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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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--_Articles_, Synt. of
--to what RELATE
--_Article_, with _the poss. and its governing noun_, only _one_, used
--one noun admits of one, only; before an adj., relates to a noun
--why not repeated, as in Fr., before every noun of a series; why the
omission of, cannot constitute a proper ellips.
--position of, with respect to its noun; ditto, with respect to an adj.
and noun
--relative position of, and adj., not a matter of indifference
--excluded by certain pronom. adjectives; what ones precede it; its
position in respect to an adj. of quality, limited by _too, so, as_,
or _how_
--position of, when an adj. is preceded by another adv. than _too, so,
as_, or _how_
--do., when an adj. follows its noun
--whether the insertion or the omission of, can greatly affect the
import of a sentence
--_Article_, repetition of, with nouns connected
--do. with adjectives connected, and, oppos.
--added to each of two or more nouns sing., or a plural put ("THE
_nominative and_ THE _objective_ CASE," or "THE _nominative and
objective_ CASES,")
--use of, in special correspondence of phrases
--do., in correspondence peculiar
--do., in a series of terms
--erroneous use of, before the _species_, for THE; do., when the
_species_ is said to be of the _genus_ ("A JAY _is a sort of_ A
--not used before names of the virtues, vices, &c., before limited
terms, and before nouns of definite signif.
--do. before titles or names mentioned merely as such
--do. before a part. not taken as a noun
--insertion or omission of, with respect to a comparison or an
alternation made with two nouns
--required in the construc. which converts a part. into a verbal noun
--_Articles_, what the false synt. of, includes
--Ellips. of _article_, shown
--_Articles_, derivation of
--frequently omitted by the poets See also _Definite Article_, and _An,

_Articulate_ or _elementary sound_, nature of

_Articulation_, as defined by COMST.; do. by BOLLES
--_Articulation_, how differs from pronunciation
--the principles of, what they constitute
--a good one, what, in the view of COMST.; do., in what consists,
according to SHERID.; do. importance of; do., how delivers words

_As_, as subject or object of a verb, _its_ CLASS
--with a clause or sentence as anteced., do. _As_, as _relative_,
WEBST. absurd explanation of; CHAND. do.; BULL. denial
--to what construc. limited
--peculiarities with respect to position
--derivation of, from Teuton., DR. JOH.
--_As follow, as follows_, &c., construction of; MURR., himself
perplexed by TOOKE and CAMPB., delivers dubious instructions
--Opinion of NIX. and CROMB. concerning. _As_, as a conjunc., uniting
words in appos.
--between adj. or part. and its noun ("_Actions_ AS _such_")
--with ellips. of latter term of comparison ("_For such_ AS HE")
--_As_ and _than_, character and import of
--words connected by, generally put in the same case
--as; as
--so; so_ (preceded by a negative,)
--_as; so
--as_ (with an infin. following;) correspondents

_Asking_ and _exclaiming_, simple and appropriate _names_ for _the marks
of_, desirable

_Aspirates_, see _Semivowels_

_Asterisk_, use of. _Asterism_, do.

_Ate_, particular words ending in, peculiarities of

_Auxiliary_, defined
--_Auxiliary_, form of a verb, when preferable to the simp.
--verbs, are mostly defective
--do., are needful in the conjug. of English verbs
--do., inflection of, shown
--_Auxiliaries_ used as expletives
--_Auxiliary_, poet. placed after verb

_Averse, aversion_, whether to be construed with _from_ or _to_

_Avoiding_, verbs of, with part. in stead of infin.

_Awkwardness, literary_, Crit. N. censuring

_Ay, I_, assentive adv.
--_Ay_, sometimes improp. written for _ah_


B, its name and plur. number
--its sound
--in what situations silent

_Bacchy_, described

BE, how varied
--CONJUGATED, affirmat.
--Use of the form _be_ for the pres. indic.
--_Be_, ellips. of the infin. often needlessly supposed by ALLEN _et
--whether it should be inserted after the verb _make_
--_Is_, contracted, giving its nom. the same form as that of the poss.
case ("_A_ WIT'S _a feather_," &c., POPE)

_Become_, &c., whether they demand the auxiliary _am_ or _have_

_Besides_, prep., in what cases proper to be used after _else_ or _other_,
in lieu of _than_

_Between_, cannot refer to more than two things
--_Between_ or _betwixt_, how differs in use from _among_ or _amongst_
--_Between, betwixt_, derivation of, from Sax.

_Bible, the Holy_, application of the name
--what is shown by Italics in the text of
--quotations in, how indicated
--abrupt transitions in
--its general accuracy of lang.
--in the lang. of, _ye_ and _you_, in what constructions not found

_Bid_, as commanding, or as promising, its construction with the infin.

_Blair, Dr._, unjustly censures Addison's frequent use of _that_, as a

_Blank verse_, as distinguished from rhyme

_Blunders_, as readily copied, as originated, by makers of school-books
--_literary_, Crit. N. concerning

_Bombast_, as opposed to purity, PREC. against _Books_, mentioned by name,
rule for capitals

_Both_, as conjunc., corresponding to _and_
--as adj.
--derivation of, acc. to DR. MURR.

_Brace_, its purpose

_Breve_, or _stenotone_, for what used

_Brevity_ of expression, sought in the ordinary business of life

_Brokenness_, or _hitching_, as a fault of style, PREC. censuring

_But, save, as well as_, construc. of two nouns connected by
--_But_, how has acquired the signif. of _only_
--in ambiguous construc. ("_There cannot be_ BUT _one_," &c., KAMES)
--as used for _that_, contrary to its import
--derivation of, from Sax.
--_But_ and _save_, whether they ever govern the obj. case as
--_Cannot but_, construc. and signif. of
--_Not but_, to what equivalent, and the class of _but_


C, name and plur. numb. of
--sounds of
--where silent
--with cedilla placed under (c)
--written for a number
--_Ch_, sounds of
--_Arch_, sound of, before a vowel, and before a conson.
--_Ck_, final, for double _c_

_Cadence_, explained
--faulty, precept against, by RIPP.
--MURR. direction concerning

_Cadmus_, carried the Phoenician alphabet into Greece

_Caesura_, signif. and application of
--_Caesural_ or _divisional pause_; _demi-caesuras_, or _minor rests_;
(see _Pauses_)

_Can_, verb, varied
--derivation and signif. of
--_Can not_ and _cannot_, with what distinction used
--_Cannot_, with a verb of _avoiding_, or with BUT
--_Can, could, would_, as principal verbs, by poet. use

_Capital letters, capitals_, for what used; how marked for the printer, in
--what things are exhibited wholly in,
--Rules for the use of,
--use of, in comp. prop, names,
--lavish use of, its effect,
--discrepancies with respect to, abound in books.

_Cardinal numeral_, distinguished from its corresponding ordinal,
--should _follow_ the ordinal, in a specification of a part of a
series, ("_The first_ TWO,").

_Caret_, in what used, and for what purpose.

_Cases_, in grammar, what,
--named and defined,
--nom. and obj., alike in form, how distinguished,
--on what founded, and to what parts of speech belong.
--(See _Nominative Case_, &c.)
--_Cases_, whether infinitives, participles, &c., can take the nature
--what is the proper number of, to be assigned to Eng. nouns,
--what authorities for the true doctrine of three,
--discordant doctrine of sundry grammarians concerning the numb, of,
--WEBST. and MURR. opposite instructions concerning do.
--_Cases_, whether personal pronouns have two, only,
--rules for the construc. of,
--whether a noun may be in two, at once,
--whether Eng. verbs govern two,
--whether in Eng., as in Lat., when a verb governs two, the pass.
retains the latter case.
--_Cases, same_, (see _Same Cases_.)
--_Cases_, what kinds of words take different, after them.
--_Case_ of noun or pron. after part. governed by prep., whether
undetermined; err. of SANB. and BULL. hereon expos.; GREE. false
teaching, do.,
--_doubtful_, after participles, in what kind of examples found; canon
concerning do.

_Case_, technical term with printers, ("Letters of the _lower case_.")

_Catachresis_, how commonly explained, and what sort of fig.

_Catalectic_, when a measure is said to be.

_Cedilla_, from whom borrowed, and how applied.

_Change_, of numb. in the second pers., ineleg.,
--of the connective of two nominatives appar. requiring a plur. verb,
canon concerning.
--_Changing_ the scene, or deserting the principal subj., in a sent.,
PREC. against.

_Chaucer's_ imperfect measures, DRYDEN'S remarks on.

_Cherokee_ alphabet, some account of.

_Cherubim_ and _seraphim_, Heb. plurals, sometimes mistaken for singulars.

_Chief terms_, or _principal parts_, of a verb, necessary to be first
--_Chief words_ may be distinguished by capitals.

_Circumflex_, inflection, (see _Inflection_,)
--mark, use of.

_Classes_ under the parts of speech, what meant by.

_Classification_ of words, explanations to assist beginners in making,
--DR. WILSON'S observations on.

_Clause_, see _Member_.

_Climax_, defined.

_Cognomination_, relation of the article, in instances of, ("_Alexander the

_Collective noun_, defined.
--_Collective nouns_, forms of, sing. and plur.; how understood,
--gend. of, how determined,
--by what relative represented.
--_Collec. noun_, represented by plur. pron.,
--in what two ways may be taken, and with what accord of pron.; the
plur. construc. of, under what fig. of synt. ranked by the old
--whether with a sing. definitive, admits a plur. verb or pronoun.
--_Collec. nouns_ generally admit of plur. form.
--_Collect. noun_, represented by sing. pron. neut.,
--uniformity of numb. to be preserved in words constructed with,
--agreem. of verb with,
--how determined whether it conveys the idea of plurality or not,
--strictures on the rules of ADAM, LOWTH, _et. al._, concerning,
--NIX. notion of the construc. of verb and.
--_Coll. nouns_, partitive of plur., construc. of,
--as expressing collections of persons, or coll. of things, which most
often taken plurally,
--when not plur. in form, whether it admits of plur. adj. before it.

_Colon_, from what takes its name,
--for what used,
--in what year adopted in England,
--its utility maintained against some objectors,
--Rules for the use of,
--used by some between numb. of chap. and that of verse, in quotations
from the Bible.

_Comma_, from what takes its name,
--what denotes,
--less common in Germ. than in Eng.,
--its ancient form,
--Rules for the use of,
--use of, in a series of words.

_Commanding, desiring, expecting_, &c., verbs of, to what actions or
events, refer.

_Commandments_, the ten, how expressed as to _forms_ of verb,
--by what points divided in books,
--example of, versified in iamb. hexameter, by DR. WATTS.

_Common gender_, unnecessary and improper term in Eng. gram.

_Common noun_, defined,
--when admits of no art.,
--with def. art. sometimes becomes proper,
--by personif. often do.
--_Common nouns_ include the classes, _collective, abstract_, and
--_Common nouns_, their nature and numerical distribution, as
distinguished from proper.

_Comparative degree_, defined.
--_Compar. degree_, why BROWN presents a new definit. of, in place of
his former one,
--true nature of
--whether always required in a comparison of two objects
--with what construc. proper in exclusive comparisons, canon of BROWN
--_Comparatives_, certain, not construed with the conjunc. _than_
--double, how to be considered and treated
--_Comparative_ terminations, to what adjectives not to be applied
--_Compar. degree_ in Gr. and in Lat., construc. of
--poet. connected to the positive

_Comparison_, defined
--_Comparison, degrees of_, named and defined
--what adjectives admit not of
--CHURCH. on the different, (and BROWN on CHURCH.)
--character of BROWN'S definitions of; do. of those of MURR. _et al._,
--MURR. definitions of, criticised
--relative nature of
--_Comparison_, regular
--to what adjectives applicable
--when preferable to the comparison by adverbs
--_Comparison_, HARR. on the degrees of; the positive a _degree_
--(in oppos. to HARR. _et al._)
--_Comparison of equality_, what; sometimes involves solec.,
("_Nothing_ SO _uncertain_ AS,")
--_Comparison of equality and of ineq._, canon on
--_Comparison_, adaptation of the terms of, to the deg. to be expressed
--belongs chiefly to comm. adjectives
--_Comparis._, irregular
--_Comparis._, whether to be mentioned in parsing adverbs
--inclusive, and exclusive
--_Comparisons, extra_, their impropriety
--Crit. N. on, See also _Comparative Degree_, and _Superlative Degree_.

_Comparison_ or _contrast_ of things, the resemblance or opposition how
rendered more striking

_Complex prepositions_, how may be formed

_Composite orders_ of verse, what uniformity of construc. they require
--_Composite verse_
--description of; why requires rhythm
--kinds of, unlimited; which preferable
--liable to doubtful scansion

_Composition_, the frequent practice of, necessary, in order to acquire a
good style, _Composition_ of language, two kinds of

_Compound_ or _progressive form_ of verb, how made
--exemplified in the verb READ, conjugated, what verbs do not admit of;
what it implies
--verbs of, having a pass. signif.

_Compound word_, defined, _Compounds_, permanent, consolidated; temporary,
formed by hyphen
--_Comp. words_, not to be needlessly broken
--two or more, not to be split
--when to be written with hyphen; when without it
--_Compounding of words_, unsettled usage respecting; manner of, in
Lat. and Gr.; arbitrary practice of, in Eng., its effect
--does not necessarily preclude their separate use
--propriety of, sometimes difficult to decide
--_Compounds_, orthog. of
--_Compounding_ the words of a reg. phrase, its impropriety
--_Compound adjectives_, see _Adjectives, Compound_.

_Concord_, (see _Agreement_.)
--_Concords_ and _governments_, examples of false ones from the
--in Lat., diversely enumerated by the Lat. grammarians

_Concrete _terms for abstract qualities, poet. use of

_Confusion_ of senses, in use of pron., to be avoided

_Conjugation_ of a verb, defined
--what some teachers choose to understand by
--Conjugating a verb, four ways of, named
--_Conjugation_ of an Eng. verb, what the simplest form of
--_Conjug._ of verbs, shown in five Examples
--(See also _Compound_ or _Progressive_, &c.)
--_Conjugat._ negative, how made, interrogative, do.
--interrog. and negative, do.

--_Conjunction_, defined
--_Conjunctions_, how differ from other connectives
--nature and office of; R. F. MOTT quot.
--nature of the connexions made by
--how many in common use
--how parsed
--as "connecting the same moods, &c.," strictures on the doctrine of
MURR. _et al._, concerning
--_Conjunctions_, classes of, named and defined
--(See _Copulative Conjunction, Disjunc. Conj._, and _Corresp.
--Conjunctions_, List of
--appar. used as adverbs
--peculiar phrases having the force of
--importance of, as copulative or as disjunctive, to be carefully
--_Conjunctions_, Synt. of
--do., in what consists, (MURR. _et al._ teaching erron.)
--what connect
--declinable words connected by, why in the same case
--power and position of those that connect sentences or clauses
--absurd and contradictory notions concerning the office of, by LENN.,
BULL., _et al._
--two or three coming together, how parsed
--_Conjunction_, followed by a phrase, and not a whole member
--connecting two terms to one
--do. two terms the same in kind or quality
--_Conjunctions_, to be used with due regard to import and idiom
--punct. of
--ellips. of, shown
--derivation of
--are mostly of Anglo-Sax. origin
--H. TOOKE'S derivations of, given
--poet. usage of _or
--or_, and _nor

_Conjunctive adverbs_, what office perform; what classes of words embrace
--often relate equally to two verbs in different clauses
--list of
--_whence, whither_, &c., sometimes partake of the nature of pronouns
_Connected terms_, two, limited by a third, what both must be
--should be the same in kind or quality. _Connected_ adjectives, how
should be placed. _Connective_ words, or connectives, kinds of, named
--do., how may be distinguished

_Consonants_, divisions and subdivisions of
--properties of, as _sharp, flat, labial_, &c.

_Construing_, whether differs from parsing

_Continuance_ of action, see _Compound_ or _Progressive_

_Contractions_, in the orthog. and the pronunciation of words
--ocular, in printing poetry, not important

_Correlatives_, combinations of, ("_Father's son_,") how to be regarded

_Corresponding_, or _corresponsive conjunctions_, in what manner used
--named and exemplified in their several pairs
--nature of the terms standing in the relat. of
--the former of two, how parsed
--CHURCH. canon on the use of
--_or_, and _nor_
--_nor_, by poet. usage _Crotchets_, or _brackets_, how used
--confused and inaccurate teaching of WEBST. _et al._, concerning

_Cum_ with an ablative, Lat., ("_Dux_ CUM _aliquibus_," &c.,) the construc.
imitated in Eng.
--canon on do.

_Curves_, or _marks of parenthesis_
--have been in use for centuries
--the use of, not to be discarded
--confused teaching of WEBST. _et al._, respecting do.
--what used to distinguish
--clause enclosed by, how to be uttered; pause of do.
--Rules for the application of

_Customary_ actions require to be expressed by indic. pres.


D, name and plur. numb.
--sounds of
--written for a number

_Dactyl_, defined

_Dactylic verse_
--stress, on what syll. laid; what rhyme it generally forms
--is not very common; seldom pure and regular
--shown in its eight measures
--has been but little noticed by prosodists and grammarians
--misconceived and misrepresented Rev. D. BLAIR

_Dare_, construc. with infin. foll.
--Use of the form DARE for the third pers. sing.

_Dash_, the mark, explanation of
--LOWTH _et al._ make no mention of
--Rules for the application of
--_Dash_, needless, how to be treated
--between quotation and name of the author
--applied to side-title
--used to signify omission

_Dates_, ordinarily abbreviated; how best written
--objectives in, without their prepositions

_Dative case_, faulty relic, in Eng., of old Sax., ("_It ascends_ ME
_into_," &c., SHAK.)

_Days_ of the week, names of, to be reckoned prop. names, and written with

_Deaf and dumb_
--The _deaf and dumb_, to whom the letters represent no sounds, learn
to read and write; what inferred herefrom

_Defective verb_, what verb so called
--which tenses of, wanting
--_Defective verbs_, whether they should be reckoned a distinct class
--_may, can, must_, and _shall_, not to be referred to the class of
--_will, beware_, &c., construc. and import of explained
--_Defec. verbs_, List of

_Definite article_, defined
--_Definite art._, its demonstrative character
--used before names of rivers
--do. by way of eminence
--no rule of agreem. for, in Eng.
--prefixed as an adv., to comparatives and superlatives
--repeated before every term in a series of adjectives used ellipt. as
--used for a poss. pron., ("_Full in_ THE _face_")
--position with respect to its noun
--required before antecedent to a restricted relative. See also _The_

_Definition_, defined
--A _perfect definition_, what
--_Definitions_, needful qualities of certain, in gram.
--bad, peculiar vice of
--Crit. N. on

_Definitives_, what, in Eng., and how to be classed
--example to show what is meant by
--_Definitive_ word required before antecedent to restricted relative

_Degrees of comparison_, see _Comparison_

_Deity_, names of, use of capitals in
--in all languages, masc.; direct names of, do.. The sing. numb,
universally employed in reference to the Supreme Being

_Demonstratives_, from the class, pronominal adjectives

_Derivation_, as a topic of gram., what explains
--importance of
--a knowledge of what languages will throw light on the subject of Eng.

_Desiring_, verbs of; see _Commanding_

_Desisting_, verbs of; with part., in stead of infin.

_Despauter_, (Despauterius Joannes,) grammarian, when died
--his Lat. Gram.
--his remark on the origin of using plur. pron. of second pers. for
--gives the rule that the _verb governs the nominative before it_

_Diaeresis_, or _dialysis_, mark, place and use of

_Diesis_, or _double dagger_, for what purpose used. _Dimeter_, line,
_iambic_, examples of
--_trochaic_, do.
--_anapaestic_, do.
--_dactylic_, do.

_Diphthong_, defined
--_Diphthongs_, distinction of
--enumeration and specification of the Eng.

_Discourse_, or _narration_, its nature and requirements

_Disjunctive conjunction_, defined
--_Disjunctives_, List of
--_Disjunctive_ OR, see _Or_

_Distance_, see _Time_, &c.

_Distribution_, of words into classes, a matter of some difficulty;
explanations concerning, for learners
--of verbs in Lat., grammarians have disputed respecting

_Distributives_, of the class _pronominal adjectives_
--_Distributive_ term sing. in apposit. with a plur.

_Division, literary_, see _Literary Division_

_Do_, verb, how varied:
--particular uses of
--in what manner may be substituted for an other term

_Double comparatives_ and _double superlatives_, how may be regarded;
canon; (LATH. and CHILD)

_Double negatives_, see _Negation_, and _Negatives_

_Doubling_ of the final consonant before additional syll.; not doubling,
before do.
--_Double_ letter retained
--_Doubling_, certain letters incline to; others, do not

_Doubtful case_ after a part., in what kind of examples found; the
construc. to be avoided

_Drink_, verb, grammarians greatly at variance respecting the pret. and the
perf. part. of

_Dual_ number, found in Gr. and in Arab., what denotes

_Duplication_, see _Doubling_

_Du Vivier, G._, his _Grammaire des Grammaires_, and his _Traite des
Participes_, a copious treatment of the Fr. participle


E, (as A, O, I, and U,) self-naming:
--how spoken and written
--its plur.
--sounds properly its own
--final, mute, and to what belongs; exceptions
--effect on preced. vowel, of _e_ mute after a sing. conson., or after
_st_, or _th_
--diphthongs beginning with
--triphthongs do.

_Each_, pronom. adj., always of the third pers. sing.; its agreements.
_Each other_, see _Other_

_Ecphoneme_, or note of exclamation
--occasional introduction into the classics
--diversely called by MURR. _et al._
--for what used, and of what a sign
--Rules for the application of

_Ecphonesis_, defined

_Either_ and _neither_, pronom. adjectives, relate to two only
--M. HARR. on the illegit. use of
--their numb. and pers.; what agreements they require, when they are
the leading words in their clauses
--derivation of, from the Sax.

--or, neither
--nor_, corresponsives:
--transposed, with repeated disjunction or negat.

_Elegiac stanza_, description of

_Elementary sound_, or _elements of speech_, defined. See _Sounds_

_Ellipsis_, figure defined
--either not defined by grammarians in general, or absurdly defined
--frequent in comp. sentences
--to be supplied in parsing
--_supposed_, may change the construc. without affecting the sense
--the principle of, as explaining several questionable but customary
expressions, ("_Fair and softly_ GOES _far_")
--MURR. on "THE _ellipsis_"
--_Ellipsis supplied_, EXAMPLES of
--Needless _ellipses_, the supposition of, to be avoided
--_Ellipses_, faulty, as opposed to perspicuity, PREC. against.
_Ellipsis_, or _suppression_, mark of, how figured, and what used to

_Elliptical_ construction of nouns, ("_A horse, a horse_," &c., SHAK.)

_Elocution_, defined

_Else, other_, &c., with _than_, in exclusive comparisons
--_Else_ or _other_, sometimes construed with _besides_
--_Else_, derivation of

_Emphasis_, defined:
--comparative view of accent and
--as connected with quantity, MURR.
--as affecting accent
--what the guide to a right.
--_Emphatic_ words, not to be multiplied

_Enallage_, defined
--signif. of the Gr. word
--special application of the term
--with what other terms synonymous
--the most common forms of, in Eng.
--examples of, how differ from solecisms
--too much latitude was given to the fig. by Despauter, and by others

_Enallixis_, see _Enallage_

_Ending_ of a sentence with an adv., a prep., or any inconsid. word or
phrase, PREC. concerning

_English Grammar_, see _Grammar_

_English language_, some account of its origin
--its character
--its simplicity and facility asserted by LOWTH
--its chief defect, according to DR. JOH.

_Enumeration_ of numbers, see _Addition_

_Epicene nouns_, see _Generic Names_ _Epithets_, new compound, poets
frequently form

_Equivalence_, the argument of, has often led into errors

_Equivocal_, or _ambiguous construc._ of cases, to be avoided
--of rel. pron., by misplacement
--of prep. with converted part., how amended
--of the word _but_, ("_There cannot be_ BUT _one_," &c.)
--of words, leaving the classification doubtful, Crit. N. concerning
--_Equiv._, or _ambig_. expressions, as opposed to propriety, PREC.

_Eroteme_, its form in Greek
--derivation; fitness of the name
--diversely called by MURR. _et al_.
--its use
--Rules for do.
--its value as a sign of pause
--retained by a quoted question

_Erotesis_, explained

_Errors, incorrigible_, Crit. N. concerning

--_Etymol._, of what treats
--when and how should be taught
--_figures of_, term defined; the principal do., named and defined
--_Etymology_ and meaning of words, HARRIS on the usefulness of
disquisitions into

_Ever_, contrac., _e'er_; so in comp. rel. pronouns
--_Ever a one_, contrac. by the comm. people into _e'er a one_
--_Ever_ and _never_, opposite to each other in sense, yet freq.
confounded and misapplied; canon on the employment of
--_Ever so_, (prop., _everso_,) signif. of
--_Ever so wisely_, its propriety determined, against the false
phraseology _never so wisely_
--_Ever_, derivation of, from Sax.

_Example_, as used in teaching, meaning of
--_Examples_, use of capitals in

_Exception_, noun, and _except_, verb, whether more properly followed by
_from_ or by _to_

_Exclamation_, note of, (see _Ecphoneme_)
--_Exclamation_, nom. absolute by
--the _case_ of nouns used in

_Exclusive_ and _inclusive terms_ of a comparison

_Exercise_, in grammar, what

_Expecting_, &c., verbs of, see _Commanding_

_Extended_ compositions, gradation of the parts in


F, its name and plur. numb.
--final in monosyllables, to be doubled
--formation of the plur. of nouns in, and in _ff_
--its sound

_Fable_, how may be defined
--What the term denotes in the Scriptures

_Fall short of, make bold with_, &c., how the adjective in such phrases is
to be explained in parsing

_False identification_, (under synt. of SAME CASES,) Note exposing the
error of

_Falsities_ in sentences, Crit. N. directed against

_Feel_, its construc. with the infin.

_Few_ and _many_, form and construc. of. _Fewer_, see _Little_

FIGURES, treated
--_Figure_, in gram., what
--_Figures_, distinctive names of some; frequent occurrence of those of
--_Figure of words_, signif. of the term
--_Figure of words_, Rules for
--suggestions additional to do.
--unsettled and variable usage in that which relates to
--_Figure of orthog._, what; what the principal _figures of_ do.
--_Figure of etymol._, what
--_Figures of etymol._, the principal, named and defined
--_Figure of synt._, what
--_Figures of synt._, the principal, named and defined
--_Figure of rhet._, what
--_Figures of rhet._, why certain are called _tropes_
--on what mostly founded
--the principal, named and defined
--affect the agreem. of pronouns with their antecedents
--_Figures_, how many BROWN deems it needful to define and illustrate
--_Figures_, definitions of sundry, in the lang. of authors,
_corrected_, KEY. _Figures_, Arabic, in what cases _pointed_ by some

_Final f, l_, or _s_, in spelling; other finals than, in do.
--_ck_ or _c_, use of
--_ll_, to what confined
--_e_ of a primitive, when omitted; when retained
--_y_ of a prim. word before a terminat., how managed
--_ise_ or _ize_, which termination to be taken
--_Finals_, what letters may assume the position of; what may not, and

_Finite_ verbs, _agreem. of, with subjects_, a principle of Univ. Gram.
--Rules concerning
--_Fin. verb_ understood, punct. of _First words_, initial capital to
--faulty practice of grammarians with respect to

_Foot, poetic_, see _Poetic Feet_

_Foreign_ words or idioms, unnecessary use of, in opposition to purity

_For_, with _all_, as equivalent to _although_
--_For as much as_, &c., having the nature of conjunctions
--_For that_
--_For_, with perf. part., ("FOR _lost_")
--with _ever_
--before TO _and infin._
--as introducing its object before an infin.. _For_, conj., _because_,
from Sax.; anc. expressed _for that_

_Forever_, or _for ever_, its class

_Former_ and _latter_, nature and applic. of _Forms of letters_, in type or
--_Forms_ OF VERBS, a knowledge of THE TRUE, nothing more important in
gram. than _Forsooth_, signif. and use of

_Friends_, the Society of; their employment, in familiar discourse, of the
sing. pron. of the second pers.
--generally neglect to compound their numeral names of the months and
--their misemployment of _thee_ for _thou_
--their manner of speaking, different from the solemn style
--examples of their manner of forming the verb with the pron. _thou_;
their simplificat. of the verb

_From_, derivation of, from Sax.
--_From forth, from out_, construc. of, explained
--_Off from_, examp. of the use of

_Full_, in permanent compounds, how written; in temporary do., do.
--compounds in, (_spoonful, handful_, &c.,) how pluralized

_Future, contingency_, how best expressed

_Future tense_, FIRST, how formed, and what expresses
--SECOND, do., do., and how varied

_Futurity_, often denoted by the infin., ("_The world_ TO COME")


G, its name and plur.
--its sounds
--when silent
--_Gh_, sounds of, and silence

_Gardiner, W._, his new analysis of the Eng. alphab., noticed

_Genders_, term defined
--_Genders_, the diff., named and defined
--on what founded, and to what belong
--_Gender_, inconsistent views of, as given by many of the grammarians;
WELLS and MURR. criticised
--confounded with _sex_ by some writers; others otherwise confuse the
--_Common gender_, of the old grammarians, the term objectionable with
respect to Eng.
--_Gender_, how in many instances determined
--figuratively ascribed, how indicated
--denoted by _he_ and _she_ prefixed to nouns
--denied by MURR. _et al_. to pronouns of the first and second persons
--of pron., the _preference_ of, when joint antecedents are of
different genders

_General_ truths and customary actions, to be expressed by the indic. pres.

_Generic_ names, sense and construc. of

"_Genitives, double_," discovered by our grammarians, the true explanation
of all such

_Gentile names_, nature and construc. of

_German language_, form of its type
--use of the comma less freq. in, than in Eng.

_Gerund_, Lat., explanation of
--what form of an Eng. participle corresponds to
--"Gerund in English," how becomes "a substantive," according to DR.
ADAM _et al._, _Gerundives_, what

_Giving, paying, procuring_, &c., verbs of, with ellips. of _to_ or _for_
before the objective of the person

GOVERNMENT, of words, defined
--to what parts of speech has respect
--the rules of, whether to be applied to the governing or the governed
--do., how many in the best Lat. grammars; usual faults in the
distribution of these
--_Governments_ in Eng. synt. how many
--false, examples of, cited from grammarians

_Grecism_, literal, in Eng., ("_Before Abraham was_, I AM") comp.

GRAMMAR, defined
--An English Grammar, what professes to be
--ENGLISH GRAMMAR, what in itself; what knowledge implies
--when worthy to be named a science
--_Grammar_, how to be taught, and its principles how made known
--the true principles of, in whose possession
--_a rule of_, what
--_Grammar_, how divided; its parts, of what severally treat
--what it requires
--rightly learned, what ability it confers
--what many vain pretenders to, have shown by their works
--on questions of, the practice of authors should have more weight than
the dogmatism of grammarians. _Grammars of different languages_, how
far must needs differ; strictures on those of PROF. BULL., _A grammar
designed for English_, the chief end of. _Grammatical doctrine_, the
truth of, in what consists

_Granting, supposing_, &c., see _Admitting_

_Grave accent_, as opposed to _acute_
--as preserving the vocality of _e_

_Greek_ alphabet, characters of, shown and named

_Guillemets_, or _quotation points_, what words they distinguish
--how applied to a quotation within a quotation
--not used in our common Bibles; the defect in what measure relieved


H, its name and plur. numb.
--its sound
--in what words silent
--in what positions do.
--_an_ used formerly before all words beginning with

_Hand_, or _index_, use of

_Handwriting_, script letters in

_Harmonical pauses_, see _Pauses_

_Have_, verb, how varied
--derivation of; with perf. part., import of the tense
--_Had_, with _better, rather_, &c., before the infin.

_He_ and _she_, sometimes used as nouns
--as prefixed to nouns to denote gend.
--whether to be connected by a hyphen to the nouns to which prefixed

_Hear_, with objective, and an infin. without _to_
--with infin. alone, perhaps ellipt, ("_I_ HAVE HEARD TELL")
--_Heard_, verb, why irregular
--its pronunc.

_Hebrew_ letters, some account of; names, characters, and significations of
--whether they are, or are not, all consonants, long a subject of

_Hebrew_ names for the months, were prop. nouns
--_Hebrew_, what pointing adopted in

_Hence, thence, whence_, with _from_ prefixed. "_I'll_ HENCE," see

_Heptameter_ line, _iambic_, examples of
--_trochaic_, do
--_dactylic_, do.

_Here, there, where_, force of, when compounded with prepositions
--with verb of motion, perh. allowable for _hither, thither, whither_.
_Hereof, thereof, whereof_, placed after nouns, what to be called.
_Herein, therein_, &c., their class and nature

_Heroic verse_, see _Pentameter_

_Heterogeneous terms_, in general, two such not to be connected by a

_Hexameter_ line, _iambic_, examples of
--_trochaic_, do
--_dactylic_, do.

_Hissing_ sounds, concurrence of, in forming the poss. case, how avoided

_Hold_, noun, after _lay, take_, &c., whether preferably construed with
_of, on_, or _upon_

_Hoping_, &c., verbs of, see _Commanding_

_How_, after nouns of manner, its nature
--not to be used before _that_, or in stead of it
--derivation of, from Anglo-Sax.

_Hyperbaton_, explained
--its frequency in poetry; how should be used
--is diff. from synchysis

_Hyperbole_, defined
--_Hyperboles_, by what commonly expressed

_Hypermeter_, meaning of, in scansion

_Hyphen_, its uses
--present use in compound names
--Rules for the insertion of, in compounds
--signif. of the name
--_Hyphen_, abuse of
--CHURCH, on the use of, in comp. words
--in the _figure_ of an adj., with a change of the synt. and sense
--necessary with a verbal noun and an adjunct
--do. with comp. participles, converted

_Hypobacchy_, or _antibacchy_, defined


I, lett., self-naming; its plur.
--its usual sounds
--diphthongs beginning with; triphth. do., _I_, pron. with cap. lett.,
_I_, as written for a number. _I_, adv., see _Ay_

_Iambic verse_, treated
--_Iamb. verse_, stress where laid in; effect of a short syll. added to
a line of
--shown in its eight measures
--is seldom pure through a long succession of lines
--some of its diversifications shown. See also _Dimeter, Trimeter_, &c.

_Iambus_, or _iamb_, defined

_Idea of unity_, and of _plurality_, how formed

_Identity of words_, the principle of, considered
--_Identity, proper_, RULE for, ("Same Cases.") _Identification_,
false, N. concerning

_Idioms_ or peculiarities of expression, when to be approved or valued

_If_, the Biblical use of, to express an emphat. negation
--its derivation from Sax.

_Ignorance, literary_, Crit. N. concerning

_Imagery_, or _Vision_, explained

_Imperative mood_, defined
--_Imperat. mood_, why so called; in what manner applied
--its one tense, and the import of do
--its inflection shown in the verb LOVE, conjugated
--what nominatives only it takes
--use of, in the Gr. lang.; do., in Lat., Ital., Fr., and Span
--may have all the persons and numbers

_Imperfect tense_, defined
--_Imperf. tense_, the _form_, how far applicable to the Eng. tense so
--in its simple form is the _preterit_
--in the pot. and subj. moods, an aorist
--of the indic. and the subj., how distinguished
--of the sub., to express a mere supposition, with indef. time

_Imperfect participle_, or _first part._, defined
--its form
--The _first part._, has been variously called
--why rightly termed _imperfect participle_
--for what forms of the Lat. gram., stands
--is applicable to time pres., past, or fut.; is not always active,
even when derived from an act. verb
--may be turned to a multiplicity of uses
--appar. put absolute, (_Admitting,
--Allowing_, &c.)
--distinguished, with respect to governm., from a particip. noun
--as equivalent to infin. mood; heads of regular equivalence
--how compares with the Lat. gerund
--its nature and construc.

_Impersonal verbs_, so called, their peculiarity of use
--called _monopersonal_ by some

_Impropriety_ of language, what embraces

_In_ and _into_, difference between; nature of the relation expressed by
each; derivation of, from Sax.

_Inclusive_ and _exclusive_ terms of a comparison

_Incorrigible errors_, Crit. N. concerning

_Indefinite article_, see _An, A_ _Indefinite pronouns_, of the class
_pronom. adjectives_

_Independent_, see _Absolute_

_Index_, or _hand_, use of

_Indicative mood_, defined
--_Indic. mood_, why so called; its nature and use
--use of its pres. tense
--do. of its form of the pluperf. in lieu of the pot. pluperf.
--wherein differs characteristically from the subj.; the two moods
continually confounded by writers
--_Indic. mood_, format, and inflec. of its tenses shown in the verb
LOVE, conjug.
--employed to express a conditional circumstance assumed as a fact

_Inelegance_ of language, see _Awkwardness_.

_Infinitive mood_, defined
--_Infin. mood_, so called in oppos. to the other moods
--usually distinguished by the prep. _to_ before it
--its _pres._, the ROOT, or radical verb; what _time_ it expresses
--archaic form in _en_
--its two tenses shown in the verb LOVE, conjug.
--Synt. of
--_Infin. mood_, by what governed; (see _To_:)
--true construc. of, explained by the 18th Rule of the Synt.
--why simple of solution in Eng.; whether ever governed by a prep, in
Fr., Span., or Ital.
--whimsical account of, given by NIX.
--how expressed in the Anglo-Sax. of the 11th century
--why may not, as some grammarians teach, be | considered a noun
--DR. WILS. on the charac. and import of
--to what other terms may be connected
--what in its nature, and for what things chiefly may stand
--taken abstractly, as subject of finite verb
--Loose _infinitives_, improp. in precise language
--_Infin. mood_, position of
--misplacement of, to be avoided
--distinction of voice in, often disregarded, ("_You are to_ BLAME;")
hypercrit. teachings of SANB. and BLAIR hereon
--_Infin._, after _bid, dare_, &c., without TO
--whether used with TO after _have, help_, and _find_
--_Infin._, BY WHAT _governed_, often imposs. to say, according to the
instructions of MURR.
--_Infinitives_ connected, governed by one preposition
--_Infinitive_, ellipsis of, after _to_, whether to be approved
--sometimes doubtful whether transitive or intransitive
--in pause, or in remote dependence, punct. of
--poet. placing of
--Greek construc. of, in poetic use

_Inflections_, defined
--rising and falling, explained; do., as applied to questions
--_notation_ of, in writing and printing
--the rising more numerous than the falling; predominance of the rising
in oral lang.; the falling, for what used, COMST.
--what kind of rules for, have been given by writers
--the rising and the falling, to be used with prop. discrimination;
what should determine the direction of
--_Inflection_, what constitutes the _circumflex_

_Innovation_ extravagant, into the system of synt. or gram., a particular
instance of, noticed

_Inscriptions_ appear best in full capitals

_Instead_, what reckoned, and how best written

_Intending_, &c., verbs of, see _Commanding_.

_Intensive_ nature of comparatives and superlatives, A. MURR.

_Interrogative pronouns_, defined
--what they severally demand
--their use and construc.
--in what differ from relatives
--are always of the third pers.
--their place in a sentence
--their construc. of cases, to what similar

_Interrogative_ sentences, agreem. of verbs in

--_Interjection_, defined
--derivation and signif. of the term; LOWTH'S error in describing the
--_Interjections_, numb. of, in common use
--List of
--_Interjections_, the frequent use of, an indication of
thoughtlessness; expressiveness of some _interjections_ in earnest
utterance, &c.
--should be discriminatively used
--chief characteristics of; referred to the class of _adverbs_ by the
Gr. grammarians
--significant words uttered as, ("_Out! out!_")
--appar. taken substantively
--Synt. of
--absolute construc. of
--have no construc. with cases, as in Lat. and Gr.
--appar., sometimes connected to other words by a prep., or by _that_
--place of
--punct. of
--ellips. of, shown
--derivation of
--frequency of, in poet. lang.

_Inversion_ of terms, sometimes of advantage, in respect to strength and
vivacity of expression.

_Irony_, figure explained

_Is being_, with a perf. part., or the subject of the UNCO-PASSIVE _form of
verbs_, canvassed

_Ise_ or _ize_, which of these terminations to be taken in forming
derivatives under Deriv. of Verbs

_Ish_, termination, whether it may be accounted a degree of comparison

_It_. its chief use
--to what creatures may be applied
--put for the distance, ("_How far do you call_ IT?" &c., PRIESTL.,)
--without definite reference to an anteced.
--as explet., and referring to something expressed afterwards; faulty
omission of, before verb, in such construc.
--had formerly no variation of cases
--its poss. form ITS, for _of it_, of recent origin, and not found in
the text of the common Bible
--wrongly excluded by some from the list of pers. pronouns:
--its derivation from Sax., traced

_Italic letters, Italics_, some account of
--for what purpose used
--how denoted in preparing manuscripts


J, its name and plur. numb.
--why never doubled
--why never ends a word in Eng.
--impropriety of dividing on the letter, in syllabication
--sounds of,

_Johnson, Dr. S._, his authority in Eng. orthography

_Joint nominatives_, agreem. of verb with
--whether words connected by _with_ can be used as. _Joint
antecedents_, agreem. of pron. with
--of different persons, agreem. of verb or pron. with, in ellipt.

_Jumbling_ together of the active voice and the passive, the manner of some
--_Jumbling_, senseless, Crit. N. censuring


K, its name and plur.
--in general, not needed in words derived from the learned languages
--its sounds
--when silent
--Two Kays standing together

_Kind, sort_, with _these_ or _those_ improp. preceding


L, its name and plur. numb.
--of the class _liquids_
--final, monosyllables ending in
--final double, to what words peculiar
--its sound; in what words silent
--where doubled
--written for a number

_Labial_ letters, how articulated

_Language_, the primitive sense of the term, what embraced; signif. of do.,
as now used
--in opposition to some grammarians, BROWN confines the term to speech
and writing
--loose explanations of the word by certain slack thinkers; WEBST.
notion of
--SHERID. idea of; KIRKH. wild and contradictory teachings concerning
--_Language_, PROPRIETY of, in what consists; IMPROPRIETY of, what
--PRECISION of, in what consists; Precepts concerning its opposites
--_Language_, Eng., (see _English Language_)
--_Languages_, uniform SERIES OF GRAMMARS for teaching the Eng., Lat.,
and Gr., that of DR. BULL., noticed

_Lay, pay_, and _say_, how written in the pret. and the perf. part.

_Leading principles_ in the construc. of sentences, in what embraced in the

_Least parts_ of language, as written, as spoken, &c., what constituents so

_Legal_ phraseology, in contrast with that of common life

_Less_, improper use of, for _fewer_, ("_No_ LESS _than three
dictionaries_," DR. WEBST.)

_Lest_, use of, for THAT, without due regard to its import, ("_I feared_
LEST," &c.)
--derivation of, from Sax.

_Let_, verb, its construc, with an infin. following

LETTERS, in the Eng. alphabet, numb. of, and numb. of sounds which they
--a knowledge of, in what consists
--infinite variety in, yet the letters always THE SAME
--different sorts of types, or styles of, used in Eng.
--names of, in Eng.; do., sing, and plur.
--Classes of, named and defined
--_powers_ of
--the JUST POWERS of, (see _Power_)
--Forms of, and their distinctions, in the Eng. lang.
--different sorts of, to be kept distinct
--slanting strokes of the Roman, described
--_Italic_, chief use of
--_capital_, employment of
--_small_, do.
--_Letters_, history of
--the names of, are words of a peculiar kind
--the names and powers of, not always identical
--general neglect of learning to write the names of, in Eng.
--importance of learning to write do.
--erron. teaching with respect to certain names of
--_Letters_ of the Heb. alphabet given, with their names, and the
significations of do.
--of the Gr. alphabet, with their names
--of the Lat. alphab., their names nearly lost
--of do., as now printed
--_Letters_, the twenty-six, possible combinations and mutations of
--of the alphab., _read by their names_, how taken
--do., written _for numbers_, what their nature; omission of _period_
after such letters
--DAY'S account of do.
--_Letters_, the SOUNDS of, treated
--_Letters_, the small, period of their adoption
--used for references
--_Letter_, definition of
--_Letter_, the sound of, called its POWER; yet its _power_ not
necessarily identified with its _sound_
--A _letter_, in what consists _Like, near, nigh_, appar.,
prepositions; why _not placed_ by BROWN with the prep. _Lily, W._,
grammarian, his arrangement of Lat. syntax

_Lines, poetic_, technical denominations of

_Liquids_, what letters so called

_Literary division_ of a work, common order of, downwards, and throughout;
but all literary works not thus divided. _Literary blunders_, Crit. N.
--_awkwardness_, do.
--_ignorance_, do.
--_silliness_, do.

_Little, lesser, less_, different uses and import of
--_Little, much_, &c., preceded by _not, too_, or other such adv., how
--_Less_, improp. used as an adj. of number; does not signify _fewer_;
not to be used in the sense of do.
--_Less, least_, adv., to be parsed separately, in the comparison of
adjectives and adverbs

LOVE, verb active-trans., CONJUGATED _affirmatively_
--BE LOVED, pass., do.
--LOVE, conjug. negatively
--do., interrogatively
--do., interrogatively and negatively

_Low_ and provincial expressions, use of, as opp. to purity, PREC. against

_Ly_, most common terminal of Eng. adverbs; added to nouns to form

(I,) u; 1055, b; 1053, L:
--when adverbs ending in, are preferable to those of other forms.


M, its name and plur. numb.,
--of the class _liquids_,
--its sounds,
--when silent,
--as written for a number.

_Macron_, or _macrotone_, mark, its use.

_Make_, verb, whether _to_ should be suppressed, and _be_, inserted, after,
("MAKE _yourself_ BE _heard_," BLAIR,)
--its construc. with infin. following.

_Man_ and _woman_, comp. nouns in, (_man-servant, woman-servant_, &c.,) how

_Many a_, with noun sing. represented by a plur. pronoun.

_Marks_, or _points_, used in literary composition, the principal;
occasional. See _Punctuation_.

_May_, verb, how varied,
--derivation and uses of.

_Mean, means_, use and construc. of.

_Measure_, &c., see _Time. Measure, poetical_, see _Verse_.

_Melody_ or beauty of a sentence, words necessary to, rarely to be omitted.

_Member_, or _clause_, defined.
--_Memb_. and _clause_, generally used as synonymous, are discriminated
by some,
--_Clause_ and _phrase_, confounded by some,
--_Members_, simple, of a sent., punct. of,
--complex, do., do.,
--_Members_ of a sentence, arrangem. of, as affecting STRENGTH.

_Metaphor_, defined,
--what commonly understood to be,
--agreem. of pron. with antecedent in cases of.

_Methinks_, explanation of; the lexicographers on the word.

_Metonymy_, defined,
--_Meton._, on what founded,
--agreem. of pron. with its antecedent, in cases of.

_Metres_, more found in actual use, than those acknowledged in the ordinary
schemes of prosody. _Metre_, see _Verse_.

_Milton_, MURR. proposed amendment of the "unintelligible" language of a
certain passage of, criticised,
--double solec. in a pass, of, noticed,
--his poem, _L'Allegro_, what its versificat.; what the management of
the orders of its verse,
--do., _Il Penseroso_, what its extent and construction.

_Miss_ or _Misses, Mr_. or _Messrs._, what the proper applicat. of, when
_name and title_ are to be used together, in a plur. sense.

_Mistaken, to be_, irregularity of the verb; its import as applied to
persons, and as applied to things.

_Mimesis_, explained; droll examples of.

_Minus, plus, versus, via_, Lat., use of, in Eng., in partic.

_Mixing_ of synt. with etymol., the manner of INGERS., KIRKH., _et al._,
censured. _Mixture_ of the _forms_ of style, inelegance of.

_Modifications_, defined,
--sense of the term as employed by BROWN.

_Moloss_, defined.

_Monometer_, scarcely constitutes a line, yet is sometimes so placed.
--_Monometer_ line, _iambic_, examples of,
--_trochaic_, do.,
--_anapestic_, do.,
--_dactylic_, an examp. of.

_Monopersonal_ verbs, see _Impersonal Verbs_.

_Monotone_, what, and how produced in elocution.

_Months and days_, names of, appar. proper names, and require capitals,
--how best expressed in literary compositions.

_Moods_ of a verb, term defined,
--the five, named and defined,
--_Mood_, or MODE, the name. See _Infinitive Mood, Indic. Mood_, &c.

_More_ and _most_, in ambiguous construction, ("_Some people_ MORE _than
them_," MURR.,)
--how parsed in comparisons of adjectives and adverbs.

_Moses_, in what characters, is supposed to have written.

_Most_, for _almost_, by vulgarism.

_Motion_, verbs of, with _hither_, &c., in stead of _here_.

_Much, little, all_, &c., as nouns,
--preceded by _not, too_, or other such adv.,
--_This much_, in stead of _thus much_, DR. BLAIR.

_Mulkey, W._, strictures on his system of orthoepy.

_Multiplication_, subject of the verb in, see _Abstract Numbers_.

_Multiplicative_ numerals, as running on in a series; how written above
decuple or tenfold.

_Multitude_, noun of, see _Collective Noun_.

_Mute_ or _silent_, epithet applied to what letters.
--_Mutes_, what so reckoned; of these, which imperfect.
--Where a letter must be _once mute_.

_My_ and _mine, thy_ and _thine_, as duplicate forms of the poss. case, use


N, its name and plur. numb.,
--of the class _liquids_,
--its sounds,
--in what position silent.

_Name and title_, see _Proper Names_.

_Naming_ the letters of the alphab., importance of.

_Narration_, see _Discourse_.

_Nasals_, what consonants so called.

_Near_ and _nigh_, see _Like_.

_Need_, as an uninflected third pers. sing. of the verb,
--has perh. become an _auxiliary_ of the pot. mood,
--to what tenses must be understood to belong, if to be recognized as
an auxil. of the pot. mood,
--that good writers sometimes inflect the verb, and sometimes do not,
and that they sometimes use _to_ after it, and sometimes do not, how
may be accounted for
--three _authorized_ forms of expression, with respect to the verb.
_Needs_, as an adv., its composition

_Needless_, mixing of characters in printing, bad effect of
--capitals; effect of
--articles, to be omitted
--ellipses, the supposition of, a common error among grammarians
--use of participles for nouns, or nouns for participles
--words, ineleg.
--possessive or art. before a part., how corrected
--periods, or other points, after certain numeral expressions
--abbreviations, offend against taste
--dashes inserted, how to be treated

_Negation_, expressed in the early Eng. by multiplied negatives; such
manner of expression now obsolete and improper
--Effect on a _negation_, of two negatives in the same clause

_Negatives_, the comm. rule of the grammars, that "two negatives, in Eng.,
destroy each other, or &c.," whether a correct one

_Neither_, see _Either_

_Neuter verb_, defined
--_Neuter verbs_, the _active-trans_. verbs are so called in most
grammars and dictionaries; the absurdity of this
--extent of this class of verbs; their existence in any lang. denied by
some grammarians
--Neut. verb BE, conjugated
--_Neuter verbs_, made from active-transitives, (_am come, is gone_,
&c.;) these called by some, "neuter passives"
--of passive form, (_am grown, are flown_, &c.,) as errors of
conjugat., or of synt.
--do., how may be distinguished from pass. verbs
--do., DR. PRIESTL. mistaken notions concerning their nature and
--_Neut. verbs_, and their participles, take the same case after as
before them
--_Neuter verb_ between two nominatives, its agreem.

_Nevertheless_, its composition and class

_No_ or _none_, pronom. adj. _No_, as negative adj., "remarkable ambiguity
in the use of," noticed by PRIESTL., ("_No laws are better than the
English_;") how the ambiguity may be avoided
--as a simple negation, its construc.
--as an adv. of deg., relating only to comparatives, ("NO _more_,"
--"NO _better_")
--set before a noun, is an adj., corresponding to Lat. _nullus_
--In the phrases, _no longer, no more, no where_, DR. JOH. appar.
suggests wrongly the class; its true class according to its several
--_No_, or an other independent negative, _repeated_, its effect
--_No_, adv., not to be used with reference to a verb or part.
--derivation of, from Anglo-Sax.

_Nominative case_, defined
--_Nom. case_, how distinguished from the objective in nouns
--as subj. of a finite verb
--different ways of using
--_Nominative_ and verb, usual position of, and when varied
--_Nom. case_ and _object._, at the same time, noun placed in the
relation of
--_Nom_. following a verb or part, with what must accord in signif. See
also _Subject_, &c.

_Nominative sentences_, examples of what MURR. erron. so terms; the prop.
construc. shown

_Nor_, see _Or_.

_Not_, its place in negative questions
--how spoken in grave discourse, and how ordinarily
--vulg. contractions of, with certain verbs
--used with other negatives
--do. with _nor_ (in stead of _or_) following, whether correctly, or
--derivation of, from Anglo-Sax. _Not but_, how resolved. _Not only,
not merely_, to what are correspondents

_Notwithstanding_, import and construc. of; misunderstood by DR. WEBST.
--formation and signif. of

NOUNS, Etymol. of
--_Noun_, defined
--_Nouns_, Classes of, named and defined
--Modifications of, named
--Persons of, named and defined; (see _Persons_)
--Numbers of, do.; (see _Plural Number_)
--Genders of, do.; (see _Genders_)
--Cases of, do.; (see _Cases_)
--Declension of
--_Nouns_, number of, in Eng.
--the sense of, how made indefinitely partitive
--examples of words commonly belonging to other classes, used as
--_collective, abstract_, and _verbal_ or _participial_, included among
common nouns; (see _Collective Noun_, and _Particip. Noun_)
--proper, (see _Proper Names_)
--_Nouns_, Synt. of
--_Noun_, why may not be put in the relation of two cases at once
--taken figuratively sing. for literally plur.
--required to be repeated, or inserted, in stead of a pronoun
--ellips. of, shown
--_Nouns_ of _time, measure, distance_, &c., (see _Time_)
--_Nouns_, derivation of, from nouns, adjectives, verbs, or participles
--poet. peculiarities of

_Numbers_, the distinction of, to what belongs, and how applied. (See
_Plural Number_.) _Numbers_, cardinal, ordinal, &c., (see _Cardinal
Numbers_, &c.)
--_Numbers_, abstract, expressions of multiplication in, ("_Twice one_
IS _two_,"
--"_Twice two_ ARE _four_," &c.,) seven different opinions of
grammarians respecting, examined by BROWN; who determines the prop.
forms of expression
--_Numbers_, expressed by letters, how to be considered; whether to be
marked by the period
--combined arithmetical, one adjective relating to an other

_Numerals, numeral adjectives_, see _Adjectives, Numeral_. _Numerical
figures_ used for references


O, lett., as A, E, I, and U, self-naming
--its plural
--formation of the plur. of nouns in
--sounds properly its own
--where sounded as short _u_
--do. as obscure _e_
--diphthongs beginning with
--triphth. do. _O_, interj., with cap. lett.
--what emotion indicates
--differs from _oh_
--as denoting earnestness, before nouns or pronouns put absol. by
direct address; is no positive index of the vocative
--_O_, &c., MURR., erron. doctrine concerning, to what teaching it has
given rise
--_O_, &c., with a case following, Lat. construc. of, examined
--_O_, not unfreq. confounded with _oh_, even by grammarians.

_Obelisk_, or _dagger_, as mark of reference.

_Objective case_, defined
--_Obj. case_, how distinguished from the _nom._ in nouns
--before the infin. mood, how taken in Eng.
--as governed by active-trans. verb or part.
--"Active verbs govern the _obj. case_," MURR., defect of this brief
assertion; its uselessness as a RULE for "the syntax of verbs."
--_Obj. case_, of how many constructions susceptible
--whether infinitives, participles, &c., can be in
--two nouns in, after a verb, how parsed,
--Whether any verb in Eng. governs _two objectives_ not coupled
--_Obj. case_ as governed by passive verbs, erron. allowed by some
--what verbs not to be employed without
--_Obj. case_ as governed by prep.
--"Prepositions gov. the _obj. case_," why the brief assertion is
exceptionable, as the sole RULE, in parsing prep.

_Obsolete_ or antiquated words, use of, as opposed to purity, PREC. against
--_Things obsolete_ in Eng., DR. LATHAM'S attempts to revive.

_Ocean_, figurative representation of, as uttering his voice in tones of
varied quantity.

_Octometer_ line, may be reduced to tetrameter
--iambic, examples of
--_trochaic_, do
--dactylic, example of
--_Octometer_, trochaic, rhyme and termination of; its pauses, and how
may be divided; the most common form of.

_Of_ and _on_ or _upon_, difference between.

_Old English_, characters of its alphabet, shown
--occasional use of do.

_Omissions_ of words that are needful to the sense, Crit. N. against.

_Omitting_, verbs of, with part. in stead of infin.

_One_, employment of, as a noun or as a substitute for a noun; how classed
by some grammarians
--may be preceded by the articles, or by adjectives
--like Fr. _on_ or _l'on_, used indef. for any person; in this sense
preferable to a _pers._ pron. applied indefinitely
--CHURCH., citation ridiculing the too frequent use of, for pers. pron.
--as pronom. adj., requires verb and pron. in the third pers. sing. to
agree with it. _One an other_, see _Other. One_, or _a unit_, whether
it is a _number_.

_Only_, derivation of; class and meaning of, in its several different
--strictures on the instructions of grammarians respecting the
classification and placing of
--ambiguous use of, (as also of _but_,)
--use of, for _but_, or _except that_, not approved of by BROWN
--_Not only, not merely
--but_, &c., correspondents.

_Onomatopoeia_ described and exemplified (extr. from SWIFT.)

_Or_, as expressing an alternation of terms, (Lat., _sive_.)
--in Eng., is frequently equivocal; the ambiguity how avoided
--_Or_, perh. contracted from _other_
--_Or_ and _nor_ discriminated
--_Or, nor_, grammarians dispute which of these words should be adopted
after an other negative than _neither_ or _nor_; MURR., following
PRIESTL., teaches that either word may be used with equal propriety;
BURN'S doctrine; BROWN, after revising CHURCH., attempts to settle
the question,
--_Or ever_, ("OR EVER _the earth was_,") the term explained.

_Or_ or _our_, terminat., number of Eng. words in; how many of these may be
written with _our_; BROWN'S practice and views in respect to this matter.

_Oral_ spelling, the advantage of, to learners.

_Order_ of things or events, the natural, PREC. directing the observance
of, in the use of lang.

_Orders of verse_, see _Verse_.

_Ordinal_ numeral, (see _Numerals._)
--_Ordinal_ adjectives may qualify card. numbers; cannot properly be
_qualified by_ do.

_Orthoepy_, see _Pronunciation_.

--_Orthography_, of what treats
--difficulties attending it in Eng.
--DR. JOHNSON'S improvements in
--DR. WEBSTER'S do., in a different direction
--ignorance of, with respect to any word used, what betokens in the
user (See also _Spelling._) _Orthography_, figures of, MIMESIS and
--its substantive or pronominal character; (with _one._) how classed by
some; may be preceded by the articles
--requires _than_ before the latter term of an exclusive comparison;
yet sometimes perhaps better takes the prep. _besides. Each other one
an other_, import and just application of,
--misapplication of, frequent in books,
--DR. WEBST. erron. explanation of _other_, as "a correlative to
--_One_ and _other_, frequently used as terms relative and partitive,
appar. demanding a plur. form,
--_An other_, in stead of _another_. _Somehow_ or _other, somewhere_ or
_other_, how _other_ is to be disposed of.

_Ought_, principal verb, and not auxiliary, as called by MURR. _et al._,
--originally part of the verb _to_ OWE; now used as defec. verb,
--its tense, as limited by the infin. which follows.

_Ourself_, anomalous form peculiar to the regal style,
--peculiar construc. of.

_Own_, its origin and import; its class and construc.,
--strangely called a _noun_ by DR. JOH.


P, its name and plur. numb.,
--its sound,
--when silent,
--_Ph_, its sounds.

_Pairs_, words in, punct. of.

_Palatals_, what consonants so called.

_Parables_, in the Scriptures, see _Allegory_.

_Paragoge_, explained.

_Paragraph_ mark, for what used.

_Paralipsis_, or _apophasis_, explained.

_Parallels_, as marks of reference.

_Parenthesis_, signif. and twofold application of the term,
--_Parenthesis_, marks of, (see _Curves_.)
--What clause to be inclosed within the curves as a PARENTHESIS, and
what should be its punct.,
--_Parentheses_, the introduction of, as affecting unity.

_Parsing_, defined.
--_Parsing_, its relation to grammar,
--what must be considered in,
--the distinction between etymological and syntactical, to be
maintained, against KIRKH. _et al._,
--character of the forms of etymological adopted by BROWN,
--what implied in the right performance of,
--whether different from analysis,
--what to be supplied in.
--_Parsing_, of a prep., how performed,
--of a phrase, implies its separation,
--the RULES OF GOVERNM., how to be applied in,
--of words, is not varied by mere transposition.
--_Parsing_, etymological and syntactical, in what order to be taken,
--the SENSE, why necessary to be observed in; what required of the
pupil in syntactical,
--syntactical, EXAMPLE of.
--_Parsing_ or CORRECTING, which exercise perh. the more useful.

_Participial adjectives_, see _Adjectives, Participial_.

_Participial_ or _verbal noun_, defined,
--how distinguished from the participle.
--_Participial noun_ and participle, the distinction between, ill
preserved by MURR. and his amenders.
--_Participial noun_, distinc. of VOICE in, sometimes disregarded,
("_The day of my_ BURYING,")
--_with_ INFIN. _following_, strictures on MURR., LENN., and BULL.,
with respect to examples of.

PARTICIPLES, Etymol. of.
--_Participle_, defined.
--_Participles_, whether they ought to be called verbs,
--appropriate _naming_ of the kinds of,
--often become adjectives,
--become adjectives by composition with something not belonging to the
--number of, simp. and comp.,
--imply _time_, but do not divide it,
--retain the _essential_ meaning of their verbs, but differ from them
in the _formal_,
--in Eng., from what derived,
--H. TOOKE'S view of the time of; with whom BROWN differs.
--_Participles_, Classes of, named and defined,
--(See _Imperfect Participle_ and _Perfect Part_.)
--_Participles_, grammarians differ in their opinion with respect to
the time and voice of,
--how have been called and treated by some,
--explanation of the different,
--how distinguished from particip. nouns,
--elegantly taken as plur. nouns, ("_All his_ REDEEMED,")
--appar. used for adverbs,
--some become prepositions.
--_Participle_ and ADJUNCTS, as forming "one name," and as such,
_governing the poss._, whence the doctrine; PRIESTL. criticised;
MURR. _et al_. adopt PRIESTL. doctrine, which they badly sustain;
teachers of do. disagree among themselves,
--governm. of possessives by, how BROWN generally disposes of; how
determines with respect to such governm.
--_Participles_, Synt. of,
--regular synt. of, twofold; nature of the two constructions; OTHER
_less regular_ constructions; which two constructions of all, are
legitimate uses of the participle; which constructions are of doubtf.
--_Participles_, to what RELATE, or in what state GOVERNED.
--_Participle_, as relating to a phrase or sentence,
--taken abstractly,
--irregularly used in Eng. as substitute for infin. mood,
--in irreg. and mixed construc.
--_Participle_, transitive, what case governs,
--nom. absol. with, to what equivalent,
--each requires its appropriate FORM,
--questionable uses of, admitted by MURR. _et al_.; why BROWN is
disposed to condemn these irregularities.
--_Participle_ and particip. noun, distinction between, with respect to
--_Participle_ in _ing_, multiplied uses of, lawful and forced,
--equivalence of do. to infin. mood, instances of,
--every mixed construc. of, how regarded by BROWN,
--the "double nature" of, CROMB. on; his views, how accord with those
of MURR. _et al._, HILEY'S treatment of; BROWN'S strictures on do.
--_Participles_, place of:
--active, governm. of.
--_Participle_, trans., converted to a noun:
--converted, _when_ the expression should be changed:
--followed by an adj., its conversion into a noun appar. improper:
--comp. converted, how managed:
--not to be used for infin., or other more appropriate term:
--use of, for a nominative after _be, is, was_, &c., faulty:
--following a verb of _preventing_, how to be managed.
--_Participles_, converted, disposal of their adverbs:
--must be construed with a regard to the leading word in sense:
--should have a clear reference to their subjects:
--needless use of, for nouns, to be avoided:
--punct. of:
--derivation of:
--poet. peculiarities in the use of.

_Parts of speech_, meaning of the term:
--_Parts of speech_, named and defined:
--what explanations may aid learners to distinguish the different:
--why needful that learners be early taught to make for themselves the
prop. distribution of:
--WILS. on the distribution of:
--the preferable _number_ with respect to; the office of, specifically
--The _parts of speech_, passage exemplifying all.
--Examples of a partic. _part of speech_ accumulated in a sentence.
--Etymol. and Synt. of the different _parts of speech_, see _Article,
Noun, Adjective_, &c.

_Passions_ of the mind, by what tones to be expressed.

_Passive verb_, defined.
--_Pass. verbs_ contrasted with active-trans, verbs, in respect to the
object or the agent of the action; their compos, and construc.:
--their FORM in Eng.
--_Pass. verb_ BE LOVED, conjug. affirmatively.
--_Pass. verbs_, how distinguished from neuters of the same form:
--having active forms nearly equivalent to them, (_is rejoiced,
rejoices_; _am resolved, know_, &c.,):
--erroneously allowed by some to govern the obj. case in Eng.; CROMB.
in this category, cited, canon, pseudo-canons.

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