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The History of England from the Accession of James II, Vol. 3 by Thomas Babington Macaulay

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FN 71 Burnet, ii. 3, 4. 15.

FN 72 ibid. ii. 5.

FN 73 "How does he do to distribute his hours,
Some to the Court, and some to the City,
Some to the State, and some to Love's powers,
Some to be vain, and some to be witty?"

The Modern Lampooners, a poem of 1690

FN 74 Burnet ii. 4

FN 75 Ronquillo calls the Whig functionaries "Gente que no tienen
practica ni experiencia." He adds, "Y de esto procede el pasarse
un mes y un otro, sin executarse nada." June 24. 1689. In one of
the innumerable Dialogues which appeared at that time, the Tory
interlocutor puts the question, "Do you think the government
would be better served by strangers to business?" The Whig
answers, "Better ignorant friends than understanding enemies."

FN 76 Negotiations de M. Le Comte d'Avaux, 4 Mars 1683; Torcy's

FN 77 The original correspondence of William and Heinsius is in
Dutch. A French translation of all William's letters, and an
English translation of a few of Heinsius's Letters, are among the
Mackintosh MSS. The Baron Sirtema de Grovestins, who has had
access to the originals, frequently quotes passages in his
"Histoire des luttes et rivalites entre les puissances maritimes
et la France." There is very little difference in substance,
though much in phraseology, between his version and that which I
have used.

FN 78 Though these very convenient names are not, as far as I
know, to be found in any book printed during the earlier years of
William's reign, I shall use them without scruple, as others have
done, in writing about the transactions of those years.

FN 79 Burnet, ii. 8.; Birch's Life of Tillotson; Life of
Kettlewell, part iii. section 62.

FN 80 Swift, writing under the name of Gregory Misosarum, most
malignantly and dishonestly represents Burnet as grudging this
grant to the Church. Swift cannot have been ignorant that the
Church was indebted for the grant chiefly to Burnet's persevering

FN 81 See the Life of Burnet at the end of the second volume of
his history, his manuscript memoirs, Harl. 6584, his memorials
touching the First Fruits and Tenths, and Somers's letter to him
on that subject. See also what Dr. King, Jacobite as he was, had
the justice to say in his Anecdotes. A most honourable testimony
to Burnet's virtues, given by another Jacobite who had attacked
him fiercely, and whom he had treated generously, the learned and
upright Thomas Baker, will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine
for August and September, 1791.

FN 82 Oldmixon would have us believe that Nottingham was not, at
this time, unwilling to give up the Test Act. But Oldmixon's
assertion, unsupported by evidence, is of no weight whatever; and
all the evidence which he produces makes against his assertion.

FN 83 Burnet, ii. 6.; Van Citters to the States General, March
1/11 1689; King William's Toleration, being an explanation of
that liberty of conscience which may be expected from His
Majesty's Declaration, with a Bill for Comprehension and
Indulgence, drawn up in order to an Act of Parliament, licensed
March 25. 1689.

FN 84 Commons' Journals, May 17. 1689.

FN 85 Sense of the subscribed articles by the Ministers of
London, 1690; Calamy's Historical Additions to Baxter's Life.

FN 86 The bill will be found among the Archives of the House of
Lords. It is strange that this vast collection of important
documents should have been altogether neglected, even by our most
exact and diligent historians. It was opened to me by one of the
most valued of my friends, Mr. John Lefevre; and my researches
were greatly assisted by the kindness of Mr. Thoms.

FN 87 Among the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library is a very
curious letter from Compton to Sancroft, about the Toleration
Bill and the Comprehension Bill, "These," says Compton, "are two
great works in which the being of our Church is concerned: and I
hope you will send to the House for copies. For, though we are
under a conquest, God has given us favour in the eyes of our
rulers; and they may keep our Church if we will." Sancroft seems
to have returned no answer.

FN 88 The distaste of the High Churchman for the Articles is the
subject of a curious pamphlet published in 1689, and entitled a
Dialogue between Timothy and Titus.

FN 89 Tom Brown says, in his scurrilous way, of the Presbyterian
divines of that time, that their preaching "brings in money, and
money buys land; and land is an amusement they all desire, in
spite of their hypocritical cant. If it were not for the
quarterly contributions, there would be no longer schism or
separation." He asks how it can be imagined that, while "they are
maintained like gentlemen by the breach they will ever preach up
healing doctrines?"--Brown's Amusements, Serious and Comical.
Some curious instances of the influence exercised by the chief
dissenting ministers may be found in Hawkins's Life of Johnson.
In the Journal of the retired citizen (Spectator, 317.) Addison
has indulged in some exquisite pleasantry on this subject. The
Mr. Nisby whose opinions about the peace, the Grand Vizier, and
laced coffee, are quoted with so much respect, and who is so well
regaled with marrow bones, ox cheek, and a bottle of Brooks and
Hellier, was John Nesbit, a highly popular preacher, who about
the time of the Revolution, became pastor of a dissenting
congregation in flare Court Aldersgate Street. In Wilson's
History and Antiquities of Dissenting Churches and Meeting Houses
in London, Westminster, and Southwark, will be found several
instances of nonconformist preachers who, about this time, made
handsome fortunes, generally, it should seem, by marriage.

FN 90 See, among many other tracts, Dodwell's Cautionary
Discourse, his Vindication of the Deprived Bishops, his Defence
of the Vindication, and his Paraenesis; and Bisby's Unity of
Priesthood, printed in 1692. See also Hody's tracts on the other
side, the Baroccian MS., and Solomon and Abiathar, a Dialogue
between Eucheres and Dyscheres.

FN 91 Burnet, ii. 135. Of all attempts to distinguish between the
deprivations of 1559 and the deprivations of 1689, the most
absurd was made by Dodwell. See his Doctrine of the Church of
England concerning the independency of the Clergy on the lay
Power, 1697.

FN 92 As to this controversy, see Burnet, ii. 7, 8, 9.; Grey's
Debates, April 19. and 22. 1689; Commons' Journals of April 20.
and 22.; Lords' Journals, April 21.

FN 93 Lords' Journals, March 16. 1689.

FN 94 Burnet, ii. 7, 8.

FN 95 Burnet says (ii. 8.) that the proposition to abolish the
sacramental test was rejected by a great majority in both Houses.
But his memory deceived him; for the only division on the subject
in the House of Commons was that mentioned in the text. It is
remarkable that Gwyn and Rowe, who were tellers for the majority,
were two of the strongest Whigs in the House.

FN 96 Lords' Journals, March 21. 1689.

FN 97 Lords' Journals, April 5. 1689; Burnet, ii. 10.

FN 98 Commons' Journals, March 28. April 1. 1689; Paris Gazette,
April 23. Part of the passage in the Paris Gazette is worth
quoting. "Il y eut, ce jour le (March 28), une grande
contestation dans la Chambre Basse, sur la proposition qui fut
faite de remettre les séences apres les fetes de Pasques
observees toujours par l'Eglise Anglicane. Les Protestans
conformistes furent de cet avis; et les Presbyterians emporterent
a la pluralite des voix que les seances recommenceroient le
Lundy, seconde feste de Pasques." The Low Churchmen are
frequently designated as Presbyterians by the French and Dutch
writers of that age. There were not twenty Presbyterians,
properly so called, in the House of Commons. See A. Smith and
Cutler's plain Dialogue about Whig and Tory, 1690.

FN 99 Accounts of what passed at the Conferences will be found in
the Journals of the Houses, and deserve to be read.

FN 100 Journals, March 28. 1689; Grey's Debates.

FN 101 I will quote some expressions which have been preserved in
the concise reports of these debates. Those expressions are quite
decisive as to the sense in which the oath was understood by the
legislators who framed it. Musgrave said, "There is no occasion
for this proviso. It cannot be imagined that any bill from hence
will ever destroy the legislative power." Pinch said, "The words
established by law, hinder not the King from passing any bill for
the relief of Dissenters. The proviso makes the scruple, and
gives the occasion for it." Sawyer said, "This is the first
proviso of this nature that ever was in any bill. It seems to
strike at the legislative power." Sir Robert Cotton said, "Though
the proviso looks well and Healing, yet it seems to imply a
defect. Not able to alter laws as occasion requires! This,
instead of one scruple, raises more, as if you were so bound up
to the ecclesiastical government that you cannot make any new
laws without such a proviso." Sir Thomas Lee said, "It will, I
fear, creep in that other laws cannot be made without such a
proviso therefore I would lay it aside."

FN 102 Lady Henrietta whom her uncle Clarendon calls "pretty
little Lady Henrietta," and "the best child in the world" (Diary,
Jan. 168-I), was soon after married to the Earl of Dalkeith,
eldest son of the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth.

FN 103 The sermon deserves to be read. See the London Gazette of
April 14. 1689; Evelyn's Diary; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; and
the despatch of the Dutch Ambassadors to the States General.

FN 104 A specimen of the prose which the Jacobites wrote on this
subject will be found in the Somers Tracts. The Jacobite verses
were generally too loathsome to be quoted. I select some of the
most decent lines from a very rare lampoon

"The eleventh of April has come about,
To Westminster went the rabble rout,
In order to crown a bundle of clouts,
a dainty fine King indeed.

"Descended he is from the Orange tree;
But, if I can read his destiny,
He'll once more descend from another tree,
a dainty fine King indeed.

"He has gotten part of the shape of a man,
But more of a monkey, deny it who can;
He has the head of a goose, but the legs of a crane,
A dainty fine King indeed."

A Frenchman named Le Noble, who had been banished from his own
country for his crimes, but, by the connivance of the police,
lurked in Paris, and earned a precarious livelihood as a
bookseller's hack published on this occasion two pasquinades, now
extremely scarce, "Le Couronnement de Guillemot et de
Guillemette, avec le Sermon du grand Docteur Burnet," and "Le
Festin de Guillemot." In wit, taste and good sense, Le Noble's
writings are not inferior to the English poem which I have
quoted. He tells us that the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of
London had a boxing match in the Abbey; that the champion rode up
the Hall on an ass, which turned restive and kicked over the
royal table with all the plate; and that the banquet ended in a
fight between the peers armed with stools and benches, and the
cooks armed with spits. This sort of pleasantry, strange to say,
found readers; and the writer's portrait was pompously engraved
with the motto "Latrantes ride: to tua fama manet."

FN 105 Reresby's Memoirs.

FN 106 For the history of the devastation of the Palatinate, see
the Memoirs of La Fare, Dangeau, Madame de la Fayette, Villars,
and Saint Simon, and the Monthly Mercuries for March and April,
1689. The pamphlets and broadsides are too numerous to quote. One
broadside, entitled "A true Account of the barbarous Cruelties
committed by the French in the Palatinate in January and February
last," is perhaps the most remarkable.

FN 107 Memoirs of Saint Simon.

FN 108 I will quote a few lines from Leopold's letter to James:
"Nunc autem quo loco res nostrae sint, ut Serenitati vestrae
auxilium praestari possit a nobis, qui non Turcico tantum bello
impliciti, sed insuper etiam crudelissimo et iniquissimo a
Gallis, rerun suarum, ut putabant, in Anglia securis, contra
datam fidem impediti sumus, ipsimet Serenitati vestrae judicandum
relinquimus . . . . Galli non tantum in nostrum et totius
Christianae orbis perniciem foedifraga arma cum juratis Sanctae
Crucis hostibus sociare fas sibi ducunt; sed etiam in imperio,
perfidiam perfidia cumulando, urbes deditione occupatas contra
datam fidem immensis tributis exhaurire exhaustas diripere,
direptas funditus exscindere aut flammis delere Palatia Principum
ab omni antiquitate inter saevissima bellorum incendia intacta
servata exurere, templa spoliare, dedititios in servitutem more
apud barbaros usitato abducere, denique passim, imprimis vero
etiam in Catholicorum ditionibus, alia horrenda, et ipsam
Turcorum tyrannidem superantia immanitatis et saevitiae exempla
edere pro ludo habent."

FN 109 See the London Gazettes of Feb. 25. March 11. April 22.
May 2. and the Monthly Mercuries. Some of the Declarations will
be found in Dumont's Corps Universel Diplomatique.

FN 110 Commons Journals, April 15. 16. 1689.

FN 111 Oldmixon.

FN 112 Commons' Journals, April 19. 24. 26. 1689.

FN 113 The Declaration is dated on the 7th of May, but was not
published in the London Gazette till the 13th.

FN 114 The general opinion of the English on this subject is
expressed in a little tract entitled "Aphorisms relating to the
of Ireland," which appeared during the vacancy of the throne.

FN 115 King's State of the Protestants of Ireland, ii. 6. and
iii. 3.

FN 116 King, iii. 3. Clarendon, in a letter to Rochester (June 1.
1686), calls Nugent "a very troublesome, impertinent creature."

FN 117 King, iii. 3.

FN 118 King, ii. 6., iii. 3. Clarendon, in a letter to Ormond
(Sep. 28.
1686), speaks highly of Nagle's knowledge and ability, but in the
Diary (Jan. 31. 1686/7) calls him "a covetous, ambitious man."

FN 119 King, ii. 5. 1, iii. 3. 5.; A Short View of the Methods
made use
of in Ireland for the Subversion and Destruction of the
Religion and Interests, by a Clergyman lately escaped from
licensed Oct. 17. 1689.

FN 120 King, iii. 2. I cannot find that Charles Leslie, who was
on the other side, has, in his Answer to King, contradicted any
these facts. Indeed Leslie gives up Tyrconnel's administration.
desire to obviate one objection which I know will be made, as if
I were
about wholly to vindicate all that the Lord Tyrconnel and other
of King
James's ministers have done in Ireland, especially before this
revolution began, and which most of any thing brought it on. No;
I am
far from it. I am sensible that their carriage in many
particulars gave
greater occasion to King James's enemies than all the other in
maladministrations which were charged upon his government."
Answer to King, 1692.

FN 121 A True and Impartial Account of the most material Passages
Ireland since December 1688, by a Gentleman who was an
licensed July 22. 1689.

FN 122 True and Impartial Account, 1689; Leslie's Answer to King,

FN 123 There have been in the neighbourhood of Killarney
specimens of
the arbutus thirty feet high and four feet and a half round. See
Philosophical Transactions, 227.

FN 124 In a very full account of the British isles published at
Nuremberg in 1690 Kerry is described as "an vielen Orten unwegsam
voller Wilder and Geburge." Wolves still infested Ireland. "Kein
schadlich Thier ist da, ausserhalb Wolff and Fuchse." So late as
year 1710 money was levied on presentments of the Grand Jury of
for the destruction of wolves in that county. See Smith's Ancient
Modern State of the County of Kerry, 1756. I do not know that I
ever met with a better book of the kind and of the size. In a
published as late as 1719, and entitled Macdermot, or the Irish
Hunter, in six cantos, wolfhunting and wolfspearing are
represented as
common sports in Munster. In William's reign Ireland was
called by the nickname of Wolfland. Thus in a poem on the battle
of La
Vogue, called Advice to a Painter, the terror of the Irish army
is thus

"A chilling damp
And Wolfland howl runs thro' the rising camp."

FN 125 Smith's Ancient and Modern State of Kerry.

FN 126 Exact Relation of the Persecutions, Robberies, and Losses,
sustained by the Protestants of Killmare in Ireland, 1689;
Ancient and Modern State of Kerry, 1756.

FN 127 Ireland's Lamentation, licensed May 18. 1689.

FN 128 A True Relation of the Actions of the Inniskilling men, by
Andrew Hamilton, Rector of Kilskerrie, and one of the Prebends of
Diocese of Clogher, an Eyewitness thereof and Actor therein,
Jan. 15. 1689/90; A Further Impartial Account of the Actions of
Inniskilling men, by Captain William Mac Cormick, one of the
first that
took up Arms, 1691.

FN 129 Hamilton's True Relation; Mac Cormick's Further Impartial

FN 130 Concise View of the Irish Society, 1822; Mr. Heath's
Account of the Worshipful Company of Grocers, Appendix 17.

FN 131 The Interest of England in the preservation of Ireland,
July 17. 1689.

FN 132 These things I observed or learned on the spot.

FN 133 The best account that I have seen of what passed at
during the war which began in 1641 is in Dr. Reid's History of
Presbyterian Church in Ireland.

FN 134 The Interest of England in the Preservation of Ireland;

FN 135 My authority for this unfavourable account of the
corporation is
an epic poem entitled the Londeriad. This extraordinary work must
been written very soon after the events to which it relates; for
it is
dedicated to Robert Rochfort, Speaker of the House of Commons;
Rochfort was Speaker from 1695 to 1699. The poet had no
invention; he
had evidently a minute knowledge of the city which he celebrated;
his doggerel is consequently not without historical value. He

"For burgesses and freemen they had chose
Broguemakers, butchers, raps, and such as those
In all the corporation not a man
Of British parents, except Buchanan."

This Buchanan is afterwards described as

"A knave all o'er
For he had learned to tell his beads before."

FN 136 See a sermon preached by him at Dublin on Jan. 31. 1669.
text is "Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the

FN 137 Walker's Account of the Siege of Derry, 1689; Mackenzie's
Narrative of the Siege of Londonderry, 1689; An Apology for the
failures charged on the Reverend Mr. Walker's Account of the late
of Derry, 1689; A Light to the Blind. This last work, a
manuscript in
the possession of Lord Fingal, is the work of a zealous Roman
and a mortal enemy of England. Large extracts from it are among
Mackintosh MSS. The date in the titlepage is 1711.

FN 138 As to Mountjoy's character and position, see Clarendon's
from Ireland, particularly that to Lord Dartmouth of Feb. 8., and
to Evelyn of Feb. 14 1685/6. "Bon officier, et homme d'esprit,"

FN 139 Walker's Account; Light to the Blind.

FN 140 Mac Cormick's Further Impartial Account.

FN 141 Burnet, i. 807; and the notes by Swift and Dartmouth.
in the Observator, repeats this idle calumny.

FN 142 The Orange Gazette, Jan. 10 1688/9.

FN 143 Memoires de Madame de la Fayette.

FN 144 Burnet, i. 808; Life of James, ii. 320.; Commons'
Journals, July
29. 1689.

FN 145 Avaux to Lewis, Mar 25/April 4 1659.

FN 146 Clarke's Life of James, ii. 321.; Mountjoy's Circular
dated Jan. 10 1688/9;; King, iv. 8. In "Light to the Blind"
"wise dissimulation" is commended.

FN 147 Avaux to Lewis April, 11. 1689.

FN 148 Printed Letter from Dublin, Feb. 25. 1689; Mephibosheth
Ziba, 1689.

FN 149 The connection of the priests with the old Irish families
mentioned in Petty's Political Anatomy of Ireland. See the Short
by a Clergyman lately escaped, 1689; Ireland's Lamentation, by an
English Protestant that lately narrowly escaped with life from
1689; A True Account of the State of Ireland, by a person who
great difficulty left Dublin, 1689; King, ii. 7. Avaux confirms
that these writers say about the Irish officers.

FN 150 At the French War Office is a report on the State of
Ireland in
February 1689. In that report it is said that the Irish who had
enlisted as soldiers were forty-five thousand, and that the
would have been a hundred thousand if all who volunteered had
admitted. See the Sad and Lamentable Condition of the Protestants
Ireland, 1689; Hamilton's True Relation, 1690; The State of
Papist and
Protestant Properties in the Kingdom of Ireland, 1689; A true
Representation to the King and People of England how Matters were
carried on all along in Ireland, licensed Aug. 16. 1689; Letter
Dublin, 1689; Ireland's Lamentation, 1689; Compleat History of
the Life
and Military Actions of Richard, Earl of Tyrconnel, Generalissimo
all the Irish forces now in arms, 1689.

FN 151 See the proceedings in the State Trials.

FN 152 King, iii. 10.

FN 153 Ten years, says the French ambassador; twenty years, says
Protestant fugitive.

FN 154 Animadversions on the proposal for sending back the
nobility and
gentry of Ireland; 1689/90.

FN 155 King, iii. 10; The Sad Estate and Condition of Ireland, as
represented in a Letter from a Worthy Person who was in Dublin on
Friday last March. 1689; Short View by a Clergyman, 1689;
of Ireland 1689; Compleat History of the Life and Actions of
Earl of Tyrconnel, 1689; The Royal Voyage, acted in 1689 and
1690. This
drama, which, I believe, was performed at Bartholomew Fair, is
one of
the most curious of a curious class of compositions, utterly
of literary merit, but valuable as showing what were then the
successful claptraps for an audience composed of the common
"The end of this play," says the author in his preface, "is
chiefly to
expose the perfidious base, cowardly, and bloody nature of the
The account which the fugitive Protestants give of the wanton
destruction of cattle is confirmed by Avaux in a letter to Lewis,
April 13/23 1689, and by Desgrigny in a letter to Louvois, dated
17/27. 1690. Most of the despatches written by Avaux during his
to Ireland are contained in a volume of which a very few copies
printed some years ago at the English Foreign Office. Of many I
also copies made at the French Foreign Office. The letters of
Desgrigny, who was employed in the Commissariat, I found in the
of the French War Office. I cannot too strongly express my sense
of the
liberality and courtesy with which the immense and admirably
storehouses of curious information at Paris were thrown open to

FN 156 "A remarkable thing never to be forgotten was that they
were in government then"--at the end of 1688--"seemed to favour
us and
endeavour to preserve Friends." history of the Rise and Progress
of the
People called Quakers in Ireland, by Wight and Rutty, Dublin,
King indeed (iii. 17) reproaches the Quakers as allies and tools
of the

FN 157 Wight and Rutty.

FN 158 Life of James, ii. 327. Orig. Mem. Macarthy and his
feigned name
are repeatedly mentioned by Dangeau.

FN 159 Exact Relation of the Persecutions, Robberies and Losses
sustained by the Protestants of Killmare in Ireland, 1689.

FN 160 A true Representation to the King and People of England
Matters were carried on all along in Ireland by the late King
licensed Aug. 16. 1689; A true Account of the Present State of
by a Person that with Great Difficulty left Dublin, licensed June

FN 161 Hamilton's Actions of the Inniskilling Men, 1689.

FN 162 Walker's Account, 1689.

FN 163 Mackenzie's Narrative; Mac Cormack's Further Impartial
Story's Impartial History of the Affairs of Ireland, 1691;
Apology for
the Protestants of Ireland; Letter from Dublin of Feb. 25. 1689;
to Lewis, April 15/25. 1689.

FN 164 Memoires de Madame de la Fayette; Madame de Sevigne to
Madame de
Grignan, Feb. 28. 1689.

FN 165 Burnet, ii. 17; Clarke's Life of James II., 320, 321, 322,

FN 166 Maumont's Instructions.

FN 167 Dangeau, Feb. 15/25 17/27 1689; Madame de Sevigne, 18/28
20/March; Memoires de Madame de la Fayette.

FN 168 Memoirs of La Fare and Saint Simon; Note of Renaudot on
affairs 1697, in the French Archives; Madame de Sevigne, Feb
2, March 11/21, 1689; Letter of Madame de Coulanges to M. de
July 23. 1691.

FN 169 See Saint Simon's account of the trick by which Avaux
tried to
pass himself off at Stockholm as a Knight of the Order of the

FN 170 This letter, written to Lewis from the harbour of Brest,
is in
the Archives of the French Foreign Office, but is wanting in the
rare volume printed in Downing Street.

FN 171 A full and true Account of the Landing and Reception of
the late
King James at Kinsale, in a letter from Bristol, licensed April
1689; Leslie's Answer to King; Ireland's Lamentation; Avaux,

FN 172 Avaux, March. 13/23 1689; Life of James, ii. 327. Orig.

FN 173 Avaux, March 15/25. 1689.

FN 174 Ibid. March 25/April 4 1689

FN 175 A full and true Account of the Landing and Reception of
the late
King James; Ireland's Lamentation; Light to the Blind.

FN 176 See the calculations of Petty, King, and Davenant. If the
average number of inhabitants to a house was the same in Dublin
as in
London, the population of Dublin would have been about thirty-

FN 177 John Damon speaks of College Green near Dublin. I have
letters of that age directed to the College, by Dublin. There are
interesting old maps of Dublin in the British Museum.

FN 178 Clarendon to Rochester, Feb. 8. 1685/6, April 20. Aug. 12.
30. 1686.

FN 179 Clarke's Life of James II, ii. 330.; Full and true Account
the Landing and Reception, &c.; Ireland's Lamentation.

FN 180 Clarendon's Diary; Reresby's Memoirs; Narcissus Luttrell's
Diary. I have followed Luttrell's version of Temple's last words.
agrees in substance with Clarendon's, but has more of the
natural on such an occasion. If anything could make so tragical
event ridiculous, it would be the lamentation of the author of

"The wretched youth against his friend exclaims,
And in despair drowns himself in the Thames."

FN 181 Much light is thrown on the dispute between the English
Irish parties in James's Council, by a remarkable letter of
Maloney to Bishop Tyrrel, which will be found in the Appendix to
State of the Protestants.

FN 182 Avaux, March 25/April 4 1689, April. But it is less from
single letter, than from the whole tendency and spirit of the
correspondence of Avaux, that I have formed my notion of his

FN 183 "Il faut donc, oubliant qu'il a este Roy d'Angleterre et
d'Escosse, ne penser qu'a ce qui peut bonifier l'Irlande, et luy
faciliter les moyens d'y subsister." Louvois to Avaux, June 3/13.

FN 184 See the despatches written by Avaux during April 1689;
Light to
the Blind.

FN 185 Avaux, April 6/16 1689.

FN 186 Avaux, May 8/18 1689.

FN 187 Pusignan to Avaux March 30/April 9 1689.

FN 188 This lamentable account of the Irish beer is taken from a
despatch which Desgrigny wrote from Cork to Louvois, and which is
the archives of the French War Office.

FN 189 Avaux, April 13/23. 1689; April 20/30,

FN 190 Avaux to Lewis, April 15/25 1689, and to Louvois, of the

FN 191 Commons' Journals, August 12. 1689; Mackenzie's Narrative.

FN 192 Avaux, April 17/27. 1689. The story of these strange
changes of
purpose is told very disingenuously in the Life of James, ii.
330, 331,
332. Orig. Mem.

FN 193 Life of James, ii. 334, 335. Orig. Mem.

FN 194 Memoirs of Saint Simon. Some English writers ignorantly
speak of
Rosen as having been, at this time, a Marshal of France. He did
become so till 1703. He had long been a Marechal de Camp, which
is a
very different thing, and had been recently promoted to the rank
Lieutenant General.

FN 195 Avaux, April 4/14 1689, Among the MSS. in the British
Museum is
a curious report on the defences of Londonderry, drawn up in 1705
the Duke of Ormond by a French engineer named Thomas.

FN 196 Commons' Journals, August 12. 1689.

FN 197 The best history of these transactions will be found in
journals of the House of Commons, August 12. 1689. See also the
narratives of Walker and Mackenzie.

FN 198 Mackenzie's Narrative,

FN 199 Walker and Mackenzie.

FN 200 See the Character of the Protestants of Ireland 1689, and
Interest of England in the Preservation of Ireland, 1689. The
pamphlet is the work of an enemy, the latter of a zealous friend.

FN 201 There was afterwards some idle dispute about the question
whether Walker was properly Governor or not. To me it seems quite
that he was so.

FN 202 Mackenzie's Narrative; Funeral Sermon on Bishop Hopkins,

FN 203 Walker's True Account, 1689. See also The Apology for the
Account, and the Vindication of the True Account, published in
the same
year. I have called this man by the name by which he was known in
Ireland. But his real name was Houstoun. He is frequently
mentioned in
the strange volume entitled Faithful Contendings Displayed.

FN 204 A View of the Danger and Folly of being publicspirited, by
William Hamill, 1721

FN 205 See Walker's True Account and Mackenzie's Narrative.

FN 206 Walker; Mackenzie; Avaux, April 26/May 6 1689. There is a
tradition among the Protestants of Ulster that Maumont fell by
sword of Murray: but on this point the report made by the French
ambassador to his master is decisive. The truth is that there are
almost as many mythical stories about the siege of Londonderry as
the siege of Troy. The legend about Murray and Maumont dates from
In the Royal Voyage which was acted in that year, the combat
the heroes is described in these sonorous lines

"They met; and Monsieur at the first encounter
Fell dead, blaspheming, on the dusty plain,
And dying, bit the ground."

FN 207 "Si c'est celuy qui est sorti de France le dernier, qui
s'appelloit Richard, il n'a jamais veu de siege, ayant toujours
en Rousillon."--Louvois to Avaux, June 8/18. 1689.

FN 208 Walker; Mackenzie; Avaux to Louvois, May 2/12. 4/14 1689;
to Hamilton, May 28/June 8 in the library of the Royal Irish
Louvois wrote to Avaux in great indignation. "La mauvaise
conduite que
l'on a tenue devant Londondery a couste la vie a M. de Maumont et
a M.
de Pusignan. Il ne faut pas que sa Majesté Britannique croye
faisant tuer des officiers generaux comme des soldats, on puisse
l'en point laisser manquer. Ces sortes de gens sont rates en tout
et doivent estre menagez."

FN 209 Walker; Mackenzie; Avaux, June 16/26 1689.

FN 210 As to the discipline of Galmoy's Horse, see the letter of
to Louvois, dated Sept. 10/30. Horrible stories of the cruelty,
both of
the colonel and of his men, are told in the Short View, by a
printed in 1689, and in several other pamphlets of that year. For
distribution of the Irish forces, see the contemporary maps of
siege. A catalogue of the regiments, meant, I suppose to rival
catalogue in the Second Book of the Iliad, will be found in the

FN 211 Life of Admiral Sir John Leake, by Stephen M. Leake,
King at Arms, 1750. Of this book only fifty copies were printed.

FN 212 Avaux, May 8/18 May 26/June 5 1689; London Gazette, May
9.; Life
of James, ii. 370.; Burchett's Naval Transactions; Commons'
May 18, 21. From the Memoirs of Madame de la Fayette it appears
this paltry affair was correctly appreciated at Versailles.

FN 213 King, iii. 12; Memoirs of Ireland from the Restoration,
Lists of both Houses will be found in King's Appendix.

FN 214 I found proof of Plowden's connection with the Jesuits in
Treasury Letterbook, June 12, 1689.

FN 215 "Sarsfield," Avaux wrote to Louvois, Oct. 11/21. 1689,
pas un homme de la naissance de mylord Galloway" (Galmoy, I
"ny de Makarty: mais c'est un gentilhomme distingue par son
merite, qui
a plus de credit dans ce royaume qu'aucun homme que je connoisse.
Il a
de la valeur, mais surtout de l'honneur et de la probite a toute
epreuve . . . homme qui sera toujours a la tete de ses troupes,
et qui
en aura grand soin." Leslie, in his Answer to King, says that the
Protestants did justice to Sarsfield's integrity and honour.
justice is done to Sarsfield even in such scurrilous pieces as
Royal Flight.

FN 216 Journal of the Parliament in Ireland, 1689. The reader
must not
imagine that this journal has an official character. It is merely
compilation made by a Protestant pamphleteer and printed in

FN 217 Life of James, ii. 355.

FN 218 Journal of the Parliament in Ireland.

FN 219 Avaux May 26/June 5 1689.

FN 220 A True Account of the Present State of Ireland, by a
Person that
with Great Difficulty left Dublin, 1689; Letter from Dublin,
dated June
12. 1689; Journal of the Parliament in Ireland.

FN 221 Life of James, ii. 361, 362, 363. In the Life it is said
the proclamation was put forth without the privity of James, but
he subsequently approved of it. See Welwood's Answer to the
Declaration, 1689.

FN 222 Light to the Blind; An Act declaring that the Parliament
England cannot bind Ireland against Writs of Error and Appeals,
in London, 1690.

FN 223 An Act concerning Appropriate Tythes and other Duties
payable to
Ecclesiastical Dignitaries. London 1690.

FN 224 An Act for repealing the Acts of Settlement and
Explanation and
all Grants, Patents, and Certificates pursuant to them or any of
London, 1690.

FN 225 See the paper delivered to James by Chief Justice Keating,
the speech of the Bishop of Meath. Both are in King's Appendix.
Life of
James, ii. 357-361.

FN 226 Leslie's Answer to King; Avaux, May 26/June 5 1689; Life
James, ii. 358.

FN 227 Avaux May 28/June 7 1689, and June 20/July 1. The author
Light to the Blind strongly condemns the indulgence shown to the
Protestant Bishops who adhered to James.

FN 228 King, iii. 11.; Brief Memoirs by Haynes, Assay Master of
Mint, among the Lansdowne MSS. at the British Museum, No. 801. I
seen several specimens of this coin. The execution is
good, all circumstances considered.

FN 229 King, iii. 12.

FN 230 An Act for the Attainder of divers Rebels and for
preserving the
Interest of loyal Subjects, London, 1690.

FN 231 King, iii. 13.

FN 232 His name is in the first column of page 30. in that
edition of
the List which was licensed March 26, 1690. I should have thought
the proscribed person must have been some other Henry Dodwell.
Bishop Kennet's second letter to the Bishop of Carlisle, 1716,
no doubt about the matter.

FN 233 A list of most of the Names of the Nobility, Gentry, and
Commonalty of England and Ireland (amongst whom are several Women
Children) who are all, by an Act of a Pretended parliament
assembled in
Dublin, attainted of High Treason, 1690; An Account of the
of the late King James in Ireland, 1690; King, iii. 13.; Memoirs
Ireland, 1716.

FN 234 Avaux July 27/Aug 6. 1689.

FN 235 King's State of the Protestants in Ireland, iii. 19.

FN 236 Ibid. iii. 15.

FN 237 Leslie's Answer to King.

FN 238 "En comparazion de lo que se hace in Irlanda con los
Protestantes, es nada." April 29/May 6 1689; "Para que vea Su
que aqui estan los Catolicos mas benignamente tratados que los
Protestantes in Irlanda." June 19/29

FN 239 Commons' Journals, June 15. 1689.

FN 240 Stat. 1 W.&M. sess. 1. c. 29.

FN 241 Grey's Debates, June 19. 1689.

FN 242 Ibid. June 22. 1689.

FN 243 Hamilton's True Relation; Mac Cormick's Further Account.
Of the
island generally, Avaux says, "On n'attend rien de cette recolte
les paysans ayant presque tous pris les armes.--Letters to
March 19/29 1689.

FN 244 Hamilton's True Relation.

FN 245 Walker.

FN 246 Walker; Mackenzie.

FN 247 Avaux, June 16/26 1689.

FN 248 Walker; Mackenzie; Light to the Blind; King, iii. 13;
Answer to King; Life of James, ii, 364. I ought to say that on
occasion King is unjust to James.

FN 249 Leslie's Answer to King; Avaux, July 5/15. 1689. "Je
l'expression bien forte: mais je ne voulois rien repondre, car le
s'estoit, desja fort emporte."

FN 250 Mackenzie.

FN 251 Walker's Account. "The fat man in Londonderry" became a
proverbial expression for a person whose prosperity excited the
and cupidity of his less fortunate neighbours.

FN 252 This, according to Narcissus Luttrell was the report made by Captain Withers, afterwards a highly distinguished officer, on
Pope wrote an epitaph.

FN 253 The despatch which positively commanded Kirke to attack
boom, was signed by Schomberg, who had already been appointed
in chief of all the English forces in Ireland. A copy of it is
the Nairne MSS. in the Bodleian Library. Wodrow, on no better
than the gossip of a country parish in Dumbartonshire, attributes
relief of Londonderry to the exhortations of a heroic Scotch
named Gordon. I am inclined to think that Kirke was more likely
to be
influenced by a peremptory order from Schomberg, than by the
eloquence of a whole synod of presbyterian divines.

FN 254 Walker; Mackenzie; Histoire de la Revolution d'Irlande,
Amsterdarn, 1691; London Gazette, Aug. 5/15; 1689; Letter of
among the Nairne MSS.; Life of Sir John Leake; The Londeriad;
Observations on Mr. Walker's Account of the Siege of Londonderry,
licensed Oct, 4. 1689.

FN 255 Avaux to Seignelay, July 18/28 to Lewis, Aug. 9/19

FN 256 "You will see here, as you have all along, that the
tradesmen of
Londonderry had more skill in their defence than the great
officers of
the Irish army in their attacks." Light to the Blind. The author
this work is furious against the Irish gunners. The boom he
would never have been broken if they had done their duty. Were
drunk? Were they traitors? He does not determine the point.
"Lord," he
exclaims, "who seest the hearts of people, we leave the judgment
this affair to thy mercy. In the interim those gunners lost

FN 257 In a collection entitled "Derriana," which was published
than sixty years ago, is a curious letter on this subject.

FN 258 Bernardi's Life of Himself, 1737.

FN 259 Hamilton's True Relation; Mac Cormick's Further Account;
Gazette, Aug. 22. 1689; Life of James, ii. 368, 369.; Avaux to
Aug. 30., and to Louvois of the same date. Story mentions a
report that
the panic among the Irish was caused by the mistake of an officer
called out "Right about face" instead of "Right face." Neither
nor James had heard any thing about this mistake. Indeed the
who set the example of flight were not in the habit of waiting
orders to turn their backs on an enemy. They had run away once
on that very day. Avaux gives a very simple account of the
defeat: "Ces
mesmes dragons qui avoient fuy le matin lascherent le pied avec
tout le
reste de la cavalerie, sans tirer un coup de pistolet; et ils
s'enfuidrent tous avec une telle epouvante qu'ils jetterent
mousquetons, pistolets, et espees; et la plupart d'eux, ayant
leurs chevaux, se deshabillerent pour aller plus viste a pied."

FN 260 Hamilton's True Relation.

FN 261 Act. Parl. Scot., Aug. 31. 1681.

FN 262 Balcarras's Memoirs; Short History of the Revolution in
Scotland in a letter from a Scotch gentleman in Amsterdam to his
friend in London, 1712.

FN 263 Balcarras's Memoirs; Life of James ii. 341.

FN 264 A Memorial for His Highness the Prince of Orange in
relation to the Affairs of Scotland, by two Persons of Quality,

FN 265 See Calvin's letter to Haller, iv. Non. Jan. 155I:
"Priusquam urbem unquam ingrederer, nullae prorsus erant feriae
praeter diem Dominicum. Ex quo sum revocatus hoc temperamentum
quaesivi, ut Christi natalis celebraretur."

FN 266 In the Act Declaration, and Testimony of the Seceders,
dated in December, 1736 it is said that "countenance is given by
authority of Parliament to the observation of holidays in
Scotland, by the vacation of our most considerable Courts of
justice in the latter end of December." This is declared to be a
national sin, and a ground of the Lord's indignation. In March
1758, the Associate Synod addressed a Solemn Warning to the
Nation, in which the same complaint was repeated. A poor crazy
creature, whose nonsense has been thought worthy of being
reprinted even in our own time, says: "I leave my testimony
against the abominable Act of the pretended Queen Anne and her
pretended British, really Brutish Parliament, for enacting the
observance of that which is called the Yule Vacancy."--The Dying
Testimony of William Wilson sometime Schoolmaster in Park, in the
Parish of Douglas, aged 68, who died in 1757.

FN 267 An Account of the Present Persecution of the Church in
Scotland, in several Letters, 1690; The Case of the afflicted
Clergy in Scotland truly represented, 1690; Faithful Contendings
Displayed; Burnet, i. 805

FN 268 The form of notice will be found in the book entitled
Faithful Contendings Displayed.

FN 269 Account of the Present Persecution, 1690; Case of the
afflicted Clergy, 1690; A true Account of that Interruption that
was made of the Service of God on Sunday last, being the 17th of
February, 1689, signed by James Gibson, acting for the Lord
Provost of Glasgow.

FN 270 Balcarras's Memoirs; Mackay's Memoirs.

FN 271 Burnet, ii. 21.

FN 272 Scobell, 1654, cap. 9., and Oliver's Ordinance in Council
of the 12th of April in the same year.

FN 273 Burnet and Fletcher of Saltoun mention the prosperity of
Scotland under the Protector, but ascribe it to a cause quite
inadequate to the production of such an effect. "There was," says
Burnet, "a considerable force of about seven or eight thousand
men kept in Scotland. The pay of the army brought so much money
into the kingdom that it continued all that while in a very
flourishing state . . . . . . We always reckon those eight years
of usurpation a time of great peace and prosperity." "During the
time of the usurper Cromwell," says Fletcher, "we imagined
ourselves to be in a tolerable condition with respect to the last
particular (trade and money) by reason of that expense which was
made in the realm by those forces that kept us in subjection."
The true explanation of the phenomenon about which Burnet and
Fletcher blundered so grossly will be found in a pamphlet
entitled "Some seasonable and modest Thoughts partly occasioned
by and partly concerning the Scotch East India Company,
Edinburgh, 1696. See the Proceedings of the Wednesday Club in
Friday Street, upon the subject of an Union with Scotland,
December 1705. See also the Seventh Chapter of Mr. Burton's
valuable History of Scotland.

FN 274 See the paper in which the demands of the Scotch
Commissioners are set forth. It will be found in the Appendix to
De Foe's History of the Union, No. 13.

FN 275 Act. Parl. Scot., July 30. 1670.

FN 276 Burnet, ii. 23.

FN 277 See, for example, a pamphlet entitled "Some questions
resolved concerning episcopal and presbyterian government in
Scotland, 1690." One of the questions is, whether Scottish
presbytery be agreeable to the general inclinations of that
people. The author answers the question in the negative, on the
ground that the upper and middle classes had generally conformed
to the episcopal Church before the Revolution.

FN 278 The instructions are in the Leven and Melville Papers.
They bear date March 7, 1688/9. On the first occasion on which I
quote this most valuable collection, I cannot refrain from
acknowledging the obligations under which I, and all who take an
interest in the history of our island, lie to the gentleman who
has performed so well the duty of an editor.

FN 279 As to the Dalrymples; see the Lord President's own
writings, and among them his Vindication of the Divine
Perfections; Wodrow's Analecta; Douglas's Peerage; Lockhart's
Memoirs; the Satyre on the Familie of Stairs; the Satyric Lines
upon the long wished for and timely Death of the Right Honourable
Lady Stairs; Law's Memorials; and the Hyndford Papers, written in
1704/5 and printed with the Letters of Carstairs. Lockhart,
though a mortal enemy of John Dalrymple, says, "There was none in
the parliament capable to take up the cudgels with him."

FN 280 As to Melville, see the Leven and Melville Papers, passim,
and the preface; the Act. Parl. Scot. June 16. 1685; and the
Appendix, June 13.; Burnet, ii. 24; and the Burnet MS. Had. 6584.

FN 281 Creichton's Memoirs.

FN 282 Mackay's Memoirs.

FN 283 Memoirs of the Lindsays.

FN 284 About the early relation between William and Dundee, some
Jacobite, many years after they were both dead, invented a story
which by successive embellishments was at last improved into a
romance which it seems strange that even a child should believe
to be true. The last edition runs thus. William's horse was
killed under him at Seneff, and his life was in imminent danger.
Dundee, then Captain Graham, mounted His Highness again. William
promised to reward this service with promotion but broke his word
and gave to another the commission which Graham had been led to
expect. The injured hero went to Loo. There he met his successful
competitor, and gave him a box on the ear. The punishment for
striking in the palace was the loss of the offending right hand;
but this punishment the Prince of Orange ungraciously remitted.
"You," he said, "saved my life; I spare your right hand: and now
we are quits."

Those who down to our own time, have repeated this nonsense seem
to have thought, first, that the Act of Henry the Eighth "for
punishment of murder and malicious bloodshed within the King's
Court" (Stat 33 Hen. VIII. c. 2.) was law in Guelders; and,
secondly, that, in 1674, William was a King, and his house a
King's Court. They were also not aware that he did not purchase
Loo till long after Dundee had left the Netherlands. See Harris's
Description of Loo, 1699.

This legend, of which I have not been able to discover the
slightest trace in the voluminous Jacobite literature of
William's reign, seems to have originated about a quarter of a
century after Dundee's death, and to have attained its full
absurdity in another quarter of a century.

FN 285 Memoirs of the Lindsays.

FN 286 Ibid.

FN 287 Burnet, ii. 22.; Memoirs of the Lindsays.

FN 288 Balcarras's Memoirs.

FN 289 Act. Parl. Scot., Mar. 14. 1689; History of the late
Revolution in Scotland, 1690; An Account of the Proceedings of
the Estates of Scotland, fol. Lond. 1689.

FN 290 Balcarras's narrative exhibits both Hamilton and Athol in
a most unfavourable light. See also the Life of James, ii. 338,

FN 291 Act. Parl. Scot., March 14. 1688/9; Balcarras's Memoirs;
History of the late Revolution in Scotland; Life of James, ii.

FN 292 Balcarras's Memoirs; History of the late Revolution in
Scotland, 1690.

FN 293 Act. Parl. Scot., March 14. and 15. 1689; Balcarras's
Memoirs; London Gazette, March 25.; History of the late
Revolution in Scotland, 1690; Account of the Proceedings of the
Estates of Scotland, 1689.

FN 294 See Cleland's Poems, and the commendatory poems contained
in the same volume, Edinburgh, 1697. It has been repeatedly
asserted that this William Cleland was the father of William
Cleland, the Commissioner of Taxes, who was well known twenty
year later in the literary society of London, who rendered some
not very reputable services to Pope, and whose son John was the
author of an infamous book but too widely celebrated. This is an
entire mistake. William Cleland, who fought at Bothwell Bridge,
was not twenty-eight when he was killed in August, 1689; and
William Cleland, the Commissioner of Taxes, died at sixty-seven
in September, 1741. The former therefore cannot have been the
father of the latter. See the Exact Narrative of the Battle of
Dunkeld; the Gentleman's Magazine for 1740; and Warburton's note
on the Letter to the Publisher of the Dunciad, a letter signed W.
Cleland, but really written by Pope. In a paper drawn up by Sir
Robert Hamilton, the oracle of the extreme Covenanters, and a
bloodthirsty ruffian, Cleland is mentioned as having been once
leagued with those fanatics, but afterwards a great opposer of
their testimony. Cleland probably did not agree with Hamilton in
thinking it a sacred duty to cut the throats of prisoners of war
who had been received to quarter. See Hamilton's Letter to the
Societies, Dec 7. 1685.

FN 295 Balcarras's Memoirs.

FN 296 Balcarras's Memoirs. But the fullest account of these
proceedings is furnished by some manuscript notes which are in
the library of the Faculty of Advocates. Balcarras's dates are
not quite exact. He probably trusted to his memory for them. I
have corrected them from the Parliamentary Records.

FN 297 Act. Parl. Scot., Mar. 16. 1688/9; Balcarras's Memoirs;
History of the late Revolution in Scotland, 1690; Account of the
Proceedings of the Estates of Scotland, 1689; London Gaz., Mar.
25. 1689; Life of James, ii. 342. Burnet blunders strangely about
these transactions.

FN 298 Balcarras's Memoirs; MS. in the Library of the Faculty of

FN 299 Act. Parl. Scot., Mar. 19. 1688/9; History of the late
Revolution in Scotland, 1690.

FN 300 Balcarras.

FN 301 Ibid.

FN 302 Act. Parl. Scot.; History of the late Revolution, 1690;
Memoirs of North Britain, 1715.

FN 303 Balcarras.

FN 304 Every reader will remember the malediction which Sir
Walter Scott, in the Fifth Canto of Marmion, pronounced on the
dunces who removed this interesting monument.

FN 305 "It will be neither secuir nor kynd to the King to expect
it be (by) Act of Parliament after the settlement, which will lay
it at his door."--Dalrymple to Melville, 5 April, 1689; Leven and
Melville Papers.

FN 306 There is a striking passage on this subject in Fortescue.

FN 307 Act. Parl. Scot., April 1 1689; Orders of Committee of
Estates, May 16. 1689; London Gazette, April 11

FN 308 As it has lately been denied that the extreme
Presbyterians entertained an unfavourable opinion of the
Lutherans, I will give two decisive proof of the truth of what I
have asserted in the text. In the book entitled Faithful
Contendings Displayed is a report of what passed at the General
Meeting of the United Societies of Covenanters on the 24th of
October 1688. The question was propounded whether there should be
an association with the Dutch. "It was concluded unanimously,"
says the Clerk of the Societies, "that we could not have an
association with the Dutch in one body, nor come formally under
their conduct, being such a promiscuous conjunction of reformed
Lutheran malignants and sectaries, to loin with whom were
repugnant to the testimony of the Church of Scotland." In the
Protestation and Testimony drawn up on the 2nd of October 1707,
the United Societies complain that the crown has been settled on
"the Prince of Hanover, who has been bred and brought up in the
Lutheran religion which is not only different from, but even in
many things contrary unto that purity in doctrine, reformation,
and religion, we in these nations had attained unto, as is very
well known." They add "The admitting such a person to reign over
us is not only contrary to our solemn League and Covenant, but to
the very word of God itself, Deut. xvii."

FN 309 History of the late Revolution in Scotland; London
Gazette, May 16, 1689. The official account of what passed was
evidently drawn up with great care. See also the Royal Diary,
1702. The writer of this work professes to have derived his
information from a divine who was present.

FN 310 See Crawford's Letters and Speeches, passim. His style of
begging for a place was peculiar. After owning, not without
reason, that his heart was deceitful and desperately wicked, he
proceeded thus: "The same Omnipotent Being who hath said, when
the poor and needy seek water and there is none, and their tongue
faileth for thirst, he will not forsake them; notwithstanding of
my present low condition, can build me a house if He think fit."-
-Letter to Melville, of May 28. 1689. As to Crawford's poverty
and his passion for Bishops' lands, see his letter to Melville of
the 4th of December 1690. As to his humanity, see his letter to
Melville, Dec 11 1690. All these letters are among the Leven and
Melville Papers, The author of An Account of the Late
Establishment of Presbyterian Government says of a person who had
taken a bribe of ten or twelve pounds, "Had he been as poor as my
Lord Crawford, perhaps he had been the more excusable." See also
the dedication of the celebrated tract entitled Scotch
Presbyterian Eloquence Displayed.

FN 311 Burnet, ii. 23. 24.; Fountainhall Papers, 73, Aug, 1684;
14. and 15. Oct. 1684; 3. May, 1685; Montgomery to Melville, June
22. 1689, in the Leven and Melville Papers; Pretences of the
French Invasion Examined; licensed May 25. 1692.

FN 312 See the Life and Correspondence of Carstairs, and the
interesting memorials of him in the Caldwell Papers, printed
1854. See also Mackay's character of him, and Swift's note.
Swift's word is not to be taken against a Scotchman and a
Presbyterian. I believe, however, that Carstairs, though an
honest and pious man in essentials, had his full share of the
wisdom of the serpent.

FN 313 Sir John Dalrymple to Lord Melville, June 18. 20 25. 1689;
Leven and Melville Papers.

FN 314 There is an amusing description of Sir Patrick in the
Hyndford MS., written about 1704, and printed among the Carstairs
Papers. "He is a lover of set speeches, and can hardly give
audience to private friends without them."

FN 315 "No man, though not a member, busier than Saltoun."--
Lockhart to Melville, July 11 1689; Leven and Melville Papers.
See Fletcher's own works, and the descriptions of him in
Lockhart's and Mackay's Memoirs.

FN 316 Dalrymple says, in a letter of the 5th of June, "All the
malignant, for fear, are come into the Club; and they all vote

FN 317 Balcarras.

FN 318 Captain Burt's Letters from Scotland.

FN 319 "Shall I tire yon with a description of this unfruitful
country, where I must lead you over their hills all brown with
heath, or their valleys scarce able to feed a rabbit. . . , Every
part of the country presents the same dismal landscape. No grove
or brook lend their music to cheer the stranger,"--Goldsmith to
Bryanton, Edinburgh, Sept. 26. 1753. In a letter written soon
after from Leyden to the Reverend Thomas Contarine, Goldsmith
says, "I was wholly taken up in observing the face of the
country, Nothing can equal its beauty. Wherever I turned my eye,
fine houses, elegant gardens, statues, grottos, vistas presented
themselves, Scotland and this country bear the highest contrast:
there, hills and rocks intercept every prospect; here it is all a
continued plain." See Appendix C, to the First Volume of Mr.
Forster's Life of Goldsmith,

FN 320 Northern Memoirs, by R. Franck Philanthropus, 1690. The
author had caught a few glimpses of Highland scenery, and speaks
of it much as Burt spoke in the following generation: "It is a
part of the creation left undressed; rubbish thrown aside when
the magnificent fabric of the world was created; as void of form
as the natives are indigent of morals and good manners."

FN 321 Journey through Scotland, by the author of the Journey
through England, 1723.

FN 322 Almost all these circumstances are taken from Burt's
Letters. For the tar, I am indebted to Cleland's poetry. In his
verses on the "Highland Host" he says

"The reason is, they're smeared with tar,
Which doth defend their head and neck,
Just as it doth their sheep protect."

FN 323 A striking illustration of the opinion which was
entertained of the Highlander by his Lowland neighbours, and
which was by them communicated to the English, will be found in a
volume of Miscellanies published by Afra Behn in 1685. One of the
most curious pieces in the collection is a coarse and profane
Scotch poem entitled, "How the first Hielandman was made." How
and of what materials he was made I shall not venture to relate.
The dialogue which immediately follows his creation may be
quoted, I hope, without much offence.

"Says God to the Hielandman, 'Quhair wilt thou now?'
'I will down to the Lowlands, Lord, and there steal a cow.'
'Ffy,' quod St. Peter, 'thou wilt never do weel,
'An thou, but new made, so sane gaffs to steal.'
'Umff,' quod the Hielandman, and swore by yon kirk,
'So long as I may geir get to steal, will I nevir work."'

Another Lowland Scot, the brave Colonel Cleland, about the same
time, describes the Highlander in the same manner

"For a misobliging word
She'll dirk her neighbour o'er the board.
If any ask her of her drift,
Forsooth, her nainself lives by theft."

Much to the same effect are the very few words which Franck
Philanthropus (1694) spares to the Highlanders: "They live like
lauds and die like loons, hating to work and no credit to borrow:
they make depredations and rob their neighbours." In the History
of the Revolution in Scotland, printed at Edinburgh in 1690, is
the following passage: "The Highlanders of Scotland are a sort of
wretches that have no other consideration of honour, friendship,
obedience, or government, than as, by any alteration of affairs
or revolution in the government, they can improve to themselves
an opportunity of robbing or plundering their bordering

FN 324 Since this passage was written I was much pleased by
finding that Lord Fountainhall used, in July 1676, exactly the
same illustration which had occurred to me. He says that
"Argyle's ambitious grasping at the mastery of the Highlands and
Western Islands of Mull, Ila, &c. stirred up other clans to enter
into a combination for hearing him dowse, like the confederat
forces of Germanic, Spain, Holland, &c., against the growth of
the French."

FN 325 In the introduction to the Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron is
a very sensible remark: "It may appear paradoxical: but the
editor cannot help hazarding the conjecture that the motives
which prompted the Highlanders to support King James were
substantially the same as those by which the promoters of the
Revolution were actuated." The whole introduction, indeed, well
deserves to be read.

FN 326 Skene's Highlanders of Scotland; Douglas's Baronage of

FN 327 See the Memoirs of the Life of Sir Ewan Cameron, and the
Historical and Genealogical Account of the Clan Maclean, by a
Senachie. Though this last work was published so late as 1838,
the writer seems to have been inflamed by animosity as fierce as
that with which the Macleans of the seventeenth century regarded
the Campbells. In the short compass of one page the Marquess of
Argyle is designated as "the diabolical Scotch Cromwell," "the
vile vindictive persecutor," "the base traitor," and "the Argyle
impostor." In another page he is "the insidious Campbell, fertile
in villany," "the avaricious slave," "the coward of Argyle" and
"the Scotch traitor." In the next page he is "the base and
vindictive enemy of the House of Maclean" "the hypocritical
Covenanter," "the incorrigible traitor," "the cowardly and
malignant enemy." It is a happy thing that passions so violent
can now vent themselves only in scolding.

FN 328 Letter of Avaux to Louvois, April 6/16 1689, enclosing a
paper entitled Memoire du Chevalier Macklean.

FN 329 See the singularly interesting Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron
of Lochiel, printed at Edinburgh for the Abbotsford Club in 1842.
The MS. must have been at least a century older. See also in the
same volume the account of Sir Ewan's death, copied from the
Balhadie papers. I ought to say that the author of the Memoirs of
Sir Ewan, though evidently well informed about the affairs of the
Highlands and the characters of the most distinguished chiefs,
was grossly ignorant of English politics and history. I will
quote what Van Litters wrote to the States General about Lochiel,
Nov 26/Dec 6 1689: "Sir Evan Cameron, Lord Locheale, een man,--
soo ik hoor van die hem lange gekent en dagelyk hebben mede
omgegaan,--van so groot verstant, courage, en beleyt, als
weyniges syns gelycke syn."

FN 330 Act. Parl., July 5. 1661.

FN 331 See Burt's Third and Fourth Letters. In the early editions
is an engraving of the market cross of Inverness, and of that
part of the street where the merchants congregated. I ought here
to acknowledge my obligations to Mr. Robert Carruthers, who
kindly furnished me with much curious information about Inverness
and with some extracts from the municipal records.

FN 332 I am indebted to Mr. Carruthers for a copy of the demands
of the Macdonalds and of the answer of the Town Council.

FN 333 Colt's Deposition, Appendix to the Act. Parl of July 14.

FN 334 See the Life of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 335 Balcarras's Memoirs; History of the late Revolution in

FN 336 There is among the Nairne Papers in the Bodleian Library a
curious MS. entitled "Journal de ce qui s'est passe en Irlande
depuis l'arrivee de sa Majeste." In this journal there are notes
and corrections in English and French; the English in the
handwriting of James, the French in the handwriting of Melfort.
The letters intercepted by Hamilton are mentioned, and mentioned
in a way which plainly shows that they were genuine; nor is there
the least sign that James disapproved of them.

FN 337 "Nor did ever," says Balcarras, addressing James, "the
Viscount of Dundee think of going to the Highlands without
further orders from you, till a party was sent to apprehend him."

FN 338 See the narrative sent to James in Ireland and received by
him July 7, 1689. It is among the Nairne Papers. See also the
Memoirs of Dundee, 1714; Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron; Balcarras's
Memoirs; Mackay's Memoirs. These narratives do not perfectly
agree with each other or with the information which I obtained
from Inverness.

FN 339 Memoirs of Dundee; Tarbet to Melville, 1st June 7688, in
the Levers and Melville Papers.

FN 340 Narrative in the Nairne Papers; Depositions of Colt,
Osburne, Malcolm, and Stewart of Ballachan in the Appendix to the
Act. Parl. of July 14. 1690; Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron. A few
touches I have taken from an English translation of some passages
in a lost epic poem written in Latin, and called the Grameis. The
writer was a zealous Jacobite named Phillipps. I have seldom made
use of the Memoirs of Dundee, printed in 1714, and never without
some misgiving. The writer was certainly not, as he pretends, one
of Dundee's officers, but a stupid and ignorant Grub Street
garreteer. He is utterly wrong both as to the place and as to the
time of the battle of Killiecrankie. He says that it was fought
on the banks of the Tummell, and on the 13th of June. It was
fought on the banks of the Garry, and on the 27th of July. After
giving such a specimen of inaccuracy as this, it would be idle to
point out minor blunders.

FN 341 From a letter of Archibald Karl of Argyle to Lauderdale,
which bears date the 25th of June, 1664, it appears that a
hundred thousand marks Scots, little more than five thousand
pounds sterling, would, at that time, have very nearly satisfied
all the claims of Mac Callum More on his neighbours.

FN 342 Mackay's Memoirs; Tarbet to Melville, June 1, 1689, in the
Leven and Melville Papers; Dundee to Melfort, June 27, in the
Nairne Papers,

FN 343 See Mackay's Memoirs, and his letter to Hamilton of the
14th of June, 1689.

FN 344 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 345 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 346 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 347 Dundee to Melfort, June 27. 1689.

FN 348 See Faithful Contendings Displayed, particularly the
proceedings of April 29. and 30. and of May 13. and 14., 1689;
the petition to Parliament drawn up by the regiment, on July 18.
1689; the protestation of Sir Robert Hamilton of November 6.
1689; and the admonitory Epistle to the Regiment, dated March 27.
1690. The Society people, as they called themselves, seem to have
been especially shocked by the way in which the King's birthday
had been kept. "We hope," they wrote, "ye are against observing
anniversary days as well as we, and that ye will mourn for what
ye have done." As to the opinions and temper of Alexander
Shields, see his Hind Let Loose.

FN 349 Siege of the Castle of Edinburgh, printed for the
Bannatyne Club; Lond. Gaz,, June 10/20. 1689.

FN 350 Act. Parl. Scot., June 5. June 17. 1689.

FN 351 The instructions will be found among the Somers Tracts.

FN 352 As to Sir Patrick's views, see his letter of the 7th of
June, and Lockhart's letter of the 11th of July, in the Leven and
Melville Papers.

FN 353 My chief materials for the history of this session have
been the Acts, the Minutes, and the Leven and Melville Papers.

FN 354 "Athol," says Dundee contemptuously, "is gone to England,
who did not know what to do."--Dundee to Melfort, June 27. 1689.
See Athol's letters to Melville of the 21st of May and the 8th of
June, in the Leven and Melville Papers.

FN 355 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 356 Mackay's Memoirs.

FN 357 Ibid.

FN 358 Van Odyck to the Greffier of the States General, Aug. 2/12

FN 359 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 360 Balcarras's Memoirs.

FN 361 Mackay's Short Relation, dated Aug. 17. 1689.

FN 362 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 363 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron; Mackay's Memoirs.

FN 364 Douglas's Baronage of Scotland.

FN 365 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 366 Memoirs of Sir Swan Cameron.

FN 367 As to the battle, see Mackay's Memoirs Letters, and Short
Relation the Memoirs of Dundee; Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron;
Nisbet's and Osburne's depositions in the Appendix to the Act.
Parl. Of July 14. 1690. See also the account of the battle in one
of Burt's Letters. Macpherson printed a letter from Dundee to
James, dated the day after the battle. I need not say that it is
as impudent a forgery as Fingal. The author of the Memoirs of
Dundee says that Lord Leven was scared by the sight of the
highland weapons, and set the example of flight. This is a
spiteful falsehood. That Leven behaved remarkably well is proved
by Mackay's Letters, Memoirs, and Short Relation.

FN 368 Mackay's Memoirs. Life of General Hugh Mackay by J. Mackay
of Rockfield.

FN 369 Letter of the Extraordinary Ambassadors to the Greffier of
the States General, August 2/12. 1689; and a letter of the same
date from Van Odyck, who was at Hampton Court.

FN 370 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron; Memoirs of Dundee.

FN 371 The tradition is certainly much more than a hundred and
twenty years old. The stone was pointed out to Burt.

FN 372 See the History prefixed to the poems of Alexander
Robertson. In this history he is represented as having joined
before the battle of Killiecrankie. But it appears from the
evidence which is ín the Appendix to the Act. Parl. Scot. of July
14. 1690, that he came in on the following day.

FN 373 Mackay's Memoirs.

FN 374 Mackay's Memoirs; Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 375 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 376 Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 377 See Portland's Letters to Melville of April 22 and May 15.
1690, in the Leven and Melville Papers.

FN 378 Mackay's Memoirs; Memoirs of Sir Ewan Cameron.

FN 379 Exact Narrative of the Conflict at Dunkeld between the
Earl of Angus's Regiment and the Rebels, collected from several
Officers of that Regiment who were Actors in or Eyewitnesses of
all that's here narrated in Reference to those Actions; Letter of
Lieutenant Blackader to his brother, dated Dunkeld, Aug. 21.
1689; Faithful Contendings Displayed; Minute of the Scotch Privy
Council of Aug. 28., quoted by Mr. Burton.

FN 380 The history of Scotland during this autumn will be best
studied in the Leven and Melville Papers.

FN 381 See the Lords' Journals of Feb. 5. 1688 and of many
subsequent days; Braddon's pamphlet, entitled the Earl of Essex's
Memory and Honour Vindicated, 1690; and the London Gazettes of
July 31. and August 4. and 7. 1690, in which Lady Essex and
Burnet publicly contradicted Braddon.

FN 382 Whether the attainder of Lord Russell would, if
unreversed, have prevented his son from succeeding to the earldom
of Bedford is a difficult question. The old Earl collected the
opinions of the greatest lawyers of the age, which may still be
seen among the archives at Woburn. It is remarkable that one of
these opinions is signed by Pemberton, who had presided at the
trial. This circumstance seems to prove that the family did not
impute to him any injustice or cruelty; and in truth he had
behaved as well as any judge, before the Revolution, ever behaved
on a similar occasion.

FN 383 Grey's Debates, March 1688/9.

FN 384 The Acts which reversed the attainders of Russell Sidney,
Cornish, and Alice Lisle were private Acts. Only the titles
therefore are printed in the Statute Book; but the Acts will he
found in Howell's Collection of State Trials.

FN 385 Commons' Journals, June 24. 1689.

FN 386 Johnson tells this story himself in his strange pamphlet
entitled, Notes upon the Phoenix Edition of the Pastoral Letter,

FN 387 Some Memorials of the Reverend Samuel Johnson, prefixed to
the folio edition of his works, 1710.

FN 388 Lords' Journals, May 15. 1689.

FN 389 North's Examen, 224. North's evidence is confirmed by
several contemporary squibs in prose and verse. See also the
eikon Brotoloigon, 1697.

FN 390 Halifax MS. in the British Museum.

FN 391 Epistle Dedicatory to Oates's eikon Basiliki

FN 392 In a ballad of the time are the following lines

"Come listen, ye Whigs, to my pitiful moan,
All you that have ears, when the Doctor has none."

These lines must have been in Mason's head when he wrote the

"Witness, ye Hills, ye Johnsons, Scots, Shebbeares;
Hark to my call: for some of you have ears."

FN 393 North's Examen, 224. 254. North says "six hundred a year."
But I have taken the larger sum from the impudent petition which
Gates addressed to the Commons, July 25. 1689. See the Journals.

FN 394 Van Citters, in his despatches to the States General, uses
this nickname quite gravely.

FN 395 Lords' Journals, May 30. 1689.

FN 396 Lords' Journals, May 31. 1689; Commons' Journals, Aug. 2.;
North's Examen, 224; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 397 Sir Robert was the original hero of the Rehearsal, and was
called Bilboa. In the remodelled Dunciad, Pope inserted the lines

"And highborn Howard, more majestic sire,
With Fool of Quality completes the quire."

Pope's highborn Howard was Edward Howard, the author of the
British Princes.

FN 398 Key to the Rehearsal; Shadwell's Sullen Lovers; Pepys, May
5. 8. 1668; Evelyn, Feb. 16. 1684/5.

FN 399 Grey's Debates and Commons' Journals, June 4. and 11 1689.

FN 400 Lords' Journals, June 6. 1689.

FN 401 Commons' Journals, Aug. 2. 1689; Dutch Ambassadors
Extraordinary to the States General, July 30/Aug 9

FN 402 Lords' Journals, July 30. 1689; Narcissus Luttrell's
Diary; Clarendon's Diary, July 31. 1689.

FN 403 See the Commons' Journals of July 31. and August 13 1689.

FN 404 Commons' Journals, Aug. 20

FN 405 Oldmixon accuses the Jacobites, Barnet the republicans.
Though Barnet took a prominent part in the discussion of this
question, his account of what passed is grossly inaccurate. He
says that the clause was warmly debated in the Commons, and that
Hampden spoke strongly for it. But we learn from the journals
(June 19 1689) that it was rejected nemine contradicente. The
Dutch Ambassadors describe it as "een propositie 'twelck geen
ingressie schynt te sullen vinden."

FN 406 London Gazette, Aug. 1. 1689; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 407 The history of this Bill may be traced in the journals of
the two Houses, and in Grey's Debates.

FN 408 See Grey's Debates, and the Commons' Journals from March
to July. The twelve categories will be found in the journals of
the 23d and 29th of May and of the 8th of June.

FN 409 Halifax MS. in the British Museum.

FN 410 The Life and Death of George Lord Jeffreys; Finch's speech
in Grey's Debates, March 1. 1688/9.

FN 411 See, among many other pieces, Jeffreys's Elegy, the Letter
to the Lord Chancellor exposing to him the sentiments of the
people, the Elegy on Dangerfield, Dangerfield's Ghost to
Jeffreys, The Humble Petition of Widows and fatherless Children
in the West, the Lord Chancellor's Discovery and Confession made
in the lime of his sickness in the Tower; Hickeringill's
Ceremonymonger; a broadside entitled "O rare show! O rare sight!
O strange monster! The like not in Europe! To be seen near Tower
Hill, a few doors beyond the Lion's den."

FN 412 Life and Death of George Lord Jeffreys,

FN 413 Tutchin himself gives this narrative in the Bloody

FN 414 See the Life of Archbishop Sharp by his son. What passed
between Scott and Jeffreys was related by Scott to Sir Joseph
Jekyl. See Tindal's History; Echard, iii. 932. Echard's
informant, who is not named, but who seems to have had good
opportunities of knowing the truth, said that Jeffreys died, not,
as the vulgar believed, of drink, but of the stone. The
distinction seems to be of little importance. It is certain that
Jeffreys was grossly intemperate; and his malady was one which
intemperance notoriously tends to aggravate.

FN 415 See a Full and True Account of the Death of George Lord
Jeffreys, licensed on the day of his death. The wretched Le Noble
was never weary of repeating that Jeffreys was poisoned by the
usurper. I will give a short passage as a specimen of the
calumnies of which William was the object. "Il envoya," says
Pasquin "ce fin ragout de champignons au Chancelier Jeffreys,
prisonnier dans la Tour, qui les trouva du meme goust, et du mmee
assaisonnement que furent les derniers dont Agrippine regala le
bon-homme Claudius son epoux, et que Neron appella depuis la
viande des Dieux." Marforio asks: "Le Chancelier est donc mort
dans la Tour?" Pasquin answers: "Il estoit trop fidele a son Roi
legitime, et trop habile dans les loix du royaume, pour echapper
a l'Usurpateur qu'il ne vouloit point reconnoistre. Guillemot
prit soin de faire publier que ce malheureux prisonnier estoit
attaque du'ne fievre maligne; mais, a parler franchement, i1
vivroit peutestre encore s'i1 n'avoit rien mange que de la main
de ses anciens cuisiniers."--Le Festin de Guillemot, 1689.
Dangeau (May q.) mentions a report that Jeffreys had poisoned

FN 416 Among the numerous pieces in which the malecontent Whigs
vented their anger, none is more curious than the poem entitled
the Ghost of Charles the Second. Charles addresses William thus:

"Hail my blest nephew, whom the fates ordain
To fill the measure of the Stuart's reign,
That all the ills by our whole race designed
In thee their full accomplishment might find
'Tis thou that art decreed this point to clear,
Which we have laboured for these fourscore year."

FN 417 Grey's Debates, June 12 1689.

FN 418 See Commons' Journals, and Grey's Debates, June 1. 3. and
4. 1689; Life of William, 1704.

FN 419 Barnet MS. Harl. 6584.; Avaux to De Croissy, June 16/26

FN 420 As to the minutes of the Privy Council, see the Commons'
Journals of June 22. and 28., and of July 3. 5. 13. and 16.

FN 421 The letter of Halifax to Lady Russell is dated on the 23d
of July 1689, about a fortnight after the attack on him in the
Lords, and about a week before the attack on him in the Commons.

FN 422 See the Lords' Journals of July 10. 1689, and a letter
from London dated July 11/21, and transmitted by Croissy to
Avaux. Don Pedro de Ronquillo mentions this attack of the Whig
Lords on Halifax in a despatch of which I cannot make out the

FN 423 This was on Saturday the 3d of August. As the division was
in Committee, the numbers do not appear in the journals.
Clarendon, in his Diary, says that the majority was eleven. But
Narcissus Luttrell, Oldmixon, and Tindal agree in putting it at
fourteen. Most of the little information which I have been able
to find about the debate is contained in a despatch of Don Pedro
de Ronquillo. "Se resolvio" he says, "que el sabado, en comity de
toda la casa, se tratasse del estado de la nation para
representarle al Rey. Emperose por acusar al Marques de Olifax; y
reconociendo sus emulos que no tenian partido bastante, quisieron
remitir para otro dia esta motion: pero el Conde de Elan,
primogenito del Marques de Olifax, miembro de la casa, les dijo
que su padre no era hombre para andar peloteando con el, y que se
tubiesse culpa lo acabasen de castigar, que el no havia menester
estar en la corte para portarse conforme a su estado, pues Dios
le havia dado abundamente para poderlo hazer; conque por
pluralidad de votes vencio su partido." I suspect that Lord Eland
meant to sneer at the poverty of some of his father's
persecutors, and at the greediness of others.

FN 424 This change of feeling, immediately following the debate
on the motion for removing Halifax, is noticed by Ronquillo,

FN 425 As to Ruvigny, see Saint Simon's Memoirs of the year 1697:
Burnet, i. 366. There is some interesting information about
Ruvigny and about the Huguenot regiments in a narrative written
by a French refugee of the name of Dumont. This narrative, which
is in manuscript, and which I shall occasionally quote as the
Dumont MS., was kindly lent to me by the Dean of Ossory.

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