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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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"_Evilspeaking_; a noun, compounded of the noun _evil_ and the imperfect
participle _speaking._"--_Ib._ "I am a tall, broadshouldered, impudent,
black fellow."--SPECTATOR: _in Johnson's Dict._ "Ingratitude! thou
marblehearted fiend."--SHAK.: _ib._ "A popular licence is indeed the
manyheaded tyranny."--SIDNEY: _ib._ "He from the manypeopled city
flies."--SANDYS: _ib._ "He manylanguaged nations has surveyed."--POPE:
_ib._ "The horsecucumber is the large green cucumber, and the best for the
table."--MORTIMER: _ib._ "The bird of night did sit, even at noonday, upon
the market-place."--SHAK.: _ib._ "These make a general gaoldelivery of
souls, not for punishment."--SOUTH: _ib._ "Thy air, thou other goldbound
brow, is like the first."--SHAK.: _ib._ "His person was deformed to the
highest degree; flatnosed, and blobberlipped."--L'ESTRANGE: _ib._ "He that
defraudeth the labourer of his hire, is a bloodshedder."--ECCLUS., xxxiv,
22: _ib._ "Bloodyminded, _adj._ from _bloody_ and _mind._ Cruel; inclined
to blood-shed."--See _Johnson's Dict._ "Bluntwitted lord, ignoble in
demeanour."--SHAK.: _ib._ "A young fellow with a bobwig and a black silken
bag tied to it."--SPECTATOR: _ib._ "I have seen enough to confute all the
boldfaced atheists of this age."--BRAMHALL: _ib._ "Before milkwhite, now
purple with love's wound."--SHAK: _ib._ "For what else is a redhot iron
than fire? and what else is a burning coal than redhot wood?"--NEWTON:
_ib._ "Pollevil is a large swelling, inflammation, or imposthume in the
horse's poll, or nape of the neck just between the ears."--FARRIER: _ib._

"Quick-witted, brazenfac'd, with fluent tongues,
Patient of labours, and dissembling wrongs."--DRYDEN: _ib._


"From his fond parent's eye a tear-drop fell."--_Snelling's Gift for
Scribblers_, p. 43.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because the word _tear-drop_, which has never any
other than a full accent on the first syllable, is here compounded with the
hyphen. But, according to Rule 6th, "When a compound has but one accented
syllable in pronunciation, and the parts are such as admit of a complete
coalescence, no hyphen should be inserted between them." Therefore,
_teardrop_ should be made a close compound.]

"How great, poor jack-daw, would thy sufferings be!"--_Ib._, p. 29. "Placed
like a scare-crow in a field of corn."--_Ib._, p. 39. "Soup for the
alms-house at a cent a quart."--_Ib._, p. 23. "Up into the watch-tower get,
and see all things despoiled of fallacies."--DONNE: _Johnson's Dict., w.
Lattice._ "In the day-time she sitteth in a watchtower, and flieth most by
night."--BACON: _ib., w. Watchtower._ "In the daytime Fame sitteth in a
watch-tower, and flieth most by night."--ID.: _ib., w. Daytime._ "The moral
is the first business of the poet, as being the ground-work of his
instruction."--DRYDEN: _ib., w. Moral._ "Madam's own hand the mouse-trap
baited."--PRIOR: _ib., w. Mouse-trap._ "By the sinking of the air-shaft the
air hath liberty to circulate."--RAY: _ib., w. Airshaft._ "The multiform
and amazing operations of the air-pump and the loadstone."--WATTS: _ib., w.
Multiform._ "Many of the fire-arms are named from animals."--_Ib., w.
Musket._ "You might have trussed him and all his apparel into an
eel-skin."--SHAK.: _ib., w. Truss._ "They may serve as land-marks to shew
what lies in the direct way of truth."--LOCKE: _ib., w. Landmark._ "A
pack-horse is driven constantly in a narrow lane and dirty road."--_Id.
ib., w. Lane._ "A mill-horse, still bound to go in one circle."--SIDNEY:
_ib., w. Mill-horse._ "Of singing birds they have linnets, goldfinches,
ruddocks, Canary-birds, black-birds, thrushes, and divers others."--CAREW:
_ib., w. Goldfinch._ "Of singing birds, they have linnets, gold-finches,
blackbirds, thrushes, and divers others."--ID.: _ib., w. Blackbird._ "Of
singing birds, they have linnets, gold-finches, ruddocks, canary birds,
blackbirds, thrushes, and divers other."--ID.: _ib., w. Canary bird._
"Cartrage, or Cartridge, a case of paper or parchment filled with
gun-powder."--_Johnson's Dict._, 4to.

"Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night,
The time of night when Troy was set on fire,
The tune when screech-owls cry, and ban-dogs howl."
SHAKSPEARE: _ib., w. Silent._

"The time when screech-owls cry, and bandogs howl."
IDEM.: _ib., w. Bandog._



"They that live in glass-houses, should not throw stones."--_Old Adage._
"If a man profess Christianity in any manner or form soever."--_Watts_, p.
5. "For Cassius is a weary of the world."--SHAKSPEARE: _in Kirkham's
Elocution_, p. 67. "By the coming together of more, the chains were
fastened on."--_Walker's Particles_, p. 223. "Unto the carrying away of
Jerusalem captive in the fifth month."--_Jer._, i, 3. "And the goings forth
of the border shall be to Zedad."--_Numbers_, xxxiv, 8. "And the goings out
of it shall be at Hazar-enan."--_Ib._, ver. 9. "For the taking place of
effects, in a certain particular series."--_Dr. West, on Agency_, p. 39.
"The letting go of which was the occasion of all that corruption."--_Dr. J.
Owen._ "A falling off at the end always hurts greatly."--_Blair's Lect._,
p. 126. "A falling off at the end is always injurious."--_Jamieson's
Rhetoric_, p. 127. "As all holdings forth were courteously supposed to be
trains of reasoning."--_Dr. Murray's Hist. of Europ. Lang._, Vol. i, p.
333. "Whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting."--
_Micah_, v, 2. "Some times the adjective becomes a substantive."--
_Bradley's Gram._, p. 104. "It is very plain, I consider man as visited a
new."--_Barclay's Works_, Vol. iii, p. 331. "Nor do I any where say, as he
falsely insinuates."--_Ib._, p. 331. "Every where, any where, some where,
no where."--_Alex. Murray's Gram._, p. 55. "The world hurries off a pace,
and time is like a rapid river."--_Collier's Antoninus_, p. 58. "But to now
model the paradoxes of ancient skepticism."--_Brown's Estimate_, Vol. i, p.
102. "The south east winds from the ocean invariably produce
rain."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 369. "North west winds from the high lands
produce cold clear weather."--_Ib._ "The greatest part of such tables would
be of little use to English men."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 155. "The ground
floor of the east wing of Mulberry street meeting house was filled."--_The
Friend_, vii, 232. "Prince Rupert's Drop. This singular production is made
at the glass houses."--_Red Book_, p. 131.

"The lights and shades, whose well accorded strife
Gives all the strength and colour of our life."
--_Murray's Gram._, p. 54; _Fisk's_, 65.


"In the twenty and seventh year of Asa king of Judah did Zimri reign seven
days in Tirzah."--_1 Kings_, xvi, 15. "In the thirty and first year of Asa
king of Judah, began Omri to reign over Israel."--_Ib._, xvi, 23. "He
cannot so deceive himself as to fancy that he is able to do a rule of three
sum."--_Foreign Quarterly Review_. "The best cod are those known under the
name of Isle of Shoals dun fish."--_Balbi's Geog._, p. 26. "The soldiers,
with down cast eyes, seemed to beg for mercy."--_Goldsmith's Greece_, Vol.
ii, p. 142. "His head was covered with a coarse worn out piece of
cloth."--_Ib._, p. 124. "Though they had lately received a reinforcement of
a thousand heavy armed Spartans."--_Ib._, p. 38. "But he laid them by
unopened; and, with a smile, said, 'Business to morrow.'"--_Ib._, p. 7.
"Chester monthly meeting is held at Moore's town, the third day following
the second second day."--_The Friend_, Vol. vii, p. 124. "Eggharbour
monthly meeting is held the first second day."--_Ib._, p. 124. "Little Egg
Harbour Monthly Meeting is held at Tuckerton on the second fifth day in
each month."--_Ib._, p. 231. "At three o'clock, on first day morning the
24th of eleventh month, 1834," &c.--_Ib._, p. 64. "In less than one-fourth
part of the time usually devoted."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 4. "The pupil
will not have occasion to use it one-tenth part as much."--_Ib._, p. 11.
"The painter dips his paint brush in paint, to paint the
carriage."--_Ib._, p. 28. "In an ancient English version of the
New-Testament."--_Ib._, p. 74. "The little boy was bare headed."--_Red
Book_, p. 36. "The man, being a little short sighted, did not immediately
know him."--_Ib._, p. 40. "Picture frames are gilt with gold."--_Ib._, p.
44. "The park keeper killed one of the deer."--_Ib._, p. 44. "The fox was
killed near the brick kiln."--_Ib._, p. 46. "Here comes Esther, with her
milk pail."--_Ib._, p. 50. "The cabinet maker would not tell us."--_Ib._,
p. 60. "A fine thorn hedge extended along the edge of the hill."--_Ib._, p.
65. "If their private interests should be ever so little affected."--_Ib._,
p. 73. "Unios are fresh water shells, vulgarly called fresh water
clams."--_Ib._, p. 102.

"Did not each poet mourn his luckless doom,
Jostled by pedants out of elbow room."--_Lloyd_, p. 163.


"The captive hovers a-while upon the sad remains."--PRIOR: _in Johnson's
Dict., w. Hover._ "Constantia saw that the hand writing agreed with the
contents of the letter."--ADDISON: _ib., w. Hand_. "They have put me in a
silk night-gown, and a gaudy fool's cap."--ID.: _ib., w. Nightgown_. "Have
you no more manners than to rail at Hocus, that has saved that clod-pated,
numskull'd ninnyhammer of yours from ruin, and all his family?"--ARBUTHNOT:
_ib., w. Ninnyhammer_. "A noble, that is, six, shillings and eightpence,
is, and usually hath been paid."--BACON: _ib., w. Noble_. "The king of
birds thick feather'd and with full-summed wings, fastened his talons east
and west."--HOWELL: _ib., w. Full-summed_. "To morrow. This is an idiom of
the same kind, supposing _morrow_ to mean originally _morning_: as, _to
night, to day_."--_Johnson's Dict._, 4to. "To-day goes away and to-morrow
comes."--_Id., ib., w. Go_, No. 70. "Young children, who are try'd in Go
carts, to keep their steps from sliding."--PRIOR: _ib., w. Go-cart_.
"Which, followed well, would demonstrate them but goers backward."--SHAK.:
_ ib., w. Goer_. "Heaven's golden winged herald late he saw, to a poor
Galilean virgin sent."--CRASHAW: _ib., w. Golden_. "My penthouse eye-brows
and my shaggy beard offend your sight."--DRYDEN: _ib., w. Penthouse_. "The
hungry lion would fain have been dealing with good horse-flesh."--
L'ESTRANGE: _ib., w. Nag_. "A broad brimmed hat ensconced each careful
head."--_Snelling's Gift_, p. 63. "With harsh vibrations of his three
stringed lute."--_Ib._, p. 42. "They magnify a hundred fold an author's
merit."--_Ib._, p. 14. "I'll nail them fast to some oft opened
door."--_Ib._, p. 10. "Glossed over only with a saint-like show, still thou
art bound to vice."--DRYDEN: in _Johnson's Dict., w. Gloss_. "Take of
aqua-fortis two ounces, of quick-silver two drachms."--BACON: _ib., w.
Charge_. "This rainbow never appears but when it rains in the
sun-shine."--NEWTON: _ib., w. Rainbow_.

"Not but there are, who merit other palms;
Hopkins and Stern hold glad the heart with Psalms."
_British Poets_, Lond., 1800, Vol. vi, p. 405.


_Spelling_ is the art of expressing words by their proper letters. This
important art is to be acquired rather by means of the spelling-book or
dictionary, and by observation in reading, than by the study of written
rules; because what is proper or improper, depends chiefly upon usage.

The orthography of our language is attended with much uncertainty and
perplexity: many words are variously spelled by the best scholars, and many
others are not usually written according to the analogy of similar words.
But to be ignorant of the orthography of such words as are spelled with
uniformity, and frequently used, is justly considered disgraceful.

The following rules may prevent some embarrassment, and thus be of service
to those who wish to be accurate.



Monosyllables ending in _f, l_, or _s_, preceded by a single vowel, double
the final consonant; as _staff, mill, pass--muff, knell, gloss--off, hiss,

EXCEPTIONS.--The words _clef, if_, and _of_, are written with single _f_;
and _as, gas, has, was, yes, his, is, this, us, pus_, and _thus_, with
single _s_. So _bul_, for the flounder; _nul_, for _no_, in law; _sol_, for
_sou_ or _sun_; and _sal_, for _salt_, in chemistry, have but the single

OBS.--Because _sal, salis_, in Latin, doubles not the _l_, the chemists
write _salify, salifiable, salification, saliferous, saline, salinous,
saliniform, salifying_, &c., with single _l_, contrary to Rule 3d. But in
_gas_ they ought to double the _s_; for this is a word of their own
inventing. Neither have they any plea for allowing it to form _gases_ and
_gaseous_ with the _s_ still single; for so they make it violate two
general rules at once. If the singular cannot now be written _gass_, the
plural should nevertheless be _gasses_, and the adjective should be
_gasseous_, according to Rule 3d.


Words ending in any other consonant than _f, l_, or _s_, do not double the
final letter; as, _mob, nod, dog, sum, sun, cup, cur, cut, fix, whiz_.

EXCEPTIONS.--We double the consonant in _abb, ebb, add, odd, egg, jagg,
ragg, inn, err, burr, purr, butt, buzz, fuzz, yarr_, and some proper names.
But we have also _ab_ (_from_) and _ad_ (_to_) for prefixes; and _jag, rag,
in, bur_, and _but_, are other words that conform to the rule.


Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, when they end with
a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, or by a vowel after _qu_,
double their final consonant before an additional syllable that begins with
a vowel: as, _rob, robbed, robber; fop, foppish, foppery; squat, squatter,
squatting; thin, thinner, thinnest; swim, swimmer, swimming; commit,
committeth, committing, committed, committer, committees; acquit,
acquittal, acquittance, acquitted, acquitting, acquitteth_.

EXCEPTIONS.--1. X final, being equivalent to _ks_, is never doubled: thus,
from _mix_, we have _mixed, mixing_, and _mixer_. 2. When the derivative
retains not the accent of the root, the final consonant is not always
doubled: as, _prefer', pref'erence, pref'erable; refer', ref'erence,
ref'erable_, or _refer'rible; infer', in'ference, in'ferable_, or
_infer'rible; transfer'_, a _trans'fer, trans'ferable_, or
_transfer'rible_. 3. But letters doubled in Latin, are usually doubled in
English, without regard to accent, or to any other principle: as, Britain,
_Britan'nic, Britannia_; appeal, _appel'lant_; argil, _argil'laus,
argilla'ceous_; cavil, _cav'illous, cavilla'tion_; excel', _ex'cellent,
ex'cellence_; inflame', _inflam'mable, inflamma'tion_. See Observations 13
and 14, p. 199.


A final consonant, when it is not preceded by a single vowel, or when the
accent is not on the last syllable, should remain single before an
additional syllable: as, _toil, toiling; oil, oily; visit, visited; differ,
differing; peril, perilous; viol, violist; real, realize, realist; dial,
dialing, dialist; equal, equalize, equality; vitriol, vitriolic,

EXCEPTIONS.--1. The final _l_ of words ending in _el_, must be doubled
before an other vowel, lest the power of the _e_ be mistaken, and a
syllable be lost: as, _travel, traveller; duel, duellist; revel, revelling;
gravel, gravelly; marvel, marvellous_. Yet the word _parallel_, having
three Ells already, conforms to the rule in forming its derivatives; as,
_paralleling, paralleled_, and _unparalleled_. 2. Contrary to the preceding
rule, the preterits, participles, and derivative nouns, of the few verbs
ending in _al, il_, or _ol_, unaccented,--namely, _equal, rival, vial,
marshal, victual, cavil, pencil, carol, gambol_, and _pistol_,--are usually
allowed to double the _l_, though some dissent from the practice: as,
_equalled, equalling; rivalled, rivalling; cavilled, cavilling, caviller;
carolled, carolling, caroller_. 3. When _ly_ follows _l_, we have two Ells
of course, but in fact no doubling: as, _real, really; oral, orally; cruel,
cruelly; civil, civilly; cool, coolly; wool, woolly_. 4. Compounds, though
they often remove the principal accent from the point of duplication,
always retain the double letter: as, _wit'snapper, kid'napper,[114]
grass'hopper, duck'-legged, spur'galled, hot'spurred, broad'-brimmed,
hare'-lipped, half-witted_. So, _compromitted_ and _manumitted_; but
_benefited_ is different.


Monosyllables and English verbs end not with _c_, but take _ck_ for double
_c_; as, _rack, wreck, rock, attack_: but, in general, words derived from
the learned languages need not the _k_, and common use discards it; as,
_Italic, maniac, music, public_.

EXCEPTIONS.--The words _arc_, part of a circle; _orc_, the name of a fish;
_lac_, a gum or resin; and _sac_, or _soc_, a privilege, in old English
law, are ended with _c_ only. _Zinc_ is, perhaps, better spelled _zink_;
_marc, mark_; _disc, disk_; and _talc, talck_.


Words ending with any double letter, preserve it double before any
additional termination, not beginning with the same letter;[115] as in the
following derivatives: _wooer, seeing, blissful, oddly, gruffly, equally,
shelly, hilly, stiffness, illness, stillness, shrillness, fellness,
smallness, drollness, freeness, grassless, passless, carelessness,
recklessness, embarrassment, enfeoffment, agreement, agreeable_.

EXCEPTIONS.--1. Certain irregular derivatives in _d_ or _t_, from verbs
ending in _ee, ll_, or _ss_, (as _fled_ from _flee, sold_ from _sell, told_
from _tell, dwelt_ from _dwell, spelt_ from _spell, spilt_ from _spill,
shalt_ from _shall, wilt_ from _will, blest_ from _bless, past_ from
_pass_,) are exceptions to the foregoing rule. 2. If the word _pontiff_ is
properly spelled with two Effs, its eight derivatives are also exceptions
to this rule; for they are severally spelled with one; as, _pontific,
pontifical, pontificate_, &c. 3. The words _skillful, skillfully, willful,
willfully, chillness, tallness, dullness_, and _fullness_, have generally
been allowed to drop the second _l_, though all of them might well be made
to conform to the general rule, agreeably to the orthography of Webster.


Words ending with any double letter, preserve it double in all derivatives
formed from them by means of prefixes: as, _see, foresee_; _feoff,
enfeoff_; _pass, repass_; _press, depress_; _miss, amiss_; _call, recall_;
_stall, forestall_; _thrall, inthrall_; _spell, misspell_; _tell,
foretell_; _sell, undersell_; _add, superadd_; _snuff, besnuff_; _swell,

OBSERVATION.--The words _enroll, unroll, miscall, befall, befell, bethrall,
reinstall, disinthrall, fulfill_, and _twibill_, are very commonly written
with one _l_, and made exceptions to this rule; but those authors are in
the right who retain the double letter.


Final _ll_ is peculiar to monosyllables and their compounds, with the few
derivatives formed from such roots by prefixes; consequently, all other
words that end in _l_, must be terminated with a single _l_: as, _cabal,
logical, appal, excel, rebel, refel, dispel, extol, control, mogul, jackal,
rascal, damsel, handsel, tinsel, tendril, tranquil, gambol, consul_.

OBSERVATION.--The words _annul, until, distil, extil_, and _instil_, are
also properly spelled with one _l_; for the monosyllables _null, till_, and
_still_ are not really their roots, but rather derivatives, or contractions
of later growth. Webster, however, prefers _distill, extill_, and _instill_
with _ll_; and some have been disposed to add the other two.


The final _e_ of a primitive word, when this letter is mute or obscure, is
generally omitted before an additional termination beginning with a vowel:
as, _remove, removal_; _rate, ratable_; _force, forcible_; _true, truism_;
_rave, raving_; _sue, suing_; _eye, eying_; _idle, idling_; _centre,

EXCEPTIONS.--1. Words ending in _ce_ or _ge_, retain the _e_ before _able_
or _ous_, to preserve the soft sounds of _c_ and _g_: as, _trace,
traceable_; _change, changeable_; _outrage, outrageous_. 2. So, from
_shoe_, we write _shoeing_, to preserve the sound of the root; from _hoe,
hoeing_, by apparent analogy; and, from _singe, singeing_; from _swinge,
swingeing_; from _tinge, tingeing_; that they may not be confounded with
_singing, swinging_, and _tinging_. 3. To compounds and prefixes, as
_firearms, forearm, anteact, viceagent_, the rule does not apply; and final
_ee_ remains double, by Rule 6th, as in _disagreeable, disagreeing_.


The final _e_ of a primitive word is generally retained before an
additional termination beginning with a consonant: as, _pale, paleness_;
_edge, edgeless_; _judge, judgeship_; _lodge, lodgement_; _change,
changeful_; _infringe, infringement_.

EXCEPTIONS.--1. When the _e_ is preceded by a vowel, it is sometimes
omitted; as in _duly, truly, awful, argument_; but much more frequently
retained; as in _dueness, trueness, blueness, bluely, rueful, dueful,
shoeless, eyeless_. 2. The word _wholly_ is also an exception to the rule,
for nobody writes it _wholely_. 3. Some will have _judgment, abridgment_,
and _acknowledgment_, to be irreclaimable exceptions; but I write them with
the _e_, upon the authority of Lowth, Beattie, Ainsworth, Walker, Cobb,
Chalmers, and others: the French "_jugement_," _judgement_, always retains
the _e_.


The final _y_ of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is
generally changed into _i_ before an additional termination: as, _merry,
merrier, merriest, merrily, merriment_; _pity, pitied, pities, pitiest,
pitiless, pitiful, pitiable_; _contrary, contrariness, contrarily_.

EXCEPTIONS.--1. This rule applies to derivatives, but not to compounds:
thus, we write _merciful_, and _mercy-seat_; _penniless_, and _pennyworth_;
_scurviness_, and _scurvy-grass_; &c. But _ladyship_ and _goodyship_, being
unlike _secretariship_ and _suretiship_; _handicraft_ and _handiwork_,[116]
unlike _handygripe_ and _handystroke_; _babyship_ and _babyhood_, unlike
_stateliness_ and _likelihood_; the distinction between derivatives and
compounds, we see, is too nice a point to have been always accurately
observed. 2. Before _ing_ or _ish_, the _y_ is retained to prevent the
doubling of _i_: as, _pity, pitying_; _baby, babyish_. 3. Words ending in
_ie_, dropping the _e_ by Rule 9th, change the _i_ into _y_, for the same
reason: as, _die, dying_; _vie, vying_; _lie, lying_.


The final _y_ of a primitive word, when preceded by a vowel, should not be
changed into _i_ before any additional termination: as, _day, days_; _key,
keys_; _guy, guys_; _valley, valleys_; _coy, coyly_; _cloy, cloys, cloyed_;
_boy, boyish, boyhood_; _annoy, annoyer, annoyance_; _joy, joyless,

EXCEPTIONS.--1. From _lay, pay, say_, and _stay_, are formed _laid, paid,
said_, and _staid_; but the regular words, _layed, payed, stayed_, are
sometimes used. 2. _Raiment_, contracted from _arrayment_, is never written
with the _y_. 3. _Daily_ is more common than the regular form _dayly_; but
_gayly, gayety_, and _gayness_, are justly superseding _gaily_ and


Words ending in _ize_ or _ise_ sounded alike, as in _wise_ and _size_,
generally take the _z_ in all such as are essentially formed by means of
the termination; and the _s_ in monosyllables, and all such as are
essentially formed by means of prefixes: as, _gormandise, apologize,
brutalize, canonize, pilgrimize, philosophize, cauterize, anathematize,
sympathize, disorganize_, with _z_;[117] _rise, arise, disguise, advise,
devise, supervise, circumcise, despise, surmise, surprise, comprise,
compromise, enterprise, presurmise_, with _s_.

EXCEPTIONS.--1. _Advertise, catechise, chastise, criticise_,[118]
_exercise, exorcise_, and _merchandise_, are most commonly written with _s_
and _size, assize, capsize, analyze, overprize, detonize_, and _recognize_,
with _z_. How many of them are real exceptions to the rule, it is difficult
to say. 2. _Prise_, a thing taken, and _prize_, to esteem; _apprise_, to
inform, and _apprize_, to _value_, or _appraise_, are often written either
way, without this distinction of meaning, which some wish to establish. 3.
The want of the foregoing rule has also made many words _variable_, which
ought, unquestionably, to conform to the general principle.


Compounds generally retain the orthography of the simple words which
compose them: as, _wherein, horseman, uphill, shellfish, knee-deep,
kneedgrass, kneading-trough, innkeeper, skylight, plumtree, mandrill_.

EXCEPTIONS.--1. In permanent compounds, or in any derivatives of which,
they are not the _roots_, the words _full_ and _all_ drop one _l_; as,
_handful, careful, fulfil, always, although, withal_; in temporary
compounds, they retain both; as, _full-eyed, chock-full_,[119] _all-wise,
save-all_. 2. So the prefix _mis_, (if from _miss_, to err,) drops one _s_;
but it is wrong to drop them both, as in Johnson's "_mispell_" and
"_mispend_," for _misspell_ and _misspend_. 3. In the names of days, the
word _mass_ also drops one _s_; as, _Christmas, Candlemas, Lammas_. 4. The
possessive case often drops the apostrophe; as in _herdsman, kitesfoot_. 5.
One letter is dropped, if three of the same kind come together: as,
_Rosshire, chaffinch_; or else a hyphen is used: as, _Ross-shire,
ill-looking, still-life_. 6. _Chilblain, welcome_, and _welfare_, drop one
_l_. 7. _Pastime_ drops an _s_. 8. _Shepherd, wherever_, and _whosever_,
drop an _e_; and _wherefore_ and _therefore_ assume one.


Any word for the spelling of which we have no rule but usage, is written
wrong if not spelled according to the usage which is most common among the
learned: as, "The brewer grinds his malt before he _brues_ his beer."--_Red
Book_, p. 38.


OBS. 1.--The foregoing rules aim at no wild and impracticable reformation
of our orthography; but, if carefully applied, they will do much to obviate
its chief difficulties. Being made variable by the ignorance of some
writers and the caprice of others, our spelling is now, and always has
been, exceedingly irregular and unsettled. Uniformity and consistency can
be attained in no other way, than by the steady application of rules and
principles; and these must be made as few and as general as the case will
admit, that the memory of the learner may not be overmatched by their
number or complexity. Rules founded on the analogy of similar words, and
sanctioned by the usage of careful writers, must be taken as our guides;
because common practice is often found to be capricious, contradictory, and
uncertain. That errors and inconsistencies abound, even in the books which
are proposed to the world as _standards_ of English orthography, is a
position which scarcely needs proof. It is true, to a greater or less
extent, of all the spelling-books and dictionaries that I have seen, and
probably of all that have ever been published. And as all authors are
liable to mistakes, which others may copy, general rules should have more
weight than particular examples to the contrary. "The right spelling of a
word may be said to be that which agrees the best with its pronunciation,
its etymology, and with the analogy of the particular class of words to
which it belongs."--_Philological Museum_, Vol. i, p. 647.

OBS. 2.--I do not deny that great respect is due to the authority of our
lexicographers, or that great improvement was made in the orthography of
our language when Dr. Johnson put his hand to the work. But sometimes one
man's authority may offset an other's; and he that is inconsistent with
himself, destroys his own: for, surely, his example cannot be paramount to
his principles. Much has been idly said, both for and against the adoption
of Johnson's Dictionary, or Webster's, as _the criterion_ of what is right
or wrong in spelling; but it would seem that no one man's learning is
sufficiently extensive, or his memory sufficiently accurate, to be solely
relied on to furnish _a standard_ by which we may in all cases be governed.
Johnson was generally right; but, like other men, he was sometimes wrong.
He erred sometimes in his _principles_, or in their application; as when he
adopted the _k_ in such words as _rhetorick_, and _demoniack_; or when he
inserted the _u_ in such words as _governour, warriour, superiour_. Neither
of these modes of spelling was ever generally adopted, in any thing like
the number of words to which he applied them; or ever will be; though some
indiscreet compilers are still zealously endeavouring to impose them upon
the public, as the true way of spelling. He also erred sometimes _by
accident_, or _oversight_; as when he spelled thus: "_recall_ and _miscal,
inthrall_ and _bethral, windfall_ and _downfal, laystall_ and _thumbstal,
waterfall_ and _overfal, molehill_ and _dunghil, windmill_ and _twibil,
uphill_ and _downhil_." This occasional excision of the letter _l_ is
reprehensible, because it is contrary to general analogy, and because both
letters are necessary to preserve the sound, and show the derivation of the
compound. Walker censures it as a "ridiculous irregularity," and lays the
blame of it on the "_printers_," and yet does not venture to correct it!
See Johnson's Dictionary, first American edition, quarto; Walker's
Pronouncing Dictionary, under the word _Dunghil_; and his Rhyming
Dictionary, Introd., p. xv.

OBS. 3.--"Dr. Johnson's Dictionary" has been represented by some as having
"nearly fixed the external form of our language." But Murray, who quotes
this from Dr. Nares, admits, at the same time, that, "The orthography of a
great number of English words, is far from being uniform, even amongst
writers of distinction."--_Gram._, p. 25. And, after commending this work
of Johnson's, as A STANDARD, from which, "it is earnestly to be hoped, that
no author will henceforth, on light grounds, be tempted to innovate," he
adds, "This Dictionary, however, contains some orthographical
inconsistencies which ought to be rectified: such as, _immovable, moveable;
chastely, chastness; fertileness, fertily; sliness, slyly; fearlessly,
fearlesness; needlessness, needlesly_."--_Ib._ In respect to the final _ck_
and _our_, he also _intentionally departs from_ THE STANDARD _which he thus
commends_; preferring, in that, the authority of _Walker's Rhyming
Dictionary_, from which he borrowed his rules for spelling. For, against
the use of _k_ at the end of words from the learned languages, and against
the _u_ in many words in which Johnson used it, we have the authority, not
only of general usage now, but of many grammarians who were contemporary
with Johnson, and of more than a dozen lexicographers, ancient or modern,
among whom is Walker himself. In this, therefore, Murray's practice is
right, and his commended standard dictionary, wrong.

OBS. 4.--Of words ending in _or_ or _our_, we have about three hundred and
twenty; of which not more than forty can now with any propriety be written
with the latter termination. Aiming to write according to the best usage of
the present day, I insert the _u_ in so many of these words as now seem
most familiar to the eye when so written; but I have no partiality for any
letters that can well be spared; and if this book should ever, by any good
fortune, happen to be reprinted, after _honour, labour, favour, behaviour_,
and _endeavour_, shall have become as unfashionable as _authour, errour,
terrour_, and _emperour_, are now, let the proof-reader strike out the
useless letter not only from these words, but from all others which shall
bear an equally antiquated appearance.

OBS. 5.--I have suggested the above-mentioned imperfections in _Dr.
Johnson's_ orthography, merely to justify the liberty which I take of
spelling otherwise; and not with any view to give a preference to that of
_Dr. Webster_, who is now contending for the honour of having furnished a
more correct _standard_. For the latter author, though right in some things
in which the former was wrong, is, on the whole, still more erroneous and
inconsistent. In his various attempts at reformation in our orthography, he
has spelled many hundreds of words in such a variety of ways, that he knows
not at last which of them is right, and which are wrong. But in respect to
_definitions_, he has done good service to our literature; nor have his
critics been sufficiently just respecting what they call his "innovations."
See Cobb's Critical Review of the Orthography of Webster. To omit the _k_
from such words as _publick_, or the _u_ from such as _superiour_, is
certainly _no innovation_; it is but ignorance that censures the general
practice, under that name. The advocates for Johnson and opponents of
Webster, who are now so zealously stickling for the _k_ and the _u_ in
these cases, ought to know that they are contending for what was obsolete,
or obsolescent, when Dr. Johnson was a boy.

OBS. 6.--I have before observed that some of the grammarians who were
contemporary with Johnson, did not adopt his practice respecting the _k_ or
the _u_, in _publick, critick, errour, superiour_, &c. And indeed I am not
sure there were any who did. Dr. Johnson was born in 1709, and he died in
1784. But Brightland's Grammar, which was written during the reign of Queen
Anne, who died in 1714, in treating of the letter C, says, "If in any Word
the harder Sound precedes (_e_), (_i_), or (_y_), (_k_) is either added or
put in its Place; as, _Skill, Skin, Publick_: And tho' the additional (_k_)
in the foregoing Word be an _old Way_ of Spelling, yet it is now very
justly left off, as being a superfluous Letter; for (_c_) at the End is
always hard."--Seventh Edition, Lond., 1746, p. 37.

OBS. 7.--The three
grammars of Ash, Priestley, and Lowth, all appeared, in their first
editions, about one time; all, if I mistake not, in the year 1763; and none
of these learned doctors, it would seem, used the mode of spelling now in
question. In Ash, of 1799, we have such orthography as this: "Italics,
public, domestic, our traffic, music, quick; error, superior, warrior,
authors, honour, humour, favour, behaviour." In Priestley, of 1772:
"Iambics, dactyls, dactylic, anapaestic, monosyllabic, electric, public,
critic; author, emperor's, superior; favour, labours, neighbours, laboured,
vigour, endeavour; meagre, hillock, bailiwick, bishoprick, control,
travelling." In Lowth, of 1799: "Comic, critic, characteristic, domestic;
author, _favor, favored, endeavored, alledging_, foretells." Now all these
are words in the spelling of which Johnson and Webster contradict each
other; and if they are not all right, surely they would not, on the whole,
be made more nearly right, by being conformed to either of these
authorities exclusively. For THE BEST USAGE is the ultimate rule of

OBS. 8.--The old British Grammar, written before the American Revolution,
and even before "_the learned Mr. Samuel Johnson_" was doctorated, though
it thus respectfully quotes that great scholar, does not follow him in the
spelling of which I am treating. On the contrary, it abounds with examples
of words ending in _ic_ and _or_, and not in _ick_ and _our_, as he wrote
them; and I am confident, that, from that time to this, the former
orthography has continued to be _more common than his_. Walker, the
orthoepist, who died in 1807, yielded the point respecting the _k_, and
ended about four hundred and fifty words with _c_ in his Rhyming
Dictionary; but he thought it more of an innovation than it really was. In
his Pronouncing Dictionary, he says, "It has been a custom, _within these
twenty years_, to omit the _k_ at the end of words, when preceded by _c_.
This has introduced a _novelty_ into the language, which is that of ending
a word with an unusual letter," &c. "This omission of _k_ is, however, too
general to be counteracted, even by the authority of Johnson; but it is to
be hoped it will be confined to words from the learned languages."--
_Walker's Principles of Pronunciation_, No. 400. The tenth edition of
Burn's Grammar, dated 1810, says, "It has become customary to omit _k_
after _c_ at the end of dissyllables and trisyllables, &c. as _music,
arithmetic, logic_; but the _k_ is retained in monosyllables; as, _back,
deck, rick_, &c."--P. 25. James Buchanan, of whose English Syntax there had
been five American editions in 1792, added no _k_ to such words as
_didactic, critic, classic_, of which he made frequent use; and though he
wrote _honour, labour_, and the like, with _u_, as they are perhaps most
generally written now, he inserted no _u_ in _error, author_, or any of
those words in which that letter would now be inconsistent with good taste.

OBS. 9.--Bicknell's Grammar, of 1790, treating of the letter _k_, says,
"And for the same reason we have _dropt_ it at the end of words after _c_,
which is there always hard; as in _publick, logick_, &c. which are more
elegantly written _public, logic_."--Part ii, p. 13. Again: "It has
heretofore joined with _c_ at the end of words; as _publick, logick_; but,
as before observed, being there quite superfluous, it is now left
out"--_Ib._, p. 16. Horne Tooke's orthography was also agreeable to the
rule which I have given on this subject. So is the usage of David Booth:
"Formerly a _k_ was added, as, _rustick, politick, Arithmetick_, &c. but
this is now in disuse."--_Booth's Introd. to Dict._, Lond., 1814, p. 80.

OBS. 10.--As the authors of many recent spelling-books--Cobb, Emerson,
Burhans, Bolles, Sears, Marshall, Mott, and others--are now contending for
this "_superfluous letter_," in spite of all the authority against it, it
seems proper briefly to notice their argument, lest the student be misled
by it. It is summed up by one of them in the following words: "In regard to
_k_ after _c_ at the end of words, it may be sufficient to say, that its
omission has never been attempted, except in a _small portion_ of the cases
_where_ it occurs; and that _it_ tends to an erroneous pronunciation of
derivatives, as in _mimick, mimicking_, where, if the _k_ were omitted,
_it_ would read mimicing; and as _c_ before _i_ is always sounded like _s,
it_ must be pronounced _mimising_. Now, since _it_ is never omitted in
monosyllables, _where it_ most frequently occurs, as in _block, clock_,
&c., and _can be in a part only_ of polysyllables, it is thought better to
preserve it in all cases, by _which_ we have one general rule, in place of
several irregularities and exceptions that must follow its partial
omission."--_Bolles's Spelling-Book_, p. 2. I need not tell the reader that
these two sentences evince great want of care or skill in the art of
grammar. But it is proper to inform him, that we have in our language
eighty-six monosyllables which end with _ck_, and from them about fifty
compounds or derivatives, which of course keep the same termination. To
these may be added a dozen or more which seem to be of doubtful formation,
such as _huckaback, pickapack, gimcrack, ticktack, picknick, barrack,
knapsack, hollyhock, shamrock, hammock, hillock, hammock, bullock,
roebuck_. But the verbs on which this argument is founded are only six;
_attack, ransack, traffick, frolick, mimick_, and _physick_; and these,
unquestionably, must either be spelled with the k, or must assume it in
their derivatives. Now that useful class of words which are generally and
properly written with final _c_, are about _four hundred and fifty_ in
number, and are all of them either adjectives or nouns of regular
derivation from the learned languages, being words of more than one
syllable, which have come to us from Greek or Latin roots. But what has the
doubling of _c_ by _k_, in our native monosyllables and their derivatives,
to do with all these words of foreign origin? For the reason of the matter,
we might as well double the _l_, as our ancestors did, in _naturall,
temporall, spirituall_, &c.

OBS. 11.--The learner should observe that some letters incline much to a
duplication, while gome others are doubled but seldom, and some, never.
Thus, among the vowels, _ee_ and _oo_ occur frequently; _aa_ is used
sometimes; _ii_, never--except in certain Latin words, (wherein the vowels
are separately uttered,) such as _Horatii, Veii, iidem, genii_. Again, the
doubling of _u_ is precluded by the fact that we have a distinct letter
called _Double-u_, which was made by joining two Vees, or two Ues, when the
form for _u_ was _v_. So, among the consonants, _f, l, and s_, incline more
to duplication, than any others. These letters are double, not only at the
end of those monosyllables which have but one vowel, as _staff, mill,
pass_; but also under some other circumstances. According to general
usage, final _f_ is doubled after a single vowel, in almost all cases; as
in _bailiff, caitiff, plaintiff, midriff, sheriff, tariff, mastiff_: yet
not in _calif_, which is perhaps better written _caliph_. Final _l_, as may
be seen by Rule 8th, admits not now of a duplication like this; but, by the
exceptions to Rule 4th, it is frequently doubled when no other consonant
would be; as in _travelling, grovelling_; unless, (contrary to the opinion
of Lowth, Walker, and Webster,) we will have _fillipping, gossipping_, and
_worshipping_, to be needful exceptions also.

OBS. 12.--Final _s_ sometimes occurs single, as in _alas, atlas, bias_; and
especially in Latin words, as _virus, impetus_; and when it is added to
form plurals, as _verse, verses_: but this letter, too, is generally
doubled at the end of primitive words of more than one syllable; as in
_carcass, compass, cuirass, harass, trespass, embarrass_. On the contrary,
the other consonants are seldom doubled, except when they come under Rule
3d. The letter _p_, however, is commonly doubled, in some words, even when
it forms a needless exception to Rule 4th; as in the derivatives from
_fillip, gossip_, and perhaps also _worship_. This letter, too, was very
frequently doubled in Greek; whence we have, from the name of Philip of
Macedon, the words _Philippic_ and _Philippize_, which, if spelled
according to our rule for such derivatives, would, like _galloped_ and
_galloper, siruped_ and _sirupy_, have but one _p_. We find them so written
in some late dictionaries. But if _fillipped, gossipped_, and _worshipped_,
with the other derivatives from the same roots, are just and necessary
exceptions to Rule 4th, (which I do not admit,) so are these; and for a
much stronger reason, as the classical scholar will think. In our language,
or in words purely English, the letters _h, i, j, k, q, v, w, x_, and _y_,
are, properly speaking, never doubled. Yet, in the forming of _compounds_,
it may possibly happen, that two Aitches, two Kays, or even two Double-ues
or Wies, shall come together; as in _withhold, brickkiln, slowwoorm,

OBS. 13.--There are some words--as those which come from _metal, medal,
coral, crystal, argil, axil, cavil, tranquil, pupil, papil_--in which the
classical scholar is apt to violate the analogy of English derivation, by
doubling the letter _l_, because he remembers the _ll_ of their foreign
roots, or their foreign correspondents. But let him also remember, that, if
a knowledge of etymology may be shown by spelling metallic, metalliferous,
metallography, metallurgic, metallurgist, metallurgy, medallic, medallion,
crystallize, crystalline, argillous, argillaceous, axillar, axillary,
cavillous, cavillation, papillate, papillous, papillary, tranquillity, and
pupillary, with double _l_, ignorance of it must needs be implied in
spelling metaline, metalist, metaloid, metaloidal, medalist, coralaceous,
coraline, coralite, coralinite, coraloid, coraloidal, crystalite, argilite,
argilitic, tranquilize, and pupilage, in like manner. But we cannot well
double the _l_ in the former, and not in the latter words. Here is a choice
of difficulties. Etymology must govern orthography. But what etymology? our
own, or that which is foreign? If we say, both, they disagree; and the mere
English scholar cannot know when, or how far, to be guided by the latter.
If a Latin diminutive, as _papilla_ from _papula_ or _papa, pupillus_ from
_pupus_, or _tranquillus_ from _trans_ and _quietus_, happen to double an
_l_, must we forever cling to the reduplication, and that, in spite of our
own rules to the contrary? Why is it more objectionable to change
_pupillaris_ to _pupilary_, than _pupillus_ to _pupil_? or, to change
_tranquillitas_ to _tranquility_, than _tranquillus_ to _tranquil_? And
since _papilous, pupilage_, and _tranquilize_ are formed from the English
words, and not directly from the Latin, why is it not as improper to write
them with double _l_, as to write _perilous, vassalage_, and _civilize_, in
the same manner?

OBS. 14.--If the practice of the learned would allow us to follow the
English rule here, I should incline to the opinion, that all the words
which I have mentioned above, ought to be written with single _l_.
Ainsworth exhibits the Latin word for _coral_ in four forms, and the Greek
word in three. Two of the Latin and two of the Greek have the _l_ single;
the others double it. He also spells "_coraliticus_" with one _l_, and
defines it "A sort of white marble, called _coraline_." [120] The
Spaniards, from whose _medalla_, we have _medal_; whose _argil_[121] is
_arcilla_, from the Latin _argilla_; and to whose _cavilar_, Webster traces
_cavil_; in all their derivatives from these Latin roots, _metallum_,
metal--_coralium, corallium, curalium_, or _corallum_, coral--_crystallus_
or _crystallum_, crystal--_pupillus_, pupil--and _tranquillus_,
tranquil--follow their own rules, and write mostly with single _l_: as,
_pupilero_, a teacher; _metalico_, metalic; _corolina_ (_fem_.) coraline;
_cristalino_, crystaline; _crystalizar_, crystalize; _traquilizar_,
tranquilize; and _tranquilidad_, tranquility. And if we follow not ours,
when or how shall the English scholar ever know why we spell as we do? For
example, what can he make of the orthography of the following words, which
I copy from our best dictionaries: equip', eq'uipage; wor'ship,
wor'shipper;--peril, perilous; cavil, cavillous;[122]--libel, libellous;
quarrel, quarrelous;--opal, opaline; metal, metalline;[123]--coral,
coralliform; crystal, crystalform;--dial, dialist; medal,
medallist;--rascal, rascalion; medal, medallion;--moral, moralist,
morality; metal, metallist, metallurgy;--civil, civilize, civility;
tranquil, tranquillize, tranquillity;--novel, novelism, novelist, novelize;
grovel, grovelling, grovelled, groveller?

OBS. 15.--The second clause of Murray's or Walker's 5th Rule for spelling,
gives only a single _l_ to each of the derivatives above named.[124] But it
also treats in like manner many hundreds of words in which the _l_ must
certainly be doubled. And, as neither "the Compiler," nor any of his
copiers, have paid any regard to their own principle, neither their
doctrine nor their practice can be of much weight either way. Yet it is
important to know to what words the rule is, or is not, applicable. In
considering this vexatious question about the duplication of _l_, I was at
first inclined to admit that, whenever final _l_ has become single in
English by dropping the second _l_ of a foreign root, the word shall
resume the _ll_ in all derivatives formed from it by adding a termination
beginning with a vowel; as, _beryllus, beryl, berylline_. This would, of
course, double the _l_ in nearly all the derivatives from _metal, medal_,
&c. But what says Custom? She constantly doubles the _l_ in most of them;
but wavers in respect to some, and in a few will have it single. Hence the
difficulty of drawing a line by which we may abide without censure.
_Pu'pillage_ and _pu'pillary_, with _ll_, are according to _Walker's
Rhyming Dictionary_; but Johnson spells them _pu'pilage_ and _pu'pilary_,
with single _l_; and Walker, in his Pronouncing Dictionary, has _pupilage_
with one _l_, and _pupillary_ with two. Again: both Johnson's and the
Pronouncing Dictionary, give us _medallist_ and _metallist_ with _ll_, and
are sustained by Webster and others; but Walker, in his Rhyming Dictionary,
writes them _medalist_ and _metalist_, with single _l_, like _dialist,
formalist, cabalist, herbalist_, and twenty other such words. Further:
Webster doubles the _l_ in all the derivatives of _metal, medal, coral,
axil, argil_, and _papil_; but writes it single in all those of _crystal,
cavil, pupil_, and _tranquil_--except _tranquillity_.

OBS. 16.--Dr. Webster also attempts, or pretends, to put in practice the
hasty proposition of Walker, to spell with single _l_ all derivatives from
words ending in _l_ not under the accent. "No letter," says Walker, "seems
to be more frequently doubled improperly than _l_. Why we should write
_libelling, levelling, revelling_, and yet _offering, suffering,
reasoning_, I am totally at a loss to determine; and, unless _l_ can give a
better plea than any other letter in the alphabet, for being doubled in
this situation, I must, in the style of Lucian, in his trial of the letter
_T_, declare for an expulsion."--_Rhyming Dict._, p. x. This rash
conception, being adopted by some men of still less caution, has wrought
great mischief in our orthography. With respect to words ending in _el_, it
is a good and sufficient reason for doubling the _l_, that the _e_ may
otherwise be supposed servile and silent. I have therefore made this
termination a general exception to the rule against doubling. Besides, a
large number of these words, being derived from foreign words in which the
_l_ was doubled, have a second reason for the duplication, as strong as
that which has often induced these same authors to double that letter, as
noticed above. Such are bordel, chapel, duel, fardel, gabel, gospel,
gravel, lamel, label, libel, marvel, model, novel, parcel, quarrel, and
spinel. Accordingly we find, that, in his work of expulsion, Dr. Webster
has not unfrequently contradicted himself, and conformed to usage, by
doubling the _l_ where he probably intended to write it single. Thus, in
the words bordeller, chapellany, chapelling, gospellary, gospeller,
gravelly, lamellate, lamellar, lamellarly, lamelliform, and spinellane, he
has written the _l_ double, while he has grossly corrupted many other
similar words by forbearing the reduplication; as, _traveler, groveling,
duelist, marvelous_, and the like. In cases of such difficulty, we can
never arrive at uniformity and consistency of practice, unless we resort to
_principles_, and such principles as can be made intelligible to the
_English_ scholar. If any one is dissatisfied with the rules and exceptions
which I have laid down, let him study the subject till he can furnish the
schools with better.

OBS. 17.--We have in our language a very numerous class of adjectives
ending in _able_ or _ible_, as _affable, arable, tolerable, admissible,
credible, infallible_, to the number of nine hundred or more. In respect to
the proper form and signification of some of these, there occurs no small
difficulty. _Able_ is a common English word, the meaning of which is much
better understood than its origin. Horne Tooke supposes it to have come
from the Gothic noun _abal_, signifying _strength_; and consequently avers,
that it "has nothing to do with the Latin adjective _habilis, fit_, or
_able_, from which our etymologists erroneously derive it."--_Diversions of
Purley_, Vol. ii, p. 450. This I suppose the etymologists will dispute with
him. But whatever may be its true derivation, no one can well deny that
_able_, as a suffix, belongs most properly, if not exclusively, to _verbs_;
for most of the words formed by it, are plainly a sort of verbal
adjectives. And it is evident that this author is right in supposing that
English words of this termination, like the Latin verbals in _bilis_, have,
or ought to have, such a signification as may justify the name which he
gives them, of "_potential passive adjectives_;" a signification in which
the English and the Latin derivatives exactly correspond. Thus
_dis'soluble_ or _dissolv'able_ does not mean _able to dissolve_, but
_capable of being dissolved_; and _divisible_ or _dividable_ does not mean
_able to divide_, but _capable of being divided_.

OBS. 18.--As to the application of this suffix to nouns, when we consider
the signification of the words thus formed, its propriety may well be
doubted. It is true, however, that nouns do sometimes assume something of
the nature of verbs, so as to give rise to adjectives that are of a
participial character; such, for instance, as _sainted, bigoted, conceited,
gifted, tufted_. Again, of such as _hard-hearted, good-natured,
cold-blooded_, we have an indefinite number. And perhaps, upon the same
principle, the formation of such words as _actionable, companionable,
exceptionable, marketable, merchantable, pasturable, treasonable_, and so
forth, may be justified, if care be taken to use them in a sense analogous
to that of the real verbals. But, surely, the meaning which is commonly
attached to the words _amicable, changeable, fashionable, favourable,
peaceable, reasonable, pleasurable, seasonable, suitable_, and some others,
would never be guessed from their formation. Thus, _suitable_ means
_fitting_ or _suiting_, and not _able to suit_, or _capable of being

OBS. 19.--Though all words that terminate in _able_, used as a suffix, are
properly reckoned derivatives, rather than compounds, and in the former
class the separate meaning of the parts united is much less regarded than
in the latter; yet, in the use of words of this formation, it would be well
to have some respect to the general analogy of their signification as
stated above; and not to make derivatives of the same fashion convey
meanings so very different as do some of these. Perhaps it is from some
general notion of their impropriety, that several words of this doubtful
character have already become obsolete, or are gradually falling into
disuse: as, _accustomable, chanceable, concordable, conusable, customable,
behoovable, leisurable, medicinable, personable, powerable, razorable,
shapable, semblable, vengeable, veritable_. Still, there are several
others, yet currently employed, which might better perhaps, for the same
reason, give place to more regular terms: as, _amicable_, for _friendly_ or
_kind_; _charitable_, for _benevolent_ or _liberal_; _colourable_, for
_apparent_ or _specious_; _peaceable_, for _peaceful_ or _unhostile_;
_pleasurable_, for _pleasing_ or _delightful_; _profitable_, for _gainful_
or _lucrative_; _sociable_, for _social_ or _affable_; _reasonable_, for
_rational_ or _just_.

OBS. 20.--In respect to the orthography of words ending in _able_ or
_ible_, it is sometimes difficult to determine which of these endings ought
to be preferred; as whether we ought to write _tenable_ or _tenible,
reversable_ or _reversible, addable_ or _addible_. In Latin, the
termination is _bilis_, and the preceding vowel is determined by the
_conjugation_ to which the verb belongs. Thus, for verbs of the first
conjugation, it is _a_; as, from _arare_, to plough, _arabilis, arable_,
tillable. For the second conjugation, it is _i_; as, from _doc=ere_, to
teach, _docibilis_, or _docilis, docible_ or _docile_, teachable. For the
third conjugation, it is _i_; as, from _vend=ere_, to sell, _vendibilis,
vendible_, salable. And, for the fourth conjugation, it is _i_; as, from
_sepelire_, to bury, _sepelib~ilis, sep'elible_,[125] buriable. But from
_solvo_ and _volvo_, of the third conjugation, we have _ubilis, uble_; as,
_solubilis, sol'uble_, solvible or solvable; _volubilis, vol'uble_,
rollable. Hence the English words, _rev'oluble, res'oluble, irres'oluble,
dis'soluble, indis'soluble_, and _insol'uble_. Thus the Latin verbals in
_bilis_, are a sufficient guide to the orthography of all such words as are
traceable to them; but the mere English scholar cannot avail himself of
this aid; and of this sort of words we have a much greater number than were
ever known in Latin. A few we have borrowed from the French: as, _tenable,
capable, preferable, convertible_; and these we write as they are written
in French. But the difficulty lies chiefly in those which are of English
growth. For some of them are formed according to the model of the Latin
verbals in _ibilis_; as _forcible, coercible, reducible, discernible_; and
others are made by simply adding the suffix _able_; as _traceable,
pronounceable, manageable, advisable, returnable_. The last are purely
English; and yet they correspond in form with such as come from Latin
verbals in _abilis_.

OBS. 21.--From these different modes of formation, with the choice of
different roots, we have sometimes two or three words, differing in
orthography and pronunciation, but conveying the same meaning; as,
_divis'ible_ and _divi'dable, des'picable_ and _despi'sable, ref'erable_
and _refer'rible, mis'cible_ and _mix'able, dis'soluble, dissol'vible_, and
_dissol'vable_. Hence, too, we have some words which seem to the mere
English scholar to be spelled in a very contradictory manner, though each,
perhaps, obeys the law of its own derivation; as, _peaceable_ and
_forcible, impierceable_ and _coercible, marriageable_ and _corrigible,
damageable_ and _eligible, changeable_ and _tangible, chargeable_ and
_frangible, fencible_ and _defensible, pref'erable_ and _referrible,
conversable_ and _reversible, defendable_ and _descendible, amendable_ and
_extendible, bendable_ and _vendible, dividable_ and _corrodible,
returnable_ and _discernible, indispensable_ and _responsible, advisable_
and _fusible, respectable_ and _compatible, delectable_ and _collectible,
taxable_ and _flexible_.

OBS. 22.--The American editor of the _Red Book_, to whom all these apparent
inconsistencies seemed real blunders, has greatly exaggerated this
difficulty in our orthography, and charged Johnson and Walker with having
written all these words and many more, in this contradictory manner,
"_without any apparent reason_!" He boldly avers, that, "The perpetual
contradictions of the same or like words, _in all the books_, show that the
authors had no distinct ideas of what is right, and what is wrong;" and
ignorantly imagines, that, "The use of _ible_ rather than _able, in any
case_, originated in the necessity of keeping the soft sound of _c_ and
_g_, in the derivatives; and if _ible was confined_ to that use, it would
be an easy and simple rule."--_Red Book_, p. 170. Hence, he proposes to
write _peacible_ for _peaceable, tracible_ for _traceable, changible_ for
_changeable, managible_ for _manageable_; and so for all the rest that come
from words ending in _ce_ or _ge_. But, whatever advantage there might be
in this, his "easy and simple rule" would work a revolution for which the
world is not yet prepared. It would make _audible audable, fallible
fallable, feasible feasable, terrible terrable, horrible horrable_, &c. No
tyro can spell in a worse manner than this, even if he have no rule at all.
And those who do not know enough of Latin grammar to profit by what I have
said in the preceding observation, may console themselves with the
reflection, that, in spelling these difficult words entirely by guess, they
will not miss the way more than some have done who pretended to be critics.
The rule given by John Burn, for _able_ and _ible_, is less objectionable;
but it is rendered useless by the great number of its exceptions.

OBS. 23.--As most of the rules for spelling refer to the final letters of
our primitive words, it may be proper for the learner to know and remember,
that not all the letters of the alphabet can assume that situation, and
that some of them terminate words much more frequently than others. Thus,
in Walker's Rhyming Dictionary, the letter _a_ ends about 220 words; _b_,
160; _c_, 450; _d_, 1550; _e_, 7000; _f_, 140; _g_, 280; _h_, 400; _i_, 29;
_j_, none; _k_, 550; _l_, 1900; _m_, 550; _n_, 3300; _o_, 200; _p_, 450;
_q_, none; _r_, 2750; _s_, 3250; _t_, 3100; _u_, 14; _v_, none; _w_, 200;
_x_, 100; _y_, 5000; _z_, 5. We have, then, three consonants, _j, q_, and
_v_, which never end a word. And why not? With respect to _j_ and _v_, the
reason is plain from their history. These letters were formerly identified
with _i_ and _u_, which are not terminational letters. The vowel _i_ ends
no pure English word, except that which is formed of its own capital _I_;
and the few words which end with _u_ are all foreign, except _thou_ and
_you_. And not only so, the letter _j_ is what was formerly called _i
consonant_; and _v_ is what was called _u consonant_. But it was the
initial _i_ and _u_, or the _i_ and _u_ which preceded an other vowel, and
not those which followed one, that were converted into the consonants _j_
and _v_. Hence, neither of these letters ever ends any English word, or is
ever doubled. Nor do they unite with other consonants before or after a
vowel: except that _v_ is joined with _r_ in a few words of French origin,
as _livre, manoeuvre_; or with _l_ in some Dutch names, as _Watervleit. Q_
ends no English word, because it is always followed by _u_. The French
termination _que_, which is commonly retained in _pique, antique, critique,
opaque, oblique, burlesque_, and _grotesque_, is equivalent to _k_; hence
we write _packet, lackey, checker, risk, mask_, and _mosk_, rather than
_paquet, laquey, chequer, risque, masque_, and _mosque_. And some authors
write _burlesk_ and _grotesk_, preferring _k_ to _que_.

OBS. 24.--Thus we see that _j, q_, and _v_, are, for the most part, initial
consonants only. Hence there is a harshness, if not an impropriety, in that
syllabication which some have recently adopted, wherein they accommodate to
the ear the division of such words as _maj-es-ty, proj-ect,
traj-ect,--eq-ui-ty, liq-ui-date, ex-cheq-uer_. But _v_, in a similar
situation, has now become familiar; as in _ev-er-y, ev-i-dence_: and it may
also stand with _l_ or _r_, in the division of such words as _solv-ing_ and
_serv-ing_. Of words ending in _ive_, Walker exhibits four hundred and
fifty--exactly the same number that he spells with _ic_. And Horne Tooke,
who derives _ive_ from the Latin _ivus_, (q. d. _vis_,) and _ic_ from the
Greek [Greek: _ikos_], (q. d. [Greek: _ischus_]) both implying _power_, has
well observed that there is a general correspondence of meaning between
these two classes of adjectives--both being of "a potential active
signification; as _purgative, vomitive, operative_, &c.; _cathartic,
emetic, energetic_, &c."--_Diversions of Purley_, Vol. ii, p. 445. I have
before observed, that Tooke spelled all this latter class of words without
the final _k_; but he left it to Dr. Webster to suggest the reformation of
striking the final _e_ from the former.

OBS. 25.--In Dr. Webster's "Collection of Essays and _Fugitiv Peeces_,"
published in 1790, we find, among other equally ingenious improvements of
our orthography, a general omission of the final _e_ in all words ending in
_ive_, or rather of all words ending in _ve_, preceded by a short vowel;
as, "_primitiv, derivativ, extensiv, positiv, deserv, twelv, proov, luv,
hav, giv, liv_." This mode of spelling, had it been adopted by other
learned men, would not only have made _v_ a very frequent final consonant,
but would have placed it in an other new and strange predicament, as being
subject to reduplication. For he that will write _hav, giv_, and _liv_,
must also, by a general rule of grammar, write _havving, givving_, and
_livving_. And not only so, there will follow also, in the solemn style of
the Bible, a change of _givest, livest, giveth_, and _liveth_, into
_givvest, livvest, givveth_, and _livveth_. From all this it may appear,
that a silent final _e_ is not always quite so useless a thing as some may
imagine. With a levity no less remarkable, does the author of the _Red
Book_ propose at once two different ways of reforming the orthography of
such words as _pierceable, manageable_, and so forth; in one of which, the
letter _j_ would be brought into a new position, and subjected sometimes to
reduplication. "It would be a useful improvement to change this _c_ into
_s_, and _g_ into _j_;" as, _piersable, manajable_, &c. "Or they might
assume _i_;" as, _piercibe, managible_, &c.--_Red Book_, p. 170. Now would
not this "useful improvement" give us such a word as _allejjable_? and
would not one such monster be more offensive than all our present
exceptions to Rule 9th? Out upon all such tampering with orthography!

OBS. 26.--If any thing could arrest the folly of innovators and dabbling
reformers, it would be the history of former attempts to effect
improvements similar to theirs. With this sort of history every one would
do well to acquaint himself, before he proceeds to disfigure words by
placing their written elements in any new predicament. If the orthography
of the English language is ever reduced to greater regularity than it now
exhibits, the reformation must be wrought by those who have no disposition
either to exaggerate its present defects, or to undertake too much. Regard
must be had to the origin, as well as to the sounds, of words. To many
people, all silent letters seem superfluous; and all indirect modes of
spelling, absurd. Hence, as the learner may perceive, a very large
proportion of the variations and disputed points in spelling, are such as
refer to the silent letters, which are retained by some writers and omitted
by others. It is desirable that such as are useless and irregular should be
always omitted; and such as are useful and regular always retained. The
rules which I have laid down as principles of discrimination, are such as
almost every reader will know to be generally true, and agreeable to
present usage, though several of them have never before been printed in any
grammar. Their application will strike out some letters which are often
written, and retain some which are often omitted; but, if they err on
either hand, I am confident they err less than any other set of rules ever
yet formed for the same purpose. Walker, from whom Murray borrowed his
rules for spelling, declares for an expulsion of the second _l_ from
_traveller, gambolled, grovelling, equalling, cavilling_, and all similar
words; seems more willing to drop an _l_ from _illness, stillness,
shrillness, fellness_, and _drollness_, than to retain both in _smallness,
tallness, chillness, dullness_, and _fullness_; makes it one of his
orthographical aphorisms, that, "Words taken into composition often drop
those letters which were superfluous in their simples; as, _Christmas,
dunghil, handful_;" and, at the same time, chooses rather to restore the
silent _e_ to the ten derivatives from _move_ and _prove_, from which
Johnson dropped it, than to drop it from the ten similar words in which
that author retained it! And not only so, he argues against the principle
of his own aphorism; and says, "It is certainly to be feared that, if this
pruning of our words of all the superfluous letters, as they are called,
should be much farther indulged, we shall quickly antiquate our most
respectable authors, and irreparably maim our language."--_Walker's Rhyming
Dict._, p. xvii.

OBS. 27.--No attempt to subject our orthography to a system of phonetics,
seems likely to meet with general favour, or to be free from objection, if
it should. For words are not mere sounds, and in their _orthography_ more
is implied than in _phonetics_, or _phonography_. Ideographic forms have,
in general, the advantage of preserving the identity, history, and lineage
of words; and these are important matters in respect to which phonetic
writing is very liable to be deficient. Dr. Johnson, about a century ago,
observed, "There have been many schemes offered for the emendation and
settlement of our orthography, which, like that of other nations, being
formed by chance, or according to the fancy of the earliest writers in rude
ages, was at first very various and uncertain, and [is] as yet sufficiently
irregular. Of these reformers some have endeavoured to accommodate
orthography better to the pronunciation, without considering that this is
to measure by a shadow, to take that for a model or standard which is
changing while they apply it. Others, less absurdly indeed, but with equal
unlikelihood of success, have endeavoured to proportion the number of
letters to that of sounds, that every sound may have its own character, and
every character a single sound. Such would be the orthography of a new
language to be formed by a synod of grammarians upon principles of science.
But who can hope to prevail on nations to change their practice, and make
all their old books useless? or what advantage would a new orthography
procure equivalent to the confusion and perplexity of such an
alteration?"--_Johnson's Grammar before Quarto Dict._, p. 4.

OBS. 28.--Among these reformers of our alphabet and orthography, of whose
schemes he gives examples, the Doctor mentions, first, "_Sir Thomas Smith_,
secretary of state to Queen Elizabeth, a man of real learning, and much
practised in grammatical disquisitions;" who died in 1597;--next, "_Dr.
Gill_, the celebrated master of St. Paul's School in London;" who died in
1635;--then, "_Charles Butler_, a man who did not want an understanding
which might have qualified him for better employment;" who died in
1647;--and, lastly, "_Bishop Wilkins_, of Chester, a learned and ingenious
critic, who is said to have proposed his scheme, without expecting to be
followed;" he died in 1672.

OBS. 29.--From this time, there was, so far as I know, no noticeable
renewal of such efforts, till about the year 1790, when, as it is shown
above on page 134 of my Introduction, _Dr. Webster_, (who was then only
"_Noah Webster, Jun._, attorney at law,") attempted to spell all words as
they are spoken, without revising the alphabet--a scheme which his
subsequent experience before many years led him to abandon. Such a
reformation was again attempted, about forty years after, by an other young
lawyer, the late lamented _Thomas S. Grimke_, of South Carolina, but with
no more success. More recently, phonography, or phonetic writing, has been
revived, and to some extent spread, by the publications of _Isaac Pitman_,
of Bath, England, and of _Dr. Andrew Comstock_, of Philadelphia. The system
of the former has been made known in America chiefly by the lectures and
other efforts of _Andrews and Boyle_, of _Dr. Stone_, a citizen of Boston,
and of _E. Webster_, a publisher in Philadelphia.

OBS. 30.--The
pronunciation of words being evidently as deficient in regularity, in
uniformity, and in stability, as is their orthography, if not more so,
cannot be conveniently made the measure of their written expression.
Concerning the principle of writing and printing by sounds alone, a recent
writer delivers his opinion thus: "Let me here observe, as something not
remote from our subject, but, on the contrary, directly bearing upon it,
that I can conceive no [other] method of so effectually defacing and
barbarizing our English tongue, no [other] scheme that would go so far to
empty it, practically at least and for us, of all the hoarded wit, wisdom,
imagination, and history which it contains, to cut the vital nerve which
connects its present with the past, as the introduction of the scheme of
'phonetic spelling,' which some have lately been zealously advocating among
us; the principle of which is, that all words should be spelt according as
they are sounded, that the writing should be, in every case, subordinated
to the speaking. The tacit assumption that it ought so to be, is the
pervading error running through the whole system."--_R. C. Trench, on the
Study of Words_, p. 177.

OBS. 31.--The phonographic system of stenography, tachygraphy, or
short-hand writing, is, I incline to believe, a very great improvement upon
the earlier methods. It is perhaps the most reliable mode of taking down
speeches, sermons, or arguments, during their delivery, and reporting them
for the press; though I cannot pronounce upon this from any experience of
my own in the _practice_ of the art. And it seems highly probable, if it
has not been fully proved, that children may at first be taught to read
more readily, and with better articulation, from phonetic print, or
_phonotypy_, as it has been called, than from books that exhibit words in
their current or established orthography. But still it is questionable
whether it is not best for them to learn each word at first by its peculiar
or ideographic form--the form in which they must ultimately learn to read
it, and which indeed constitutes its only _orthography_.




"He wil observe the moral law, in hiz conduct."--_Webster's Essays_, p.

[FORMULES--1. Not proper, because the word "_wil_" is here spelled with one
_l_. But, according to Rule 1st, "Monosyllables ending in _f, l_, or _s_,
preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant." Therefore, this
_l_ should be doubled; thus, _will_.

2. Not proper again, because the word "_hiz_" is here spelled with _z_.
But, according to the exceptions to Rule 1st, "The words _as, gas, has,
was, yes, his_, &c., are written with single _s_." Therefore, this _z_
should be _s_; thus, _his_.]

"A clif is a steep bank, or a precipitous rock."--See _Rhyming Dict._ "A
needy man's budget is ful of schemes."--_Old Adage_. "Few large
publications in this country wil pay a printer."--_Noah Webster's Essays_,
p. x. "I shal, with cheerfulness, resign my other papers to
oblivion."--_Ib._, p. x. "The proposition waz suspended til the next
session of the legislature."--_Ib._, p. 362. "Tenants for life wil make the
most of lands for themselves."--_Ib._, p. 366. "While every thing iz left
to lazy negroes, a state wil never be wel cultivated."--_Ib._, p. 367. "The
heirs of the original proprietors stil hold the soil."--_Ib._, p. 349. "Say
my annual profit on money loaned shal be six per cent."--_Ib._, p. 308. "No
man would submit to the drudgery of business, if he could make money az
fast by lying stil."--_Ib._, p. 310. "A man may az wel feed himself with a
bodkin, az with a knife of the present fashion."--_Ib._, p. 400. "The
clothes wil be ill washed, the food wil be badly cooked; and you wil be
ashamed of your wife, if she iz not ashamed of herself."--_Ib._, p. 404.
"He wil submit to the laws of the state, while he iz a member of
it."--_Ib._, p. 320. "But wil our sage writers on law forever think by
tradition?"--_Ib._, p. 318. "Some stil retain a sovereign power in their
territories."--_Ib._, p. 298. "They sel images, prayers, the sound of bels,
remission of sins, &c."--_Perkins's Theology_, p. 401. "And the law had
sacrifices offered every day for the sins of al the people."--_Ib._, p.
406. "Then it may please the Lord, they shal find it to be a
restorative."--_Ib._, p. 420. "Perdition is repentance put of til a future
day."--_Old Maxim_. "The angels of God, which wil good and cannot wil evil,
have nevertheless perfect liberty of wil."--_Perkins's Theology_, p. 716.
"Secondly, this doctrine cuts off the excuse of al sin."--_Ib._, p. 717.
"Knel, the sound of a bell rung at a funeral."--_Johnson_ and _Walker_.

"If gold with dros or grain with chaf you find,
Select--and leave the chaf and dros behind."--_Author_.


"The mobb hath many heads, but no brains."--_Old Maxim_.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_mobb_" is here spelled with
double _b_. But, according to Rule 2d, "Words ending in any other consonant
than _f, l_, or _s_, do not double the final letter." Therefore, this _b_
should be single: thus, _mob_.]

"Clamm, to clog with any glutinous or viscous matter."--_Johnson's Dict._
"Whurr, to pronounce the letter _r_ with too much force."--_Ib._ "Flipp, a
mixed liquor, consisting of beer and spirits sweetened."--_Ib._ "Glynn, a
hollow between two mountains, a glen."--_Churchill's Grammar_, p. 22.
"Lamm, to beat soundly with a cudgel or bludgeon."--_Walker's Dict._ "Bunn,
a small cake, a simnel, a kind of sweet bread."--See _ib._ "Brunett, a
woman with a brown complexion."--_Ib._ and _Johnson's Dict._ "Wad'sett, an
ancient tenure or lease of land in the Highlands of Scotland."--_Webster's
Dict._ "To _dodd_ sheep, is to cut the wool away about their tails."--_Ib._
"_In aliquem arietare_, CIC. To run full but at one."--_Walker's
Particles_, p. 95. "Neither your policy nor your temper would permitt you
to kill me."--_Philological Museum_, Vol. i, p. 427. "And admitt none but
his own offspring to fulfill them."--_Ib._, i, 437. "The summ of all this
Dispute is, that some make them Participles," &c.--_Johnson's Gram._
_Com._, p. 352. "As, the _whistling_ of winds, the _buz_ and _hum_ of
insects, the _hiss_ of serpents, the _crash_ of falling timber."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 129; _Adam's Lat. Gram._, p. 247; _Gould's_, 238. "Vann, to
winnow, or a fan for winnowing."--_Walker's Rhyming Dict._ "Creatures that
buz, are very commonly such as will sting."--_Author_ "Begg, buy, or
borrow; butt beware how you find."--_Id._ "It is better to have a house to
lett, than a house to gett."--_Id._ "Let not your tongue cutt your
throat."--_Old Precept_. "A little witt will save a fortunate man."--_Old
Adage_. "There is many a slipp 'twixt the cup and the lipp."--_Id._
"Mothers' darlings make but milksopp heroes."--_Id._ "One eye-witness is
worth tenn hearsays."--_Id._

"The judge shall jobb, the bishop bite the town,
And mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown."--POPE:
_in Joh. Dict., w. Pack._


"Friz, to curl; frized, curled; frizing, curling."--_Webster's Dict._, 8vo.
Ed. of 1829.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because the words "_frized_" and "_frizing_" are here
spelled with the single _z_, of their primitive _friz_. But, according to
Rule 3d, "Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, when they
end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double their final
consonant before an additional syllable that begins with a vowel."
Therefore, this _z_ should be doubled; thus, _frizzed, frizzing_.]

"The commercial interests served to foster the principles of
Whigism."--_Payne's Geog._, Vol. ii, p. 511. "Their extreme indolence
shuned every species of labour."--_Robertson's Amer._, Vol. i, p. 341. "In
poverty and stripedness they attend their little meetings."--_The Friend_,
Vol. vii, p. 256. "In guiding and controling[126] the power you have thus
obtained."--_Abbott's Teacher_, p. 15. "I began, Thou beganest, He began;
We began, You began, They began."--_Alex. Murray's Gram._, p. 92. "Why does
_began_ change its ending; as, I began, Thou beganest?"--_Ib._, p. 93.
"Truth and conscience cannot be controled by any methods of
coercion."--_Hints on Toleration_, p. xvi. "Dr. Webster noded, when he
wrote 'knit, kniter, and knitingneedle' without doubling the _t_."--See
_El. Spelling-Book_, 1st Ed., p. 136. "A wag should have wit enough to know
when other wags are quizing him."--_G. Brown_. "Bon'y, handsome, beautiful,
merry."--_Walker's Rhyming Dict._ "Coquetish, practicing coquetry; after
the manner of a jilt."--_Webster's Dict._ "Potage, a species of food, made
of meat and vegetables boiled to softness in water."--See _ib._ "Potager,
from potage, a porringer, a small vessel for children's food."--See _ib._,
and _Worcester's_. "Compromit, compromited, compromiting; manumit,
manumitted, manumitting."--_Webster_. "Inferible; that may be inferred or
deduced from premises."--_Red Book_, p. 228. "Acids are either solid,
liquid, or gaseous."--_Gregory's Dict., art. Chemistry_. "The spark will
pass through the interrupted space between the two wires, and explode the
gases."--_Ib._ "Do we sound _gases_ and _gaseous_ like _cases_ and
_caseous?_ No: they are more like _glasses_ and _osseous_."--_G. Brown_. "I
shall not need here to mention _Swiming_, when he is of an age able to
learn."--_Locke, on Ed._, p. 12. "Why do lexicographers spell _thinnish_
and _mannish_ with two Ens, and _dimish_ and _ramish_ with one Em,
each?"--See _Johnson_ and _Webster_. "_Gas_ forms the plural regularly,
_gases_."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 38. "Singular, Gas; Plural,
Gases."--_S. W. Clark's Gram._, p. 47. "These are contractions from
_sheded, bursted_."--_Hiley's Grammar_, p. 45. "The Present Tense denotes
what is occuring at the present time."--_Day's Gram._, p. 36, and p. 61.
"The verb ending in _eth_ is of the solemn or antiquated style; as, he
loveth, he walketh, he runeth."--_P. Davis's Gram._, p. 34.

"Thro' freedom's sons no more remonstrance rings,
Degrading nobles and controling kings."--_Murray's Sequel_, p. 292.


"A bigotted and tyrannical clergy will be feared."--_Brown's Estimate_,
Vol. ii, p. 78.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the final _t_ of _bigot_ is here doubled in
"_bigotted_." But, according to Rule 4th, "A final consonant, when it is
not preceded by a single vowel, or when the accent is not on the last
syllable, should remain single before an additional syllable." Therefore,
this _t_ should be single; thus, _bigoted_.]

"Jacob worshipped his Creator, leaning on the top of his staff."--_Key in
Merchant's Gram._, p. 185. "For it is all marvelously destitute of
interest."--_Merchant's Criticisms_. "As, box, boxes; church, churches;
lash, lashes; kiss, kisses; rebus, rebusses."--_Murray's Gram._, 12mo, p.
42. "Gossipping and lying go hand in hand."--_Old Maxim_. "The substance of
the Criticisms on the Diversions of Purley was, with singular industry,
gossipped by the present precious secretary of war, in Payne the
bookseller's shop."--See _Key_. "Worship makes worshipped, worshipper,
worshipping; gossip, gossipped, gossipper, gossipping; fillip, fillipped,
fillipper, fillipping."--_Nixon's Parser_, p. 72. "I became as fidgetty as
a fly in a milk-jug."--_Blackwood's Mag._, Vol. xl, p. 674. "That enormous
error seems to be rivetted in popular opinion."--_Webster's Essays_, p.
364. "Whose mind iz not biassed by personal attachments to a
sovereign."--_Ib._, p. 318. "Laws against usury originated in a bigotted
prejudice against the Jews."--_Ib._, p. 315. "The most criticcal period of
life iz usually between thirteen and seventeen."--_Ib._, p. 388.
"Generallissimo, the chief commander of an army or military force."--See
_El. Spelling-Book_, p. 93. "Tranquillize, to quiet, to make calm and
peaceful."--_Ib._, p. 133. "Pommeled, beaten, bruised; having pommels, as a
sword or dagger."--_Webster_ and _Chalmers_. "From what a height does the
jeweler look down upon his shoemaker!"--_Red Book_, p. 108. "You will have
a verbal account from my friend and fellow traveler."--_Ib._, p. 155. "I
observe that you have written the word _counseled_ with one _l_
only."--_Ib._, p. 173. "They were offended at such as combatted these
notions."--_Robertson's America_, Vol. ii, p. 437. "From libel, come
libeled, libeler, libeling, libelous; from grovel, groveled, groveler,
groveling; from gravel, graveled and graveling."--See _Webster's Dict._
"Wooliness, the state of being woolly."--_Ib._ "Yet he has spelled
chappelling, bordeller, medallist, metalline, metallist, metallize,
clavellated, &c. with _ll_, contrary to his rule."--_Cobb's Review of
Webster_, p. 11. "Again, he has spelled cancelation and snively with single
_l_, and cupellation, pannellation, wittolly, with _ll_."--_Ib._ "Oilly,
fatty, greasy, containing oil, glib."--_Rhyming Dict._ "Medallist, one
curious in medals; Metallist, one skilled in metals."--_Johnson, Webster,
Worcester, Cobb, et al._ "He is benefitted."--_Town's Spelling-Book_, p. 5.
"They traveled for pleasure."--_S. W. Clark's Gram._, p. 101.

"Without you, what were man? A groveling herd,
In darkness, wretchedness, and want enchain'd."
--_Beattie's Minstrel_, p. 40.


"He hopes, therefore, to be pardoned by the critick."--_Kirkham's Gram._,
p. 10.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_critick_" is here spelled with a
final _k_. But, according to Rule 5th, "Monosyllables and English verbs end
not with _c_, but take _ck_ for double _c_; as, rack, wreck, rock, attack:
but, in general, words derived from the learned languages need not the _k_,
and common use discards it." Therefore, this _k_ should be omitted; thus,

"The leading object of every publick speaker should be to
persuade."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 153. "May not four feet be as poetick
as five; or fifteen feet, as poetick as fifty?"--_Ib._, p. 146. "Avoid all
theatrical trick and mimickry, and especially all scholastick
stiffness."--_Ib._, p. 154. "No one thinks of becoming skilled in dancing,
or in musick, or in mathematicks, or logick, without long and close
application to the subject."--_Ib._, p. 152. "Caspar's sense of feeling,
and susceptibility of metallick and magnetick excitement were also very
extraordinary."--_Ib._, p. 238. "Authorship has become a mania, or, perhaps
I should say, an epidemick."--_Ib._, p. 6. "What can prevent this republick
from soon raising a literary standard?"--_Ib._, p. 10. "Courteous reader,
you may think me garrulous upon topicks quite foreign to the subject before
me."--_Ib._, p. 11. "Of the Tonick, Subtonick, and Atoniek
elements."--_Ib._, p. 15. "The subtonick elements are inferiour to the
tonicks in all the emphatick and elegant purposes of speech."--_Ib._, p.
32. "The nine atonicks, and the three abrupt subtonicks cause an
interruption to the continuity of the syllabick impulse."--_Ib._, p. 37.
"On scientifick principles, conjunctions and prepositions are but one part
of speech."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 120. "That some inferior animals should
be able to mimic human articulation, will not seem wonderful."--_Murray's
Gram._, 8vo, Vol. i, p. 2.

"When young, you led a life monastick,
And wore a vest ecelesiastick;
Now, in your age, you grow fantastick."--_Johnson's Dict._


"Fearlesness, exemption from fear, intrepidity."--_Johnson's Dict._

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_fearlesness_" is here allowed to
drop one _s_ of _fearless_. But, according to Rule 6th, "Words ending with
any double letter, preserve it double before any additional termination not
beginning with the same letter." Therefore, the other _s_ should be
inserted; thus, _fearlessness_.]

"Dreadlesness; fearlesness, intrepidity, undauntedness."--_Johnson's Dict._
"Regardlesly, without heed; Regardlesness, heedlessness,
inattention."--_Ib._ "Blamelesly, innocently; Blamlesness,
innocence."--_Ib._ "That is better than to be flattered into pride and
carelesness."--TAYLOR: _Joh. Dict._ "Good fortunes began to breed a proud
recklesness in them."--SIDNEY: _ib._ "See whether he lazily and listlesly
dreams away his time."--LOCKE: _ib._ "It may be, the palate of the soul is
indisposed by listlesness or sorrow."--TAYLOR: _ib._ "Pitilesly, without
mercy; Pitilesness, unmercifulness."--_Johnson_. "What say you to such as
these? abominable, accordable, agreable, &c."--_Tooke's Diversions_, Vol.
ii, p. 432. "Artlesly; naturally, sincerely, without craft."--_Johnson_. "A
chilness, or shivering of the body, generally precedes a fever."--_Murray's
Key_, p. 167. "Smalness; littleness, minuteness, weakness."--_Rhyming
Dict._ "Gall-less, a. free from gall or bitterness."--_Webster's Dict._
"Talness; height of stature, upright length with comparative
slenderness."--See _Johnson et al_. "Wilful; stubborn, contumacious,
perverse, inflexible."--_Id._ "He guided them by the skilfulness of his
hands."--_Psal._ lxxviii, 72. "The earth is the Lord's and the fulness
thereof."--_Murray's Key_, p. 172. "What is now, is but an amasment of
imaginary conceptions."--GLANVILLE: _Joh. Dict._ "Embarrasment; perplexity,
entanglement."--See _Littleton's Dict._ "The second is slothfulness,
whereby they are performed slackly and carelesly."--_Perkins's Theology_,
p. 729. "Instalment; induction into office; part of a large sum of money,
to be paid at a particular time."--See _Johnson's Dict._ "Inthralment;
servitude, slavery."--_Ib._

"I, who at some times spend, at others spare,
Divided between carelesness and care."--_Pope_.


"Shall, on the contrary, in the first person, simply foretels."--_Murray's
Gram._, p. 88; _Ingersoll's_, 136; _Fisk's_, 78; _Jaudon's_, 59; _A.
Flint's_, 42; _Wright's_, 90; _Bullions's_, 32.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_foretels_" does not here retain
the double _l_ of _tell_. But, according to Rule 7th, "Words ending with
any double letter, preserve it double in all derivatives formed from them
by means of prefixes." Therefore, the other _l_ should be inserted; thus,

"There are a few compound irregular verbs, as _befal, bespeak_,
&c."--_Ash's Gram._, p. 46. "That we might frequently recal it to our
memory."--_Calvin's Institutes_, p. 112. "The angels exercise a constant
solicitude that no evil befal us."--_Ib._, p. 107. "Inthral; to enslave, to
shackle, to reduce to servitude."--_Walker's Dict._ "He makes resolutions,
and fulfils them by new ones."--_Red Book_, p. 138. "To enrol my humble
name upon the list of authors on Elocution."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 12.
"Forestal; to anticipate, to take up beforehand."--_Walker's Rhym. Dict._
"Miscal; to call wrong, to name improperly."--_Johnson_. "Bethral; to
enslave, to reduce to bondage."--See _id._ "Befal; to happen to, to come to
pass."--_Rhym. Dict._ "Unrol; to open what is rolled or
convolved."--_Johnson_. "Counterrol; to keep copies of accounts to prevent
frauds."--See _id._ "As Sisyphus uprols a rock, which constantly overpowers
him at the summit."--_Author_. "Unwel; not well, indisposed, not in good
health."--See _Red Book_, p. 336. "Undersel; to defeat by selling for less,
to sell cheaper than an other."--See _id._, p. 332. "Inwal; to enclose or
fortify with a wall."--See _id._, p. 295. "Twibil; an instrument with two
bills, or with a point and a blade; a pickaxe, a mattock, a halberd, a
battle-axe."--See _Dict._ "What you miscal their folly, is their
care."--_Dryden_. "My heart will sigh when I miscal it so."--_Shakspeare_.
"But if the arrangement recal one set of ideas more readily than
another."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 130.

"'Tis done; and since 'tis done, 'tis past recal;
And since 'tis past recal, must be forgotten."--_Dryden_.


"The righteous is taken away from the evill to come."--_Perkins's Works_,
p. 417.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_evill_" is here written with
final _ll_. But, according to Rule 8th, "Final _ll_ is peculiar to
monosyllables and their compounds, with the few derivatives formed from
such roots by prefixes; consequently, all other words that end in _l_, must
be terminated with a single _l_." Therefore, one _l_ should be here
omitted; thus, _evil_.]

"Patroll; to go the rounds in a camp or garrison, to march about and
observe what passes."--_Webster's Amer. Dict._, 8vo. "Marshall; the chief
officer of arms, one who regulates rank and order."--See _Bailey's Dict._
"Weevill; a destructive grub that gets among corn."--See _Rhym. Dict._ "It
much excells all other studies and arts."--_Walker's Particles_, p. 217.
"It is essentiall to all magnitudes, to be in one place."--_Perkins's
Works_, p. 403. "By nature I was thy vassall, but Christ hath redeemed
me."--_Ib._, p. 404. "Some, being in want, pray for temporall
blessings."--_Ib._, p. 412. "And this the Lord doth, either in temporall or
spirituall benefits."--_Ib._, p. 415. "He makes an idoll of them, by
setting his heart on them."--_Ib._, p. 416. "This triall by desertion
serveth for two purposes."--_Ib._, p. 420. "Moreover, this destruction is
both perpetuall and terrible."--_Ib._, p. 726. "Giving to severall men
several gifts, according to his good pleasure."--_Ib._, p. 731. "Untill; to
some time, place, or degree, mentioned."--See _Red Book_, p. 330. "Annull;
to make void, to nullify, to abrogate, to abolish." "Nitric acid combined
with argill, forms the nitrate of argill."--_Gregory's Dict., art.

"Let modest Foster, if he will, excell
Ten Metropolitans in preaching well."--_Pope_, p. 414.


"Adjectives ending in _able_ signify capacity; as, _comfortable, tenable,
improvable_."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 33.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_improveable_" here retains the
final _e_ of _improve_. But, according to Rule 9th, "The final _e_ of a
primitive word is generally omitted before an additional termination
beginning with a vowel." Therefore, this _e_ should be omitted; thus,

"Their mildness and hospitality are ascribeable to a general administration
of religious ordinances."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 336. "Retrench as much as
possible without obscureing the sense."--_James Brown's Amer. Gram._, 1821,
p. 11. "Changable, subject to change; Unchangeable, immutable."--_Walker's
Rhym. Dict._ "Tameable, susceptive of taming; Untameable, not to be
tamed."--_Ib._ "Reconcileable, Unreconcileable, Reconcileableness;
Irreconcilable, Irreconcilably, Irreconcilableness."--_Johnson's Dict._ "We
have thought it most adviseable to pay him some little attention."--
_Merchants Criticisms_. "Proveable, that may be proved; Reprovable.
blameable, worthy of reprehension."--_Walker's Dict._ "Moveable and
Immovable, Moveably and Immovably, Moveables and Removal, Moveableness and
Improvableness, Unremoveable and Unimprovable, Unremoveably and Removable,
Proveable and Approvable, Irreproveable and Reprovable, Unreproveable and
Improvable, Unimproveableness and Improvably."--_Johnson's Dict._ "And with
this cruelty you are chargable in some measure yourself."--_Collier's
Antoninus_, p. 94. "Mothers would certainly resent it, as judgeing it
proceeded from a low opinion of the genius of their sex."--_British Gram.,
Pref._, p. xxv. "Titheable, subject to the payment of tithes; Saleable,
vendible, fit for sale; Loseable, possible to be lost; Sizeable, of
reasonable bulk or size."--_Walker's Rhyming Dict._ "When he began this
custom, he was puleing and very tender."--_Locke, on Ed._, p. 8.

"The plate, coin, revenues, and moveables,
Whereof our uncle Gaunt did stand possess'd."--_Shak._


"Diversly; in different ways, differently, variously."--_Rhym. Dict._, and

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_Diversly_" here omits the final
_e_ of its primitive word, _diverse_. But, according to Rule 10th, "The
final _e_ of a primitive word is generally retained before an additional
termination beginning with a consonant." Therefore, this _e_ should be
retained; thus, _Diversely_.]

"The event thereof contains a wholsome instruction."--_Bacon's Wisdom of
the Ancients_, p. 17. "Whence Scaliger falsly concluded that articles were
useless."--_Brightland's Gram._, p. 94. "The child that we have just seen
is wholesomly fed."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 187. "Indeed, falshood and
legerdemain sink the character of a prince."--_Collier's Antoninus_, p. 5.
"In earnest, at this rate of managment, thou usest thyself very
coarsly."--_Ib._, p. 19. "To give them an arrangment and diversity, as
agreeable as the nature of the subject would admit"--_Murray's Pref. to
Ex._, p. vi. "Alger's Grammar is only a trifling enlargment of Murray's
little Abridgment."--_Author_. "You ask whether you are to retain or omit
the mute _e_ in the word judgment, abridgment, acknowledgment, lodgment,
adjudgment, and prejudgment."--_Red Book_, p. 172. "Fertileness,
fruitfulness; Fertily, fruitfully, abundantly."--_Johnson's Dict._
"Chastly, purely, without contamination; Chastness, chastity,
purity."--_Ib._, and _Walker's_. "Rhymster, _n._ One who makes rhymes; a
versifier; a mean poet."--_Johnson_ and _Webster_. "It is therefore an
heroical achievment to dispossess this imaginary monarch."--_Berkley's
Minute Philos._, p. 151. "Whereby, is not meant the Present Time, as he
imagins, but the Time Past."--_Johnson's Gram. Com._, p. 344 "So far is
this word from affecting the noun, in regard to its definitness, that its
own character of definitness or indefinitness, depends upon the name to
which it is prefixed."--_Webster's Philosophical Gram._, p. 20.

"Satire, by wholsome Lessons, wou'd reclaim,
And heal their Vices to secure their Fame."
--_Brightland's Gr._, p. 171.


"Solon's the veryest fool in all the play."--_Dryden, from Persius_, p.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_veryest_" here retains the final
_y_ of its primitive _very_. But, according to Rule 13th, "The final _y_ of
a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is generally changed into
_i_ before an additional termination." Therefore, this _y_ should be
changed to _i_; thus, _veriest_.]

"Our author prides himself upon his great slyness and
shrewdness."--_Merchant's Criticisms_. "This tense, then, implys also the
signification of _Debeo_."--_B. Johnson's Gram. Com._, p. 300. "That may be
apply'd to a Subject, with respect to something accidental."--_Ib._, p.
133. "This latter accompanys his Note with a distinction."--_Ib._, p. 196.
"This Rule is defective, and none of the Annotators have sufficiently
supply'd it."--_Ib._, p. 204. "Though the fancy'd Supplement of Sanctius,
Scioppius, Vossius, and Mariangelus, may take place."--_Ib._, p. 276. "Yet
as to the commutableness of these two Tenses, which is deny'd likewise,
they are all one."--_Ib._, p. 311. "Both these Tenses may represent a
Futurity implyed by the dependence of the Clause."--_Ib._, p. 332. "Cry,
cries, crying, cried, crier, decrial; Shy, shyer, shyest, shyly, shyness;
Fly, flies, flying, flier, high-flier; Sly, slyer, slyest, slyly, slyness;
Spy, spies, spying, spied, espial; Dry, drier, driest, dryly,
dryness."--_Cobb's Dict._ "Cry, cried, crying, crier, cryer, decried,
decrier, decrial; Shy, shyly, shily, shyness, shiness; Fly, flier, flyer,
high-flyer; Sly, slily, slyly, sliness, slyness; Ply, plyer, plying,
pliers, complied, compiler; Dry, drier, dryer, dryly, dryness."--_Webster's
Dict._, 8vo. "Cry, crier, decrier, decrial; Shy, shily, shyly, shiness,
shyness; Fly, flier, flyer, high-flier; Sly, slily, slyly, sliness,
slyness; Ply, pliers, plyers, plying, complier; Dry, drier, dryer, dryly,
dryness."--_Chalmers's Abridgement of Todd's Johnson_. "I would sooner
listen to the thrumming of a dandyzette at her piano."--_Kirkham's
Elocution_, p. 24. "Send her away; for she cryeth after us."--_Felton's
Gram._, p. 140. "IVYED, _a._ Overgrown with ivy."--_Todd's Dict._, and

"Some dryly plain, without invention's aid,
Write dull receipts how poems may be made."--_Pope_.


"The gaiety of youth should be tempered by the precepts of age."--_Mur.
Key_, p. 175.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_gaiety_" does not here retain the
final _y_ of the primitive word _gay_. But, according to Rule 12th, "The
final _y_ of a primitive word, when preceded by a vowel, should not be
changed into _i_ before an additional termination." Therefore, this _y_
should be retained; thus, _gayety_.]

"In the storm of 1703, two thousand stacks of chimnies were blown down, in
and about London."--See _Red Book_, p. 112. "And the vexation was not
abated by the hacknied plea of haste."--_Ib._, p. 142. "The fourth sin of
our daies is lukewarmness."--_Perkins's Works_, p. 725. "God hates the
workers of iniquity, and destroies them that speak lies."--_Ib._, p. 723.
"For, when he laies his hand upon us, we may not fret."--_Ib._, p. 726.
"Care not for it; but if thou maiest be free, choose it rather."--_Ib._, p.
736. "Alexander Severus saith, 'He that buieth, must sell: I will not
suffer buyers and sellers of offices.'"--_Ib._, p. 737. "With these
measures fell in all monied men."--SWIFT: _Johnson's Dict._ "But rattling
nonsense in full vollies breaks."--POPE: _ib., w. Volley_. "Vallies are the
intervals betwixt mountains."--WOODWARD: _ib._ "The Hebrews had fifty-two
journies or marches."--_Wood's Dict._ "It was not possible to manage or
steer the gallies thus fastened together."--_Goldsmith's Greece_, Vol. ii,
p. 106. "Turkies were not known to naturalists till after the discovery of
America."--_See Gregory's Dict._ "I would not have given it for a
wilderness of monkies."--See _Key_. "Men worked at embroidery, especially
in abbies."--_Constable's Miscellany_, Vol. xxi, p. 101. "By which all
purchasers or mortgagees may be secured of all monies they lay
out."--TEMPLE: _Johnson's Dict._ "He would fly to the mines and the gallies
for his recreation."--SOUTH: _Ib._

"Here pullies make the pond'rous oak ascend."--GAY: _ib._

------------"You need my help, and you say,
Shylock, we would have monies."--SHAKSPEARE: _ib._


"Will any able writer authorise other men to revise his works?"--_Author._

[FORMULES.--1. Not proper, because the word "_authorise_" is here written
with _s_ in the last syllable, in stead of _z_. But, according to Rule
13th, "Words ending in _ize_ or _ise_ sounded alike, as in _wise_ and
_size_, generally take the _z_ in all such as are essentially formed by
means of the termination." Therefore, this _s_ should be _z_; thus,

2. Not proper again, because the word "_revize_" is here written with _z_
in the last syllable, in lieu of _s_. But, according to Rule 13th, "Words
ending in _ize_ or _ise_ sounded alike, as in _wise_ and _size_, generally
take the _s_, in monosyllables, and all such as are essentially formed by
means of prefixes." Therefore, this _z_ should be _s_; thus, _revise_.]

"It can be made as strong and expressive as this Latinised
English."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 295. "Governed by the success or the
failure of an enterprize."--_Ib._, Vol. ii, pp. 128 and 259. "Who have
patronised the cause of justice against powerful oppressors."--_Ib._, pp.
94 and 228; _Merchant_, p. 199. "Yet custom authorises this use of
it."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 148. "They surprize myself, * * * and I even
think the writers themselves will be surprized."--_Ib._, Pref., p. xi. "Let
the interest rize to any sum which can be obtained."--_Webster's Essays_,
p. 310. "To determin what interest shall arize on the use of
money."--_Ib._, p. 313. "To direct the popular councils and check a rizing
opposition."--_Ib._, p. 335. "Five were appointed to the immediate exercize
of the office."--_Ib._, p. 340. "No man ever offers himself [as] a
candidate by advertizing."--_Ib._, p. 344. "They are honest and economical,
but indolent, and destitute of enterprize."--_Ib._, p. 347. "I would
however advize you to be cautious."--_Ib._, p. 404. "We are accountable for
whatever we patronise in others."--_Murray's Key_, p. 175. "After he was
baptised, and was solemnly admitted into the office."--_Perkins's Works_,
p. 732. "He will find all, or most of them, comprized in the
Exercises."--_British Gram._, Pref., p. v. "A quick and ready habit of
methodising and regulating their thoughts."--_Ib._, p. xviii. "To tyrannise
over the time and patience of his reader."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. iii.
"Writers of dull books, however, if patronised at all, are rewarded beyond
their deserts."--_Ib._, p. v. "A little reflection, will show the reader
the propriety and the _reason_ for emphasising the words marked."--_Ib._,
p. 163. "The English Chronicle contains an account of a surprizing
cure."--_Red Book_, p. 61. "Dogmatise, to assert positively; Dogmatizer, an
asserter, a magisterial teacher."--_Chalmers's Dict._ "And their
inflections might now have been easily analysed."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo,
Vol. i, p. 113. "Authorize, disauthorise, and unauthorized; Temporize,
contemporise, and extemporize."--_Walkers Dict._ "Legalize, equalise,
methodise, sluggardize, womanise, humanize, patronise, cantonize,
gluttonise, epitomise, anatomize, phlebotomise, sanctuarise, characterize,
synonymise, recognise, detonize, colonise."--_Ibid._

"This BEAUTY Sweetness always must comprize,
Which from the Subject, well express'd will rise."
--_Brightland's Gr._, p. 164.


"The glory of the Lord shall be thy rereward."--COMMON BIBLES: _Isa._,
lviii, 8.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because the compound word "_rereward_" has not here
the orthography of the two simple words _rear_ and _ward_, which compose
it. But, according to Rule 14th, "Compounds generally retain the
orthography of the simple words which compose them." And, the accent being
here unfixed, a hyphen is proper. Therefore, this word should be spelled
thus, _rear-ward_.]

"A mere vaunt-courier to announce the coming of his master."--_Tooke's
Diversions_, Vol. i, p. 49. "The parti-coloured shutter appeared to come
close up before him."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 233. "When the day broke
upon this handfull of forlorn but dauntless spirits."--_Ib._, p. 245. "If,
upon a plumbtree, peaches and apricots are ingrafted, no body will say they
are the natural growth of the plumbtree."--_Berkley's Minute Philos._, p.
45. "The channel between Newfoundland and Labrador is called the Straits of
Bellisle."--_Worcester's Gaz._ "There being nothing that more exposes to
Headach." [127]--_Locke, on Education_, p. 6. "And, by a sleep, to say we
end the heartach."--SHAK.: _in Joh. Dict._ "He that sleeps, feels not the
toothach."--ID., _ibid._ "That the shoe must fit him, because it fitted his
father and granfather."--_Philological Museum_, Vol. i, p. 431. "A single
word, mispelt, in a letter, is sufficient to show, that you have received a
defective education."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 3. "Which mistatement the
committee attributed to a failure of memory."--_Professors' Reasons_, p.
14. "Then he went through the Banquetting-House to the scaffold."--
_Smollett's England_, Vol. iii, p. 345. "For the purpose of maintaining a
clergyman and skoolmaster."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 355. "They however knew
that the lands were claimed by Pensylvania."--_Ib._, p. 357. "But if you
ask a reason, they immediately bid farewel to argument."--_Red Book_, p.
80. "Whom resist stedfast in the faith."--SCOTT: 1 _Peter_, v, 9. "And they
continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine."--_Acts_, ii, 42. "Beware
lest ye also fall from your own stedfastness."--_2 Peter_, iii, 17.
"_Galiot_, or _galliott_, a Dutch vessel, carrying a main-mast and a
mizen-mast."--_Web. Dict._ "Infinitive, to overflow; Preterit, overflowed;
Participle, overflown."--_Cobbett's E. Gram._, (1818,) p. 61. "After they
have mispent so much precious Time."--_British Gram._, p. xv. "Some say,
two _handsfull_; some, two _handfulls_; and others, two _handfull_."--
_Alex. Murray's Gram._, p. 106. "Lapfull, as much as the lap can
contain."--_Webster's Octavo Dict._ "Darefull, full of defiance."--
_Walker's Rhym. Dict._ "The road to the blissfull regions, is as open to
the peasant as to the king."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 167. "Mis-spel is
_mis-spell_ in every Dictionary which I have seen."--_Barnes's Red Book_.
p. 303. "Downfal; ruin, calamity, fall from rank or state."--_Johnson's
Dict._ "The whole legislature likewize acts az a court."--_Webster's
Essays_, p. 340. "It were better a milstone were hanged about his
neck."--_Perkins's Works_, p. 731. "Plum-tree, a tree that produces plums;
Hog-plumbtree, a tree."--_Webster's Dict._ "Trisyllables ending in _re_ or
_le_, accent the first syllable."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 238.

"It happen'd on a summer's holiday,
That to the greenwood shade he took his way."
--_Churchill's Gr._, p. 135.


"Nor are the modes of the Greek tongue more uniform."--_Murray's Gram._, p.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word "_modes_" is here written for
_moods_, which is more common among the learned, and usually preferred by
Murray himself. But, according to Rule 15th, "Any word for the spelling of
which we have no rule but usage, is written wrong if not spelled according
to the usage which is most common among the learned." Therefore, the latter
form should be preferred; thus, _moods_, and not _modes_.]

"If we analize a conjunctive preterite, the rule will not appear to
hold."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 118. "No landholder would have been at that
expence."--_Ib._, p. 116. "I went to see the child whilst they were putting
on its cloaths."--_Ib._, p. 125. "This stile is ostentatious, and doth not
suit grave writing."--_Ib._, p. 82. "The king of Israel, and Jehosophat the
king of Judah, sat each on his throne."--_Mur. Gram._, p. 165, _twice_;
_Merchant's_, 89; _Churchill's_, 300. "The king of Israel, and Jehosaphat
the king of Judah, sat each on his throne."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 90;
_Harrison's_, 99; _Churchill's_, 138; _Wright's_, 148. "Lisias, speaking of
his friends, promised to his father, never to abandon them."--_Murray's
Gram._, Vol. ii, pp. 121 and 253. "Some, to avoid this errour, run into
it's opposite."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 199. "Hope, the balm of life,
sooths us under every misfortune."--_Merchants Key_, p. 204. "Any judgement
or decree might be heerd and reversed by the legislature."--_Webster's
Essays_, p. 340. "A pathetic harang wil skreen from punishment any
knave."--_Ib._, p. 341. "For the same reezon, the wimen would be improper
judges."--_Ibid._ "Every person iz indulged in worshiping az he
pleezes."--_Ib._, p. 345. "Most or all teechers are excluded from genteel
company."--_Ib._, p. 362. "The Kristian religion, in its purity, iz the
best institution on erth."--_Ib._, p. 364. "Neether clergymen nor human
laws hav the leest authority over the conscience."--_Ib._, p. 363. "A gild
is a society, fraternity, or corporation."--_Red Book_, p. 83. "Phillis was
not able to unty the knot, and so she cut it."--_Ib._, p. 46. "An aker of
land is the quantity of one hundred and sixty perches."--_Ib._, p. 93.
"Oker is a fossil earth combined with the oxid of some metal."--_Ib._, p.
96. "_Genii_, when denoting aerial spirits: _Geniuses_, when signifying
persons of genius."--_Mur.'s Gram._, i, p. 42. "_Genii_, when denoting
aeriel spirits; _Geniuses_, when signifying persons of genius."--_Frost's
Gram._, p. 9. "_Genius_, Plu. _geniuses_, men of wit; but _genii_, aerial
beings."--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 18. "Aerisius, king of Argos, had a
beautiful daughter, whose name was Danae."--_Classic Tales_, p. 109. "Phaeton
was the son of Apollo and Clymene."--_Ib._, p. 152. "But, after all, I may
not have reached the intended Gaol."--_Buchanan's Syntax_, Pref., p. xxvii.
"'Pitticus was offered a large sum.' Better: 'A large sum was offered to
Pitticus.'"--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 187. "King Missipsi charged his sons to
respect the senate and people of Rome."--See _ib._, p. 161. "For example:
Gallileo invented the telescope."--_Ib._, pp. 54 and 67. "Cathmor's
warriours sleep in death."--_Ib._, p. 54. "For parsing will enable you to
detect and correct errours in composition."--_Ib._, p. 50.

"O'er barren mountains, o'er the flow'ry plain,
Extends thy uncontroul'd and boundless reign."--_Dryden_.



"A bad author deserves better usage than a bad critick."--POPE: _Johnson's
Dict., w. Former_. "Produce a single passage superiour to the speech of
Logan, a Mingo chief, delivered to Lord Dunmore, when governour of
Virginia."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 247. "We have none synonimous to
supply its place."--_Jamieson's Rhetoric_, p. 48. "There is a probability
that the effect will be accellerated."--_Ib._, p. 48. "Nay, a regard to
sound hath controuled the public choice."--_Ib._, p. 46. "Though learnt
from the uninterrupted use of gutterel sounds."--_Ib._, p. 5. "It is by
carefully filing off all roughness and inequaleties, that languages, like
metals, must be polished."--_Ib._, p. 48. "That I have not mispent my time
in the service of the community."--_Buchanan's Syntax_, Pref., p. xxviii.
"The leaves of maiz are also called blades."--_Webster's El.
Spelling-Book_, p. 43. "Who boast that they know what is past, and can
foretel what is to come."--_Robertson's Amer._, Vol. i, p. 360. "Its
tasteless dullness is interrupted by nothing but its perplexities."--
_Abbott's Teacher_, p. 18. "Sentences constructed with the Johnsonian
fullness and swell."--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 130. "The privilege of
escaping from his prefatory dullness and prolixity."--_Kirkham's
Elocution_, p. iv. "But in poetry this characteristick of dulness attains
its full growth."--_Ib._, p. 72. "The leading characteristick consists in
an increase of the force and fullness."--_Ib._, p. 71. "The character of
this opening fulness and feebler vanish."--_Ib._, p. 31. "Who, in the
fullness of unequalled power, would not believe himself the favourite of
heaven?"--_Ib._, p. 181. "They marr one another, and distract
him."--_Philological Museum_, Vol. i, p. 433. "Let a deaf worshipper of
antiquity and an English prosodist settle this."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p.
140. "This phillipic gave rise to my satirical reply in self-defence."--
_Merchant's Criticisms_. "We here saw no inuendoes, no new sophistry, no
falsehoods."--_Ib._ "A witty and humourous vein has often produced
enemies."--_Murray's Key_, p. 173. "Cry holla! to thy tongue, I pr'ythee:
it curvetts unseasonably."--_Shak._ "I said, in my slyest manner, 'Your
health, sir.'"--_Blackwood's Mag._, Vol. xl, p. 679. "And attornies also
travel the circuit in pursute of business."--_Red Book_, p. 83. "Some whole
counties in Virginia would hardly sel for the valu of the dets du from the
inhabitants."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 301. "They were called the court of
assistants, and exercized all powers legislativ and judicial."--_Ib._, p.
340. "Arithmetic is excellent for the guaging of liquors."--_Murray's
Gram._, 8vo, p. 288. "Most of the inflections may be analysed in a way
somewhat similar."--_Ib._, p. 112.

"To epithets allots emphatic state,
Whilst principals, ungrac'd, like lacquies wait."
--_C. Churchill's Ros._, p. 8.


"Hence it [less] is a privative word, denoting destitution; as, fatherless,
faithless, pennyless."--_Webster's Dict., w. Less._ "_Bay_; red, or
reddish, inclining to a chesnut color."--_Same._ "_To mimick_, to imitate
or ape for sport; _a mimic_, one who imitates or mimics."--_Ib._
"Counterroil, a counterpart or copy of the rolls; Counterrolment, a counter
account."--_Ib._ "Millenium, the thousand years during which Satan shall be
bound."--_Ib._ "Millenial, pertaining to the millenium, or to a thousand
years."--_Ib._ "Thraldom; slavery, bondage, a state of servitude."--See
_Johnson's Dict._ "Brier, a prickly bush; Briery, rough, prickly, full of
briers; Sweetbriar, a fragrant shrub."--See _Johnson, Walker, Chalmers,
Webster, and others_. "_Will_, in the second and third Persons, barely
foretels."--_British Gram._, p. 132. "And therefor there is no Word false,
but what is distinguished by Italics."--_Ib._, Pref., p. v. "What should be
repeted is left to their Discretion."--_Ib._, p. iv. "Because they are
abstracted or seperated from material Substances."--_Ib._, p. ix. "All
Motion is in Time, and therefor, where-ever it exists, implies Time as its
Concommitant."--_Ib._, p. 140. "And illiterate grown persons are guilty of
blameable spelling."--_Ib._, Pref., p. xiv. "They wil always be ignorant,
and of ruf uncivil manners."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 346. "This fact wil
hardly be beleeved in the northern states."--_Ib._, p. 367. "The province
however waz harrassed with disputes."--_Ib._, p. 352. "So little concern
haz the legislature for the interest of lerning."--_Ib._, p. 349. "The
gentlemen wil not admit that a skoolmaster can be a gentleman."--_Ib._, p.
362. "Such absurd qui-pro-quoes cannot be too strenuously
avoided."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 205. "When we say, 'a man looks
_slyly_;' we signify, that he assumes a _sly look_."--_Ib._, p. 339.
"_Peep_; to look through a crevice; to look narrowly, closely, or
slyly."--_Webster's Dict._ "Hence the confession has become a hacknied
proverb."--_Wayland's Moral Science_, p. 110. "Not to mention the more
ornamental parts of guilding, varnish, &c."--_Tooke's Diversions_, Vol. i,
p. 20. "After this system of self-interest had been rivetted."--_Brown's
Estimate_, Vol. ii, p. 136. "Prejudice might have prevented the cordial
approbation of a bigotted Jew."--SCOTT: _on Luke_, x.

"All twinkling with the dew-drop sheen,
The briar-rose fell in streamers green."--_Lady of the Lake_, p. 16.


"The infinitive mode has commonly the sign _to_ before it."--_Harrison's
Gram._, p. 25. "Thus, it is adviseable to write _singeing_, from the verb
to _singe_, by way of distinction from _singing_, the participle of the
verb to _sing_."--_Ib._, p. 27. "Many verbs form both the preterite tense
and the preterite participle irregularly."--_Ib._, p. 28. "Much must be
left to every one's taste and judgment."--_Ib._, p. 67. "Verses of
different lengths intermixed form a Pindarick poem."--_Priestley's Gram._,
p. 44. "He'll surprize you."--_Frost's El. of Gram._, p. 88. "Unequalled
archer! why was this concealed?"--KNOWLES: _ib._, p. 102. "So gaily curl
the waves before each dashing prow."--BYRON: _ib._, p. 104. "When is a
dipthong called a proper dipthong?"--_Infant School Gram._, p. 11. "How
many _ss_ would goodness then end with? Three."--_Ib._, p. 33. "_Q._ What
is a tripthong? _A._ A tripthong is the union of three vowels, pronounced
in like manner."--_Bacon's Gram._, p. 7. "The verb, noun, or pronoun, is
referred to the preceding terms taken seperately."--_Ib._, p. 47. "The
cubic foot of matter which occupies the center of the globe."--_Cardell's
Gram._, 18mo, p. 47. "The wine imbibes oxigen, or the acidifying principle,
from the air."--_Ib._, p. 62. "Charcoal, sulphur, and niter, make gun
powder."--_Ib._, p. 90. "It would be readily understood, that the thing so
labeled, was a bottle of Madeira wine."--_Ib._, p. 99. "They went their
ways, one to his farm, an other to his merchandize."--_Ib._, p. 130. "A
dipthong is the union of two vowels, sounded by a single impulse of the
voice."--_Russell's Gram._, p. 7. "The professors of the Mahommedan
religion are called Mussulmans."--_Maltby's Gram._, p. 73. "This shews that
_let_ is not a sign of the imperative mood, but a real verb."--_Ib._, p.
51. "Those preterites and participles, which are first mentioned in the
list, seem to be the most eligible."--_Ib._, p. 47. "Monosyllables, for the
most part, are compared by _er_ and _est_; and dyssyllables by _more_ and
_most_."--_Ib._, p. 19. "This termination, added to a noun, or adjective,
changes it into a verb: as _modern_, to _modernise_; a _symbol_, to
_symbolize_."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 24. "An Abridgment of Murray's
Grammar, with additions from Webster, Ash, Tooke, and others."--_Maltby's
title-page_. "For the sake of occupying the room more advantagously, the
subject of Orthography is merely glanced at."--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 5. "So
contended the accusers of Gallileo."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, 12mo, 1839,
p. 380. "Murray says, 'They were _traveling past_ when _we_ met
them.'"--_Peirce, ib._, p. 361. "They fulfil the only purposes for which
they are designed."--_Ib._, p. 359. "On the fulfillment of the
event."--_Ib._, p. 175. "Fullness consists in expressing every
idea."--_Ib._, p. 291. "Consistently with fulness and perspicuity."--_Ib._,
p. 337. "The word _verriest_ is a gross corruption; as, 'He is the
_verriest_ fool on earth.'"--_Wright's Gram._, p. 202. "The sound will
recal the idea of the object."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 142. "Formed for great
enterprizes."--_Bullions's Prin. of E. Gram._, p. 153. "The most important
rules and definitions are printed in large type, _italicised_."--_Hart's
Gram._, p. 3. "HAMLETTED, _a._ Accustomed to a hamlet; countrified."--
_Bolles's Dict._, and _Chalmers's_. "Singular, _spoonful, cup-full,
coach-full, handful_; plural, _spoonfuls, cup-fulls, coach-fulls,
handfuls_."--_Bullions's Analyt. and Pract. Gram._, p. 27.

"Between Superlatives and following Names,
OF, by Grammatick Right, a Station claims."
--_Brightland's Gram._, p. 146.



[Fist][The student ought to be able to answer with readiness, and in the
words of the book, all the following questions on grammar. And if he has
but lately commenced the study, it may be well to require of him a general
rehearsal of this kind, before he proceeds to the correction of any part of
the false grammar quoted in the foregoing chapters. At any rate, he should

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