how sad is it and grievous to see them
walking disorderly, not practising the duties to which they are
called. How hurtful a thing it is to neglect the purpose of their
calling, and turn their inclinations to things which are none of
6. Be mindful of the duties which thou hast undertaken, and set
always before thee the remembrance of the Crucified. Truly
oughtest thou to be ashamed as thou lookest upon the life of
Jesus Christ, because thou hast not yet endeavoured to conform
thyself more unto Him, though thou hast been a long time in the
way of God. A religious man who exercises himself seriously and
devoutly in the most holy life and passion of our Lord shall find
there abundantly all things that are profitable and necessary for
him, neither is there need that he shall seek anything better
beyond Jesus. Oh! if Jesus crucified would come into our hearts,
how quickly, and completely should we have learned all that we
need to know!
7. He who is earnest receiveth and beareth well all things that
are laid upon him. He who is careless and lukewarm hath trouble
upon trouble, and suffereth anguish upon every side, because he
is without inward consolation, and is forbidden to seek that
which is outward. He who is living without discipline is exposed
to grievous ruin. He who seeketh easier and lighter discipline
shall always be in distress, because one thing or another will
give him displeasure.
8. O! if no other duty lay upon us but to praise the Lord our God
with our whole heart and voice! Oh! if thou never hadst need to
eat or drink, or sleep, but wert always able to praise God, and
to give thyself to spiritual exercises alone; then shouldst thou
be far happier than now, when for so many necessities thou must
serve the flesh. O! that these necessities were not, but only
the spiritual refreshments of the soul, which alas we taste too
9. When a man hath come to this, that he seeketh comfort from no
created thing, then doth he perfectly begin to enjoy God, then
also will he be well contented with whatsoever shall happen unto
him. Then will he neither rejoice for much nor be sorrowful for
little, but he committeth himself altogether and with full trust
unto God, who is all in all to him, to whom nothing perisheth nor
dieth, but all things live to Him and obey His every word
10. Remember always thine end, and how the time which is lost
returneth not. Without care and diligence thou shalt never get
virtue. If thou beginnest to grow cold, it shall begin to go ill
with thee, but if thou givest thyself unto zeal thou shalt find
much peace, and shalt find thy labour the lighter because of the
grace of God and the love of virtue. A zealous and diligent
man is ready for all things. It is greater labour to resist sins
and passions than to toil in bodily labours. He who shunneth not
small faults falleth little by little into greater. At eventide
thou shalt always be glad if thou spend the day profitably.
Watch over thyself, stir thyself up, admonish thyself, and
howsoever it be with others, neglect not thyself. The more
violence thou dost unto thyself, the more thou shall profit.
(1) Psalm xxxvii. 3.
THE SECOND BOOK
ADMONITIONS CONCERNING THE INNER LIFE
Of the inward life
The kingdom of God is within you,(1) saith the Lord. Turn thee
with all thine heart to the Lord and forsake this miserable
world, and thou shalt find rest unto thy soul. Learn to despise
outward things and to give thyself to things inward, and thou
shalt see the kingdom of God come within thee. For the kingdom
of God is peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, and it is not given to
the wicked. Christ will come to thee, and show thee His
consolation, if thou prepare a worthy mansion for Him within
thee. All His glory and beauty is from within, and there it
pleaseth Him to dwell. He often visiteth the inward man and
holdeth with him sweet discourse, giving him soothing
consolation, much peace, friendship exceeding wonderful.
2. Go to, faithful soul, prepare thy heart for this bridegroom
that he may vouchsafe to come to thee and dwell within thee, for
so He saith, if any man loveth me he will keep my words: and my
Father will love him, and we will come unto him and make our
abode with him.(2) Give, therefore, place to Christ and refuse
entrance to all others. When thou hast Christ, thou art rich,
and hast sufficient. He shall be thy provider and faithful
watchman in all things, so that thou hast no need to trust in
men, for men soon change and swiftly pass away, but Christ
remaineth for ever and standeth by us firmly even to the end.
3. There is no great trust to be placed in a frail and mortal
man, even though he be useful and dear to us, neither should
much sorrow arise within us if sometimes he oppose and contradict
us. They who are on thy side to-day, may to-morrow be against
thee, and often are they turned round like the wind. Put thy
whole trust in God and let Him be thy fear and thy love, He will
answer for thee Himself, and will do for thee what is best. Here
hast thou no continuing city,(3) and wheresoever thou art, thou
art a stranger and a pilgrim, and thou shalt never have rest
unless thou art closely united to Christ within thee.
4. Why dost thou cast thine eyes hither and thither, since this
is not the place of thy rest? In heaven ought thy habitation to
be, and all earthly things should be looked upon as it were in
the passing by. All things pass away and thou equally with them.
Look that thou cleave not to them lest thou be taken with them
and perish. Let thy contemplation be on the Most High, and let
thy supplication be directed unto Christ without ceasing. If
thou canst not behold high and heavenly things, rest thou in the
passion of Christ and dwell willingly in His sacred wounds. For
if thou devoutly fly to the wounds of Jesus, and the precious
marks of the nails and the spear, thou shalt find great comfort
in tribulation, nor will the slights of men trouble thee much,
and thou wilt easily bear their unkind words.
5. Christ also, when He was in the world, was despised and
rejected of men, and in His greatest necessity was left by His
acquaintance and friends to bear these reproaches. Christ was
willing to suffer and be despised, and darest thou complain of
any? Christ had adversaries and gainsayers, and dost thou wish
to have all men thy friends and benefactors? Whence shall thy
patience attain her crown if no adversity befall thee? If thou
art unwilling to suffer any adversity, how shalt thou be the
friend of Christ? Sustain thyself with Christ and for Christ if
thou wilt reign with Christ.
6. If thou hadst once entered into the mind of Jesus, and hadst
tasted yea even a little of his tender love, then wouldst thou
care nought for thine own convenience or inconvenience, but
wouldst rather rejoice at trouble brought upon thee, because the
love of Jesus maketh a man to despise himself. He who loveth
Jesus, and is inwardly true and free from inordinate affections,
is able to turn himself readily unto God, and to rise above
himself in spirit, and to enjoy fruitful peace.
7. He who knoweth things as they are and not as they are said or
seem to be, he truly is wise, and is taught of God more than of
men. He who knoweth how to walk from within, and to set little
value upon outward things, requireth not places nor waiteth for
seasons, for holding his intercourse with God. The inward man
quickly recollecteth himself, because he is never entirely given
up to outward things. No outward labour and no necessary
occupations stand in his way, but as events fall out, so doth he
fit himself to them. He who is rightly disposed and ordered
within careth not for the strange and perverse conduct of men. A
man is hindered and distracted in so far as he is moved by
8. If it were well with thee, and thou wert purified from evil,
all things would work together for thy good and profiting. For
this cause do many things displease thee and often trouble thee,
that thou art not yet perfectly dead to thyself nor separated
from all earthly things. Nothing so defileth and entangleth the
heart of man as impure love towards created things. If thou
rejectest outward comfort thou wilt be able to contemplate
heavenly things and frequently to be joyful inwardly.
(1) Luke xvii. 21. (2) John xiv. 23. (3) Hebrews xiii. 14.
Of lowly submission
Make no great account who is for thee or against thee, but mind
only the present duty and take care that God be with thee in
whatsoever thou doest. Have a good conscience and God will defend
thee, for he whom God will help no man's perverseness shall be
able to hurt. If thou knowest how to hold thy peace and to
suffer, without doubt thou shalt see the help of the Lord. He
knoweth the time and the way to deliver thee, therefore must thou
resign thyself to Him. To God it belongeth to help and to
deliver from all confusion. Oftentimes it is very profitable for
keeping us in greater humility, that others know and rebuke our
2. When a man humbleth himself for his defects, he then easily
pacifieth others and quickly satisfieth those that are angered
against him. God protecteth and delivereth the humble man, He
loveth and comforteth the humble man, to the humble man He
inclineth Himself, on the humble He bestoweth great grace, and
when he is cast down He raiseth him to glory: to the humble He
revealeth His secrets, and sweetly draweth and inviteth him to
Himself. The humble man having received reproach, is yet in
sufficient peace, because he resteth on God and not on the world.
Reckon not thyself to have profited in anywise unless thou feel
thyself to be inferior to all.
Of the good, peaceable man
First keep thyself in peace, and then shalt thou be able to be a
peacemaker towards others. A peaceable man doth more good than a
well-learned. A passionate man turneth even good into evil and
easily believeth evil; a good, peaceable man converteth all
things into good. He who dwelleth in peace is suspicious of
none, but he who is discontented and restless is tossed with many
suspicions, and is neither quiet himself nor suffereth others to
be quiet. He often saith what he ought not to say, and omitteth
what it were more expedient for him to do. He considereth to
what duties others are bound, and neglecteth those to which he is
bound himself. Therefore be zealous first over thyself, and then
mayest thou righteously be zealous concerning thy neighbour.
2. Thou knowest well how to excuse and to colour thine own deeds,
but thou wilt not accept the excuses of others. It would be more
just to accuse thyself and excuse thy brother. If thou wilt that
others bear with thee, bear thou with others. Behold how far
thou art as yet from the true charity and humility which knows
not how to be angry or indignant against any save self alone.
It is no great thing to mingle with the good and the meek, for
this is naturally pleasing to all, and every one of us willingly
enjoyeth peace and liketh best those who think with us: but to
be able to live peaceably with the hard and perverse, or with the
disorderly, or those who oppose us, this is a great grace and a
thing much to be commended and most worthy of a man.
3. There are who keep themselves in peace and keep peace also
with others, and there are who neither have peace nor suffer
others to have peace; they are troublesome to others, but always
more troublesome to themselves. And there are who hold
themselves in peace, and study to bring others unto peace;
nevertheless, all our peace in this sad life lieth in humble
suffering rather than in not feeling adversities. He who best
knoweth how to suffer shall possess the most peace; that man is
conqueror of himself and lord of the world, the friend of Christ,
and the inheritor of heaven.
Of a pure mind and simple intention
By two wings is man lifted above earthly things, even by
simplicity and purity. Simplicity ought to be in the intention,
purity in the affection. Simplicity reacheth towards God, purity
apprehendeth Him and tasteth Him. No good action will be
distasteful to thee if thou be free within from inordinate
affection. If thou reachest after and seekest, nothing but the
will of God and the benefit of thy neighbour, thou wilt entirely
enjoy inward liberty. If thine heart were right, then should
every creature be a mirror of life and a book of holy doctrine.
There is no creature so small and vile but that it showeth us the
goodness of God.
2. If thou wert good and pure within, then wouldst thou look upon
all things without hurt and understand them aright. A pure heart
seeth the very depths of heaven and hell. Such as each one is
inwardly, so judgeth he outwardly. If there is any joy in the
world surely the man of pure heart possesseth it, and if there is
anywhere tribulation and anguish, the evil conscience knoweth it
best. As iron cast into the fire loseth rust and is made
altogether glowing, so the man who turneth himself altogether
unto God is freed from slothfulness and changed into a new man.
3. When a man beginneth to grow lukewarm, then he feareth a
little labour, and willingly accepteth outward consolation; but
when he beginneth perfectly to conquer himself and to walk
manfully in the way of God, then he counteth as nothing those
things which aforetime seemed to be so grievous unto him.
We cannot place too little confidence in ourselves, because grace
and understanding are often lacking to us. Little light is there
within us, and what we have we quickly lose by negligence.
Oftentimes we perceive not how great is our inward blindness. We
often do ill and excuse it worse. Sometimes we are moved by
passion and count it zeal; we blame little faults in others and
pass over great faults in ourselves. Quickly enough we feel and
reckon up what we bear at the hands of others, but we reflect not
how much others are bearing from us. He who would weigh well and
rightly his own doings would not be the man to judge severely of
2. The spiritually-minded man putteth care of himself before all
cares; and he who diligently attendeth to himself easily keepeth
silence concerning others. Thou wilt never be spiritually minded
and godly unless thou art silent concerning other men's matters
and take full heed to thyself. If thou think wholly upon thyself
and upon God, what thou seest out of doors shall move thee
little. Where art thou when thou art not present to thyself? and
when thou hast overrun all things, what hath it profited thee,
thyself being neglected? If thou wouldst have peace and true
unity, thou must put aside all other things, and gaze only upon
3. Then thou shalt make great progress if thou keep thyself free
from all temporal care. Thou shalt lamentably fall away if thou
set a value upon any worldly thing. Let nothing be great,
nothing high, nothing pleasing, nothing acceptable unto thee,
save God Himself or the things of God. Reckon as altogether vain
whatsoever consolation comes to thee from a creature. The soul
that loveth God looketh not to anything that is beneath God. God
alone is eternal and incomprehensible, filling all things, the
solace of the soul, and the true joy of the heart.
Of the joy of a good conscience
The testimony of a good conscience is the glory of a good man.
Have a good conscience and thou shalt ever have joy. A good
conscience is able to bear exceeding much, and is exceeding
joyful in the midst of adversities; an evil conscience is ever
fearful and unquiet. Thou shalt rest sweetly if thy heart
condemn thee not. Never rejoice unless when thou hast done well.
The wicked have never true joy, nor feel internal peace, for
there is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked.(1) And if they
say "we are in peace, there shall no harm happen unto us, and who
shall dare to do us hurt?" believe them not, for suddenly shall
the wrath of God rise up against them, and their deeds shall be
brought to nought, and their thoughts shall perish.
2. To glory in tribulation is not grievous to him who loveth; for
such glorying is glorying in the Cross of Christ. Brief is the
glory which is given and received of men. Sadness always goeth
hand in hand with the glory of the world. The glory of the good
is in their conscience, and not in the report of men. The joy of
the upright is from God and in God, and their joy is in the
truth. He who desireth true and eternal glory careth not for
that which is temporal; and he who seeketh temporal glory, or who
despiseth it from his heart, is proved to bear little love for
that which is heavenly. He who careth for neither praises nor
reproaches hath great tranquillity of heart.
3. He will easily be contented and filled with peace, whose
conscience is pure. Thou art none the holier if thou art
praised, nor the viler if thou art reproached. Thou art what
thou art; and thou canst not be better than God pronounceth thee
to be. If thou considerest well what thou art inwardly, thou
wilt not care what men will say to thee. Man looketh on the
outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart:(2) man
looketh on the deed, but God considereth the intent. It is the
token of a humble spirit always to do well, and to set little by
oneself. Not to look for consolation from any created thing is a
sign of great purity and inward faithfulness.
4. He that seeketh no outward witness on his own behalf, showeth
plainly that he hath committed himself wholly to God. For not he
that commendeth himself is approved, as St. Paul saith, but whom
the Lord commendeth.(3) To walk inwardly with God, and not to be
held by any outer affections, is the state of a spiritual man.
(1) Isaiah lvii. 21. (2) 1 Samuel xvi. 7.
(3) 2 Corinthians x. 18.
Of loving Jesus above all things
Blessed is he who understandeth what it is to love Jesus, and to
despise himself for Jesus' sake. He must give up all that he
loveth for his Beloved, for Jesus will be loved alone above all
things. The love of created things is deceiving and unstable,
but the love of Jesus is faithful and lasting. He who cleaveth
to created things will fall with their slipperiness; but he who
embraceth Jesus will stand upright for ever. Love Him and hold
Him for thy friend, for He will not forsake thee when all depart
from thee, nor will he suffer thee to perish at the last. Thou
must one day be separated from all, whether thou wilt or wilt
2. Cleave thou to Jesus in life and death, and commit thyself
unto His faithfulness, who, when all men fail thee, is alone able
to help thee. Thy Beloved is such, by nature, that He will
suffer no rival, but alone will possess thy heart, and as a king
will sit upon His own throne. If thou wouldst learn to put away
from thee every created thing, Jesus would freely take up His
abode with thee. Thou wilt find all trust little better than
lost which thou hast placed in men, and not in Jesus. Trust not
nor lean upon a reed shaken with the wind, because all flesh is
grass, and the goodliness thereof falleth as the flower of the
3. Thou wilt be quickly deceived if thou lookest only upon the
outward appearance of men, for if thou seekest thy comfort and
profit in others, thou shalt too often experience loss. If thou
seekest Jesus in all things thou shalt verily find Jesus, but if
thou seekest thyself thou shalt also find thyself, but to thine
own hurt. For if a man seeketh not Jesus he is more hurtful to
himself than all the world and all his adversaries.
(1) Isaiah xl. 6.
Of the intimate love of Jesus
When Jesus is present all is well and nothing seemeth hard, but
when Jesus is not present everything is hard. When Jesus
speaketh not within, our comfort is nothing worth, but if Jesus
speaketh but a single word great is the comfort we experience.
Did not Mary Magdalene rise up quickly from the place where she
wept when Martha said to her, The Master is come and calleth for
thee?(1) Happy hour when Jesus calleth thee from tears to the
joy of the spirit! How dry and hard art thou without Jesus! How
senseless and vain if thou desirest aught beyond Jesus! Is not
this greater loss than if thou shouldst lose the whole world?
2. What can the world profit thee without Jesus? To be without
Jesus is the nethermost hell, and to be with Jesus is sweet
paradise. If Jesus were with thee no enemy could hurt thee. He
who findeth Jesus findeth a good treasure, yea, good above all
good; and he who loseth Jesus loseth exceeding much, yea, more
than the whole world. Most poor is he who liveth without Jesus,
and most rich is he who is much with Jesus.
3. It is great skill to know how to live with Jesus, and to know
how to hold Jesus is great wisdom. Be thou humble and peaceable
and Jesus shall be with thee. Be godly and quiet, and Jesus will
remain with thee. Thou canst quickly drive away Jesus and lose
His favour if thou wilt turn away to the outer things. And if
thou hast put Him to flight and lost Him, to whom wilt thou flee,
and whom then wilt thou seek for a friend? Without a friend thou
canst not live long, and if Jesus be not thy friend above all
thou shalt be very sad and desolate. Madly therefore doest thou
if thou trusteth or findest joy in any other. It is preferable
to have the whole world against thee, than Jesus offended with
thee. Therefore of all that are dear to thee, let Jesus be
4. Let all be loved for Jesus' sake, but Jesus for His own.
Jesus Christ alone is to be specially loved, for He alone is
found good and faithful above all friends. For His sake and in
Him let both enemies and friends be dear to thee, and pray for
them all that they may all know and love Him. Never desire to be
specially praised or loved, because this belongeth to God alone,
who hath none like unto Himself. Nor wish thou that any one set
his heart on thee, nor do thou give thyself up to the love of
any, but let Jesus be in thee and in every good man.
5. Be pure and free within thyself, and be not entangled by any
created thing. Thou oughtest to bring a bare and clean heart to
God, if thou desirest to be ready to see how gracious the Lord
is. And in truth, unless thou be prevented and drawn on by His
grace, thou wilt not attain to this, that having cast out and
dismissed all else, thou alone art united to God. For when the
grace of God cometh to a man, then he becometh able to do all
things, and when it departeth then he will be poor and weak and
given up unto troubles. In these thou art not to be cast down
nor to despair, but to rest with calm mind on the will of God,
and to bear all things which come upon thee unto the praise of
Jesus Christ; for after winter cometh summer, after night
returneth day, after the tempest a great calm.
(1) John xi. 28.
Of the lack of all comfort
It is no hard thing to despise human comfort when divine is
present. It is a great thing, yea very great, to be able to bear
the loss both of human and divine comfort; and for the love of
God willingly to bear exile of heart, and in nought to seek
oneself, nor to look to one's own merit. What great matter is
it, if thou be cheerful of heart and devout when favour cometh to
thee? That is an hour wherein all rejoice. Pleasantly enough
doth he ride whom the grace of God carrieth. And what marvel, if
he feeleth no burden who is carried by the Almighty, and is led
onwards by the Guide from on high?
2. We are willing to accept anything for comfort, and it is
difficult for a man to be freed from himself. The holy martyr
Laurence overcame the love of the world and even of his priestly
master, because he despised everything in the world which seemed
to be pleasant; and for the love of Christ he calmly suffered
even God's chief priest, Sixtus, whom he dearly loved, to be
taken from him. Thus by the love of the Creator he overcame the
love of man, and instead of human comfort he chose rather God's
good pleasure. So also learn thou to resign any near and beloved
friend for the love of God. Nor take it amiss when thou hast
been deserted by a friend, knowing that we must all be parted
from one another at last.
3. Mightily and long must a man strive within himself before he
learn altogether to overcome himself, and to draw his whole
affection towards God. When a man resteth upon himself, he
easily slippeth away unto human comforts. But a true lover of
Christ, and a diligent seeker after virtue, falleth not back upon
those comforts, nor seeketh such sweetness as may be tasted and
handled, but desireth rather hard exercises, and to undertake
severe labours for Christ.
4. When, therefore, spiritual comfort is given by God, receive it
with giving of thanks, and know that it is the gift of God, not
thy desert. Be not lifted up, rejoice not overmuch nor foolishly
presume, but rather be more humble for the gift, more wary and
more careful in all thy doings; for that hour will pass away, and
temptation will follow. When comfort is taken from thee, do not
straightway despair, but wait for the heavenly visitation with
humility and patience, for God is able to give thee back greater
favour and consolation. This is not new nor strange to those who
have made trial of the way of God, for with the great saints and
the ancient prophets there was often this manner of change.
5. Wherefore one said when the favour of God was present with
him, I said in my prosperity I shall never be moved,(1) but he
goeth on to say what he felt within himself when the favour
departed: Thou didst turn Thy face from me, and I was troubled.
In spite whereof he in no wise despaireth, but the more instantly
entreateth God, and saith, Unto Thee, O Lord, will I cry, and
will pray unto my God; and then he receiveth the fruit of his
prayer, and testifieth how he hath been heard, saying, The Lord
heard me and had mercy upon me, the Lord was my helper. But
wherein? Thou hast turned my heaviness into joy, Thou hast put
off my sackcloth and girded me with gladness. If it was thus
with the great saints, we who are poor and needy ought not to
despair if we are sometimes in the warmth and sometimes in the
cold, for the Spirit cometh and goeth according to the good
pleasure of His will. Wherefore holy Job saith, Thou dost visit
him in the morning, and suddenly Thou dost prove him.(2)
6. Whereupon then can I hope, or wherein may I trust, save only
in the great mercy of God, and the hope of heavenly grace? For
whether good men are with me, godly brethren or faithful friends,
whether holy books or beautiful discourses, whether sweet hymns
and songs, all these help but little, and have but little savour
when I am deserted by God's favour and left to mine own poverty.
There is no better remedy, then, than patience and denial of
self, and an abiding in the will of God.
7. I have never found any man so religious and godly, but that he
felt sometimes a withdrawal of the divine favour, and lack of
fervour. No saint was ever so filled with rapture, so
enlightened, but that sooner or later he was tempted. For he is
not worthy of the great vision of God, who, for God's sake, hath
not been exercised by some temptation. For temptation is wont
to go before as a sign of the comfort which shall follow, and
heavenly comfort is promised to those who are proved by
temptation. As it is written, To him that overcometh I will
give to eat of the tree of life.(3)
8. Divine comfort is given that a man may be stronger to bear
adversities. And temptation followeth, lest he be lifted up
because of the benefit. The devil sleepeth not; thy flesh is not
yet dead; therefore, cease thou not to make thyself ready unto
the battle, for enemies stand on thy right hand and on thy left,
and they are never at rest.
(1) Psalm xxx. 6. (2) Job vii. 18. (3) Revelation ii. 7.
Of gratitude for the Grace of God
Why seekest thou rest when thou art born to labour? Prepare
thyself for patience more than for comforts, and for bearing the
cross more than for joy. For who among the men of this world
would not gladly receive consolation and spiritual joy if he
might always have it? For spiritual comforts exceed all the
delights of the world, and all the pleasures of the flesh. For
all worldly delights are either empty or unclean, whilst
spiritual delights alone are pleasant and honourable, the
offspring of virtue, and poured forth by God into pure minds.
But no man can always enjoy these divine comforts at his own
will, because the season of temptation ceaseth not for long.
2. Great is the difference between a visitation from above and
false liberty of spirit and great confidence in self. God doeth
well in giving us the grace of comfort, but man doeth ill in not
immediately giving God thanks thereof. And thus the gifts of
grace are not able to flow unto us, because we are ungrateful to
the Author of them, and return them not wholly to the Fountain
whence they flow. For grace ever becometh the portion of him who
is grateful and that is taken away from the proud, which is wont
to be given to the humble.
3. I desire no consolation which taketh away from me compunction,
I love no contemplation which leadeth to pride. For all that is
high is not holy, nor is everything that is sweet good; every
desire is not pure; nor is everything that is dear to us pleasing
unto God. Willingly do I accept that grace whereby I am made