Part 9 out of 9
Metellus completes the conquest of Crete for the Romans.
Mithridates makes a successful advance.
66. Pompey, after a conference with Lucullus, completely crushes
Mithridates and drives him over the Cimmerian Bosporus.
65. End of the Third Mithridatic War.
Antiochus XIII is deposed by Pompey; this puts an end to the kingdom of
the Seleucidas (Syria).
Hyrcanus takes up arms against his brother Aristobulus in Judea.
64. Pompey takes possession of Syria; he is recalled thence to oppose
Mithridates, who, returned to his states, prepares for further
63. Having intervened between the brothers John Hyrcanus II and
Aristobulus II, and decided in favor of Hyrcanus, Pompey lays siege to
Jerusalem, where Aristobulus reigns, captures it, and makes Judea a
Mithridates, betrayed by his son, poisons himself.
Cicero frustrates the conspiracy of Catiline, having for its object the
cancellation of debts, the proscription of the wealthy, and the
distribution among the conspirators of all the offices of honor and
62. Catiline is defeated and slain, after having collected an army in
Discord arises between Caesar, now praetor, and Cato, tribune of the
60. First Triumvirate in Rome, formed of Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar,
equally dividing the power.
59. Consulship of Caesar at Rome; he carries his agrarian law and
ingratiates himself with the people; he is given the command in Gaul and
Illyrium for five years.
58. Caesar begins his campaigns in Gaul. See "CAESAR CONQUERS GAUL," ii,
Cicero exiled from Rome; he had saved the Republic at the time of the
Catiline conspiracy, but had broken the constitution, which forbade
capital punishment without the sentence of the assembly of the people.
57. The Belgae conquered by Caesar.
Cicero recalled to Rome.
56. Roman conquest of Aquitaine.
55. Cato is imprisoned for opposing the vote giving the triumvirs five
more years in their respective provinces: Pompey in Spain; Caesar in
Gaul; Crassus in Syria. The triumvirs meet at Lucca.
Caesar's first expedition into Britain. See "ROMAN INVASION AND CONQUEST
OF BRITAIN," ii, 285.
54. First campaign of Crassus; he plunders the Temple of Jerusalem and
proceeds against the Parthians.
Mithridates of Parthia is murdered by his brother Orodes.
Caesar's second invasion of Britain. See "ROMAN INVASION AND CONQUEST OF
BRITAIN," ii, 285.
53. Crassus defeated and slain in the war against the Parthians at
52. Vercingetorix, at the head of various Gallic tribes, makes a
formidable effort to drive Caesar out of Gaul; he is unsuccessful, and
Caesar, besieging him in his stronghold Alesia, forces him to surrender.
51. Peace between Rome and Parthia. Caesar completes his conquest of
Cleopatra, on the death of her father, Ptolemy Auletes, becomes queen of
Egypt. See "CLEOPATRA'S CONQUEST OF CAESAR AND ANTONY," ii, 295.
50. Caesar returns to Italy; jealousy between him and Pompey arouses the
people of Rome.
49. War breaks out between Caesar and Pompey; the second civil war in
48. Pompey is defeated by Caesar at Pharsalia; Pompey flees to Egypt,
where he is assassinated.
47. The Roman senate appoints Caesar dictator, M. Antony as his master of
the horse. Caesar subdues Egypt.
46. Caesar overwhelms the Pompeians in Africa at the battle of Thapsus;
Juba, King of Numidia, on the defeat, takes his own life.
[Footnote 92: Other authorities say he fell in battle.]
Death of Cato.
The calendar is reformed by Caesar.
45. Caesar conquers the sons of Pompey at Munda, Spain. He is appointed
dictator for life.
44. Brutus, Cassius, and other conspirators murder Caesar in Rome. See
"ASSASSINATION OF CAESAR," ii, 313.
Conflict for power between Antony and Octavius; Cicero's oration secures
Octavius' success in Rome.
Antony resorts to arms to regain his lost ascendency. See "ROME BECOMES
A MONARCHY," ii, 333.
43. Second Triumvirate at Rome, formed by Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus.
Murder of Cicero. Birth of Ovid.
42. Brutus and Cassius are defeated at the two battles of Philippi. See
"ROME BECOMES A MONARCHY," ii, 333.
41. Octavius and Antony's party war in Italy.
Fulvia, the wife of Antony, and the consul Lucius, his brother, oppose
Octavius, who drives them from Rome. See "ROME BECOMES A MONARCHY," ii,
40. Herod I, in his absence at Rome, is proclaimed by Antony and
Octavius king of Judea.
Antony accompanies Cleopatra to Egypt. See "ROME BECOMES A MONARCHY,"
39. Herod lands in Syria to take the throne of Judea.
38. Pompey is defeated in a naval engagement and loses all his fleet.
37. Herod conquers Jerusalem; the Asmonean house ends.
36. Lepidus, aspiring to greater power, is deserted by his soldiers and
ejected from the triumvirate.
31. War of Antony and Octavius; Octavius is victorious at Actium: he
becomes master of the Roman dominions. Flight of Antony with Cleopatra
to Egypt. See "ROME BECOMES A MONARCHY," ii, 333.
30. Death of Antony and Cleopatra. See "ROME BECOMES A MONARCHY," ii,
Egypt becomes a Roman province.
27. Octavius has a triumph at Rome and receives the title of Augustus.
The temple of Janus is closed.
24. Aelius Gallus, governor of Egypt, fails in an expedition into
19. Final subjugation of the Cantabri by Agrippa; the whole Spanish
peninsula subject to Rome.
15. The Rhaetians and Vindelicians subdued by Drassus and Tiberius, at
the head of the Roman troops.
12. Victorious advance of Drusus in Germany.
9. Pannonia completely subdued by Tiberius.
Last German campaign and death of Drusus.
4. Death of Herod the Great, King of Judea.
Probable date of the birth of Jesus.
1. Beginning of the Christian era.
4. Emperor Tiberius' campaign in Germany.
6. Archelaus, the Herodian ethnarch, is deposed; Judea becomes a
district of the Roman prefecture of Syria.
9. Arminius annihilates the army of Varus in Teutoburg Forest. See
"GERMANS UNDER ARMINIUS REVOLT AGAINST ROME," ii, 362.
12. Tiberius leaves Germanicus to prosecute the war, and returns to
END OF VOLUME II