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The History of Australian Exploration from 1788 to 1888 by Ernest Favenc

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Carstens, Captain Jan--
With the yachts PERA and ARNHEIM, landed on the coast of New Guinea, and
was murdered with eight of his crew. The vessels proceeded on their
voyage, and touched on the north coast of New Holland, still known as
Arnheim's Land. 1623.

Cayley, George--
A botanist, sent out by Sir Joseph Banks, from Kew Gardens; attempted
exploration over the Blue Mountains. 1803.

"Champion" (The)--
Schooner, examined the west coast for any rivers with navigable
entrances, in view of settlement. Captain Stokes, of the BEAGLE, gave so
unfavourable a report of that part of the coast that its immediate
settlement was postponed. 1839.

"Chatham" (The) and "Discovery"--
Vessels under command of Captain George Vancouver when he explored the
south-west coast and discovered King George's Sound. 1791.

"Chesterfield" (The) and "Hormuzeer"--
Under command of Matthew B. Alt and William Bampton, through Torres
Straits. 1793.

Clarkson, B.--
With Messrs. Dempster and Harper, make a trial to the eastward. 1861.

Collins, Lieutenant-Governor Daniel--
From England with H.M.S. CALCUTTA and OCEAN to form a penal settlement at
Port Phillip. Deciding that the place was unfit for settlement they
proceeded to Tasmania, where all were killed at Hobart Town. 1803-4.

Landed at the De Grey River, and settled on country found by F. Gregory.

Cook, Captain James--
In the ENDEAVOUR, landed at Botany Bay; carefully surveyed the east coast
to Cape York, naming nearly all the principal capes and bays. At
Possession Island he formally took possession of the continent, in the
name of King George the Third, under the name of New South Wales. 1770.

Completed road over Blue Mountains to Bathurst. 1815.

Crozet, Captain--
With Captain Marion du Fresne, in the ships MASCARIN and CASTRES to
Tasmania, the first visitors after Tasman. Thence to New Zealand, where
they were murdered by the Maories. 1772.

Curry, Captain--
With Major Ovens, to Lake George; discovered Monaroo Plains and the
Morumbidgee. 1823.

Cunningham, Allan--
Found "Pandora's Pass"--a practical stock route to Liverpool Plains.

Journeying by way of Pandora's Pass, which he had before discovered,
examined the tableland to the north of Bathurst. 1825.

To Darling Downs--one of his most, eventful trips. Discovers the Darling
Downs, the Dumaresque, Gwydir, and Condamine Rivers, &c. 1827.

Accompanied by Charles Fraser, proceeded by sea to Moreton Bay, and
connected the settlement with the Darling Downs by way of Cunningham's
Gap. 1828.

His last expedition. Explores the source of the Brisbane River. 1829.

Died in Sydney. 1839. [See Appendix.]

Cunningham, E.--
And Messrs. Somer, Stenhouse, Allingharn and Miles explore the Upper
Burdekin, and discover good pastoral country on the many tributaries of
that river. 1860.

Cunningham, Richard--
Botanist (brother to Allan Cunningham), accompanied Sir Thomas Mitchell's
second expedition. While still on the outskirts of settlement, leaving
the party on some scientific quest, he lost his way, and was never again
seen. A long search was made for him, and eventually his fate was
ascertained from the blacks. [See Appendix.] 1833.

"Cygnet" (The)--
With Dampier and crew of buccaneers, visited the northwest coast of New
Holland. 1688.

From the Upper Swan River, Western Australia. Followed up the Avon. 1830.

Dalrymple, G. E.--
Penetrated the coast country north of Rockhampton, and discovered the
main tributaries of the Lower Burdekin, the Bowen, and Bogie Rivers.

Ascending the coast range, reached the upper waters of the Burdekin, and
discovered the Valley of Lagoons, west of Rockingham Bay. 1862.

A convict afterwards hanged for burglary; instigated the first gold
prospecting party in Australia. Having broken up a pair of brass buckles,
he mixed the fragments with sand and stones, and presented it as
specimens of ore he had found. 1789.

Dampier, Captain William--
The first Englishman to land in New Holland. He visited the north-west
coast in the CYGNET, with a crew of buccaneers. 1688.

In charge of the ROEBUCK, sent by the English Government to explore the
northwest coast; visited the archipelago that now bears his name. 1699.

Dawes, Lieutenant--
With Tench and Morgan explore south and west of Rose Hill. 1790.

Crossed the Nepean. 1789.

"De Brak," "Zeemeuw," and "Limmen"--
Commanded by Abel Janz Tasman, surveyed a great portion of the north and
north-west coasts of New Holland. 1644.

De Lissa and Hardwicke--
Explore from Fowler's Bay to the edge of the Great Victorian Desert.

Delft, Martin Van--
With the ships VOSSENBACH, WAYER, and NOVA HOLLANDIA, to investigate the
west coast. This was the last voyage of exploration undertaken by the
Dutch, and closes the early discovery of New Holland. 1705.

D'Entrecasteaux, Admiral Bruni--
With the ships RECHERCHÉ and L'ESPERANCE, left Brest to seek La Perouse,
anchored on the south coast of Australia. 1792.

"Descobierta" (The), and "Etrevida"--
Spanish discovery ships, under Don Alexander Malaspina, at Sydney. 1793.

Dillon, Captain--
In the RESEARCH, on the south coast. 1826.

Dirk Hartog, Captain--
In command of the ship ENDRACHT, from Amsterdam, discovered the west
coast of New Holland. He left a tin plate, with an inscription, on an
island in Dirk Hartog's Roads, which was afterwards found by Vlaming, in
1697, who added another inscription. In 1801, the boatswain of the
NATURALISTE found the plate, and Captain Hamelin had it replaced on
another post; but in 18ig AI. L. de Freycinet, while on his voyage round
the world, took it home with him, and placed it in the Museum of the
Institute, Paris. 1616.

"Discovery" (The) and "Chatham"--
Under Captain George Vancouver, on the south-west coast and King George's
Sound. 1791.

Dixon, Christopher--
In the ship ELLEGOOD, visited King George's Sound, leaving on a sheet of
copper the name of his vessel and date of visit, which was found in 1801
by Flinders. 1800.

Dixon, Surveyor--
On the Bogan. 1833.

"Duke and Duchess" (The)--
Under Captain John Hayes, visited Tasmania, and renamed the discoveries
of D'Entrecasteaux. 1794.

Duperry, Captain--
In LA COQUILLE, voyaged amongst the Line Islands. 1822-24.

D'Urville, Captain Dumont--
With the ASTROLABE, from Toulon, touched at Bass's Straits. 1826.

Dutton, C. W.--
With Miller; explored country back of Fowler's Bay 1857.

"Duyfhen" (The)--
Yacht from Bantam. Her commander (name unknown) unwittingly crossed tile
entrance of Torres Straits, sailed across the Gulf of Carpentaria, and
turned back from Cape Keer-Weer (Turn Again), being in want of
provisions. 1606.

Eredia, Manoel Godinho--
A Spaniard, claims an early discovery of New Holland, but it is doubtful.

Edels, John Van--
On the west coast. 1619.

Edwards, Captain Edward--
In search of the mutineers of the BOUNTY. Lost on the reefs, and reached
Timor in boats. 1791.

"Ellegood" (The)
Commanded by Christopher Dixon, visited King George's Sound. 1800.

"Endeavour" (The)--
Captain Cook's vessel when on his voyage of discovery to Australia. 1770.

Evans, Deputy-Surveyor--
Discovered the first Australian inland river. 1815.

Eyre, E. J.--
Port Phillip to Adelaide; discovered Lake Hindmarsh. 1838.

Left Port Lincoln on the western shore of Spencer's Gulf, to examine the
country to the westward. Discovered Streaky Bay and Lake Torrens. 1839.

March round the Great Bight. 1840-41.

Favenc, Ernest--
In charge of the QUEENSLANDER Transcontinental Expedition, organised to
discover the nature and value of the country in the neighbourhood of a
then proposed line to Port Darwin, and the geographical features of the
unknown portion. Leaving Blackall, the then most western settlement in
Queensland, the party made Powell's Creek on the Overland Telegraph Line.
Discovering the Corella Lagoon, Cresswell Creek, Sylvester, and De Burgh
Creeks, etc. This expedition had the effect of opening up a great area of
good pastoral country which is now stocked. 1878-1879.

Traced the heads of the rivers running into the Gulf of Carpentaria near
the Queensland border, and in the following year took a more lengthened
expedition across the coast range to the mouth of the Macarthur River. A
large extent of valuable country was found in the basin drained by this
river, and a fine permanent spring discovered. Followed this river down
to salt water, then returned by another route to Daly Waters Telegraph
Station. 1882-83.

Finnis, Colonel--
Formed settlement at Escape Cliffs. 1864.

Fitzgerald, Governor--
Western Australia. Accompanied by A. C. Gregory and party, proceeded to
Champion Bay by sea, and thence inland to examine the new mineral
discovery. On their return they had an affray with the natives, the
Governor being speared in the leg. 1848.

Fitzroy, Captain R.--
In the BEAGLE, visited King George's Sound. 1829.

Flinders, Matthew--
With Bass in the TOM THUMB traced the coast from Sydney in 1795. And the
following year in the same boat reached Port Hacking. 1796.

With Bass in the NORFOLK, discovered Bass's Straits. 1799.

In the NORFOLK, dispatched by Governor Hunter to explore the coast to the
northward; reached Hervey Bay. 1799.

In command of the INVESTIGATOR and LADY NELSON, left England to examine
the coasts of TERRA A USTRALIS. First sighted Australia at Cape Leeuwin.
Examined the south and east coasts of Australia, and explored the Gulf of
Carpentaria and the coast of Arnheim's Land. The INVESTIGATOR being then
found unseaworthy, he returned to Port Jackson, after a visit to, Timor.
For the purpose of procuring another vessel to continue the survey, he
took passage for England with his officers and crew in the PORPOISE.
Seven days after leaving Sydney, the vessel was wrecked on the Barrier
Reef, and Flinders in an open boat made his way back to Sydney, a
distance of seven hundred miles. Governor King gave him the CUMBERLAND,
in which vessel he proceeded homeward, and on putting in to the
Mauritius, he was there made prisoner by General de Caen, the French
Governor, and detained in the Isle of France nearly seven years.
Flinders' journal of his discoveries was published the day after his
death. It was Flinders who suggested the name of Australia. 1801-1803.

"Fly" (The)--
Under command of Captain Blackwood, made a minute survey of the Great
Barrier, and continued the survey of Captains Wickharn and Stokes.

Forrest, Alexander--
Took charge of a private expedition, in search of new pastoral country.

Led an expedition from De Grey River to the telegraph line, striking Daly
Waters. A most successful trip; finding some of the most valuable country
in the northern part of Western Australia; which has since been stocked
with both cattle and sheep, and large mineral wealth has been developed.

Forrest, John--
First expedition, Lake Barlee. Not Successful in finding good available
country, but obtained a reliable survey of a great deal of country
hitherto unknown. 1869.

Accompanied by his brother, made a journey from Perth to Adelaide by way
of the Great Bight, not traversed since Eyre's celebrated march; and was
able to give a more impartial verdict of the country, travelling, as he
did, with larger facilities. His report showed that the fringe of gloomy
thicket was only confined to the coast. Beyond, he found fine pastoral
country. 1870.

With his brother, Alexander Forrest, started from the furthest outside
station on the Murchison, and made a successful trip to Peak Station, on
the overland telegraph line. With nothing but pack-horses, crossed the
middle of the continent, where the very heart of the terrible desert is
supposed to exist, taking his men, and most of his horses, in safety;
concluding one of the most valuable journeys on record. 1874.

Fort Wellington--
At Raffles Bay. Founded 1826; abandoned 1829.

Frazer, Charles--
The botanist who accompanied Captain Stirling in H.M.S. Success during
survey of coast from King George's Sound to the Swan River. 1828.

Freeling, Colonel--
Surveyor-General of South Australia. Sent to verify Goyder's reports on
Blanche Water and Lake Torrens, and found that the principal features of
Goyder's reports were the results of mirage. 1857.

Fremantle, Captain--
Hoisted the British Flag at Fremantle. 1829.

Fresne, Captain Marion du--
With Captain Crozet in the MASCARIN and CASTRES, from Nance to
Tasmania--the first visitors after Tasman. Thence to New Zealand, where
they were murdered by the Maories. 1772.

Freycinet, L. de--
In L'URANIE, saw Edels' Land, Shark's Bay, and landed at Sydney. 1817.

Frome, Captain--
Surveyor-General of South Australia. Made some explorations in the
neighbourhood of Lake Torrens. 1843.

Furneaux, Captain Tobias--
With the ADVENTURE, accompanied Cook on his second voyage in search of
the Southern Continent. Separated from Cook, and afterwards, when they
met, gave his opinion that Tasmania and New South Wales were joined with
a deep bay intervening. This opinion Cook thought sufficient to prevent a
further examination by himself being necessary. 1772.

Gawler, Colonel--
Governor of South Australia. Made an excursion to the Murray. He was
accompanied by Captain Sturt (Surveyor-General), Miss Gawler, and Mrs.
Sturt, but it is to be presumed Miss Gawler and Mrs, Sturt accompanied
the party but a short distance. 1839.

"Geelvink" (The)--
(See Vlaming.)

Died when out with Ernest Giles' second expedition. Scene of his death
named "Gibson's Desert." 1873.

The naturalist accompanying Leichhardt's first expedition.
Killed by the blacks at the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 1845.

Giles, Ernest--
Starting from Chamber's Pillar, South Australia, made a journey to the
westward, but was stopped by a large dry salt lake. He named it Lake
Amadens. He returned, having traversed a great deal of country before
unknown. 1872.

Left on his second trip, starting from the Alberga, that flows into Lake
Eyre, travelling north-west. Made many determined attempts to cross the
spinifex desert, but returned unsuccessful. One of the party, Gibson,
died, and several horses. The scene of Gibson's death is now marked as
Gibson's Desert. 1873.

With an equipment of camels, made his third and successful attempt to
reach Western Australia, but, from want of water, no knowledge of the
country was obtained beyond their immediate track. Giles then retraced
his steps to the overland line, following a track to the north of
Forrests route, by way of the Murchison, and crossed over to the
Ashburton. Then striking south of east he came to his former track of
1873, at the Alfred and Marie Range--the range he had so vainly tried to
reach when the man Gibson met his death. Finally arrived at Peak Station.

Gonneville, Paulmier De--
Visited the south seas, and is claimed by the French to have landed on
New Holland. 1503.

Gosse, W. C.--
In charge of the Central and Western Exploring Expedition. Left Alice
Springs, on the overland telegraph line, with the intention of reaching
Perth, having a mixed equipment of camels and horses. After many attempts
to penetrate westward, Gosse was obliged to return, the heat of the
weather and the dryness of the country rendering it useless to think of
risking his party with any hope of success. 1873.

Gould, Captain--
On the south coast, near Port Lincoln, 1827-28.

Goyder, G. W.--
Deputy Surveyor-General of South Australia. Gave a most glowing account
of Blanche Water, and the country around Lake Torrens. Subsequently
Colonel Freeling discovered that Goyder had been misled by a mirage.

In the Great Bight, to the north of Fowler's Bay. Found nothing but
mallee scrub and spinifex. 1862.

Selected Port Darwin as a suitable site for a township, and removed to
that place the settlement from Escape Cliffs. 1865.

Grant, James--
In LADY NELSON, the first vessel to pass through Bass's Straits, and
verified Bass's examination. 1801.

Gray, Charles--
One of the members of Burke and Wills' expedition. (See Burke.) 1860-61.

Gregory, Frank--
Reached the long-sought Gascoyne, and followed it to Shark's Bay.
Followed the Murchison down to the Geraldine mine, finding good pastoral
country, and well watered. This was a much needed encouragement to the
colony. 1858.

In charge of party, left Perth in the DOLPHIN for Nickol Bay, on the
north-west coast, to land their horses and commence the trip. Discover
the Fortescue, the Hammersley Range, and the Ashburton, which was traced
upwards through a large extent of good pastoral country. Named the De
Grey and Oakover rivers. The stigma of desolation was now partially
removed by the discoveries of this expedition. 1861.

Gregory, A. C.--
Accompanied by his two brothers. Their first expedition in Western
Australia; travelled through a large extent of salt swampy country,
entering the salt lake region, until they reached a range of granite
hills forming the watershed of the coast streams. After several
disappointments, turned to the westward to examine rivers discovered by
Grey. On the head of one of these (the Arrowsmith) they found a seam of
coal; and returned to Bolgart Springs. 1846.

With party to explore the Gascoyne. Found a galena lode on the Murchison.

With Baron Von Mueller, the celebrated botanist, and his brother, H. C.
Gregory. North Australian expedition in search of Leichhardt. Proceed
north to follow the Victoria. Reached the head of that stream, and
discovered Sturt's Creek and the Elsey. Crossing the head waters of the
Limmen Bight River, skirted the Gulf for some distance south of
Leichhardt's track, crossing the rivers that he did, only higher up on
their courses. Greatly disappointed with the Plains of Promise--so named
by Captain Stokes. 1855.

Barcoo expedition to trace the course of Leichhardt's party. Confirmation
of the supposed identity of the Barcoo and Cooper's Creek. No fresh
discoveries were made, but the second great inland river system was
evolved. 1858.

Grey, Lieutenant--
Explorations on the west coast. 1837.

Grey, Lieutenant, and Lushington (Second in Command)--
Expedition to verify the existence or not of the large river supposed to
find its way into the sea at Dampier's Archipelago. This expedition
originated in England. Found the Glenelg, and discovered cave drawings.

(Afterwards Governor of South Australia), Started on his second
expedition from the west coast. Encountering great troubles Grey had to
push on to Perth and send back a relief party. A party under Lieutenant
Roe, after some trouble in tracking the erratic wanderings of the
unfortunates, came upon them hopelessly gazing at a point of rocks that
stopped their march along the beach, too weak to climb it. They had been
three days without fresh water, and Smith, a lad of eighteen, was dead.
[See Appendix.] Grey claims the discovery of the Gascoyne, Murchison,
Hutt, Bower, Buller, Chapman, Greenough, Irwin, Arrowsmith, and Smith
Rivers. 1839.

Grimes, Surveyor-General--
Accompanied Lieutenant Murray when Port Phillip was discovered, and
surveyed it. 1802.

"Gulde Zeepard"--
Under command of Captain Pieter Nuyts, touched on the south coast. 1627.

Hack, Stephen--
With Miller examined Gawler Range, and sighted Lake Gairdner. 1857.

Hacking, Quarter-master--
Attempted to cross the Blue Mountains. Reached the foot of the range.
1794 and 1798.

Hamelin, Captain--
With commander Baudin, in the French ships NATURALISTE and GÉOGRAPHE,
exploring the coasts of Australia. 1801-2.

Hann, William--
A pioneer squatter of Queensland, led an expedition, equipped by the
Queensland Government, to make an examination as 'far north as the
fourteenth parallel, with a special view to its mineral and other
resources. Naming the Walsh, the party crossed the upper part of the
Mitchell River, and thence to the river they named the Palmer. Here
Warner, the surveyor, found prospects of gold, which resulted in the
discovery of one of the richest goldfields in Australia. 1872.

With Messrs. Dempster and Clarkson in Western Australia, explored from
the settled districts as far as Mount Kennedy. 1861.

Hartog, Captain Dirk--
In the ENDRACHT, from Amsterdam. Discovered the west coast of New
Holland. (See Dirk Hartog, 1616.)

Harvey and Ross--
Explorations around Charlotte Waters, South Australia. 1877.

Hawkesbury River--
Discovered. 1789.

Hawson, Captain--
In company with some other gentlemen, made a short excursion from Port
Lincoln, finding good, well-grassed country, and an abundance of water.
They named Rossitur Vale and the Mississippi. 1840.

Discovered the Denmark River, and explored the country back of Parry's
Inlet. 1829.

Hayes, Captain John--
With the DUKE AND DUCHESS, visited Tasmania, renaming the discoveries of
D'Entrecasteaux. 1794.

Hedley, G.--
Accompanied the QUEENSLANDER Transcontinental Expedition, led by Ernest
Favenc, from Blackall to Powell's Creek, overland telegraph line.

"Heemskirk" (The)--
Under command of Abel Janz Tasman, when he discovered Van Dieman's Land,
and took possession of New Holland. 1642.

Hely, Hovenden--
In charge of search party for Leichhardt. 1852.

Henty, Brothers--
Formed settlement in Portland Bay. 1835.

One of M'Dowall Stuart's second expedition. Discovered Hergott Springs,

Hesse and Gellibrand--
Murdered by the natives while exploring the Cape Otway country. 1837.

Hindmarsh, Captain Sir John--
In H.M.S. BUFFALO founded Adelaide. 1836.

Hobson, Captain--
(Afterwards the first Governor of New Zealand.) In H.M.S. RATTLESNAKE;
surveyed and named Hobson's Bay. 1836.

Hodgkinson, W. O.--
Commanded expedition sent by the Queensland Government to decide the
amount of pastoral country existing to the Westward of the Diamantina
River. Mr. Hodgkinson had been one of M'Kinlay's party when that explorer
traversed the continent. This was the last exploring expedition sent out
by the South Australian Government, 1876.

"Hormuzeer" and "Chesterfield"--
Under command Matthew B. Alt; through Torres Straits. 1793.

Horrocks, J. A.--
Died, soon after start of his expedition, at head of Spencer's Gulf.

Hovell, W. H.--
With H. Hume, across to Port Phillip; made the first successful trip from
the eastern to the southern coast. The first white men to see the
Australian Alps. 1824.

Howitt, A. W.--
In charge of relief party for Burke and Wills. King, the only survivor,
found. Howitt was eventually sent back to disinter the remains of the
explorers, and bring them to Melbourne, where they received a public
funeral, and a statue was erected to their memory. 1861.

Hulkes and Oakden--
West side of Lake Torrens. 1851.

Hume, Hamilton--
And his brother, John Kennedy Hume, explored the country round Berrima.
The first Australian born explorer. 1814.

With Meehan, surveyor. Discovered Lake George, Lake Bathurst, and
Goulburn Plains. 1817.

With Messrs. Oxley and Meehan to Jarvis Bay. 1819.

With Hovell, across to Port Phillip. 1824.

Accompanied Charles Sturt on his first expedition to trace the source of
the Macquarie. 1828-9.

Hunt, C. C.--
With Mr. Ridley to the De Grey River. 1863.

Jansen, Gerrit--
In command of the ZEEHAAN, and Abel Janz Tasman in the HEEMSKIRK,
discovered Van Dieman's Land. Afterwards took possession of New Holland.

Jardine, A.--
Police Magistrate at Rockhampton; took command of the settlement at Cape
York, Somerset. 1863.

Jardine, Frank, and Alexander Jardine--
Overland with cattle from Carpentaria Downs Stationthen the farthest
occupied country to the north-west--to Somerset. Cross the head of the
Batavia River, probably the first white men on it since the old Dutch
visits. 1864-65.

Johnson, Lieutenant, R.N.--
In the cutter SNAPPER, sent in search of Captain Stewart Discovered the
Clyde River. 1820.

Kayzer, E. A.--
Second in charge, also surveyor and mineralogist, of the North-West
Expedition, led by W.O. Hodgkinson. 1876.

Kennedy, E. B.--
Led an expedition to decide final course of Mitchell's, Barcoo
(Victoria). Instead of finding on the Victoria a highway to the Gulf,
they lost it in marshes. Follow the Warrego through fine grazing country.
Named the Thompson. 1847.

Fatal venture up Cape York Peninsula. 1848.

Kindur, The--
A mysterious river in the unknown interior, supposed to run north-west. A
runaway convict, named Clarke, brought up the story first. He said he had
heard of it from the natives, so determined to make his escape and follow
it, to see if it would lead him to another country. He started on his
adventurous trip and said he followed the river to the sea. When at the
mouth of the river he ascended a hill, and seaward saw an island
inhabited, the natives told him, by copper-coloured men, who came in
their canoes to the mainland for scented wood. He introduced various
details of large plains which he had crossed, and a large burning
mountain, but as he saw no prospect of getting away from Australia, he
returned. Surveyor Mitchell took charge of an expedition to investigate
the truth of his story. 1831.

King, Captain Phillip P.--
(Son of Governor King) In the MERMAID; sailed from Sydney accompanied by
Mr. Allan Cunningham, botanist. His mission was to explore those portions
of the coast left unvisited by previous navigators. Sailing by Cape
Leeuwin, King examined the west and north-west coast, sailing from the
north coast to Timor to refit. 1818. In 1819 he surveyed the
lately-discovered Port Macquarie and visited Van Dieman's Land. Leaving
Port Jackson, Captain King returned to the scene of his labours by way of
the east coast, crossed the Gulf of Carpentaria and discovered Cambridge
Gulf. In 1820 he left Port Jackson for his third voyage to the north
coast; examined minutely the north-west coast. The MERMAID having sprung
a leak, for the safety of the crew, Captain King had to return to Sydney.
A brig was purchased, and rechristened the BATHURST. After surveying the
north-west and west coast--and 'naming Dampier's Archipelago, Cygnet Bay,
and Roebuck Bay, after Dampier and his vessels--he sailed to the
Mauritius to refit. Returning to New Holland, he continued the survey of
King George's Sound and the west coast. This concluded Captain King's
fourth and last voyage round the Australian coast. 1817-20.

King, John--
The only survivor of Burke and Wills' party. Rescued by Edwin J. Welch,
second in command of A. W. Howitt's relief party. 1861.

La Place, Captain--
From Toulon, visited Hobart Town and New Zealand. 1829.

Landor and Lefroy--
In Western Australia. 1843.

Landsborough, William--
Leader of the Queensland search party for Burke and Wills. journey by sea
to the mouth of the Albert River, in the Gulf of Carpentaria. After
exploring the country to the south, and discovering some rivers and many
tributary creeks, Landsborough returned to the depôt on the Albert and
heard tidings of Walker's relief party. He determined then to return
overland instead of by sea. Making for the Flinders, by way of the
Leichhardt, was rewarded, on following up the river, by being the
discoverer of the beautiful downs country through which it runs. From
thence to Bowen Downs, discovered by himself and Buchanan two years
previously. The party finally proceeded to Melbourne. 1861-62.

Takes charge of the new township of Burketown, in the Gulf of
Carpentaria. 1863.

Lawson, Lieutenant William--
With Wentworth and Blaxland, succeeded in crossing the Blue Mountains.

Lawson, Lieutenant William, and Scott--
Attempted to reach Liverpool Plains. Discovered the Goulburn River. 1822.

"Leeuwin" (The) (Lioness). Commander unknown--
Visited the west coast and named the Houtman Abrolhos reef after a Dutch
navigator of distinction. 1622.

Lefroy (and Party)--
Eastward of York, Western Australia; finding valuable pastoral and
agricultural land. 1863.

Leichhardt, Ludwig--
Left Jimbour Station, on the Darling Downs, in charge of an expedition to
Port Essington, in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Gilbert, the naturalist
accompanying the party, killed by the blacks. 1844-45.

Last expedition, with the intention of crossing the continent, from
Mitchell's Victoria (Barcoo) River to Perth. 1848.

Leslie, Patrick--
Considered the father of settlement on the Darling Downs. Settled on the
Condamine, 1840.

"L'Esperance" (The) and "Recherche"--
With Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, to seek La Perouse. Anchored on the
south coast. 1792

Lewis, J.W.--
Took charge of an expedition, sent by the Governor of South Australia, to
determine the channels, directions and size of the many rivers that
flowed from Queensland through South Australia into Lake Eyre. 1875.

Light, Colonel--
Surveyed the shores of St. Vincent's Gulf and site of the present
town of Adelaide. 1836.

"Limmen" (The) "Zeemeuw," and "De Brak"--
Under command of Abel Janz Tasman. 1644.

Lindsay, David--
Sent by the South Australian Government to complete the exploration of
Arnheim's Land. On the whole the country passed over was favourable for
settlement some of it being first class sugar country. 1883.

Lockyer, Major--
Made a boat excursion up the Brisbane River. 1825.

Founded King George's Sound, which was abandoned in 1830 in favour of the
Swan River colony. 1826

Macdonald, J. G.--
With a small party, visited the Plains of Promise. Discovered a more
practicable route for cattle and sheep to the magnificent western
pastoral lands on the Flinders. 1865.

Macfarlane, Thomas--
Attempted to get inland north of the Bight, but was forced to turn back
after suffering great hardship. He found fairly-grassed country, but
waterless. 1863.

A Portuguese navigator in the service of the Emperor of Spain, claims
having touched on the Great South Landthese claims are based on the
authority of an ancient map. 1520.

Malaspina, Don Alexandro--
In the DESCOBIERTA and ATREVIDA, Spanish discovery ships, arrived at
Sydney; was imprisoned on his return to Calais. 1793.

"Mauritius" (The)--
Commanded by Captain Zeachern, touched on the west coast; discovered and
named the Wilhelm's River, near the North-West Cape, probably the present
Ashburton. 1818.

Meehan, Surveyor--
With Hume, discovers Lake George, Lake Bathurst, and Goulburn Plains.

With Messrs. Oxley and Hume to Jarvis Bay. 1819.

Melville Island--
Settled, 1824. Abandoned, 1829.

With C. W. Dutton, explored the country back of Fowler's Bay. 1857.

Mitchell, Major (Sir Thomas)--
Took charge of an expedition to trace the supposed Kindur. Discovered the
Drummond Range, and worked out the courses of the rivers discovered by
Oxley and Cunningham. 1831-2.

Accompanied by Richard Cunningham (brother to Allan Cunningham), started
with his second expedition. This was more of a connecting survey than
exploring the unknown. 1833.

Explores Australia Felix. 1836.

Barcoo Expedition. This was the last expedition of the Surveyor-General,
and fully confirmed his reputation. 1845-46.

Died near Sydney. 1855.

Moreton Bay--
Penal settlement. 1824.

With Messrs. Tench and Dawes, explored south and west of Rose Hill.
Discovered the Nepean River. 1790.

Mueller, Baron Von--
Engaged in exploring some of the still unknown portions of the south for
botanical and geographical researches combined. 1847.

With A. C. Gregory's North Australian expedition. Discovery of Sturt's
Creek. 1855-56.

Murray, Lieutenant John--
Succeeded James Grant in the LADY NELSON, discovered Port Phillip, and
made a further exploration of Bass's Straits. 1802.

M'Cluer, John--
Sailed along Arnheim's Land to Cape Van Dieman. 1791.

M'Donnell, Sir Richard Graves--
Governor of South Australia; made explorations to the Strangways and
Loddon Springs, and up the Murray River to Mount Murchison. 1858.

M'Kinlay, J.--
On the Alligator, searching for suitable site for township. His last
expedition. 1864.

M'Kinlay, John--
Started from Adelaide with a relief party in search of Burke and Wills.
His trip across the continent did much to dispel the stigma that rested
upon the tract known as desert, and unfit for pastoral occupation. 1861.

Died at Gawler, in South Australia. 1874.

M'Intyre, Duncan--
From Paroo to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Found and buried the bodies of two
unfortunate pioneers, Messrs. Curlewis and M'Culloch. They had been
murdered in their sleep by the natives. 1864.

Took command of a search expedition for Leichhardt, organised by the
ladies of Victoria, but when in the Gulf of Carpentaria died of malarial
fever. 1865.

M'Millan, Angus--
Finds his way through the Snowy Mountains on the search for country.
Discovers a river running through fine grazing plains and forest. This
territory was called Gipps Land. The rivers discovered by him were
afterwards re-named by Count Strzelecki, and retained, whilst those given
by the real discoverer were forgotten. 1840.

M'Minn, Gilbert, and A. W. Sergison--
Equipped by the South Australian Government, to ascertain the course of
the Katherine. 1876.

Explorations east of Daly Waters. May be said to have concluded the list
of expeditions between the overland telegraph line and the Queensland
border. 1883.

Neilson, J. and Brothers--
From Mount Ranken, on the Darling, to Cooper's Creek, in search of
pastoral country. 1861.

Nares, Sir George Strong--
Commander of H.M.S. SALAMANDER, surveyed the east and north-eastern part
of Australia and Torres Straits. 1866-7.

Nuyts, Captain Pieter--
In the GULDE ZEEPARD. Accidentally touched on the south coast. Followed
it for about seven or eight hundred miles, and gave to it the name of
Pieter Nuyts' Land, 1627.

Oakden and Hulkes--
To the west of Lake Torrens. 1851.

"The first overlanders with stock from Sydney side to Port Phillip were
Messrs. Ebden (afterwards treasurer), Joe Hawdon, Gardener (of Gardener's
Creek), and Captain Hepburn. This was in 1837, one year before Mr.
Mackinnon arrived in the colonies. In 1838 Captain Hepburn made a second
overland trip, starting from Braidwood, New South Wales, with sheep
purchased from Captain Coghill of that place, and in January same year
(1838), Mr. Gardener started on second trip with 460 head of cattle
purchased from my father, the late Dr. Reid. of Inverary Park, in Argyle;
delivery of same made by myself at Yass end of January month. This trip
with Mr. Gardener so far imbued me with the love for adventure that I
followed with stock the June following, and formed stations on the Ovens
River, near where the town of Wangaratta now stands. The first
overlanders with stock to Adelaide were Joe Hawdon and Eyre, the latter
afterwards celebrated as an explorer. Well can I remember the excitement
caused by the then so-called race, who should be first to Adelaide,
Hawdon or Eyre, but Hawdon was too good a bushman for Eyre and had more
experience, and was a better judge of the season (it was a dry one).
Hawdon wisely followed the course of the Murray right to Lake
Alexandrina, and consequently had food and water in abundance. Eyre
crossed from Goulburn to go over the Wimmera Plains--no doubt a shorter
way had the season been propitious, but as it turned out dry he had to
retrace his steps, and follow the track of friend Hawdon. Hawdon by this
time had a long start, and arrived in Adelaide two weeks before Eyre, and
had his stock disposed of. I may remark very few of us overlanders are
now left, but should this meet the eye of any such of 1837 and 1838, I
make no doubt they will remember the facts above stated."--Extract from
"Answers to Correspondents," from Mr. David Reid, Moorwatha, Victoria, in
the AUSTRALASIAN, May 4th, 1888.

Orr, John (and party)--
Expedition through Gippsland. Confirmed the previous glowing reports.

Ovens, Major--
With Captain Curry, started on an exploring trip south of Lake George.
Discovered Morumbidgee River and Monaroo Plains. 1823.

Oxley, John--
With Lieutenant Charles Robbins, in the cutter INTEGRITY, examined
Western Port, with a view to settlement; opinion unfavourable. 1804-5.

Surveyor-General of New South Wales. Second in command, Mr. Evans.
Accompanied by Mr. Allan Cunningham, King's botanist, and Charles Fraser,
Colonial botanist, William Parr, mineralogist, eight men, and two boats,
for the purpose of tracing the Lachlan and Macquarie. Return in 1817. The
following year again started, discovering the Castlereagh River,
Liverpool Plains, Apsley River, and the Goulburn Valley. Following down
the River Hastings, they discovered and named Port Macquarie. 1817-18.

Accompanied by Messrs. Meehan and Hume, made a short excursion to Jarvis
Bay. Oxley returned by sea his companions overland. 1819.

In the MERMAID with Messrs. Uniacke and Lieutenant Stirling, left Port
Jackson to investigate the coast north of Sydney, with the view of
forming a penal settlement. They examine Port Curtis, Port Bowen, and
Moreton Bay. Discovered the Boyne and Brisbane Rivers. 1823.

Died near Sydney, 1828. He had been a successful explorer, although in no
case attaining the objects aimed at, had always brought his men through
in safety, and had opened up vast tracts of country. [See Appendix.]

O'Donnell and Carr Boyd--
From the overland telegraph line to Western Australia, finding good
country, but no new geographical discovery. 1883.

O'Donnell (and party)--
From the Katherine Telegraph Station, overland telegraph line to Western
Australia. 1884-5.

Parry, S.--
Government Surveyor, examined the country round Lake Torrens. 1858.

Paterson, Colonel--
Intending if possible to cross the Blue Mountains, rowed up the
Hawkesbury, and named the highest point reached "The Grose." 1793.

Pelsart, Francis--
In the BATAVIA. Wrecked on Houtman's Abrolhos. 1629.

"Pera" (The) and "Arnheim"--
Yachts commanded by Captain Jan Carstens, touched on the north coast.
Pera Head in the Gulf of Carpentaria a memorial of this visit. 1623.

Perouse, Jean Francois Galup de La--
At Botany Bay with the ASTROLABE and BOUSSOLE. 1778.

Phillip, Governor--
Arrived at Botany Bay with the first fleet. 1788.

Pool, Captain Gerrit Tomaz--
In the KLYN, AMSTERDAM, and WEZEL, from Banda, was murdered on the New
Guinea coast--the same spot where Captain Carstens met his death. The
supercargo continued the voyage, re-visiting Arnheim's Land. 1636.

Second in command in Sturt's Great Central Desert expedition died of
scurvy; and was buried at Depôt Glen. 1845.

Port Essington--
Founded by Sir Gordon Bremer, 1824, and re-settled, 1838.

Portlock, Captain, Nathan, and Captain Bligh--
In the PROVIDENCE AND ASSISTANT. Through Torres Straits. 1792.

The claim to the discovery of New Holland in 1540 is doubtful.

Prout Bros.--
With one man started out from South Australia looking for country across
the Queensland border. They never returned. Some months afterwards some
of their horses and the bones of one of the brothers were discovered by
Mr. W. J. H. Carr Boyd. It was evident, from the fragments of a diary
found, that they had met their death by thirst on their homeward way.

Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de--
Being second in command to Luis Vaez de Torres sailed from Callao with
two wellarmed vessels and a corvette. After minor discoveries came to a
land supposed by Quiros to be the continent they were in search of, and
named it Australia del Espiritu Santo. 1606.

Ranken, John C. L.--
One of the Queensland pioneers. Following closely after the explorers he
formed a station upon the Isaacs, and afterwards took up Afton Downs, on
the Flinders. He then with a party struck north-west, and crossed the
unmarked boundary of South Australia, and finally formed stations on the
head of the Herbert River. 1857-70.

Receveur, Father le--
Died at Botany Bay while with La Perouse in the ASTROLABE. Feb. 17th,

"Recherche" (The) and "L'Esperance"--
Under command of Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, in search of the fate of
La Perouse, anchored on the south coast of Australia, 1792.

"Research" (The)--
Under command Captain Dillon; on the south coast 1826.

Ridley and 0. C. Hunt--
To the De Grey River. 1863.

Robbins, Lieutenant Charles, and John Oxley--
In the cutter INTEGRITY, examined Western Port, with a view to
settlement. Opinion unfavourable. 1804-5.

"Roebuck" (The)--
Under William Dampier, sent out by the English Government, visited the
west coast of New Holland. 1688.

Roe, Surveyor-General--
Started from York; reached the Pallinup, the last stream crossed by Eyre
before reaching Albany on his Great Bight expedition. After suffering
great hardships, arrived at Russell Range, from there returning to Perth.

Roggentier, Commodore--
Started for New Holland. Discovered the Thousand Islands. 1721.

Ross and Son--
With an equipment of camels and horses, started from the neighbourhood of
Peake Station, on the overland telegraph line, to endeavour to cross the
desert, but were obliged to return; a second effort being alike
unsuccessful. 1874.

Ross and Harvey--
Explorations around Charlotte Waters, South Australia. 1877.

Russell, Stuart and Sydenham--
Followed the Condamine for a hundred miles from below Jimbour, the
northernmost station on a Darling Downs Creek; an extensive tract of
rich grazing country found; since known by the name then bestowed on
it--Cecil Plains. 1841.

Russell, Stuart--
Journeyed from Moreton Bay to Wide Bay in a boat, and made an examination
of some of the streams there emptying into the sea. During the same year
Stuart Russell explored the country from Wide Bay to the Boyne (not
Oxley's Boyne) and opened up much available pastoral country. 1842.

Saunders, Philip, and Adam, John--
Accompanied by a third man, successfully crossed from Roeburne, in
Western Australia, to the overland telegraph line. 1876.

Scarr, Frank (Surveyor)--
Attempted to cross the line to the south of N. Buchanan's track, but was
prevented by the waterless strip of country existing there. Finally made
north, arriving at Tennant's Creek Station, and, owing to the dry season,
did not extend his researches further. 1878.

Scott and Lieutenant Lawson--
Attempted to reach the Liverpool Plains. Discovered the Goulburn River.

Sergison, A. W., and Gilbert M'Minn--
Sent by the South Australian Government to ascertain the course of the
Katherine River. 1876.

Sergison, A. W., and R. Travers--
Explored the country about the Daly and Fitzmaurice Rivers. 1877.

Shortland, Lieutenant--
With three ships, from Sydney to England, passed through Bougainville's
Strait, north-west coast. 1788.

Discovered Hunter River. 1797.

Solander, Dr.--
Swedish botanist. Accompanied Captain Cook in the ENDEAVOUR. 1770.

Settlement at Cape York. Mr. Jardine, Police Magistrate at Rockhampton,
took command, and a detachment of marines was stationed there. 1863.

Stewart, Captain--
Sent by Governor Macquarie to search for a passage supposed to exist
between Lake Bathurst and the sea. He lost his boat in Twofold Bay, and
on endeavouring to reach Sydney overland, was cut off by the natives.

Stirling, Captain--
Accompanied by Charles Frazer, in H.M.S. SUCCESS, surveyed coast from
King George's Sound to the Swan River. 1828.

Stock, Edwin (and party)--
West of Lake Eyre. 1857.

Stockdale, Harry--
Started on an expedition from Cambridge Gulf to explore the country in
the neighbourhood with a view to settlement. Landed by steamer in
Cambridge Gulf, and probably the first landing that had taken place since
Captain Stokes. After a hard struggle, reached the telegraph line with
one man; sending back relief to the others. 1884.

Stokes, Captain John Lort--
Took command of the BEAGLE on retirement of Captain T. C. Wickham, and
continued the survey, which completed our geographical knowledge of the
Australian coast. The survey continued from 1837 to 1845.

Strzelecki, Count--
Followed on M'Millan's tracks when he discovered Gipps Land, and has
often been erroneously considered the discoverer. The object of this trip
was to gather material for his now well-known book, "The Physical
Description of New South Wales, Victoria, and Van Dieman's Land." He
mounted the Alps, and named one of the highest peaks Kosciusko, from its
fancied resemblance to the patriot's tomb at Cracow. 1840.

Stuart, J. M'Dowall--
First expedition west of Lake Torrens. 1858.

Made another start, discovering Hergott Springs and the Neale. His
horses' shoes having given out he returned, remembering the misery he
suffered on his first expedition from the want of them. 1859.

Left on his third expedition, in the vicinity of Lake Eyre, reached the
centre of Australia and named a tolerable high mount Central Mount
Stuart. Christened the Murchison Range and Tennant's Creek, but failed to
reach the head waters of the Victoria owing to a dry strip of country.

Last expedition. Crossed the continent from shore to shore, from the
south coast to the north. His health never recovered the hardships
endured on this journey. 1861-62.

Died in England. 1869.

Sturt, Captain Charles (39th Regiment)--
First expedition, accompanied by H. Hume, to find the course of the
Macquarie, that had baffled Oxley. Discovered the Darling, New Year's
Creek (Bogan). 1828-29.

Started on his Murrumbidgee expedition. Sailed down the Murray. Found its
confluence with the Darling, and followed the united streams to the lake
that terminated the Murray. 1829-30.

Great Central Desert expedition, Poole second in command, M'Dowall
Stuart as draftsman. 1844-45. His last expedition.

Sutherland, Captain--
On a sealing voyage, visited Port Lincoln. 181 g.

Swinden, Charles--
With others looking for pastoral country west of Lake Eyre. 1857.

Tasman, Abel Janz--
In command of the HEEMSKIRK, and Gerrit Jansen, with the NEEHAAN,
discovered Van Dieman's Land. Afterwards took possession of New Holland.

With the LIMMEN, ZEEMEUW, and DE BRAK. After his discovery of Van
Dieman's Land undertook this second expedition to determine, if possible,
whether Nova Guinea and New Holland were one continent; also, if Tasmania
joined one or the other. His journal has never been found, but an outline
copy of his chart was inlaid in the floor of the Groote Zaal in the
Stadhuys in Amsterdam. Many of the names still retained in the Gulf of
Carpentaria are memorials of his visit. 1644.

Tench, Captain--
Crossed the Nepean. 1789.

With Dawes and Morgan explored south-west of Rose Hill. 1790.

Testu, Guillaume Le--
Claims to early discovery of Australia, based upon a map now in the Depôt
de la Guerre, at Paris, bearing his name and the date. 1542.

Thompson D. (and party)--
West of Lake Eyre searching for pastoral country. 1857.

Torres, Luis Vaez de--
With Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, sailed round Cape York and discovered
Torres Straits. 1606.

Travers, R--
With A. W. Sergison, explored the country about the Daly and Fitzmaurice
Rivers. 1877.

Vancouver, Captain George--
In the DISCOVERY and CHATHAM, explored the south-west coast, and
discovered and named King George's Sound. 1791.

"Vergulde Draeck" (The)--
From Batavia. Lost on Houtman's Abrolhos. 1656.

Vlaming, William de--
Came to the South Land in search of the RIDDERSCHAP, a vessel supposed to
have been wrecked on the coast of New Holland. He found and named the
Swan River. At Dirk Hartog's Roads he found the plate left by Hartog, and
added to it another inscription. After careful examination of the coast
as far as North-West Cape, left for Batavia with his ships the GEELVINK,

"Vossenbach" "Wayer", and "Nova Hollandia"--
Under command of Martin Von Delft. Sent to investigate the north coast.
The last voyage of discovery by the Dutch. 1705.

Walker, Frederick--
The leader of the Rockhampton search party for and Wills. Pushed through
from the Barcoo to the depôt found on the Gilbert. Fresh provisioned,
they returned and reached the Lower Burdekin well nigh horseless, and
quite starving. 1861-62.

Examining the country at the back of Rockingham Bay, and marking a
telegraph line from there to the mouth of the Norman River, in the Gulf
of Carpentaria. 1864.

Warburton, Major--
Investigated the country west of Lake Torrens. 1857.

Superseded Babbage. This trip established the definite size and shape of
Lake Torrens, so long the terror of the north, preventing advancement.

Led an expedition to cross from the overland telegraph line to Perth. The
expedition was fitted out with camels, but owing to their constant delays
provisions fell short and sickness came. Warburton determined to push
through the desert country he had got into, and travelled chiefly at
night. Being too much occupied in pressing through, had no time to look
at the country on either side. Thus it was all pronounced desert, and of
seventeen camels only two survived, the starving party being obliged to
slaughter some for food. 1873.

Welch, Edwin J.--
Surveyor and second in command of A. W. Howitt's relief party for Burke
and Wills. Found King, the only survivor of Burke and Wills' expedition.
Since the death of his companion, King had been existing for nearly three
months with the blacks. 1861. [See Appendix.]

Wentworth, Charles--
With Messrs. Lawson and Blaxland, succeeded in crossing the Blue
Mountains. 1813.

Wickham, Captain John Clements--
Commander of the BEAGLE. Retired through ill-health. 1841. Succeeded by
Captain J. L. Stokes. Left England 1837 to continue the survey of the
coasts of Australia, and so minutely examined the shores that the outline
of the continent was perfectly complete. The survey continued from 1837
to 1841.

Wills, William John--
Surveyor and astronomer on Burke and Wills' expedition (See Burke.)

Winnecke and Barclay--
Two surveyors dispatched by the South Australian Government in 1878 to
reach the Queensland border from the overland telegraph line, it being a
matter of moment to settle the position of the border line between the
two colonies. Another attempt in 1880 proved successful. 1878-80.

Witt, Willem de--
In the VIANEN, sighted the north-west coast and reported (see De Witt) it
"a foul and barren shore, green fields, and very wild, barbarous
inhabitants." 1628.

Zeachern, Captain--
In the MAURITIUS, claims to have discovered Arnheim's Land. 1618.

"Zeehaan" (The)--
Under command of Captain Gerrit Jansen, accompanied by Abel Janz Tasman
in the HEEMSKIRK. Discovered Van Dieman's Land, and took possession of
New Holland. 1642.

"Zeemeuw," "Limmen," and "De Brak"--
Under Abel Janz Tasman. 1644.

"Zeewyck" (The)--
Lost on Houtman's Abrolhos. In 1839 Captain Stokes found a gun and other
relics of this vessel on one of the islands. 1727.

Zouch, Lieutenant (N.S.W. Mounted Police)--
Sent in command of party to arrest the natives who murdered Richard
Cunningham, the botanist to Sir Thomas Mitchell's expedition. 1835. [See


1503--De Gonneville visited the South Seas, and is claimed by the French
to have touched on Australia.

1520--Magalhaens, the first circumnavigator, claims to have discovered
Australia. (Doubtful.)

1540--The Portuguese claims to early discovery of Australia are doubtful.

1542--Guillaume le Testu. Claims based on a map now in the Depôt de la
Guerre, at Paris, indicating Australia.

1601--Manoel Godinho de Eredia, a Spaniard. (Claim doubtful.)

1606--The DUYFHEN entered the Gulf of Carpentaria as far as Cape
Keer-Weer (Turn Again).

1606--Luis Vaez de Torres, with Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, discovered
Torres Straits.

1616--Dirk Hartog, in the ENDRACHT, visited the west coast.

1618--Zeachern, in the MAURITIUS, discovered Arnheim's Land.

1619--John Van Edels on the west coast.

1622--The Landt van de Leeuwin, south-west cape of Australia, named after
the ship LEEUWIN.

1623--Jan Carstens, with the yachts PERA and ARNHEIM; on the south-west

1627--Pieter Nuyts, in the GULDE ZEEPARD; western and southern coasts.

1628--Willem de Witt, the VIANEN; north-west coast named after him.

1628--Pieter Carpenter discovered the Gulf of Carpentaria.

1629--Francis Pelsart, in the BATAVIA; lost on Houtman's Albrolhos.

1636--Gerrit Tomaz Pool, with the KLYN, AMSTERDAM, and WEZEL; coast of
Arnheim's Land.

1642--Abel Janz Tasman and Gerrit Jansen, with the HEEMSKIRK and ZEEHAAN;
discovered Van Dieman's Land, and took possession of New Holland.

1644--Abel Janz Tasman, with the LIMMEN, ZEEMEUW, and DE BRAK west coasts
of Carpentaria.

1656--The VERGULDE DRAECK lost on Houtman's Albrohos.

1688--William Dampier, in the BACHELOR'S DELIGHT and CYGNET, with crews
of buccaneers.

1695--William de Vlaming, with the GEELVINK, NYPTANGH, and WEZELTJE,
named the Swan River.

1699--William Dampier, in the ROEBUCK; north-west coast of New Holland.

1705--Martin Van Delft, with the VOSSENBACH, WAYER, and NOVA HOLLANDIA;
on the west coast. This was the last voyage of discovery by the Dutch.

1721--Commodore Roggewein started for New Holland; discovered the
"Thousand Islands."

1727--The ZEEWYCK lost off Houtman's Abrolhos. In 1839, Captain Stokes
found a gun and other relics of this visit on an island.

1768--De Bougainville discovered the Louisade Archipelago.

1770--Captain James Cook, in the ENDEAVOUR; landed at Botany Bay;
explored the east coast, and took possession under the name of New South

1772--Captain Marion du Fresne and Captain Crozet, from Nance, in the
MASCARIN and CASTRES to Tasmania. The first visitors after Tasman. From
thence they sailed to New Zealand, where they were murdered by the

1772--Captain Tobias Furneaux, with the ADVENTURE; accompanied Captain
Cook on his second voyage in search of Australia. Separated from the
ENDEAVOUR, and afterwards, when he met Cook, gave as his opinion that
Tasmania and New South Wales were joined, with a deep bay intervening.
This opinion Cook thought sufficient to prevent the necessity of a
further examination by himself.

1777--De St. Alouarn anchored near Cape Leeuwin.

1788--Father le Receveur, naturalist; died at Botany Bay, while with La
Perouse in the ASTROLABE.

1788--Lieutenant Shortland, with three ships from Sydney to England
passed through Bougainville's Strait, north-west coast.

1788--Governor Phillip arrived in Botany Bay with the first fleet.

1788--Jean Francois Galup de la Perouse at Botany Bay.

1789--Hawkesbury discovered.

1789--Tench discovered the Nepean.

1790--Messrs. Tench, Dawes, and Morgan explore south and west of Rose

1791--Captain George Vancouver, in the DISCOVERY and CHATHAM, explored
the south-west coast, and discovered King George's Sound.

1791--Captain William Bligh passed Cape York in the BOUNTY'S launch.

1791--Captain Edward Edwards, in search of the mutineers of the BOUNTY,
wrecked on a reef.

1791--Captain John M'Cluer sailed along Arnheim's Land to Cape Van

1792--Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux in the RECHERCHE and L'ESPERANCE; to
seek La Perouse.

1792--Captains William Bligh and Portlock, in the PROVIDENCE and
ASSISTANT; examined Torres Straits.

1793--Matthew B. Alt and William Bampton, in the ships HORMUZEER and
CHESTERFIELD; through Torres Straits.

1793--Colonel Paterson rowed up the Hawkesbury, and named the Grose.

1793--Don Alexandro Malaspina, with the DESCOBIERTA and ATREVIDA, Spanish
discovery ships, arrived at Sydney. Was imprisoned on his return to

1794--John Hayes, with the DUKE and DUCHESS; visited Tasmania re-named
the discoveries of D'Entrecasteaux.

1794--Quarter-master Hacking attempted to cross the Blue Mountains.

1795-96--Dr. George Bass and Matthew Flinders in the TOM THUMB.

1796--Lieutenant Bowen visited Jarvis Bay.

1796-97--Dr. George Bass; on the Blue Mountains.

1797-Dr.--George Bass's whaleboat survey of the coast to the southward.

1797--Lieutenant Shortland discovered the Hunter River.

1798--Dr. George Bass and Matthew Flinders, in the NORFOLK; discovered
Bass's Straits.

1798--Quarter-master Hacking revisits the Blue Mountains.

1799--Matthew Flinders, in the NORFOLK; to Glass-House and Hervey Bays.

1800--Christopher Dixon, in the ship ELLEGOOD; visited King George's

1801--James Grant, in the LADY NELSON; examined Bass's Straits and
verified Bass's discovery.

1801--Ensign Barraillier; attempted exploration of the Blue Mountains.

1801-2--Matthew Flinders, in the INVESTIGATOR; prosecuted his survey of
the coasts of Australia.

1801-2--Captains Baudin and Hamelin, with the French ships NATURALISTE
and GÉOGRAPHE; on the Australian coasts.

1802--Lieut. John Murray and Surveyor Grimes, in the LADY NELSON
discovered and surveyed Port Phillip.

1803--George Cayley, botanist; attempt to discover pass over the Blue

1803--Lieutenant-Governor Daniel Collins, from England, in H.M.S.
CALCUTTA, to form a penal settlement at Port Phillip, accompanied by the
transport OCEAN. Landed the settlement at "The Sisters," and finally
decided that Port Phillip was unfit to meet the requirements of
settlement. They proceeded to Tasmania, where they were all murdered at
Hobart Town.

1804-5--Lieutenant Charles Robbins and John Oxley, in the cutter
INTEGRITY; examined Western Port with a view to settlement; opinion

1813--Messrs. Wentworth, Lawson, and Blaxland succeeded in crossing the
Blue Mountains.

1814--Hamilton Hume, with his brother; explored the country round
Berrima. His first trip.

1815--Deputy-Surveyor Evans discovered the first Australian inland river,
the Macquarie.

1815--Cox finished a road over the Blue Mountains

1817--L. de Freycinet, in L'URANIE, touched at Sydney and Shark's Bay.

1817-20--Captain Phillip P. King, with Allan Cunningham, botanist, in the
cutter MERMAID; survey of the Australian coasts.

1817--Messrs. Meehan and Hume; discovered Lake George, Lake Bathurst, and
Goulburn Plains.

1817-19--John Oxley, Surveyor-General of New South Wales; Lachlan and
Macquarie expeditions.

1819--Surveyor-General Oxley, accompanied by Messrs. Meehan and Hume to
Jarvis Bay.

1819--Captain Sutherland, on a sailing voyage, visited Port Lincoln.

1820--Captain Stewart sent by Governor Macquarie with a small party in a
boat to search for a passage supposed to exist between Lake Bathurst and
the sea. He lost his boat in Twofold Bay, and on endeavouring to reach
Sydney overland was cut off by the natives.

1821-22--Captain Phillip P. King, in the BATHURST; continues the survey.

1822--Messrs. Lawson and Scott attempted to reach Liverpool Plains;
discover the Goulburn River.

1822-24--Captain Duperry in LA COQUILLE; voyage amongst the Line Islands

1823--Captain Currie and Major Ovens on the Murrumbidgee

1823--Allan Cunningham found Pandora's Pass; a good stock route to the
Liverpool Plains.

1823--Surveyor-General Oxley investigated Port Curtis, Port Bowen and
Moreton Bay. Discovered the Brisbane River.

1824--Sir Gordon Bremer, in the TAMAR; to Port Essington.

1824--Melville Island settled

1824--Hamilton Hume and W. H. Hovell journey overland to Port Phillip.

1824--Penal settlement at Moreton Bay.

1825--Allan Cunningham north of Bathurst.

1825--Major Lockyer made a boat excursion up the Brisbane River.

1826--Captain Dillon, in the RESEARCH, on the west coast,

1826--Major Lockyer, founded King George's Sound settlement.

1826--Captain Dumont D'Urville, in the ASTROLABE, from touched at Bass's

1826--Fort Wellington and Raffles Bay founded.

1827-28--Captain Gould on the south coast, near Port Lincoln.

1827--Allan Cunningham discovers the Darling Downs, the Dumaresque,
Gwydir and Condamine Rivers, etc.

1828--Allan Cunningham, accompanied by Charles Frazer, botanist connected
the Moreton Bay settlement, with the Darling Downs by way of Cunningham's

1828--Captain James Stirling, accompanied by Charles Frazer, in H.M.S.
SUCCESS; surveyed the coast of King George's Sound to the Swan River.

1828--Surveyor-General Oxley died near Sydney.

1828-29--Captain Charles Sturt's first expedition; discovered New Year's
Creek (now the Bogan) and the Darling.

1829--Hay explored the country back of Parry's Inlet and discovered the
Denmark River.

1829--Captain Fremantle hoisted the British flag at Fremantle.

1829--Captain la Place, from Toulon; visited Hobart Town and New Zealand.

1829--Captain R. Fitzroy, in the BEAGLE; visited King George's Sound.

1829--Fort Wellington and north coast settlement abandoned.

1829--Allan Cunningham explored the source of the Brisbane River his last

1839-30--Captain Charles Sturt's Murrumbidgee expedition; sailed down the

1830--Dale from the upper Swan River followed up the Avon.

1831--Major Bannister crossed from Perth to King George's Sound.

1831-32--Sir Thomas Mitchell; Kindur expedition.

1832--Captain C. Barker murdered at Lake Alexandrina by the blacks.

1833--Surveyor Dixon on the Bogan.

1833--Sir Thomas Mitchell on the Namoi.

1833--Richard Cunningham, botanist, brother to Allan Cunningham, murdered
by the blacks while with Sir Thomas Mitchell's expedition.

1835--E. Henty and brother formed a settlement in Portland Bay.

1836--John Batman landed at Port Phillip, and became a permanent settler

1836--Captain Sir John Hindmarsh founded Adelaide; first Governor of
South Australia.

1836--Colonel Light surveyed the shores of St. Vincent's Gulf, and
selected site of present city of Adelaide.

1836--Captain Hobson (afterwards Governor of New Zealand), in H.M.S
RATTLESNAKE; surveyed and named Hobson's Bay.

1836--Sir Thomas Mitchell's expedition through Australia Felix.

1837--Captain George Grey (afterwards Governor of South Australia), with
Lieutenant Lushington; explorations on north-west coast.

1837-Messrs. Hesse and Gellibrand, while exploring Cape Otway country,
were murdered by the blacks.

1837-45--Captains Wickham and Stokes, in the BEAGLE, surveyed the coasts
of Australia, completing the geographical knowledge of the shores of the

1838--E. J. Eyre; Port Phillip to Adelaide; discovered Like Hindmarsh.

1838--Sir Gordon Bremer re-settled Port Essington.

1839--Captain George Grey; second expedition; Western Australia.

1839--Schooner CHAMPION examined the west coast for navigable rivers.

1839--George Hamilton and party overland from Sydney to Melbourne. (See
Overlanders, page 454 [in Index of Names])

1839--Governor Gawler, South Australia; made an excursion to the Murray.

1839--E. J. Eyre to the head of Spencer's Gulf and Lake Torrens, Port
Lincoln, and Streaky Bay.

1839--Allan Cunningham died in Sydney.

1840--Angus M'Millan discovered Gippsland.

1840--Patrick Leslie, called the father of Darling Downs settlement;
settled on the Condamine.

1840-41--E. J. Eyre travelled the Great Bight to King George's Sound.

1841--John Orr and party explored Gippsland.

1841--Stuart and Sydenham Russell form Cecil Plains Station.

1841--Dr. Edward Barker, Edward Hobson, and Albert Brodribb were the
first to walk from Melbourne to Gippsland. The present road follows their

1842--Stuart Russell discovered Boyne River; journeyed from Moreton to
Wide Bay in a boat.

1842-45--Captain Blackwood, in the FLY; continued the surveys of Captains
Wickham and Stokes; and made a minute examination of the Great Barrier

1843--Count Paul von Strzelecki followed M'Millan's tracks when he
discovered Gippsland.

1843--Captain Frome, Surveyor-General of South Australia; explorations in
the neighbourhood of Lake Torrens.

1843--Messrs. Landor and Lefroy; exploration in Western Australia.

1843--J. A. Horracks was killed by the explosion of his gun at the head
of Spencer's Gulf soon after the start of his expedition.

1844--45-Captain Charles Sturt; Great Central Desert expedition.

1844-45--Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt; first expedition, from Jimbour Station,
Darling Downs, to Port Essington; Gilbert, the naturalist, killed by

1845-46--Sir Thomas Mitchell; Barcoo expedition.

1846--Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt's second expedition.

1846--A. C. Gregory and brothers; first expedition in Western Australia.

1847--E. Kennedy; to decide the final course of the Victoria, named the

1847--Baron Von Mueller; expeditions, for botanical and geographical
researches combined, in South Australia and the Australian Alps.

1848--Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt's last expedition.

1848--E. Kennedy's fatal venture up Cape York Peninsula.

1848--A. C. Gregory, with party, explore the Gascoyne.

1848--Governor Fitzgerald, of Western Australia; examined the new
mineral discovery, accompanied by A. C. Gregory, and named the Geraldine

1848-49--J. S. Roe, Surveyor-General of Western Australia; from York to
Esperance Bay.

1851--Messrs. Oakden and Hulkes; on west side of Lake Torrens.

1852--Hovenden Hely, in charge of search party for Leichhardt; from
Darling Downs.

1854--R. Austin, Assistant Surveyor-General of Western Australia; in
search of pastoral country, and to examine the interior for auriferous

1855--Sir Thomas Mitchell died near Sydney.

1855-56--A. C. Gregory and Baron von Mueller North Australian expedition,
in search of Leichhardt; discover Sturt's Creek and the Elsey.

1855--B. H. Babbage; to examine country north and east of Adelaide for
gold. In a second expedition the same year discovered Blanche Water.

1857--Campbell and party; west of Lake Torrens; and again, with party,
looking for pastoral country west of Lake Eyre.

1857--G. W. Goyder, Deputy Surveyor-General of South Australia, to
examine and survey the country about Blanche Water.

1857--Colonel Freeling, Surveyor-General of South Australia, sent to
verify Goyder's report; decided that Goyder had been misled by a mirage.

1857--Stephen Hack, with Mr. Miller; examined Gawler Range and sighted
Lake Gairdner.

1857--Major Warburton crossed Stephen Hack's track.

1857--Messrs. Miller and Dutton explored country back of Fowler's Bay.

1858--Sir Richard G. M'Donnel; exploration to Strangways and Loddon
Springs; also up the River Murray to Mount Murchison.

1858--B. H. Babbage; third expedition from Adelaide; superseded by
Major Warburton.

1858--Major Warburton, continued the expedition started by B. 11.
Babbage. This trip established the definite size and shape of Lake

1858--S. Parry, Government Surveyor, South Australia; an expedition round
Lake Torrens, Lake Gregory, and Blanche Water.

1858--Frank Gregory reached the Gascoyne; discovered Mount Augustus and
Mount Gould.

1858--A. C. Gregory; Barcoo expedition to search for trace of the course
of Leichhardt's party. Confirmation of the supposed identity of the
Barcoo and Cooper's Creek.

1858--J. M'Dowall Stuart; first expedition.

1859--J. M'Dowall Stuart; second expedition; one of his party, Hergott,
discovered and named Hergott Springs.

1859--George E. Dalrymple, discovered main tributaries of the Lower
Burdekin, Bowen, and Bogie Rivers.

1860--Edward Cunningham and party explored the Upper Burdekin.

1861--J. Neilson and brothers; in search of pastoral country; from Mount
Ranken on the Darling to Cooper's Creek.

1860-61--Burke and Wills' expedition; death of Burke, Wills, and Gray.

1861--J. M'Dowall Stuart's third expedition; he crossed the continent
after two attempts.

1861--Frank Gregory discovered the Hammersley Range, Fortescue,
Ashburton, De Grey, and Oakover Rivers.

1861--Messrs. Dempster and Clarkson; Western Australia; explorations to
the eastward.

1861-62--William Landsborough, in search of Burke and Wills.

1861-62--Frederick Walker, leader of the Rockhampton expedition in search
of Burke and Wills.

1861--Alfred Howitt, in charge of Victorian search party for Burke and

1861--Edwin J. Welch, second in command of Howitt's search party, found
King, only survivor of the Burke and Wills expedition.

1861-622.--John M'Kinlay with a relief party for Burke and Wills, from

1862--G. W. Goyder; explorations in the Great Bight.

1862--George E. Dalrymple on the waters of the Upper Burdekin.

1862--Messrs, Delisser and Hardwicke explore from Fowler's Bay to the
edge of the Victorian Desert.

1863--Thomas Macfarlane attempted to push inland north of the Great

1863--Messrs. H. M. Lefroy and party; eastward of York, Western

1863--C. C. Hunt and Ridley to the De Grey River.

1863--Colonists landed at the De Grey River, and settled on country
discovered by Frank Gregory.

1863--Jardine, sen., formed the settlement of Somerset, Cape York.

1863--William Landsborough; in charge of the new township, Burketown,
Gulf of Carpentaria.

1864-65--Jardine Brothers; overland to Somerset, on the west coast of
Cape York.

1864--Colonel Finnis formed a settlement at Escape Cliffs.

1864--J. M'Kinlay on the Alligator River; searching for suitable site for
a township; his last expedition.

1864--Duncan M'Intyre; from Paroo to the Gulf of Carpentaria; died there.

1864--C. C. Hunt; exploration east of York, Western Australia.

1865--G. W. Goyder; removed settlement of Escape Cliffs to Port Darwin.

1865--J. G. Macdonald; visited the Plains of Promise.

1864--Frederick Walker; marking a telegraph line from the back of
Rockingham Bay to the Norman River, Gulf of Carpentaria.

1866-7--Sir George Strong Nares, in command of H.M.S. SALAMANDER;
surveyed the eastern and north-eastern coasts of Australia and Torres

1869--John Forrest; first expedition to Lake Barlee.

1869--J. M'Dowall Stuart; died in England.

1870--John Forrest; travelled the Great Bight, from Perth to Adelaide.

1871--A. Forrest; took charge of a private expedition in search of new
pastoral country.

1872--J. W. Lewis; round Lake Eyre to the Queensland border.

1872--Ernest Giles; first expedition; discovered Lake Amadeus--a large,
dry, salt lake.

1872--William Hann; explorations to Charlotte Bay.

1873--Ernest Giles; second trip; death of Gibson; Gibson's Desert named.

1873--Major Warburton; crossed from Alice Springs, overland telegraph
line, to the Oakover River, Western Australia.

1873--W. C. Gosse; in charge of Central and Western Exploration
expedition from Alice Springs.

1874--Ross and son started from Peake Station, but failed in their
endeavours to bridge the desert.

1874--John Forrest; from the Murchison to the overland telegraph line.

1874--John M'Kinlay; died at Gawler, South Australia.

1875--J. W. Lewis, formerly one of Warburton's party, and W. Beresford,
were sent by the South Australian Government to survey the country about
Lake Eyre.

1875-76--Ernest Giles; third and successful effort to reach Western
Australia; returned to Peake Station.

1876--Gilbert M'Minn, and A. W. Sergison; to ascertain the course of the
Katherine River.

1877--A. W. Sergison and R. Travers explored the country round the Daly
and Fitzmaurice Rivers.

1877--Ross and Harvey; explorations in South Australia.

1876--W. 0. Hodgkinson; north-west expedition to the Diamantina and

1876--Phillip Saunders and Adam Johns; from Roeburn, Western Australia,
to the overland telegraph line.

1878--Prout Brothers; looking for country across the Queensland border;
never returned.

1878--N. Buchanan; excursion to the overland telegraph line, from
Queensland border. Discovered Buchanan's Creek.

1878--Frank Scarr, surveyor, attempted to cross the line south of
Buchanan's track; prevented by waterless belt of country; made north to
Tennant's Creek Station.

1878-79--Ernest Favenc; in charge of the QUEENSLANDER Transcontinental
Expedition, from Blackall to Powell's Creek Station, overland telegraph

1879--Alexander Forrest led an expedition from the De Grey River, Western
Australia, to the overland telegraph line; discovered the Ord and
Margaret Rivers.

1878-80--Winnecke and Barclay, surveyors; to determine the border lines
of Queensland and South Australia.

1882-83--Ernest Favenc; coast rivers of the Gulf, particularly the
Macarthur; then crossed to the overland telegraph line.

1883--O'Donnel and Carr Boyd; from the overland telegraph line to
Kimberley District, Western Australia.

1883--M'Phee; east of Daly Waters.

1883--David Lindsay; explored Arnheim's Land.

1884-85--Harry Stockdale; from Cambridge Gulf to the Katherine Telegraph
Station, overland telegraph line.

1884-5--Messrs. O'Donnel and party; from the Katherine Telegraph Station
to the Kimberley District.

1888--Ernest Favenc; to examine the country on the Gascoyne and
Murchison, starting from Geraldton, Western Australia.

The End

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