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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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--_Pass. verb_, what should always take for its subj. or nom.:
--takes the same case after as before it, when both words refer to the
same thing:
--between two nominatives, with which should be made to agree,
("_Words_ ARE wind,"). See _Unco-Passive_, &c.

_Passive_ form of an active-intrans. verb followed by a prep. and its
objective, ("_He_ WAS LAUGHED AT,"). _Passive_ sense of the act. form of
the verb, ("_The books continue_ SELLING,").

_Past for future_, see _Prophecy_.

_Pauses_, term defined.
--_Pauses_, kinds of, named and explained:
--the distinctive, duration of:
--after what manner should be formed:
--forced, unintentional, their effect:
--emphatic or rhetorical, applicat. and office of:
--harmonic, kinds of; these, essential to verse.
--_Pauses_, abrupt, punct.:
--emphatic, do.

_Pedantic_ and sense-dimming style of charlatans &c., as offending against

_Pentameter_ line, _iambic_, examples of:
--is the regular Eng. HEROIC; its quality and adaptation:
--embraces the _elegiac stanza_:
--_trochaic_, example of, said by MURR. _et al_. to be very uncommon;
was unknown to DR. JOH. and other old prosodists:
--the two examples of. in sundry grammars, whence came; a couplet of
these scanned absurdly by HIL.; HART mistakes the metre of do.:
--_dactylic_, example of, ("_Salutation to America_,").

_Perfect_, adj., whether admits of comparison; why its comparis. by adverbs
not wholly inadmissible.

_Perfect definition_, what.

_Perfect participle_, or _second part._, defined:
--its form:
--how has been variously called:
--its character and name as distinguished from the imperf. part:
--why sometimes called the _passive part_.; why this name liable to
--how may be distinguished from the preterit of the same form:
--should not be made to govern an objective term. ("_The characters_
--not to be used for the pret., nor confounded with the pres.:
--what care necessary in the employment of; when to be distinguished
from the preterits of their verbs.

_Perfect tense_, defined.
--_Perf. tense_ of indic., as referring to time relatively fut.

_Period_, or _full stop_, its pause.
--_Period_, or _circuit_, nature of.
--_Period_, probably the oldest of the points; how first used:
--how used in Hebrew:
--what used to mark:
--Rules for the use of:
--not required when short sentences are rehearsed as examples:
--whether to be applied to letters written for numbers:
--with other points set after it:
--whether proper after Arabic figures used as ordinals.
--_Period of abbreviation_, whether always supersedes other points.

_Permanent_ propositions, to be expressed in the pres. tense.

_Permitting_, &c., verbs of, see _Commanding_.

_Personal pronoun_, defined.
--_Personal pronouns_, simple, numb, and specificat. of:
--declension of:
--often used in a reciprocal sense, ("_Wash_ YOU," &c.,).
--(See also _It_.)
--_Personal pronouns_, compound, numb. and specificat. of. 298:
--explanat. and declension of:
--CHURCH. account of:
--of the first and second persons, placed before nouns to distinguish
their persons.

_Personification_, defined,
--MURR. definition of, blamed,
--what constitutes the purest kind of,
--change of the gend. of inanimate objects by,
--whether it always changes the gender of anteced. term,
--agreem. of pronouns with their antecedents in cases of,
--Rule for capitals in do.,
--_Personifications_, CHURCH, on the determination of gender in,
--_Personified_ objects, names of, put in the second pers., and why,
--how pronouns agree with,

_Persons_, term defined,
--_Persons_, named and defined,
--the distinction of, on what founded,
--_Persons, numbers_, &c., character of BROWN'S definitions of,
--_Persons_, in gram., nature of; absurd teachings of some
grammar-makers concerning,
--distinctions of, in written lang.,
--_Person_ and _number_ of a verb, what,
--_Persons_, second and third, of a verb, distinctive formations of,
--do., in Lat., shown,
--_Person_, nouns of the second, in Eng., in how many ways can be
--the _third_, put with the pron. _I_, by vulgarism, ("THINKS I _to
--the first, place of,
--_Persons_, whether the imperat. mood may have three,
--connected antecedents of different, agreem. of pron. with,
--connected nominatives of different, agreem. of verb with,

_Perspicuity_, as a quality of style, in what consists,
--is essential in composition; BLAIR quoted,
--the excellence of,
--Precepts aiming at offences against,

_Perversions of Eng. grammar_, the design, in part, of BROWN'S code of
synt, is to make intelligent judges of,
--_Perversions, literary_, Crit. N. concerning,

_Phonetics, phonography, phonotopy_, BROWN'S estimate of; DR. JOH. cited,
--account of,
--TRENCH'S views of,
--_Phonographic system_ of stenography, its practical value;
_phonotopy_, to what may be advantageously applied,

_Phrase_, defined,
--_Phrase_ made the subject of a verb, how to be taken,
--_Phrases_, distinct, conjunctively connected, agreem. of verb with,
--distinct, disjunctively connected, do.,
--unconnected, do.,
--BAD _phrases_, examples of, from authors,
--do., corrected,
--_Phrases_ or _clauses_, ellips. of, shown,
--_Adverbial phrase_, (so termed by some,) see _Adverb_.

_Place_ or _position_ of the different parts of speech, see _Article, Noun,
Adjective_, &c.

_Pleonasm_, defined,
--_Pleonasm_, when allowable with respect to a pron.,
--in what instances impressive and elegant; when, the vice of ill
--occurs sundry times in the Bible,

_Pluperfect tense_, defined,
--_Pluperf. tense_, what implies when used conditionally; what, in the
negative form of supposition,
--how formed in the indic. mood; do. in the potential,
--indic. form of, put by enall. for pluperf. of the pot.,
--PLUPERFECT, signif. of the term; several innovators (as BULL., BUTL.,
_et al._) have been fain to discard it,

_Plural number_, of nouns, how formed,
--of most nouns in Eng., is simple and regular,
--of nouns ending in a vowel preceded by a vowel,
--of do. in _y_ preceded by a consonant,
--of do. in _o_ preceded by a consonant,
--construc. of, when several persons of the _same name_ are spoken of
("_The Stuarts_,")
--of prop. names, its formation,
--of nouns in _i, o, u_, or _y_, preceded by a consonant,
--when _name_ and _title_ are to be used together, ("_The Miss
--of nouns in _f_,
--of nouns not formed in _s_ or _es_,
--of compounds,
--of certain compound terms, ("_Ave-Maries_," &c.,)
--wanting to some nouns,
--of nouns of multitude,
--_Plural_, nouns made so by nature or art,
--of foreign nouns, 253,
--improperly formed by adding apostrophic _s_,
--of mere characters, how denoted,

_Plurality_, the idea of; see _Unity_, &c.

_Poetic feet_, treated,
--(See _Iambus, Trochee_, &c.)
--_Poetic foot_, of what consists,
--_Poet. feet_, number to be recognized in Eng.,
--principal Eng., named and defined,
--kinds of, which form ORDERS OF VERSE,
--what combinations of, severally form _dimeter, trimeter_, &c.,
--(See _Dimeter, Trimeter_, &c.)
--_Poetic_ collocation of words, in prose, as offending against
perspicuity, PREC. respecting,
--_Poetic diction_, treated,
--in what abounds,
--_Poetical Peculiarities_,

_Poetry_, as defined by BLAIR,
--character of its style,
--aim and end of,
--exterior distinction of,
--why difficult, by a definition, to be distinguished from prose,
--inept directions of some grammatists respecting the parsing of,
--_Poetry_, every line in, should begin with a capital,

_Points_, or _stops_, the principal, named, and their forms shown,
--the purpose of,
--length of pauses denoted by,
--often variously used in different editions of the same work,
--origin of, See _Punctuation_.

_Points_ of the compass, adjectives for; modes of varying them,

_Possession_, relation of, see _Property_.

_Possessive case_, defined,
--_Poss. case_, how formed
--disputes of the earlier grammarians respecting,
--CARD. _et al._ attempt to revive exploded error concerning,
--form of,
--origin of, in Eng.,
--odd notions of some grammarians concerning the regular formation of
--exceptions or irregularities in the formation of
--_Poss. case_, PEI. on, criticised
--ASH and PRIESTL. on the plur.
--use of the two forms of, in pers. pronouns
--_of the simp. pers. pronouns_, grammarians differ with respect to;
should not be considered mere adjectives
--are pronom. adjectives, according to DR. LOWTH and his followers,
--whose doctrine BROWN canvasses, also, WEBSTER'S, WILSON'S, MURRAY'S
--_Poss. case_, its equivalence to _of_ and the objective, not a
_sameness of case_, (in oppos. to Nix.)
--of pronouns, not to be written with apostrophe
--of nouns in appos., application of the possessive sign to
--by what _governed_
--whether the rule for, has true exceptions
--appos. of one with an other, ("_For_ DAVID _my_ SERVANT'S _sake_,")
the construc. examined
--appar. in abstract construc., ("_All_ MINE _are_ THINE,")
--as governed by a part, the construc. examined; COROL.
--why the governm. of, should be limited to nouns only
--whether before a real part., denotes the possession of something
--_Possessive sign_, omission oL not a true ellips.
--always implies a governing word,
--how taken by compounds
--liable to be added to adjunct of the former noun
--whether it can be rightly added to separate adjectives, ("_The_
GUILTY'S _prayer_,")
--_which_ noun of connected possessives takes
--Poss. case, place and order of
--generally equivalent to prep. _of_ and _the objective_,
--governed by something not expressed, ("St. Paul's,")
--_Possessives, connected_, how to be taken,
--Poss. _singular_, with _s_ omitted, ("For CONSCIENCE' _sake_")
--_Poss. case_ of nouns sing, in _ss_, false teaching of KIRKH. _et
al._, respecting the formation of
--MURR. rule for the construc. of, why objectionable,
--compounds embracing, lack uniformity in writing,
--peculiarity of, with respect to correlatives, ("Father's son,")
--_Possessive_ relation between a portion of time and its correlative
action, ("THREE YEARS' _hard work_" or, "_Three years_ OF HARD
--_Poss. case_, appropriate form of, to be observed,
--plural, with a noun in forced agreem., ("For OUR PARTS,") ib., N. iv:
--needless use of, before a participle, ("In THEIR _pronouncing the
--_Possessive pronouns, my, thy, his_, &c., how often should be
inserted, or repeated

_Potential mood_, defined
--_Potential mood_, why so called; by what _signs_ distinguished,
--may, like the indic., be used in asking questions; why by some
included in the subj.
--in what tenses used; nature of the imperf. tense
--formation and inflection of its tenses, shown in the verb LOVE,

_Power_ of a letter, the _powers_ of the letters, what meant by, when
spoken of,
--The _power_ of a letter is not its sound, as MURR. et al incorrectly
--The _simple powers_ of the letters, many irreconcileable doctrines
have been advanced thereon; GARDINER'S notions concerning, stated in
--RUSH'S explanations of, his pretentious scheme of the alphab. how
estimated by BROWN
--The _just powers_ of the letters, what, and how are to be learned,
--_Powers_ of the letters, variable; how become so; WALK, cited

_Praxis_, defined; lit. signif. of the word, as from the Gr.

_Precision_, as a quality of style, in what consists,
--Precepts aiming at offences against
--conciseness, or brevity, as opposed to

_Prefixes_, their management in syllabication, R.:
--Explanation of
--import and character of the particles used as, in Eng.; the _roots_
to which prefixed, not always proper Eng. words
--_Prefixes_, ENG. or ANGLO-SAX.,
--_Prefixes_, poet, usage with respect to,

_Preperfect participle_, defined
--_Preperf. part._, its form
--its nature and name,

--_Preposition_ defined
--importance of a right use, and a right explan. of
--HARR. explanation of, as cited by LOWTH, stricture on HARR.
--its simplicity among the parts of speech; how should be explained in
--no sufficient RULE for the synt. of, in most of the Eng. grammars,
_Prepositions_ and their objects, as preceding the words on which
they depend, ("_Of man's first disobedience, &c., Sing_" MILC.,)
--_Prepositions_, what it is, to find the terms of relations of;
disput. text cited in illustration
--the special _adaptation_ of; example of misuse by MURR., remarked on
--HARR., on the purpose for which almost all _prepositions_ were orig.
formed, and on the nature of their relations; his views controverted
--Prepositions and their governed objects, the true determination of;
examples of joint objects, and of joint antecedents, wrong views of
MURR. and his followers concerning this matter.
--_Prepositions_, two connected, for what different purposes used
--two coming together, ("FROM AMONG the _just_,")
--_Prepositions complex_, what their character, and how may be
resolved; are occasionally compounded by the hyphen
--_Prepositions_, how might be divided into classes; the inutility in
parsing of the division into "_separable_ and _inseparable_;"

HALL'S absurd idea of a divis., noticed
--whether "two in immediate succession require a noun to be understood
between them," (NUTT.)
--words commonly reckoned, (_in, on, of_, &c.,) used after infinitives
or participles, in adverbial construc., ("_Houses to eat and drink_
--_Prepositions_, List of
--grammarians differ considerably in their tables of; do. concerning
the characteristics of; what BROWN supposes, in oppos. to the
assertion that "Every _prep_. requires an obj. case after it"
--LENN. and BULL. on "_prepositions becoming adverbs_," criticised
--MURR. on "_prepositions_ appearing to be adverbs," criticised
--_Preposition_, whether it can be justly said to take a sent. for its
--_Prepositions_, words in the list of, sometimes used as other parts
of speech
--extension of the list of
--examples of the less usual, _a_, and others beginning with _a_
--do. of unusual ones beginning with _b, c_, or _d_
--_unusual_, quotations illustrating further the list of
--_Preposition_, RULE of synt. for the _word governed by_
--_Prepositions_, in Eng., govern no other case than the obj.; most,
may take the imperf. part. for their obj.
--The brief assertion, that "_Prepositions_ govern the obj. case,"
wherein is exceptionable as the sole rule for both terms
--_Prepositions_, ellipt. construc. of, with adjectives, (_in vain, in
secret_, &c.)
--sometimes appar. govern adverbs
--_Preposition_, appar. governing a perf. part., ("_To give it up_ FOR
--_Prepositions_, Synt. of
--do., in what consists
--what RELATIONS, show; (see _To_ and _For_)
--the parsing of; why tolerable writers are liable to err most in their
use of
--_Preposition_, the true terms of the relat. of, how may be discovered
--when beginning or ending a sent. or clause, what the construc.
--the terms of relation of, what may be; both usually expressed
--position of, with respect to the governed word
--_Prepositions_, several, dependent on one anteced. term, ("_A
declaration_ FOR _virtue and_ AGAINST _vice_," BUTL.)
--two coming together between the same terms of relat.; do. in the same
construc.; erron. remark of PRIESTL., MURR., _et al._, concerning the
--_Preposition_, the separating of, from its noun, false doctrine of
LOWTH, MURR., _et al._, concerning
--_Prepositions_, prop, choice of
--do., with respect to the allowable uses of
--as adapted in meaning to _two_ objects, or to _more_
--_Preposition_, ellips. or omiss. of, where ineleg.
--insertion of, when do.
--_Prep. and its object_, position of, in respect to other words
--do., punc. of
--_Prep._, ellips. of, shown
--_Prepositions_, derivation of
--poet. usage with respect to

_Present tense_, defined
--_Pres. tense_, described
--of the indic., used to express general truths
--deceased authors spoken of in, and why
--for the past, by Grecism; in animated narrative, for do., by enall.
--of the indic. and the subj., when preceded by _as soon as_, &c., to
what _time_, refers
--of the infin., what time is expressed by; expedients used to express
_fut_. time by
--of the subj., its use, and how considered by some
--_Pres. tense_, sometimes improp. with the conjunc. _that_, ("_Others
said_, THAT _it is Elias_")

_Preter, preterimperfect_, &c., disused terms for _past, imperfect_, &c.
--_Preter_, prefix, its meaning

_Preterit_, defined
--_Preterit_, described
--its form and variations
--present tendency to a reg. orthog. of, to be encouraged
--groundless rule of some, for forming second pers. of, when the pres.
and the pret. are alike
--not to be used in forming the comp. tenses of a verb

_Preventing_, verbs of, with part., in stead of infin.
--what construc. is proper for

_Primitive word_, defined
--_Primitive words_ regarded as such in Eng., may generally be traced
to ulterior sources

_Principal parts_, of a verb, (see _Chief Terms_)
--of a sent., how many, and what

_Priscian_, ancient grammarian, delivers the names of most of the Lat.

_Progressive_ form of a verb, see _Compound_ &c.

_Pronominal adjectives_, see _Adjectives, Pronominal_

PRONOUNS, Etymol. of
--_Pronoun_, definition of
--_Pronouns_ in Eng., number of, and their variations
--nature of the representation by; are put substantively, relatively,
or adjectively; difference in these three modes of substitution
--Classes of, named, and defined; (see _Personal Pronoun, Relative
Pron._, and _Interrogative Pron_.)
--_Pronouns, compound_, constructional peculiarities of
--_Pronouns_, faultiness and discordance of most Eng. grammars, with
respect to the classification and treatment of; specification of
different modes of distribution by diff. authors
--Modifications of, named; these properties how distinguished in the
personal pronouns; do. how ascertained in the relat. and interrog.
--Declension of; simp. personals declined; comp. personals do.; comp.
relatives do.
--appar. used for adverbs
--_Pronouns_, Synt. of
--_Pronoun_, agreem. of, with its anteced.
--do., with anteced. indefinite
--plur., put by enall. for the sing., agreem. of
--sometimes disagreeing with the anteced. in one sense, because taking
it in an other
--what the main point with respect to; what application of the rule of
agreem., in parsing
--_Pronouns_, agreem. of, with their antecedents, as affected by the
figures of rhetoric
--place of
--_Pronoun_, as representing a phrase or sentence
--under what circumstances can agree with either of two antecedents
--the parsing of, commonly requiring the application of two rules
--with suppressed anteced.
--needless introduction of, ("PALLAS, HER _glass_," BACON)
--with change of numb. in the second pers., or promisc. use of _ye_ and
--must present the same idea as the anteced., and never confound the
name with the thing signified
--employment of _the same_, with respect to connected relative clauses
--in what instances the _noun_ must be repeated, or inserted in stead
--should never be used to represent an adj., ("_Be_ ATTENTIVE;
_without_ WHICH," &c.)
--change of _anteced._ to accord with
--agreem. with collective nouns
--do. with joint antecedents
--do. with connected antecedents in apposition
--do. with connected antecedents emphat. distinguished
--do. with connected antecedents preceded by _each, every_, or _no_
--do. with connected antecedents of different persons
--agreeing with implied nominatives
--agreem. with disjunct antecedents
--what agreem. with disjunct. antecedents of different persons,
numbers, and genders
--do. with antecedents taken affirmatively and negatively
--do. with two antecedents connected by _as well as_, &c.
--ellips. of, shown
--punct. of, without pause
--_Pronouns_, derivation of, from Sax.
--poet. peculiarities of

_Pronunciation_, importance of an early habit of distinct
--how best taught to children
--_Pronunc._, as distinguished from elocution, what; how differs from
--_Pronunc._ of the Eng. lang., what knowledge requires; its
difficulties; whether we have any system of, worthy to be accounted a

_Proof-texts_, not to be perverted in the quotation, Crit. N.
--not _quoted_, but _invented_, by some, in their false illustrations
of gram.

_Proper names_ begin with capitals
--_Comm._ and _proper name_ associated, how written
--_Prop. names_, derivatives from, do.
--(_Names_ of Deity, see _Deity_.)
--_Prop. names_, application of rule concerning; distinc. between do.
and common appellatives
--of places, comparative difficulty of writing them
--modern compound, sparing use of hyphen in
--_Prop. names_, what their relative importance in lang.
--structure and signif. of; how should be written
--of plur. form, preceded by def. art.
--_Prop. name_, with def. art., acquires the import of a comm.
--_Proper_, from a comm. noun personified
--_Prop. names_ of individuals, strictly used as such, have no plur.;
_prop. name_, how made plur., and how then considered
--when they form a plur., how form it
--of persons, generally designate their sex
--_Prop. name_, in appos. with an appellative
--represented by _which_, ("_Herod_
--WHICH _is_," &c.)
--_Prop. name_ and _title_, when taken together in a plur. sense, in
what form to be written

_Property_, the relation of, how may be otherwise expressed than by the
poss. case

_Prophecy_, the past tenses substituted for the fut., in the lang. of

_Propositions_, permanent, in what tense should be expressed

_Propriety_, as a quality of style, in what consists
--its oppos., impropriety, what embraces
--Precepts aiming at offences against

_Prose_ and verse, in the composition of lang., how differ

--_Prosody_, of what subjects treats
--etymol. and signif. of the word
--_Prosody_, meagrely and immethodically treated in the works of many
--undetermined usage as to what things belong to; how treated by some
of the old prosodists; account of SMETIUS'S treatise of; do.

_Prosthesis_, explained

_Proverbs_, their elliptical character

_Provincial_ expressions, use of, as opposed to purity

PUNCTUATION, arranged under the head of Prosody
--_Punct._, what
--principal marks of, named and shown; what they severally denote
--RULES _of_: for Comma; for Semicolon; for Colon; for Period; for
Dash; for Eroteme; for Ecphoneme; for Curves
--description of the _other marks_ of
--(See _Comma, Semicolon_, &c.)
--_Punct._, the present system of, in Eng., common to many languages
--why often found diverse, in diff. editions and diff. versions of the
same work
--duty of writers in respect to, and of publishers in reproducing
ancient books
--some account of the orig. and prog. of
--"improvement" in, which is no improvement
--confused and discordant explanations, by some, of certain of the
marks of

_Purity_, as a quality of style, in what consists
--Precepts aiming at offences against

_Pyrrhic_, defined


Q, its name and plur. numb.
--has no sound peculiar to itself; its power
--is always followed by _u_

_Quakers_, or Friends, their style of address, see _Friends_

_Qualities_ of style, treated
--See _Style_ _Quantity_, or _time_ in pronunciation, explained
--as defined by the lexicographers
--its effect in the prolation of sounds
--WALKER'S views of, unsatisfac. to BROWN
--as regulated by emphasis, MURR.
--_Quant_. of a syll., how commonly explained
--by what marks may be indicated
--_Quantities poetic_, how denominated, and how proportioned
--What _quantity_ coincides with accent or emphasis
--_Quantity_, on what depends
--where variable, and where fixed, in Eng.
--Crit. observations on accent and _quantity_
--_Quantity_, its distinction from _accent_
--Accent and _quantity_, differing views of authors relative to
--_Quantity_, impropriety of affirming it to be the same as accent
--DR. JOH. identification of accent with; such, also, that of others;
(not so HARRIS;) NOEHD. rightly defines; so FISK, (in Eschenb. Man.
Class. Lit.,) _et al_.
--our grammarians seem not to have understood the distinc. of long and
short, e. g., FISHER; so SHERID., WALK., MURR., _et al_.
--CHAND. absurd and confused scheme of, noticed
--suggestion of WEBST. on, approved

_Questions_, can be asked only in the indic. or the pot. mood
--direct, to be marked by the eroteme
--united, how to be marked
--indirect, do.
--a series of, how may be united and marked
--exclamatory, how to be marked
--_Question, mentioned_ in due form, how marked
--declaratively put, how uttered and marked
--in _Spanish_, doubly marked, ("?Quien llama?";) in Greek, how

_Quite_, with art. and adj., construc. how differs according to position of

_Quotation_, direct, first word of, written with capital
--_Quotations_ of proof-texts, &c., should be literally given
--dependent, separated from _say_, &c., by comma
--indep., preceded by colon
--_Quotat. within a quotat._, how usually marked

_Quoth_ and _quod_, signif. and use of, in ludicrous lang. or in the old


R, name and plur. numb.
--of the class liquids
--sound of; do., how can be varied in utterance
--what faults to be avoided in do.
--DR. JOH. account of; WALK. do.

_Radicals_, separable and inseparable, what are so called in Eng.

_Rath_, adv., used only in the compar. deg.
--_Rather_, with the exclusive term of comparis. introduced by _than_
--derivation of

_Reading, to read_, in gram., what the signif. of
--READ, verb, CONJUGATED _affirmatively_ in Comp. Form

_Reciprocal terms, reciprocals_, what pronom. adjectives may be so termed
--_Reciprocals_, EACH OTHER, ONE AN OTHER, their nature and import
--misapplicat. of, frequent in books; WEBST. errs in the signif. and
applicat. of _other_. See also _Other_

_Reciprocal_ or reflected verbs, constructions in imitation of the French

_Recurrence_ of a word in different senses, a fault opposed to propriety

_Redundant verb_, defined
--_Redund. verbs_, why made a separate class
--List of

_Reference_, marks of, ASTERISK, OBELISK, &c., shown; in what _order_ are
--what other signs of, may be used. _Reference, doubtful_, Crit. N.

_Reformers_ of the Eng. alphabet and orthog., some account of

_Rejoice, resolve, incline_, &c., import of, in the pass. form

_Relations_ of things, their infinitude and diversity; the nature of
--_Relation of words_, what
--is diff. from agreem., but may coincide with it
--_Relation_ according to _the sense_, an important principle in Eng.
synt.; what _rules_ of relation commonly found in the grammars
--Simple _relation_, what parts of speech have no other syntact.
property than; what simp. _relations_ there are in Eng.
--_Relation_, with respect to a prep., _anteced. term_, what may be;
_subseq._, do.
--_Relation_, do., _terms_ of, to be named in parsing a prep.; how the
terms may be ascertained by a learner
--_terms of_, to a prep., may be transposed; are very various; both
usually expressed

_Relative pronouns_, defined
--_Relative pronouns_, and their _compounds_, named; declined
--chief constructional peculiarities of
--two faulty special rules given by the grammarians, for construc. of,
--construc. of, with respect to CASE
--ellips. of, in famil. lang., ("_The man I trust_;") do., poet.
--_Relative_ and prep. governing it, when should not be omitted
--_Relative pron._, place of
--clauses, connected, employment of, with _same_ pron. in each
--_Rel. pronouns_, exclude conjunctions
--derivat. of, from Sax.
--poet, peculiarities with respect to. See also _Who, Which_, &c.

_Repetition_, of a noun or pronoun, what construc. it produces
--of words, emphatic, punct.
--of words, through paucity of lang.; against propriety
--of do., as demanded by precision
--_Repetitions_, see _Pleonasm_

_Restrictive_ and _resumptive_ senses of the rel. pronouns, distinc.
between, expl.
--_Restrictive, relation_, most approp. expressed by the pron. THAT
--admits not a comma before the relative
--adj., admits not a comma before it
--part., do.

_Rhetoric, figure of_, defined
--Figures of _rhetoric_, see _Figures_

_Rhetorical pauses_, see _Pauses_

_Rhode Island_, the name how acquired; peculiarity of its application

_Rhyme_, defined
--_Rhyming_ syllables, their nature and quality

_Rhythm_, of verse, defined
--Fancifully explained by E. A. POE, (who without intelligence derives
the term from [Greek: hurithmos])
--sense and signif. of the word

_Roman letters_, some account of

_Rules_, of RELATION, what, commonly found in grammars
--of SYNT., those common in grammars ill adapted to their purpose;
examples of such
--of do., exposition of the faulty charac. of those in Eng. grammars
--_Rules of grammar_, advantage of, in the written language

_Rush, Dr. J._, his new doctrine of the vowels and consonants, in oppos. to
the old, how estimated by BROWN
--his doctrine of a duplicity of the vocal elements, perstringed
--his strange division of the vowels "into two parts," and conversion
of most of them into diphthongs; his enumeration and specification of
the alphabetic elements


S, its name and plur. numb.
--final, in monosyllables, spell.
--of the poss. case, occas. dropping of; the elis. how to be regarded,
and when to be allowed
--its sounds
--in what words silent
--_Ss_, sound of

_S_ or _es_, verbal termin., DR. LOWTH'S account of

_Sans_, from Fr., signif., and where read

_Sabaoth_, see _Deity_

_Same cases_, construc. of
--do., on what founded
--what position of the words, admitted by the construc.
--_Same case_, after _what verbs_, except those which are pass., taken
--_Same cases_, notice of the faulty rules given by LOWTH, MURR., _et
al._, for the construc. of

_Sameness_ of signif., what should be that of the nom. following a verb or
--_Sameness_ of words, see _Identity_

_Sapphic_, verse, described
--_stanza_, composition of; examp. from HOR.
--_Sapphic verse_, difficulty of; Eng. Sapphics few; scansion of; "The
Widow," of SOUTHEY, scanned
--_Eng. Sapphic_, DR. WATTS'S ode, (in part.) "The Day of Judgement,"
"_attempted in_"
--HUMPH. on, cited
--_Sapphics_, burlesque, examples of

_Save, saving_, as denoting exception, class and construc. of
--_Save_, derivation of

_Saxon_, alphabet, some account of
--lang., its form about the year 450; do. subsequently

_Scanning_, or _scansion_, explained
--Why, in _scanning_, the principal feet are to be preferred to the
--The poetry of the earliest Eng. poets, not easy of _scansion_

_Script letters_, the alphabet exhibited in
--the _forms_ of, their adaptation to the pen

_Scripture names_, many discrepancies in, found in different editions of
the Bible. _Scriptures_, see _Bible_

_Section_, mark, uses of

SEE, verb, irreg., act., CONJUGATED affirmatively
--takes infin. without prep. TO
--its construc. with infin. without _to_

_Seeing_ and _provided_, as connectives, their class

_Seldom_, adv., its comparison; use of, as an adj.

_Self_, in the format, of the comp. pers. pronouns
--CHURCH. explan. of
--signif. and use of
--as an Eng. prefix
--after a noun poss., in poet. diction

_Self-contradiction_, Crit. N. respecting

_Self-naming letters_

_Semicolon_, point
--for what purpose used
--from what takes its name
--_when_ adopted in England
--is useful and necessary, though discarded by some late grammarians
--Rules for the use of

_Semivowel_, defined
--_Semivowels_ named; nature of _w_ and _y_; sound of certain, as

_Sense_ and construc. to be considered, in joining together or writing
separately words otherw. liable to be misunderstood
--_Sense_ or meaning, necessary to be observed in parsing

_Senseless jumbling_, Crit. N. concerning

_Sentence_, defined
--_Sentence_, its parts, principal and subordinate
--_Sentences_, the two kinds of, named and defined
--whether a tripartite distribut. of is expedient
--_Simple sent._, false notions amongst grammarians of what constitutes
one; _the parsing of words_ not affected thereby
--_Sentences_, simp. and comp., DR. WILS. explanation of
--component parts of, what these are
--whether all, can be divided into clauses
--in what FIVE WAYS, can be analyzed
--_Sentences_, simp., punct.

--distinct, do.,
--allied, do.,
--short, rehearsed in close succession, how pointed.

_Series_, of terms, proper use of the _articles_ in,
--of words, how to be commaed.

_Set_ and _sit_, signif. and employment of.

_Sex_, to what persons ascribed; why a young child may be spoken of without
distinc. of,
--whether animals may be represented as of no,
--inanimate objects fig. represented as having.
--_Sexes_, distinction of, by _words_, in diff. ways,
--denoted by _terminat_. of words,
--designated by _proper names_.

_Shall_, verb, how varied,
--original signif. of,
--explet. use of.
--_Shall_ and _will_, discriminative application of, in the fut. indic.

_Sheridan, T._, actor and orthoepist, his literary reputation; the worth of
his writings.

_Side_, noun, peculiarities of usage in regard to.

_Silent_, or _mute_, when a letter is said to be.

_Silliness, literary_, Crit. N. concerning.

_Simile_, explained.

_Since_, improp. use of, for _ago_,
--derivation of, from Anglo-Sax.

_Sit_ and _set_, use and signif. of.

_So_, as expressing the sense of a preced. word or phrase,
--derivation of, from Sax.
--as, as
--so_, correspondents.

_Soever_ or _soe'er_, whether a word or only a part of an other word; how
explained by WEBST.

_Solemn style_, as distinguished from the familiar,
--should not be displaced from the paradigms in a grammar,
--is not adapted to familiar discourse,
--pres. and pret. terminations of, what, and how uttered,
--examp. of, second pers. sing., negat., throughout the verb LOVE,

_Some_, classed,
--vulg. used for _somewhat_, or _in some degree_, ("SOME _longer_,"
SANB.). _Somehow_ or _other, somewhere_ or _other_, what the
construc. _Somewhere, nowhere, anywhere_, &c., their class, and how
should be written.

_Sort_, see _Kind_.

_Sound_, of a letter, commonly called its _power_,
--_elementary_, of the voice, defined.
--_Sounds_, simp. or primary, numb. in Eng.,
--elementary, what meant by; are few in numb.; their _combinations_ may
be innumerable.
--_Vowel_ sounds, or vocal elements, how produced, and where heard;
what those in Eng., and how may be modified in the format. of
syllables; do., how may be written, and how uttered.
--_Consonant sounds_, simp., in Eng., how many, and what; by what
letters marked; in what words heard.
--_Sounds_, long and short, SIGNS used to denote them.
--_Sounds_, a knowledge of, how acquired,
--importance of being early taught to pronounce those of one's native
--Passage exemplifying _all the letters_, and _all the_ SOUNDS, in Eng.
--_Sounds of the Letters_, treated.

_Speak, to speak_, what is meant by.

_Speaker_, why often speaks of himself in the third pers.,
--represents himself and others by _we_,
--in Eng., should mention himself last.
--The _elegant speaker_, by what distinguished.

_Species_ and _figure_ of words, what so called,
--unsettled usage of the lang. with regard to what relates to the
latter. _Species_ and _genus_ of things, how admits limitation by the

SPELLING, defined.
--_Spelling_, how to be acquired,
--cause of the difficulty of its acquisition,
--Rules for,
--_usage_, as a law of,
--uniformity and consistency in, how only can be attained.
--The _right spelling_ of a word, what, PHILOLOG. Mus.
--_Oral spelling_, how should be conducted.
--Charac. of BROWN'S rules for _spelling_.

_Spondee_, defined.

_St_, unsyllab. suffix, whether, wherever found, is a modem contrac. of the
syllable _est_.

_Standards_ of English _orthog._, the books proposed as such, abound in
errors and inconsistencies.
--Whether we have a system of Eng. ORTHOEPY worthy to be accounted a

_Stanza_, defined.
--_Stanzas_, uniformity of, in the same poem,
--varieties of,
--_Elegiac stanza_, described.
--_Stanzas, lyric_, examples of,
--"A GOOD NAME," ("two beautiful little _stanzas_," BROWN).

_Star_, or _asterisk_, use of.
--_Three stars_, or _asterism_,

_Stenotone_, or _breve_, for what used.

_Stops_, in printing or writing, see _Points_.

_Strength_, as a quality of style, in what consists,
--essentials of,
--Precepts aiming at offences against.

_Strew_, whether, or not, an other mode of spelling _strow_; whether to be
distinguished in utterance from do.; whether reg. or irreg.

STYLE, qualities of, treated.
--_Style_, as connected with synt., what,
--differs from mere words and mere grammar; not regulated entirely by
rules of construc.,
--what relation has to the author himself, and what shows,
--general characters of, by what epithets designated.
--What must be remembered by the learner, in forming his _style_; a
good _style_ how acquired.
--_Style, solemn, familiar_, &c., as used in gram., what meant by.
--(See _Solemn Style_.)

_Subaudition_, meaning of the term. _Subdisjunctive_ particle, of the
Latins, expressed in Eng. by _or_ of alternat.

_Subject_ of a finite verb, what, and how may be known,
--must be the NOM. CASE,
--what besides a noun or pronoun may be.
--_Subject phrases_, joint, what agreements require.
--_Subject_ and _predicate_, in analysis. See also _Nominative Case_.

_Subjunctive mood_, defined.
--_Subj. mood_, why so called; what denotes,
--differing views of grammarians in regard to the numb. and form of its
--The true _subj. mood_ rejected by some late grammarians; strictures
--WELD'S erroneous teaching respecting the _subj._, noticed,
--CHAND. do., do.
--Chief characteristical diff. between the indic. and the _subj. mood_.
--_Subj. mood_ described,
--its two tenses do., and their forms shown, in the verb LOVE,
--whether ever put after a rel. pronoun,
--proper limits of,
--how properly employed.
--_False subj_.
--_Subj. mood_, not necessarily governed by _if, lest_, &c.

_Such_, corresponding to _that_, with infin. foll.,
--with rel. _as_ following, in stead of _who_ or _which_.

_Sui generis_, what thing is thus designated.

_Superlative degree_, defined,
--BROWN'S definit. of, and of the other degrees, _new_; the faulty
charac. of those of MURR., shown,
--the true nature of; how may be used; to what is applicable; the
explanations of, by the copyists of MURR., criticised,
--whether not applicable to _two_ objects,
--_when employed_, what construc. of the latter term should follow.
--_Double superlatives_, to be avoided.
--_Superl. termination_, contractions of.

_Supplied_, in parsing, what must be. See also _Ellipsis_.

_Suppression_, mark of, see _Ellipsis_.

_Syllabic_ writing, far inferior to the alphabetic, BLAIR.

_Syllabication_, Rules of,
--the doctrine of, why attended with difficulty,
--object of; WALK. on; strictures on MULK. rules of,
--which of the four purposes of, is preferable in spelling-books and
--DR. LOWTH on,
--nature of BROWN'S six Rules of; advantage of a system of, founded on
the pronunciat.,
--LATH. and FOWL. fictitious dilemmas in.
--_Syllabication_, erroneous, samples of, from MURR., WEBST., _et al_.

SYLLABLES, treated.
--_Syllable_ defined.
--_Syllable_, cannot be formed without a vowel,
--cannot be broken.
--_Syllables_, numb. of, in a word,
--words denominated from their numb. of,
--the ear chiefly directs in the division of words into.
--(See _Syllabication_.)
--_Syllable_, its quantity in poetry,
--do., on what depends.

_Syllepsis_, explained,
--literal signif. of the term; extended applicat. of do. by the
grammarians and rhetoricians; BROWN, by his definition, gives it a
more restricted applicat.; disapproves of WEBST. explanat. of the
--what definition or what applicat. of the term is the most approp.,
has become doubtful.

_Synaeresis_, explained.

_Synchysis_, what was so termed by some of the ancients; is different from
_hyperbaton_; its import in gram.; its literal signif.

_Syncope_, explained.

_Synecdoche_, (comprehension,) explained.
--_Synecd._, agreem. of pron. with anteced., in cases of.

_Synonymous_, words so accounted, PREC. concerning the use of.

_Syntactical parsing_, see _Parsing_.

--_Synt._, of what treats,
--the _relation_ of words, the most important principle of; defects of
the grammars in treating of do.,
--false exhibitions of grammarians with respect to the scope and parts
--character of the rules of, found in most grammars,
--divided by some grammarians into _concord_ and _governm._, and yet
treated by them without regard to such division,
--common fault of grammarians, noticed, of joining together diff. parts
of speech in the same rule of,
--do., of making the rules of, double or triple in their form,
--whether the principles of etymol. affect those of.
--All _synt._, on what founded.
--Why BROWN deemed it needful to add to his code of _synt_. a GENERAL
RULE and CRITICAL NOTES. Figures of _syntax_.


T, name and plur. numb. of,
--substitution of, for _ed_, how far allowable,
--sounds of,
--is seldom silent; in what words not sounded. _Th_, ([Greek: Th],
[Greek: alt-th], or [Greek: alt2-th], Gr.,) what represents; how was
represented in Anglo-Sax., and to what sounds applied; the two sounds
of. _To a Tee_, the colloq. phrase, explained.

_Tautology_ of expression or of sentiment, a fault opposed to precision.

_Teacher_, what should be his aim with respect to gram.

_Technical_ terms, unnec. use of, as opposed to propriety. _Technically_,
words and signs taken, how to be construed.

_Tenses_, term defined.
--_Tenses_, the difierent, named and defined,
--whether the names of, are approp., or whether they should be changed,
--whether all express time with equal precision,
--who reckon only _three_, and who _two_; who still differently and
variously name their tenses,
--_Tenses_, past and present, occurring together. See _Present Tense_,
_Imperf. Tense_, &c.

_Terminating_ a sentence with a prep. or other small particle

_Terminations_, of words, separated in syllabicat.
--of verbs, numb. of different, in each tense
--of the Eng. verb; DR. A. MURR. account of
--tendency of the lang. to lay aside the least agreeable
--usage of famil. discourse in respect to those of second pers. sing.
--verbal or particip., how are found written in old books
--the only reg. ones added to Eng. verbs; utterance of _ed_ and _edst_
--_ed_, participial, and _n_, verbal, WALK. on the contrac. of
--_Termination t_, for _ed_, forced and irreg.

_Terms_ of relation, see _Relation_. _Tetrameter_ line, _iambic_, examples
--a favorite with many Eng. writers; BUTL. Hudib., GAY'S Fab., and most
of SCOTT'S poems, writt. in couplets of this meas.
--admits the doub. rhyme adapted to familiar and burlesque style
--_trochaic_, examples of
--character of do.
--EVERETT'S fanciful notions about do.
--_anapestic_, examples of
--L. HUNT'S "Feast of the Poets," an extended examp. of do.
--_dactylic_, examples of

_Than, as_, with ellips. in latter term of comparison
--character and import of
--declinable words connected by, put in same case
--_Than_ WHOM, as Gr. genitive governed by comparat., MILT.
--what grammarians have _inferred_ from the phrase
--MURR. expedient to dispose of do.
--CHURCH. makes the rel. in do. "the obj. case absol.,"
--BROWN determines with respect to the construc.
--_Than_, as demanded after _else, other_, &c., and Eng. comparatives
--derivation of, from Goth. or Anglo-Sax.

_That_, its class determined
--its various uses
--as REL. PRONOUN, to what applied
--as used in anomalous construc.,
--its peculiarity of construc. as a relative
--its especial use as the restrictive relative
--the frequent employment of, by Addison, wrongly criticised by BLAIR
--as a relative, in what cases more appropriate than _who_ or _which_
--_That_, ellipt., repeating the import of the preceding words, ("_And_
--[Greek: kai tauta],)
--_That_, in the phrases _in that_, &c., how to be reckoned
--_That_, as introducing a dependent clause, how to be ranked
--as introducing a sent. made the subj. or obj. of a finite verb
--its power at the head of a sent. or clause
--its derivation

_The_, before the species, what may denote
--how commonly limits the sense
--applied to nouns of either numb.
--before what _adjectives_, required
--distinctive use of ("_The Psalmist_")
--as relating to comparatives and superlatives
--used for poss. pron.
--repetition of, how avoided
--derivation of, from Sax.
--pronunc. of _e_ in. See also _Definite Article_.

_Them_, in vulg. use as an adj., for _those_

_Thence_, &c., with _from_ prefixed, whether allowable

_There_, introductory and idiomatic, notions of grammarians concerning; its
posit. and use; is a regular _adv. of place_, and not "without
--derivation of, from Anglo-Sax.
--poet. omission of

_They_, put indefinitely for _men_ or _people_

_This_ and _that_, as explained by CHURCH.
--placed before conjoint singulars, ("THIS POWER AND WILL _do_," &c.,)
--in contrasted terms

_Three stars_, or asterism, use of

_Time_, the order and fitness of, to be observed in constructions
expressing it
--nouns of, with adv. WHEN, as a special relative, following _Time,
measure_, or _weight_, part made possessive of the whole, ("_An_
HOUR'S _time_")
--noun of, not poss., immediately before an other, ("_A_ POUND
WEIGHT,") _Time, place_, &c., the obj. case in expressions of, taken
after the fashion of an adv. _Time, measure, distance_, or _value_,
nouns of, their peculiarity of construc.; the parsing of _Time_, obj.
noun of, qualifying a subsequent adj., ("A _child_ OF _ten years_
OLD,") _Four times, five times_, &c., how to be reckoned. TIMES,
before an other noun, _by way of_ MULTIPLICATION, the nature and
construc. of, discussed; decision. _Times_, in what construc. may be
called the objective of _repetition_, or of _time repeated_. _Time_
in pronunciation, or _quantity_

_Titles_, of books, are printed in capitals
--of office, &c., begin with do.
--merely mentioned as such, are without art.
--_Name and_ TITLE, (see _Proper Names_.) _Side-titles_, use of _dash_
in application to

_Tmesis_, explained

_To_, as governing infin. mood
--do., variously explained by grammarians
--is a sign of inf., but not a part of it
--what BROWN claims for his RULE respecting the _infin. as gov. by the
prep._ TO, &c.; he shows that the doctrine originated not with
--TO _and the verb_, what FISHER (anno 1800) taught respecting; what,
LOWTH, and what, absurdly, MURR., his copyist
--_To_, as governing infin., traced from the Sax. to the Eng. of
--_To_, before infin., evasive teachings of the later grammarians
concerning its class and construc.
--do., how considered by most Eng. grammarians
--do., how proved to be a prep.
--do., preceded by _for_, anc.
--after _what verbs_, omitted,
--whether to be _repeated_ before infinitives in the same construe.
--sometimes required, and sometimes excluded, after _than_ or _as_
--whether it may be _separated_ from its verb by an adv.; is placed
more elegantly AFTER _an adv._, ("PROPERLY TO _respect_,")
--in what cases has no prop, antec. term of relat.
--_To_ suppressed and _be_ inserted after MAKE, whether correctly
--_To_, prep, or adv., from Anglo-Sax.
--_To_, as prefix to noun, (_to-day, to-night, to-morrow_,).

_Tones_ of the voice, what; why deserving of j particular attention
--what denominated by SHERID.; what should be their character
--BLAIR'S remark on; HIL. do.
--_Tones_ of the passions, WALK, observation on.

_Topics_, different, to be treated in separate paragraphs, PREC. of

_Transposition_, of the terms of relat., when a preposition begins or ends
a sentence or clause
--_rhetorical_, of words, or _hyperbaton_.

_Tribrach_, defined.

_Trimeter_ line, _iambic_, the measure seldom used alone; examples of,
--and do., with diversifications
--_trochaic_, examples of
--_anapestic_, examples of
--alternated with the tetram., examp., "The Rose," of COWP.; the same
--_dactylic_, examples of. _Triphthong_, defined
--_proper_, do., the only, in Eng.
--_improp._, do.; and the improp. _triphthongs_ named.

_Trochaic verse_, treated
--_Troch. verse_, the stress in
--nature of the single-rhymed; error of MURR. _et al_. concerning the
last syll. in
--how may be changed to coincide with other measures; how is affected
by retrenchment
--confounded with _iambic_ by several gramm. and prosodists
--Strictures on CHURCH., who doubts the existence of the _troch_. ord.
of verse
--_Troch. verse_ shown in its eight measures
--_Trochaics_, Eng., the TETRAMETER the most common meas. of
--DR. CAMPB. on
--"_Trochaic_ of One foot," account of.

_Trochee_, or _choree_, defined.

_Tropes_, what figures of rhetoric are so called; signif. of the term.

_Trow_, its signif., and where occurs; in what person and tenses read.

_Truisms_ and senseless remarks, how to be dealt with in gram.

_Tutoyant_, to what extent prevalent among the French. See _Youyouing_, &c.

_Type_ or character, two forms of the letters in every kind of.


U, lett., which (as A, E, I, or O) names itself
--its plur. numb.
--sounds properly its own
--as self-naming, to what equivalent; requires art. _a_, and not _an_,
before it
--pronounced with borrowed sound
--long or diphthongal sound, as _yu_; sound of slender _o_ or _oo_,
after _r_ or _rh_.

_Unamendable_ imperfections sometimes found in ancient writings, remarks in
relation to.

_Unauthorized_ words, use of, as opposed to purity, PREC. concerning.

_Unbecoming_, adj., from participle compounded, error of using transitively
words of this form; such error how corrected.

_Uncertain_, the part of speech left, see _Equivocal_, &c.

_Unco-passive_ voice, or form, of the verb, ("_Is being built_,") the use
of. conflicts with the older and better usage of the lang.
--the subject of, discussed by BROWN
--the true principle with respect to, stated.

_Underlining_ words, in preparing manuscripts, to denote Italics &c.

_Understood_, words said, in technical phrase, to be, what such, (Lat.,

_Ungrammatical_ language by which grammar itself is professedly taught,
sample from MURR.; from PINNEO; _et al. e diversis_, Gram. of E. Gram.,

_Unity_, as a quality of style, in what consists
--required by every sentence
--Precepts aiming at offences against. _Unity_, THE IDEA OF, how
generally _determined_, in respect to a collect. noun, whether it
conveys such idea or not.

_Usage_, as a law of orthography for particular words
--_Usage_, as it has been, and as it is, the advantage of an exhibition
of, by the grammarian.

_Useless_ words, employment of, as opposed to precision.

UTTERANCE, treated
--_Utterance_, what, and what includes.


V, name and plur. of:
--written for a number:
--sound of,

Value, &c., nouns of, see Time.

Verbal or participial noun, (see Participial, &c.)
--Verbal forms used substantively, by poet pecul.

VERBS, Etymol. of;
--Verb, defined:
--why so called:
--a perf. definition of, why difficult to form;
--CHIEF TERMS, or PRINCIP. PARTS, of an Eng. verb, named and defined.
--Verbs. Classes of, with respect to their FORM, named and defined:
--do., with respect to their signif., do.
--(See Active-Transitive Verb, &c.) _Verbs_, whole numb, of, in Eng.;
the regular, far the most numerous; account of the others
--how divided with respect to signif. in most grammars and
dictionaries; BROWN'S division
--divided by certain grammarians into act., pass., and neut.
--MURR, on the distribution of
--NIX. on do.
--_Verbs_, in Lat., grammarians of old differed respecting the
distribut. of
--different methods of distribut. of, by several other authors, noticed
--_Verbs_, most act., may be used either as trans. or as intrans.
--some may be used either in an act. or a neut. sense
--act. form of, used in a pass. sense; so also PART. in _ing_, ("_The
books continue_ SELLING")
--_Verbs_, Modifications of, named
--Moods of, named and defined; (see _Infinitive Mood, Indic. Mood_,
--Tenses of, named and defined; (see _Present Tense, Imperf. Tense_,
--Persons and numbers of, what
--Conjugations of
--how principally conjugated
--(See _Conjugation_)
--_Verbs_, Irreg., List of
--simp. irreg., numb. of; whence derived
--Redundant, List of
--Defective, do.
--_Verbs irreg_. and _redund._, of what character all former lists of,
have been
--_Verbs_, of asking and teaching, construc. of
--whether any, in Eng., can govern two cases
--suppressed in exclamat. &c.
--_Verbs_, Synt. of
--_Verbs_ requiring a regimen, should not be used without an object
--_Verb_, AGREEM. _of, with its subject_
--do., inferred
--do., by sylleps., in plur., title of a book
--do., in imperat. mood
--_Verb_ of the third pers. sing. with a plur. noun of the neut. gend.,
the use of, a strange custom of the Greeks; such use not existent in
--_Verb_, AGREEM. of, with infin. phrase or sentence as subject
--do., with infin. subject limited, ("FOR MEN TO SEARCH _their own
glory_, IS," &c.)
--do., with a nom. in interrog. sentences
--do., with a rel., according to the true anteced. of the pron.;
(examp. of error from DR. BLAIR)
--do., with a nom. limited by adjuncts
--do., with composite or converted subjects
--do., with _each, every, one_, &c., as leading words
--do., by change of nominative
--_Verb_, the _form of_, to be adapted to the style
--when requires a separate nom. expressed
--_Verb_, AGREEM. of, with a nom. noun collective
--do., with joint nominatives
--do., with two connected nominatives in appos.
--do., with two conn. nominatives emphatically distinguished
--do., with two conn. nominatives preceded by _each, every_, or _no_
--do., with nearest of connected nominatives, and understood to the
rest; whether the usage is proper in Eng.
--do., with connected nominatives of different persons
--do., with connected subjects, one taken affirmat. and the other
--do., with two subjects connected by _as well as, but_, or _save_
--do., with connected subjects preceded by _each, every_, or _no_
--do., in ellipt. construc. of joint nominatives
--do., with distinct subject phrases connected by _and_
--do., with disjunct. nominatives
--do., with disagreeing nominatives connected disjunctively
--do., when connected nominatives require different forms of the verb
--do., with distinct phrases disjunct, connected
--_Verbs_, connected by _and, or_, or _nor_, how must agree
--discordant, how managed with respect to agreem.
--_Verb_, mixture of the diff. styles of, ineleg.
--diff. moods of, not to be used under the same circumstances
--when two connected terms require diff. forms of, what insertion is
--_Verbs_ of _commanding, desiring, expecting_, &c., to what actions or
events refer
--of _desisting, omitting_, &c., with a part. following, rather than an
--of _preventing_, what should be made to govern
--_Verb_, finite, punc. of
--ellips. of, shown
--derivation of, from nouns, adjectives, and verbs
--poet. peculiarities in the use of

_Verbosity_, as affecting strength

_Verse_, in oppos. to prose, what
--_Blank verse_, as distinguished from rhyme
--_Verse_, general sense of the term; its derivation and literal
signif.; the visible form of _verse_
--_Verse_, as defined by JOH., WALK., _et al_.; do. by WEBST.
--_Verse_, Eng., the difficulty of treating the subject of, and from
what this arises
--A _verse_, or line of poetry, of what consists
--_Verse_, or poetic measure, the kinds, or orders of, named; (see
_Iambic Verse, Trochaic Verse_, &c.)
--_Verse_, the proper reading of

--_Versification_, defined
--_Versification_, POE'S (E. A.) notions concerning; his censure of
BROWN'S former definition of; his rejection of the idea of versif.
from the principle of rhythm; his unfortunate derivat. of _rhythm_
from [Greek: hurithmos,] and vain attempts to explain the term: the
farrago summarily disposed of by BROWN
--EVERETT'S "System of Eng. Versification," account of, and strictures

_Vision_, or _imagery_, explained

_Vocative case_ of Lat. and Gr. gram., not known in Eng.

_Voice_, ACTIVE, and PASSIVE, whether necessary terms in Eng. gram.

_Vowel_, defined
--_Vowels_ named
--_W_ and _Y_, when vowels; comp.
--_Vowel sounds_, or vocal elements, the different, how produced
--what are those in Eng.
--how each may be variously expressed by letters; notation of
--_Vowels_, two coming together, where may be parted in syllabication.


W, its name and plur. numb.
--simpler term than _Double-u_ perhaps desirable; DR. WEBST. on the
--W, when a vowel
--with vowel foll., sound of
--before _h_, how pronounced
--in Eng. never used alone as a vowel
--no diphthongs or triphth. in Eng., beginning with.

_Wages_, noun, plur. by formation; its construe, with a verb.

_Walker, J._, estimate of his Critical Pronouncing Dictionary
--in his lexicography how far followed DR. JOH.

_Was_, contrary to usage preferred by some to _were_, in the imperf. sing,
of the subj.

_We_, plur., as representing the speaker and others; how sometimes used in
stead of the sing.; sometimes preferred by monarchs to _I_.

_Webster, Dr. N._, describes language as comprehending the voice of brutes
--never named the Eng. letters rightly
--his orthography as a _standard_; do. compared with that of DR. JOH.
--the result to himself of his various attempts to reform our orthog.;
the value of his _definitions_.

_Weight, measure_, &c., see _Time_.

_Wert_, as used in lieu of _wast_
--its mood not easy to determine; authorities for a various use of.

_What_, its class and nature
--to what usually applied; its twofold relat. explained
--its numb.; example of solec. in the use of
--as a mere adj., or as a pron. indef.
--its use both as an adj. and as a relative at the same time; do. for
_who_ or _which_, ludic. and vulg.
--how to be disposed of in etymolog. parsing; how to be parsed
--how becomes an interj.
--used appar. for an adv.; uttered exclamatorily before an adj., to be
taken as an adj., ("WHAT PARTIAL _judges are our_," &c.,)
--followed by _that_, by way of pleonasm, ("WHAT _I tell you in
darkness_, THAT," &c.,)
--with _but_ preceding, ("_To find a friend_, BUT WHAT" &c.,)
--vulg. use of, for _that_
--derivation of, from Sax., shown.

_Whatever_ or _whatsoever_, its peculiarities of construe., the same as
those of _what_; its use in simp, relation
--its construc. as a double relative; whether it may be supposed
--its declension.

_When, where_, or _while_, in what instance not fit to follow the verb _is_
--_When, where, whither_, as partaking of the nature of a pron.;
construc, of do., with antecedent nouns of time, &c., how far
--derivation of, from Anglo-Sax.

_Whether_, as an interrog. pron.; as a disjunc. conjunc.
--conjunc. corresponsive to _or_
--as do., its derivation from Sax.

_Which_, relative
--its former use; to what objects now confined
--its use after a personal term taken by meton. for a thing; do., as
still applicable to persons
--is of all the genders, (in oppos. to MURR., WEBST., _et. al._,)
--is less approp. than _who_, in all personifications
--its construc. when taken in its discrim. sense,
--how differs from the rel. _that_
--BLAIR'S incorrect remarks respecting
--_Which_, as rel. or interrog., declined
--_Which_, sometimes takes _whose_ for its poss.,
--represents a prop. name taken merely as a name, ("_Herod_
--WHICH _is but_," &c.,)
--do. nouns of mult, expressing persons, when such are strictly of the
neut. gend., ("The COMMITTEES WHICH" &c.,)
--in what cases is less approp. than _that_
--does not fitly represent an indicative assertion, ('"Be ATTENTIVE,
_without_ WHICH," &c.,)
--its Sax. derivation shown
--_The which_, obsol.,
--_Which_, interrog., what demands,
--to what objects applied
--now used for the obsol. _whether_.

_Whichever, whichsoever_, signif. and construc. of
--declension of.

_Who_, relative
--to what usually applied
--has superseded _which_, formerly applied to persons, ("_Our Father_
WHO _art_" &c.,)
--to be preferred to _which_, in all personifications
--how differs from the rel. _that_
--_Who_, as rel. or interrog., declined,
--_Whose_, use of, for the defec. poss., _of which_
--_Than whom_, (see _Than._)
--_Who_, interrog., what demands
--may be the anteced. of the rel. _that_
--_Who_, derivation of, from Sax.

_Whoever_, and _whoso_ or _whosoever_, signif. and construc. of
--declens. of
--_Whoso_ and _whatso_, antiq., import and use of,

_Whole_, improp. use of, for _all_. ("_Almost the_ WHOLE _inhabitants_,"

_Why_, after nouns of cause, (see _When_, &c.)
--_Why, wherefore, therefore_, their class.

_Will_, verb, how varied
--use of, as a principal verb.

_Wis_, verb, pret. _wist_, signif. and use of
--_Had I wist_,

_With_, for _and_, (see _Cum_:)
--added to adv. of direc., with emphat. imperat. ("_Up_ WITH _it_").
_Withal_ its class and construc. _Without_, obsol. use of, for
_unless_ or _except_. _Withouten_, paragog. and poet. form.
_Withinside of_ _Won't_, whence formed; its pronunc.

_Worcester, Dr. J. E._, his Universal and Critical Dictionary WORDS,
--_Word_, defined.
--_Words_ distinguished, and the divisions of, defined.
--(See _Compound Word_.)
--_Words_, Rules for the figure of;
--simp., _when_ compounding is to be avoided
--when to be joined, or to be written separately
--_Words_, the nature of, explained
--the consid. of, as comm., and as prop.,
--brevity sought in the comm. use of
--the identity of, in what consists
--unsettled and variable usage with respect to the figure of
--_Words_ that may constitute diff. parts of speech, their construc.
not to be left doubtf.
--the reference of, to other words, do.
--senselessly jumbled, charac. of
--entirely needless, how to be disposed of
--unintelligently misapplied, what indicates,
--_Words_, PUNCT. _of_: in pairs; alternated; put absol.; in appos.;
--_Words_, derivation of, treated
--most of those regarded as primitives in Eng., may be traced to
ulterior sources
--the study of, its importance
--how the knowledge of, may be promoted with respect to Eng.
--_Words_, the use of, as affecting Purity
--do., as affect. Propriety
--do., as affect. Precision
--do., as affect. Perspicuity
--do., as affect. Strength

_Worshiper_, whether properly written with a single or a double _p_

_Worth_, its class and construc.

_Worthy_, admits not ellips. of prep, _of_ before obj. following

_Writing, to write_, what meant by


X, its name and plur. num.
--format. of the plur. of nouns in
--why never doubled
--written for a number
--its sounds


Y, its name and plur. numb.;
--borrowed first by the Romans from the Greeks, by whom called Ypsilon
--in Eng. is either a vowel or a conson.
--classed with the semivowels
--final, changed or unchanged before terminations
--do., when, by former practice, retained in verbs ending in _y_,
before conson. terminations
--sounds of
--in poet. format. of adjectives

_Ye_, nom. plur., solemn style
--its use as the obj. case
--as a mere explet. in burlesque
--its use in the lang. of tragedy
--used for _thee_
--in the Eng. Bible not found in the obj. case
--_Ye_ and _you_, promisc. use of, in the same case and the same style,

_Yes, yea_, in a simp. affirmation, construc. and class of
--derivation of, from Anglo-Sax.

_You_, use of, for thou
--_You_, with _was_, ("YOU WAS BUILDING,") approved by DR. WEBST. _et
al._, as the better form for the sing. numb.
--_You_, and VERB PLUR., in reference to _one person_, how to be
treated in parsing. _Your_, facet. in conversation, and how uttered
("_Dwells, like_ YOUR _miser_, sir," &c., SHAK.,) _Yourself_, its
pecul. of construc.

_Your Majesty, your Highness_, &c., see _Address_.

_Youyouing_ and _theethouing_, history of


Z, its name and plur.
--has been called by several names; WALK., on the name
--peculiarity of its ordinary _form_
--its sounds described

_Zeugma_, (i.e., JUGATIO, _vel_ CONNEXIO, _Sanct._,) the various forms of,
were named and noticed, but not censured, by the ancient grammarians
--constructions of _adjectives_, referred to the figure, ("ONE _or a_
FEW _judges_,"); do. of verbs, ("_But_ HE NOR I FEEL _more_," YOUNG,)




[1] Ben Jonson's notion of grammar, and of its parts, was as follows:
"Grammar is the art of true and well-speaking a language: the writing is
but an accident.

The Parts of Grammar are

Etymology \ which is / the true notation of words,
Syntaxe / \ the right ordering of them.

A word is a part of speech or note, whereby a thing is known or called; and
consisteth of one or more letters. A letter is an indivisible part of a
syllable, whose prosody, or right sounding, is perceived by the power; the
orthography, or right writing, by the form. Prosody, and Orthography, are
not parts of grammar, but diffused, like blood and spirits, through the
whole."--_Jonson's Grammar_, Book I.

[2] Horne Tooke eagerly seized upon a part of this absurdity, to prove that
Dr. Lowth, from whom Murray derived the idea, was utterly unprepared for
what he undertook in the character of a grammarian: "Dr. Lowth, when he
undertook to write his _Introduction_, with the best intention in the
world, most assuredly sinned against his better judgment. For he begins
most judiciously, thus--'Universal grammar explains the principles which
are common to _all_ languages. The grammar of any particular language,
_applies_ those common principles to that particular language.' And yet,
with _this clear truth_ before his eyes, he boldly proceeds to give a
_particular_ grammar; without being himself possessed of one single
principle of universal grammar."--_Diversions of Purley_, Vol. 1, p. 224.
If Dr. Lowth discredited his better judgement in attempting to write an
English grammar, perhaps Murray, and his weaker copyists, have little
honoured theirs, in supposing they were adequate to such a work. But I do
not admit, that either Lowth or Murray "_begins most judiciously_," in
speaking of Universal and Particular grammar in the manner above cited. The
authors who have started with this fundamental blunder, are strangely
numerous. It is found in some of the most dissimilar systems that can be
named. Even Oliver B. Peirce, who has a much lower opinion of Murray's
ability in grammar than Tooke had of Lowth's, adopts this false notion with
all implicitness, though he decks it in language more objectionable, and
scorns to acknowledge whence he got it. See his _Gram._, p. 16. De Suey, in
his Principles of General Grammar, says, "All rules of Syntax relate to two
things, _Agreement and Government_."--_Foxdick's Tr._, p. 108. And again:
"None of these rules properly belong to General Grammar, as each language
follows, in regard to the rules of Agreement and Government, a course
peculiar to itself."--_Ibid._, p. 109." "It is with Construction [i.e.,
Arrangement] as with Syntax. It follows no general rule common to all
languages."--_Ibid._ According to these positions, which I do not admit to
be strictly true, General or Universal Grammar has no principles of
_Syntax_ at all, whatever else it may have which Particular Grammar can
assume and apply.

[3] This verb "_do_" is wrong, because "_to be contemned_" is passive.

[4] "A very good judge has left us his opinion and determination in this
matter; that he 'would take for his rule in speaking, not what might happen
to be the faulty caprice of the multitude, but the consent and agreement of
learned men.'"--_Creighton's Dict._, p. 21. The "good judge" here spoken
of, is Quintilian; whose words on the point are these: "Necessarium est
judicium, constituendumque imprimis, id ipsum quid sit, quod
_consuetudinem_ vocemus. * * * In loquendo, non, si quid vitiose multis
insederit, pro regula sermonis, amplendum est. * * * Ergo consuetudinem
sermonis, vocabo _consensum eruditorum_ sicut vivendi, consenum
honorum."--_De Inst. Orat._, Lib. i. Cap. 6, p. 57.

[5] "The opinion of plenty is amongst the causes of want; and the great
quantity of books maketh a show rather of superfluity than lack; which
surcharge, nevertheless, is not to be removed by making no more books, but
by making more good books, which, as the serpent of Moses, might devour the
serpents of the enchanters."--_Bacon_. In point of style, his lordship is
here deficient; and he has also mixed and marred the figure which he uses.
But the idea is a good one.

[6] Not, "_Oldham_, in Hampshire," as the Universal Biographical Dictionary
has it; for _Oldham_ is in _Lancashire_, and the name of Lily's birthplace
has sometimes been spelled "_Odiam_."

[7] There are other Latin grammars now in use in England; but what one is
most popular, or whether any regard is still paid to the ancient edict or
not, I cannot say. Dr. Adam, in his preface, dated 1793, speaking of Lily,
says: "His Grammar was appointed, by an act _which is still in force_, to
be taught in the established schools of England." I have somehow gained the
impression, that the act is now totally disregarded.--_G. Brown_.

[8] For this there is an obvious reason, or apology, in what his biographer
states, as "the humble origin of his Grammar;" and it is such a reason as
will go to confirm what I allege. This famous compilation was produced at
the request of _two or three young teachers_, who had charge of a _small
female school_ in the neighbourhood of the author's residence: and nothing
could have been more unexpected to their friend and instructor, than that
he, in consequence of this service, should become known the world over, as
_Murray the Grammarian_. "In preparing the work, and consenting to the
publicaton, he had no expectation that it would be read, except by the
school for which it was designed, and two or three other schools conducted
by persons who were also his friends."--_Life of L Murray_, p. 250.

[9] Grammatici namque auctoritas per se nulla est; quom ex sola
doctissimorum oraturum, historicorum, poetarum, et aliorum ideonorum
scriptorum observatione, constet ortam esse veram grammaticam. _Multa
dicenda forent, si grammatistarum ineptias refellere vellem_: sed nulla est
gloria praeterire asellos."--DESPAUTERII _Praef. Art. Versif._, fol. iii,

[10] The Latin word for _participle_ is _participium_, which makes
_participio_ in the dative or the ablative case; but the Latin word for
_partake_ is _participo_, and not "_participio_."--G. BROWN.

[11] This sentence is manifestly bad English: either the singular verb
"_appears_" should be made plural, or the plural noun "_investigations_"
should be made singular.--G. BROWN.

[12] "What! a book have _no merit_, and yet be called for at the rate of
_sixty thousand copies a year_! What a slander is this upon the public
taste! What an insult to the understanding and discrimination of the good
people of these United States! According to this reasoning, all the
inhabitants of our land must be fools, except one man, and that man is
GOOLD BROWN!"--KIRKHAM, _in the Knickerbocker_, Oct. 1837, p. 361.

Well may the honest critic expect to be called a slanderer of "the public
taste," and an insulter of the nation's "understanding," if both the merit
of this vaunted book and the wisdom of its purchasers are to be measured
and proved by the author's profits, or the publisher's account of sales!
But, possibly, between the intrinsic merit and the market value of some
books there may be a difference. Lord Byron, it is said, received from
Murray his bookseller, nearly ten dollars a line for the Fourth Canto of
Childe Harold, or about as much for every two lines as Milton obtained for
the whole of Paradise Lost. Is this the true ratio of the merit of these
authors, or of the wisdom of the different ages in which they lived?

[13] Kirkham's real opinion of Murray cannot be known from this passage
only. How able is that writer who is chargeable with the _greatest want_ of
taste and discernment? "In regard to the application of the final pause in
reading blank verse, _nothing can betray a greater want of rhetorical taste
and philosophical acumen_, than the directions of Mr. Murray."--_Kirkham's
Elocution_, p. 145. Kirkham is indeed no judge either of the merits, or of
the demerits, of Murray's writings; nor is it probable that this criticism
originated with himself. But, since it appears in his name, let him have
the credit of it, and of representing the compiler whom he calls "_that
able writer_" and "_that eminent philologist_," as an untasteful dunce, and
a teacher of _nonsense_: "To say that, unless we 'make every _line_
sensible to the ear,' we mar the melody, and suppress the numbers of the
poet, is _all nonsense_."--_Ibid._ See Murray's Grammar, on "Poetical
Pauses;" 8vo, p. 260; 12mo, 210.

[14] "Now, in these instances, I should be fair game, were it not for the
_trifling_ difference, that I happen to present the doctrines and notions
of _other writers_, and NOT my own, as stated by my learned
censor."--KIRKHAM, _in the Knickerbocker_, Oct. 1837, p. 360. If the
instructions above cited are not his own, there is not, within the lids of
either book, a penny's worth that is. His fruitful copy-rights are void in
law: the "learned censor's" pledge shall guaranty this issue.--G. B. 1838.

[15] I am sorry to observe that the gentleman, Phrenologist, as he
professes to be, has so little _reverence_ in his crown. He could not read
the foregoing suggestion without scoffing at it. Biblical truth is not
powerless, though the scornful may refuse its correction.--G. B. 1838.

[16] Every schoolboy is familiar with the following lines, and rightly
understands the words "_evil_" and "_good_" to be _nouns_, and not

"The _evil_ that men do, lives after them;
The _good_ is oft interred with their bones."--SHAKSPEARE.

_Julius Caesar, Act 3: Antony's Funeral Oration over Caesar's Body._

Kirkham has vehemently censured me for _omitting the brackets_ in which he
encloses the words that be supposes to be _understood_ in this couplet. But
he forgets two important circumstances: _First_, that I was quoting, not
the bard, but the grammatist; _Second_, that a writer uses brackets, to
distinguish _his own_ amendments of what he quotes, and not those of an
other man. Hence the marks which he has used, would have been _improper_
for me. Their insertion does not make his reading of the passage _good
English_, and, consequently, does not avert the point of my criticism.

The foregoing Review of Kirkham's Grammar, was published as an extract
from my manuscript, by the editors of the Knickerbocker, in their number
for June, 1837. Four months afterwards, with friendships changed, they
gave, him the "justice" of appearing in their pages, in a long and virulent
article against me and my works, representing me, "with emphatic force," as
"_a knave, a liar, and a pedant_." The _enmity_ of that effusion I forgave;
because I bore him no personal ill-will, and was not selfish enough to
quarrel for my own sake. Its _imbecility_ clearly proved, that in this
critique there is nothing _with which he could justly find fault_.
Perceiving that no point of this argument could be broken, he _changed the
ground_, and satisfied himself with despising, upbraiding, and vilifying
the writer. Of what _use_ this was, others may judge.

This extraordinary grammarian survived the publication of my criticism
about ten years, and, it is charitably hoped, died happily; while I have
had, for a period somewhat longer, all the benefits which his earnest
"_castigation_" was fit to confer. It is not perceived, that what was
written before these events, should now be altered or suppressed by reason
of them. With his pretended "defence," I shall now concern myself no
further than simply to deny one remarkable assertion contained in it; which
is this--that I, Goold Brown, "at the funeral of Aaron Ely," in 1830,
"praised, and _highly_ praised, this self-same Grammar, and declared it to
be 'A GOOD WORK!'"--KIRKHAM, _in the Knickerbocker_, Oct., 1837, p. 362. I
treated him always courteously, and, on this solemn occasion, walked with
him without disputing on grammar; but, if this statement of his has any
reasonable foundation, I know not what it is.--G. B. in 1850.

[17] See _Notes to Pope's Dunciad_, Book II, verse 140.

[18] A modern namesake of the Doctor's, the _Rev. David Blair_, has the
following conception of the _utility_ of these speculations: "To enable
children to comprehend the _abstract idea_ that all the words in a language
consist but of _nine kinds_, it will be found useful to explain how _savage
tribes_ WHO _having no language_, would first invent one, beginning with
interjections and nouns, and proceeding from one part of speech to another,
as their introduction might successively be called for by necessity or
luxury."--_Blair's Pract. Gram., Pref._, p. vii.

[19] "Interjections, I _shewed_, or passionate exclamations, were the
_first elements_ of speech. Men laboured to communicate their feelings to
one another, by those expressive cries and gestures which nature taught
them."--_Dr. Hugh Blair's Lectures_, p. 57.

[20] "It is certain that the verb was invented before the noun, in all the
languages of which a tolerable account has been procured, either in ancient
or modern times."--_Dr. Alex. Murray's History of European Languages_, Vol.
I, p. 326.

[21] The Greek of this passage, together with a translation not very
different from the foregoing, is given as a marginal note, in _Harris's
Hermes_, Book III, Chap. 3d.

[22] The Bible does not say positively that there was no diversity of
languages _before the flood_; but, since the life-time of Adam extended
fifty-six years into that of Lamech, the father of Noah, and two hundred
and forty-three into that of Methuselah, the father of Lamech, with both of
whom Noah was contemporary nearly six hundred years, it is scarcely
possible that there should have occurred any such diversity, either in
Noah's day or before, except from some extraordinary cause. Lord Bacon
regarded the multiplication of languages at Babel as a general evil, which
had had no parallel but in the curse pronounced after Adam's transgression.
When "the language of all the earth" was "confounded," Noah was yet alive,
and he is computed to have lived 162 years afterwards; but whether in his
day, or at how early a period, "grammar" was thought of, as a remedy for
this evil, does not appear. Bacon says, "Concerning speech and words, the
consideration of them hath produced the science of grammar. For man still
striveth to redintegrate himself in those benedictions, of which, by his
fault, he hath been deprived; and as he hath striven against the first
general curse by the invention of all other arts, so hath he striven to
come forth from _the second general curse, which was the confusion of
tongues, by the art of grammar_; whereof the use in a mother tongue is
small, in a foreign tongue more, but most in such foreign tongues as have
ceased to be vulgar tongues, and are turned only to learned tongues."--See
_English Journal of Education_, Vol. viii, p. 444.

[23] It should be, "_to all living creatures_;" for each creature had,
probably, but one name.--G. Brown.

[24] Some recent German authors of note suppose language to have sprung up
among men _of itself_, like spontaneous combustion in oiled cotton; and
seem to think, that people of strong feelings and acute minds must
necessarily or naturally utter their conceptions by words--and even by
words both spoken and written. Frederick Von Schlegel, admitting "the
_spontaneous origin_ of language generally," and referring speech to its
"_original source_--a deep feeling, and a clear discriminating
intelligence," adds: "The oldest system of writing _developed itself_ at
the same time, and in the same manner, as the spoken language; not wearing
at first the symbolic form, which it subsequently assumed in compliance
with the necessities of a less civilized people, but composed of certain
signs, which, in accordance with the simplest elements of language,
actually conveyed the sentiments of the race of men then

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