Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

Part 48 out of 54

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 6.6 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

SECTION VIII.--DERIVATION OF CONJUNCTIONS.

The _English_ Conjunctions are mostly of Anglo-Saxon origin. The best
etymological vocabularies of our language give us, for the most part, the
same words in Anglo-Saxon characters; but Horne Tooke, in his _Diversions
of Purley_, (a learned and curious work which the advanced student may
peruse with advantage,) traces, or professes to trace, these and many other
English particles, to _Saxon verbs_ or _participles_. The following
derivations, so far as they partake of such speculations, are offered
principally on his authority:--

1. ALTHOUGH, signifying _admit, allow_, is from _all_ and _though_; the
latter being supposed the imperative of Thafian or Thafigan, _to allow, to
concede, to yield_.

2. AN, an obsolete or antiquated conjunction, signifying _if_, or _grant_,
is the imperative of the Anglo-Saxon verb Anan or Unan, _to grant, to
give_.

3. AND, [Saxon, And,] _add_, is said by Tooke to come from "An-ad, the
imperative of Ananad, _Dare congeriem_."--_D. of P._, Vol. i, p. 111. That
is, "_To give the heap_." The truth of this, if unapparent, I must leave
so.

4. AS, according to Dr. Johnson, is from the Teutonic _als_; but Tooke says
that _als_ itself is a contraction for _all_ and the original particle _es_
or _as_, meaning _it, that_, or _which_.

5. BECAUSE, from _be_ and _cause_, means _by cause_; the _be_ being written
for _by_.

6. BOTH, _the two_, is from the pronominal adjective _both_; which,
according to Dr. Alexander Murray, is a contraction of the Visigothic
_Bagoth_, signifying _doubled_. The Anglo-Saxons wrote for it _butu, butwu,
buta_, and _batwa_; i. e., _ba_, both, _twa_, two.

7. BUT,--(in Saxon, _bute, butan, buton_, or _butun_--) meaning _except,
yet, now, only, else than, that not_, or _on the contrary_,--is referred by
Tooke and some others, to two roots,--each of them but a conjectural etymon
for it. "BUT, implying _addition_," say they, "is from Bot, the imperative
of Botan, _to boot, to add_; BUT, denoting _exception_, is from Be-utan,
the imperative of Beon-utan, _to be out_."--See _D. of P._, Vol. i, pp. 111
and 155.

8. EITHER, _one of the two_, like the pronominal adjective EITHER, is from
the Anglo-Saxon AEther, or Egther, a word of the same uses, and the same
import.

9. EKE, _also_, (now nearly obsolete,) is from "Eac, the imperative of
Eacan, _to add_."

10. EVEN, whether a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or a conjunction,
appears to come from the same source, the Anglo-Saxon word Efen or AEfen.

11. EXCEPT, which, when used as a conjunction, means _unless_, is the
imperative, or (according to Dr. Johnson) an ancient perfect participle, of
the verb _to except_.

12. FOR, _because_, is from the Saxon preposition _For_; which, to express
this meaning, our ancestors combined with something else, reducing to one
word some such phrase as, _For that, For this, For this that_; as, "Fortha,
Fortham, Forthan, Forthamthe, Forthan the."--See _Bosworth's Dict._

13. IF, _give, grant, allow_, is from "Gif, the imperative of the
Anglo-Saxon Gifan, _to give_."--_Tooke's Diversions_, Vol. i, p. 111.

14. LEST, _that not, dismissed_, is from "Lesed, the perfect participle of
Lesan, _to dismiss_."

15. NEITHER, _not either_, is a union and contraction of _ne either_: our
old writers frequently used _ne_ for _not_; the Anglo-Saxons likewise
repeated it, using _ne--ne_, in lieu of our corresponsives _neither--nor_;
and our modern lexicographers still note the word, in some of these senses.

16. NOR, _not other, not else_, is supposed to be a union and contraction
of _ne or_.

17. NOTWITHSTANDING, _not hindering_, is an English compound of obvious
formation.

18. OR, an alternative conjunction, seems to be a word of no great
antiquity. It is supposed to be a contraction of _other_, which Johnson and
his followers give, in Saxon characters, either as its source, or as its
equivalent.

19. PROVIDED, the perfect participle of the verb _provide_, becomes
occasionally a disjunctive conjunction, by being used alone or with the
particle _that_, to introduce a condition, a saving clause, a proviso.

20. SAVE, anciently used with some frequency as a conjunction, in the sense
of _but_, or except is from the imperative of the English verb _save_, and
is still occasionally turned to such a use by the poets.

21. SEEING, sometimes made a copulative conjunction, is the imperfect
participle of the verb _see_. Used at the head of a clause, and without
reference to an agent, it assumes a conjunctive nature.

22. SINCE is conjectured by Tooke to be "the participle of Seon, _to see_,"
and to mean "_seeing, seeing that, seen that_, or _seen as_."--_Diversions
of P._, Vol. i, pp. 111 and 220. But Johnson and others say, it has been
formed "by contraction from _sithence_, or _sith thence_, from _sithe_,
Sax."--_Joh. Dict._

23. THAN, which introduces the latter term of a comparison, is from the
Gothic _than_, or the Anglo-Saxon _thanne_, which was used for the same
purpose. 24. THAT, when called a conjunction, is said by Tooke to be
etymologically the same as the adjective or pronoun THAT, the derivation of
which is twice spoken of above; but, in Todd's Johnson's Dictionary, as
abridged by Chalmers, THAT, the _conjunction_, is referred to "_thatei_,
Gothic;" THAT, the _pronoun_, to "_that, thata_, Gothic; _thaet_, Saxon;
_dat_, Dutch."

25. THEN, used as a conjunction, is doubtless the same word as the
Anglo-Saxon _Thenne_, taken as an illative, or word of inference.

26. "THOUGH, _allow_, is [from] the imperative Thaf, or Thafig, of the verb
Thafian or Thafigan, _to allow_."--_Tooke's Diversions_, Vol. i, pp. 111
and 150.

27. "UNLESS, _except, dismiss_, is [from] Onles, the imperative of Onlesan,
_to dismiss_."--_Ib._

28. WHETHER, a corresponsive conjunction, which introduces the first term
of an alternative, is from the Anglo-Saxon _hwaether_, which was used for
the same purpose.

29. YET, _nevertheless_, is from "Get, the imperative of Getan, _to
get_."--_Tooke_.

SECTION IX.--DERIVATION OF PREPOSITIONS.

The following are the principal _English_ Prepositions, explained in the
order of the list:--

1. ABOARD, meaning _on board of_, is from the prefix or preposition _a_ and
the noun _board_, which here means "_the deck_ of a ship" or vessel.
_Abord_, in French, is _approach, arrival_, or a _landing_.

2. ABOUT, [Sax. Abutan, or Abuton,] meaning _around, at circuit_, or
_doing_, is from the prefix _a_, meaning _at_, and the noun _bout_, meaning
a _turn_, a _circuit_, or a _trial_. In French, _bout_ means end; and
_about, end_, or _but-end_.

3. ABOVE, [Sax. Abufan, Abufon, A-be-ufan.] meaning _over_, or, literally,
_at-by-over_, or _at-by-top_, is from the Saxon or Old English _a, be_, and
_ufa_, or _ufan_, said to mean "_high, upwards_, or _the top_."

4. ACROSS, _at cross, athwart, traverse_, is from the prefix _a_ and the
word _cross_.

5. AFTER, [Sax. AEfter, or AEftan,] meaning _behind, subsequent to_, is, in
form, the comparative of _aft_, a word common to seamen, and it may have
been thence derived.

6. AGAINST, _opposite to_, is probably from the Anglo-Saxon, Ongean, or
Ongegen, each of which forms means _again_ or _against_. As prefixes, _on_
and _a_ are often equivalent.

7. ALONG, [i.e., _at-long_,] meaning _lengthwise of, near to_, is formed
from _a_ and _long_.

8. AMID, [i. e., _at mid_ or _middle_,] is from _a_ and _mid_; and AMIDST
[, i.e., _at midst_,] is from _a_ and _midst_, contracted from _middest_,
the superlative of _mid_.

9. AMONG, _mixed with_, is probably an abbreviation of _amongst_; and
AMONGST, according to Tooke, is from _a_ and _mongst_, or the older
"Ge-meneged," Saxon for "_mixed, mingled_."

10. AROUND, _about, encircling_, is from _a_ and _round_, a circle, or
circuit.

11. AT, _gone to_, is supposed by some to come from the Latin _ad_; but Dr.
Murray says, "We have in Teutonic AT for AGT, touching or touched, joined,
_at_."--_Hist. of Lang._, i, 349.

12. ATHWART, _across_, is from _a_ and _thwart_, cross; and this from the
Saxon Thweor.

13. BATING, a preposition for _except_, is the imperfect participle of
_bate_, to abate.

14. BEFORE, [i.e., _by-fore_,] in front of, is from the prefix _be_ and the
adjective _fore_.

15. BEHIND, [i.e., _by-hind_,] in rear of, is from the prefix _be_ and the
adjective _hind_.

16. BELOW, [i.e., _by-low_,] meaning _under_, or _beneath_, is from _be_
and the adjective _low_.

17. BENEATH [, Sax. or Old Eng. Beneoth,] is from _be_ and _neath_, or Sax.
Neothe, _low_.

18. BESIDE [, i.e., _by-side_,] is probably from _be_ and the noun or
adjective _side_.

19. BESIDES [, i.e., _by-sides_,] is probably from _be_ and the plural noun
_sides_.

20. BETWEEN, [Sax. Betweonan, or Betwynan,] literally, _by-twain_, seems to
have been formed from _be_, by, and _twain_, two--or the Saxon Twegen,
which also means _two, twain_.

21. BETWIXT, meaning _between_, [Sax. Betweox, Betwux, Betwyx, Betwyxt,
&c.,] is from _be_, by, and _twyx_, originally a "Gothic" word signifying
"_two_, or _twain_."--See _Tooke_, Vol. i, p. 329.

22. BEYOND, _past_, [Sax. Begeond,] is from the prefix _be_, by, and
_yond_, [Sax. Geond,] _past, far_.

23. BY [, Sax. Be, Bi, or Big,] is affirmed by Tooke to be "the imperative
Byth, of the Anglo-Saxon verb Beon, _to be_."--_Diversions of P._, Vol. i,
p. 326. This seems to be rather questionable.

24. CONCERNING, the preposition, is from the first participle of the verb
_concern_.

25. DOWN, the preposition, is from the Anglo-Saxon Dune, down.

26. DURING, prep. of time, is from the first participle of an old verb
_dure_, to last, formerly in use; as, "While the world may
_dure_."--_Chaucer's Knight's Tale_.

27. ERE, _before_, prep. of time, is from the Anglo-Saxon AEr, a word of
like sort.

28. EXCEPT, _bating_, is from the imperative, or (according to Dr. Johnson)
the ancient perfect participle of the verb _to except_; and EXCEPTING, when
a preposition, is from the first participle of the same verb.

29. FOR, _because of_, is the Anglo-Saxon preposition For, a word of like
import, and supposed by Tooke to have come from a Gothic noun signifying
_cause_, or _sake_.

30. FROM, in Saxon, _Fram_, is probably derived from the old adjective
Frum, _original_.

31. IN, or the Saxon In, is the same as the Latin _in_: the Greek is
[Greek: en]; and the French, _en_.

32. INTO, like the Saxon Into, noting entrance, is a compound of _in_ and
_to_.

33. MID and MIDST, as English prepositions, are poetical forms used for
_Amid_ and _Amidst_.

34. NOTWITHSTANDING, _not hindering_, is from the adverb _not_, and the
participle _withstanding_, which, by itself, means _hindering_, or
_preventing_. 35. OF is from the Saxon Of, or Af; which is supposed by
Tooke to come from a noun signifying _offspring_.

36. OFF, opposed to _on_, Dr. Johnson derives from the "Dutch _af_."

37. ON, a word very often used in Anglo-Saxon, is traced by some
etymologists to the Gothic _ana_, the German _an_, the Dutch _aan_; but no
such derivation fixes its meaning.

38. OUT, [Sax. Ut, Ute, or Utan,] when made a preposition, is probably from
the adverb or adjective _Out_, or the earlier _Ut_; and OUT-OF, [Sax.
Ut-of,] opposed to _Into_, is but the adverb _Out_ and the preposition
_Of_--usually written separately, but better joined, in some instances.

39. OVER, _above_, is from the Anglo-Saxon Ofer, _over_; and this,
probably, from Ufa, _above, high_, or from the comparative, Ufera,
_higher_.

40. OVERTHWART, meaning _across_, is a compound of _over_ and _thwart_,
cross.

41. PAST, _beyond, gone by_, is a contraction from the perfect participle
_passed_.

42. PENDING, _during_ or _hanging_, has a participial form, but is either
an adjective or a preposition: we do not use _pend_ alone as a verb, though
we have it in _depend_.

43. RESPECTING, _concerning_, is from the first participle of the verb
_respect_.

44. ROUND, a preposition for _about_ or _around_, is from the noun or
adjective _round_.

45. SINCE is most probably a contraction of the old word _Sithence_; but is
conjectured by Tooke to have been formed from the phrase, "_Seen as_."

46. THROUGH [, Sax. Thurh, or Thurch,] seems related to _Thorough_, Sax.
Thuruh; and this again to Thuru, or Duru, a _Door_.

47. THROUGHOUT, _quite through_, is an obvious compond of _through_ and
_out_.

48. TILL, [Sax. Til or Tille,] _to, until_, is from the Saxon Til or Till,
_an end, a station_.

49. TO, whether a preposition or an adverb, is from the Anglo-Saxon
particle To.

50. TOUCHING, _with regard to_, is from the first participle of the verb
_touch_.

51. TOWARD or TOWARDS, written by the Anglo-Saxons _Toweard_ or
_Toweardes_, is a compound of _To_ and _Ward_ or _Weard_, a guard, a
look-out; "Used in composition to express _situation_ or
_direction_."--_Bosworth_.

52. UNDER, [Gothic, Undar; Dutch, Onder,] _beneath, below_, is a common
Anglo-Saxon word, and very frequent prefix, affirmed by Tooke to be
"nothing but _on-neder_," a Dutch compound = _on lower_.--See _Diversions
of Purley_, Vol. i, p. 331.

53. UNDERNEATH is a compound of _under_ and _neath_, low; whence _nether_,
lower.

54. UNTIL is a compound from _on_ or _un_, and till, or _til_, the end.

55. UNTO, now somewhat antiquated, is formed, not very analogically, from
_un_ and _to_.

56. UP is from the Anglo-Saxon adjective, "Up or Upp, _high, lofty_."

57. UPON, which appears literally to mean _high on_, is from two words _up_
and _on_.

58. WITH comes to us from the Anglo-Saxon With, a word of like sort and
import; which Tooke says is an imperative verb, sometimes from "Withan, _to
join_," and sometimes from "Wyrthan, _to be_."--See his _Diversions_, Vol.
i, p. 262.

59. WITHIN [, i.e., _by-in_,] is from _with_ and _in_: Sax. Withinnan,
Binnan, or Binnon.

60. WITHOUT [, i.e., _by-out_,] is from _with_ and _out_: Sax. Withutan,
-uten, -uton; Butan, Buton, Butun.

OBSERVATION.

In regard to some of our minor or simpler prepositions, as of sundry other
particles, to go beyond the forms and constructions which present or former
usage has at some period given them as particles, and to ascertain their
actual origin in something ulterior, if such they had, is no very easy
matter; nor can there be either satisfaction or profit in studying what one
suspects to be mere guesswork. "How do you account for IN, OUT, ON, OFF,
and AT?" says the friend of Tooke, in an etymological dialogue at Purley.
The substance of his answer is, "The explanation and etymology of these
words require a degree of knowledge in all the _antient_ northern
languages, and a skill in the application of that knowledge, which I am
very far from assuming; and though I am almost persuaded by some of my own
conjectures concerning them, I am not willing, by an apparently forced and
far-fetched derivation, to justify your imputation of etymological
legerdemain."--_Diversions_, Vol. i, p. 370.

SECTION X.--DERIVATION OF INTERJECTIONS.

Those significant and constructive words which are occasionally used as
Interjections, (such as _Good! Strange! Indeed_!,) do not require an
explanation here; and those mere sounds which are in no wise expressive of
thought, scarcely admit of definition or derivation. The Interjection HEY
is probably a corruption of the adjective _High_;--ALAS is from the French
_Helas_:--ALACK is probably a corruption of _Alas_;--WELAWAY or WELLAWAY,
(which is now corrupted into WELLADAY,) is said by some to be from the
Anglo-Saxon _Wa-la-wa_, i.e., _Wo-lo-wo_;--"FIE," says Tooke, "is the
imperative of the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon verb _Fian_, to hate;"--_Heyday_
is probably from _high day_;--AVAUNT, perhaps from the French _avant_,
before;--LO, from _look_;--BEGONE, from _be_ and _gone_;--WELCOME, from
_well_ and _come_;--FAREWELL, from _fare_ and _well_.

SECTION XI--EXPLANATION OF THE PREFIXES.

In the formation of English words, certain particles are often employed as
prefixes; which, as they generally have some peculiar import, may be
separately explained. A few of them are of Anglo-Saxon origin, or
character; and the greater part of these are still employed as separate
words in our language. The rest are Latin, Greek, or French prepositions.
The _roots_ to which they are prefixed, are not always proper English
words. Those which are such, are called SEPARABLE RADICALS; those which are
not such, INSEPARABLE RADICALS.

CLASS I--THE ENGLISH OR ANGLO-SAXON PREFIXES.

1. A, as an English prefix, signifies _on, in, at_, or _to_: as in
_a-board, a-shore, a-foot, a-bed, a-soak, a-tilt, a-slant, a-far, a-field_;
which are equal to the phrases, _on board, on shore, on foot, in bed, in
soak, at tilt, at slant, to a distance, to the fields_. The French _a_, to,
is probably the same particle. This prefix is sometimes redundant, adding
little or nothing to the meaning; as in _awake, arise, amend_.

2. BE, as a prefix, signifies _upon, over, by, to, at_, or _for_: as in
_be-spatter, be-cloud, be-times, be-tide, be-howl, be-speak_. It is
sometimes redundant, or merely intensive; as in _be-gird, be-deck,
be-loved, be-dazzle, be-moisten, be-praise, be-quote_.

3. COUNTER, an English prefix, allied to the French _Contre_, and the Latin
_Contra_, means _against_, or _opposite_; as in _counter-poise,
counter-evidence, counter-natural_.

4. FOR, as a prefix, unlike the common preposition _For_, seems generally
to signify _from_: it is found in the irregular verbs _for-bear, for-bid,
for-get, for-give, for-sake, for-swear_; and in _for-bathe, for-do,
for-pass, for-pine, for-say, for-think, for-waste_, which last are now
disused, the _for_ in several being merely intensive.

5. FORE, prefixed to a verb, signifies _before_; as in _fore-know,
fore-tell_: prefixed to a noun, it is usually an adjective, and signifies
anterior; as in _fore-side, fore-part_.

6. HALF, signifying _one of two equal parts_, is much used in composition;
and, often, merely to denote imperfection: as, _half-sighted_, seeing
imperfectly.

7. MIS signifies _wrong_ or _ill_; as in _mis-cite, mis-print, mis-spell,
mis-chance, mis-hap_.

8. OVER denotes superiority or excess; as in _over-power, over-strain,
over-large_.

9. OUT, prefixed to a verb, generally denotes excess; as in _out-do,
out-leap, out-poise_: prefixed to a noun, it is an adjective, and signifies
_exterior_; as in _out-side, out-parish_.

10. SELF generally signifies one's own person, or belonging to one's own
person; but, in _self-same_, it means _very_. We have many words beginning
with _Self_, but most of them seem to be compounds rather than derivatives;
as, _self-love, self-abasement, self-abuse, self-affairs, self-willed,
self-accusing_.

11. UN denotes negation or contrariety; as in _un-kind, un-load, un-truth,
un-coif_.

12. UNDER denotes inferiority; as in _under-value, under-clerk,
under-growth_.

13. UP denotes motion upwards; as in _up-lift_: sometimes subversion; as in
_up-set_.

14. WITH, as a prefix, unlike the common preposition _With_, signifies
_against, from_, or _back_; as in _with-stand, with-hold, with-draw,
with-stander, with-holdment, with-drawal_.

CLASS II.--THE LATIN PREFIXES.

The primitives or radicals to which these are prefixed, are not many of
them employed separately in English. The final letter of the prefix _Ad,
Con, Ex, In, Ob_, or _Sub_, is often changed before certain consonants; not
capriciously, but with uniformity, to adapt or assimilate it to the sound
which follows.

1. A, AB, or ABS, means From, or Away: as, _a-vert_, to turn from, or away;
_ab-duce_, to lead from; _ab-duction_, a carrying-away; _ab-stract_, to
draw from, or away.

2. AD,--forming _ac, af, al, an, ap, as, at_,--means To, or At: as,
_ad-vert_, to turn to; _ac-cord_, to yield to; _af-flux_, a flowing-to;
_al-ly_, to bind to; _an-nex_, to link to; _ap-ply_, to put to; _as-sume_,
to take to; _at-test_, to witness to; _ad-mire_, to wonder at.

3. ANTE means Fore, or Before: as, _ante-past_, a fore-taste;
_ante-cedent_, foregoing, or going before; _ante-mundane_, before the
world; _ante-date_, to date before.

4. CIRCUM means Round, Around, or About: as _circum-volve_, to roll round;
_circum-scribe_, to write round; _circum-vent_, to come round;
_circum-spect_, looking about one's self.

5. CON,--which forms _com, co, col, cor_,--means Together: as, _con-tract_,
to draw together; _compel_, to drive together; _co-erce_, to force
together; _col-lect_, to gather together; _cor-rade_, to rub or scrape
together; _con-junction_, a joining-together.

6. CONTRA, or CONTRO, means Against, or Counter: as, _contra-dict_, to
speak against; _contra-vene_, to come against; _contra-mure_, countermure;
_contro-vert_, to turn against.

7. DE means Of, From, or Down: as, _de-note_, to be a sign of; _de-tract_,
to draw from; _de-pend_, to hang down; _de-press_, to press down;
_de-crease_, to grow down, to grow less.

8. DIS, or DI, means Away, or Apart: as, _dis-pel_, to drive away;
_dis-sect_, to cut apart; _di-vert_, to turn away.

9. E, or Ex,--making also _ec, ef_,--means Out: as, _e-ject_, to cast out;
_e-lect_, to choose out; _ex-clude_, to shut out; _ex-cite_, to summon out;
_ec-stacy_, a raising out; _ef-face_, to blot out.

10. EXTRA means Beyond, or Out of: as, _extra-vagant_, syllabled
_ex-trav'a-gant_, roving be-yond; _extra-vasate, ex-trav'a-sate_, to flow
out of the vessels; _extra-territorial_, being out of the territory.

11. IN,--which makes also _il, im, ir_,--means In, Into, or Upon: as,
_in-spire_, to breathe in; _il-lude_, to draw in by deceit; _im-mure_, to
wall in; _ir-ruption_, a rushing in; _in-spect_, to look into; _in-scribe_,
to write upon; _in-sult_, to jump upon. These syllables, prefixed, to
English nouns or adjectives, generally reverse their meaning; as in
_in-justice, il-legality, im-partiality, ir-religion, ir-rational,
in-secure, in-sane_.

12. INTER means Between, or In between: as, _inter-sperse_, to scatter in
between; _inter-jection_, something thrown in between; _inter-jacent_,
lying between; _inter-communication_, communication between.

13. INTRO means In, Inwards, or Within: as, _intro-duce_, to lead in;
_intro-vert_, to turn inwards; _intro-spect_, to look within;
_intro-mission_, a sending-in.

14. OB,--which makes also _oc, of, op_,--means Against: as, _ob-trude_, to
thrust against; _oc-cur_, to run against; _of-fer_, to bring against;
_op-pose_, to place against; _ob-ject_, to cast against.

15. PER means Through or By: as, _per-vade_, to go through; _per-chance_,
by chance; _per-cent_, by the hundred; _per-plex_, to tangle through, or to
entangle thoroughly.

16. POST means After: as, _post-pone_, to place after; _post-date_, to date
after.

17. PRAE, or PRE, means Before: as, _pre-sume_, to take before;
_pre-position_, a placing-before, or thing placed before; _prae-cognita_,
things known before.

18. PRO means For, Forth, or Forwards: as, _pro-vide_, to take care for;
_pro-duce_, to bring forth; _pro-trude_, to thrust forwards; _pro-ceed_, to
go forward; _pro-noun_, for a noun.

19. PRETER means By, Past, or Beyond: as, _preter-it_, bygone, or gone by;
_preter-imperfect_, past imperfect; _preter-natural_, beyond what is
natural; _preter-mit_, to put by, to omit.

20. RE means Again or Back: as, _re-view_, to view again; _re-pel_, to
drive back.

21. RETRO means Backwards, Backward, or Back: as, _retro-active_, acting
backwards; _retro-grade_, going backward; _retro-cede_, to cede back again.

22. SE means Aside or Apart: as, _se-duce_, to lead aside; _se-cede_, to go
apart.

23. SEMI means Half: as, _semi-colon_, half a colon; _semi-circle_, half a
circle.

24. SUB,--which makes _suf, sug, sup, sur_, and _sus_,--means Under, and
sometimes Up: as, _sub-scribe_, to write under; _suf-fossion_, an
undermining; _sug-gest_, to convey under; _sup-ply_, to put under;
_sur-reption_, a creeping-under; _sus-tain_, to hold up; _sub-ject_, cast
under.

25. SUBTER means Beneath: as, _subter-fluous_, flowing beneath.

26. SUPER means Over or Above: as, _super-fluous_, flowing over;
_super-natant_, swimming above; _super-lative_, carried over, or carrying
over; _super-vise_, to overlook, to oversee.

27. TRANS,--whence TRAN and TRA,--means Beyond, Over, To another state or
place: as, _trans-gress_, to pass beyond or over; _trans-cend_, to climb
over; _trans-mit_ to send to an other place; _trans-form_, to change to an
other shape; _tra-montane_, from beyond the mountains; i.e.,
_Trans-Alpine_, as opposed to _Cis-Alpine_.

CLASS III.--THE GREEK PREFIXES.

1. A and AN, in Greek derivatives, denote privation: as, _a-nomalous_,
wanting rules; _an-ony-mous_, wanting name; _an-archy_, want of government;
_a-cephalous_, headless.

2. AMPHI means Two, Both, or Double: as, _amphi-bious_, living in two
elements; _amphi-brach_, both [sides] short; _amphi-theatre_, a double
theatre.

3. ANTI means Against: as, _anti-slavery_, against slavery; _anti-acid_,
against acidity; _anti-febrile_, against fever; _anti-thesis_, a
placing-against.

4. APO, APH,--From: as, _apo-strophe_, a turning-from; _aph-aeresis_, a
taking from.

5. DIA,--Through: as, _dia-gonal_, through the corners; _dia-meter_,
measure through.

6. EPI, EPH,--Upon: as, _epi-demic_, upon the people; _eph-emera_, upon a
day.

7. HEMI means Half: as, _hemi-sphere_, half a sphere; _hemi-stich_, half a
verse.

8. HYPER means Over: as, _hyper-critical_, over-critical; _hyper-meter_,
over measure. 9. HYPO means Under: as, _hypo-stasis_, substance, or that
which stands under; _hypo-thesis_, supposition, or a placing-under;
_hypo-phyllous_, under the leaf.

10. META means Beyond, Over, To an other state or place: as,
_meta-morphose_, to change to an other shape; _meta-physics_, mental
science, as beyond or over physics.

11. PARA means Against: as, _para-dox_, something contrary to common
opinion.

12. PERI means Around: as, _peri-phery_, the circumference, or measure
round.

13. SYN,--whence _Sym, Syl_,--means Together: as, _syn-tax_, a
putting-together; _sym-pathy_, a suffering-together; _syl-lable_, what we
take together; _syn-thesis_ a placing-together.

CLASS IV.--THE FRENCH PREFIXES.

1. A is a preposition of very frequent use in French, and generally means
_To_. I have suggested above that it is probably the same as the
Anglo-Saxon prefix _a_. It is found in a few English compounds or
derivatives that are of French, and not of Saxon origin: as, _a-dieu_, to
God; i.e., I commend you to God; _a-larm_, from _alarme_, i e., _a l'arme_,
to arms.

2. DE means Of or From: as in _de-mure_, of manners; _de-liver_, to ease
from or of.

3. DEMI means Half: as, _demi-man_, half a man; _demi-god_, half a god;
_demi-devil_, half a devil; _demi-deify_, to half deify; _demi-sized_, half
sized; _demi-quaver_, half a quaver. 4. EN,--which sometimes becomes
em,--means In, Into, or Upon: as, _en-chain_, to hold in chains;
_em-brace_, to clasp in the arms; _en-tomb_, to put into a tomb; _em-boss_,
to stud upon. Many words are yet wavering between the French and the Latin
orthography of this prefix: as, _embody_, or _imbody; ensurance_, or
_insurance; ensnare_, or _insnare; enquire_, or _inquire_.

5. SUR, as a French prefix, means Upon, Over, or After: as, _sur-name_, a
name upon a name; _sur-vey_, to look over; _sur-mount_, to mount over or
upon; _sur-render_, to deliver over to others; _sur-feit_, to overdo in
eating; _sur-vive_, to live after, to over-live, to outlive.

END OF THE SECOND APPENDIX

APPENDIX III TO PART THIRD, OR SYNTAX.

OF THE QUALITIES OF STYLE.

Style, as a topic connected with syntax, is the particular manner in which
a person expresses his conceptions by means of language. It is different
from mere words, different from mere grammar, in any limited sense, and is
not to be regulated altogether by rules of construction. It always has some
relation to the author's peculiar manner of thinking; involves, to some
extent, and shows his literary, if not his moral, character; is, in
general, that sort of expression which his thoughts most readily assume;
and, sometimes, partakes not only of what is characteristic of the man, of
his profession, sect, clan, or province, but even of national peculiarity,
or some marked feature of the age. The words which an author employs, may
be proper in themselves, and so constructed as to violate no rule of
syntax, and yet his style may have great faults.

In reviews and critical essays, the general characters of style are usually
designated by such epithets as these;--concise, diffuse,--neat,
negligent,--terse, bungling,--nervous, weak,--forcible, feeble,--vehement,
languid,--simple, affected,--easy, stiff,--pure, barbarous,--perspicuous,
obscure,--elegant, uncouth,--florid, plain,--flowery, artless,--fluent,
dry,--piquant, dull,--stately, flippant,--majestic, mean,--pompous,
modest,--ancient, modern. A considerable diversity of style, may be found
in compositions all equally excellent in their kind. And, indeed, different
subjects, as well as the different endowments by which genius is
distinguished, require this diversity. But, in forming his style, the
learner should remember, that a negligent, feeble, affected, stiff,
uncouth, barbarous, or obscure style is always faulty; and that
perspicuity, ease, simplicity, strength, neatness, and purity, are
qualities always to be aimed at.

In order to acquire a good style, the frequent practice of composing and
writing something, is indispensably necessary. Without exercise and
diligent attention, rules or precepts for the attainment of this object,
will be of no avail. When the learner has acquired such a knowledge of
grammar, as to be in some degree qualified for the undertaking, he should
devote a stated portion of his time to composition. This exercise will
bring the powers of his mind into requisition, in a way that is well
calculated to strengthen them. And if he has opportunity for reading, he
may, by a diligent perusal of the best authors, acquire both language and
taste as well as sentiment;--and these three are the essential
qualifications of a good writer.

In regard to the qualities which constitute a good style, we can here offer
nothing more than a few brief hints. With respect to words and phrases,
particular attention should be paid to three things--_purity, propriety_,
and _precision_; and, with respect to sentences, to three
others,--_perspicuity, unity_, and _strength_. Under each of these six
heads, we shall arrange, in the form of short precepts, a few of the most
important directions for the forming of a good style.

SECTION I.--OF PURITY.

Purity of style consists in the use of such words and phrases only, as
belong to the language which we write or speak. Its opposites are the
faults aimed at in the following precepts.

PRECEPT I.--Avoid the unnecessary use of foreign words or idioms: such as
the French words _fraicheur, hauteur, delicatesse, politesse,
noblesse_;--the expression, "He _repented himself_;"--or, "It _serves_ to
an excellent purpose."

PRECEPT II.--Avoid obsolete or antiquated words, except there be some
special reason for their use: that is, such words as _acception,
addressful, administrate, affamish, affrontiveness, belikely, blusterous,
clergical, cruciate, rutilate, timidous_.

PRECEPT III.--Avoid strange or unauthorized words: such as, _flutteration,
inspectator, judgematical, incumberment, connexity, electerized,
martyrized, reunition, marvelize, limpitude, affectated, adorement,
absquatulate_. Of this sort is O. B. Peirce's "_assimilarity_," used on
page 19th of his _English Grammar_; and still worse is Jocelyn's
"_irradicable_," for _uneradicable_, used on page 5th of his _Prize Essay
on Education_.

PRECEPT IV.--Avoid bombast, or affectation of fine writing. It is
ridiculous, however serious the subject. The following is an example:
"Personifications, however rich the depictions, and unconstrained their
latitude; analogies, however imposing the objects of parallel, and the
media of comparison; can never expose the consequences of sin to the extent
of fact, or the range of demonstration."--_Anonymous_.

SECTION II.--OF PROPRIETY.

Propriety of language consists in the selection and right construction of
such words as the best usage has appropriated to those ideas which we
intend to express by them. Impropriety embraces all those forms of error,
which, for the purpose of illustration, exercise, and special criticism,
have been so methodically and so copiously posted up under the various
heads, rules, and notes, of this extensive Grammar. A few suggestions,
however, are here to be set down in the form of precepts.

PRECEPT I.--Avoid low and provincial expressions: such as, "Now, _says I_,
boys;"--"_Thinks I to myself;"--"To get into a scrape_;"--"Stay here
_while_ I come back;"--"_By jinkers;"--"By the living jingoes_."

PRECEPT II.--In writing prose, avoid words and phrases that are merely
poetical: such as, _morn, eve, plaint, corse, weal, drear, amid, oft,
steepy;--"what time_ the winds arise."

PRECEPT III.--Avoid technical terms: except where they are necessary in
treating of a particular art or science. In technology, they are proper.

PRECEPT IV.--Avoid the recurrence of a word in different senses, or such a
repetition of words as denotes paucity of language: as, "His own _reason_
might have suggested better _reasons_."--"Gregory _favoured_ the
undertaking, for no other reason than this; that the manager, in
countenance, _favoured_ his friend."--"I _want_ to go and see what he
_wants_."

PRECEPT V.--Supply words that are wanting: thus, instead of saying, "This
action increased his former services," say, "This action increased _the
merit of_ his former services."--"How many [_kinds of_] substantives are
there? Two; proper and common."--See _E. Devis's Gram._, p. 14. "These
changes should not be left to be settled by chance or by caprice, but
[_should be determined_] by the judicious application of the principles of
Orthography."--See _Fowlers E. Gram._, 1850, p. 170.

PRECEPT VI.--Avoid equivocal or ambiguous expressions: as, "His _memory_
shall be lost on the earth."--"I long since learned to like nothing but
what you _do_."

PRECEPT VII.--Avoid unintelligible, inconsistent, or inappropriate
expressions: such as, "I have observed that the superiority among these
coffee-house politicians proceeds from _an opinion_ of gallantry and
fashion."--"These words do not convey even an _opaque_ idea of the author's
meaning."

PRECEPT VIII.--Observe the natural order of things or events, and do not
_put the cart before the horse_: as, "The scribes _taught and studied_ the
Law of Moses."--"They can neither _return to nor leave_ their houses."--"He
tumbled, _head over heels_, into the water."--"'Pat, how did you carry that
quarter of beef?' 'Why, I thrust _it through a stick_, and threw _my
shoulder over it_.'"

SECTION III.--OF PRECISION.

Precision consists in avoiding all superfluous words, and adapting the
expression exactly to the thought, so as to say, with no deficiency or
surplus of terms, whatever is intended by the author. Its opposites are
noticed in the following precepts.

PRECEPT I.--Avoid a useless tautology, either of expression or of
sentiment; as, "When will you return _again_?"--"We returned _back_ home
_again_."--"On entering _into_ the room, I saw _and discovered_ he had
fallen _down_ on the floor and could not _rise_ up."--"They have a _mutual_
dislike to each other."--"Whenever I go, he _always_ meets me
there."--"Where is he _at? In_ there."--"His faithfulness _and fidelity_
should be rewarded."

PRECEPT II.--Repeat words as often as an exact exhibition of your meaning
requires them; for repetition may be elegant, if it be not useless. The
following example does not appear faulty: "Moral _precepts_ are _precepts_
the reasons of which we see; positive _precepts_ are _precepts_ the reasons
of which we do not see."--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 165.

PRECEPT III.--Observe the exact meaning of words accounted synonymous, and
employ those which are the most suitable; as, "A diligent scholar may
_acquire_ knowledge, _gain_ celebrity, _obtain_ rewards, _win_ prizes, and
_get_ high honour, though he _earn_ no money." These six verbs have nearly
the same meaning, and yet no two of them can here be correctly
interchanged.

PRECEPT IV.--Observe the proper form of each word, and do not confound such
as resemble each other. "Professor J. W. Gibbs, of Yale College," in
treating of the "Peculiarities of the Cockney Dialect," says, "The Londoner
sometimes confounds two different forms; as _contagious_ for _contiguous;
eminent_ for _imminent; humorous_ for _humorsome; ingeniously_ for
_ingenuously; luxurious_ for _luxuriant; scrupulosity_ for _scruple;
successfully_ for _successively_."--See _Fowler's E. Gram._, p. 87; and
Pref., p. vi.

PRECEPT V.--Think clearly, and avoid absurd or incompatible expressions.
Example of error: "To pursue _those_ remarks, would, _probably_, be of no
further _service_ to the learner than _that of burdening his memory_ with a
catalogue of dry and _uninteresting_ peculiarities; _which may gratify
curiosity_, without affording information adequate to the trouble of the
perusal."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 122.

PRECEPT VI.--Avoid words that are useless; and, especially, a
multiplication of them into sentences, members, or clauses, that may well
be spared. Example: "If one could _really_ be a spectator of what is
passing in the world _around us_ without taking part in the events, _or
sharing in the passions and actual performance on the stage; if we could
set ourselves down, as it were, in a private box of the world's great
theatre, and quietly look on at the piece that is playing, no more moved
than is absolutely implied by sympathy with our fellow-creatures, what a
curious, what an amusing_, what an interesting spectacle would life
present."--G. P. R. JAMES: "_The Forger_," commencement of Chap. xxxi. This
sentence contains _eighty-seven_ words, "of which _sixty-one_ are entirely
unnecessary to the expression of the author's idea, if idea it can be
called."--_Holden's Review_.

OBSERVATION.

Verbosity, as well as tautology, is not so directly opposite to precision,
as to conciseness, or brevity. From the manner in which lawyers usually
multiply terms in order to express their facts _precisely_, it would seem
that, with them, precision consists rather in the use of _many_ words than
of _few_. But the ordinary style of legal instruments no popular writer can
imitate without becoming ridiculous. A terse or concise style is very apt
to be elliptical: and, in some particular instances, must be so; but, at
the same time, the full expression, perhaps, may have more _precision_,
though it be less agreeable. For example: "A word of one syllable, is
called a monosyllable; a word of two syllables, _is called_ a dissyllable:
a word of three syllables, _is called_ a trisyllable: a word of four or
more syllables, _is called_ a polysyllable."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p.
19. Better, perhaps, thus: "A word of one syllable is called a
_monosyllable_; a word of two syllables, a _dissyllable_; a word of three
syllables, a _trissyllable_; and a word of four or more syllables, a
_polysyllable_."--_Brown's Institutes_, p. 17.

SECTION IV.--OF PERSPICUITY.

Perspicuity consists in freedom from obscurity or ambiguity. It is a
quality so essential to every kind of writing, that for the want of it no
merit of other name can compensate. "Without this, the richest ornaments of
style, only glimmer through the dark, and puzzle in stead of pleasing the
reader."--_Dr. Blair_. Perspicuity, being the most important property of
language, and an exemption from the most embarrassing defects, seems even
to rise to a degree of positive beauty. We are naturally pleased with a
style that frees us from all suspense in regard to the meaning; that
carries us through the subject without embarrassment or confusion; and that
always flows like a limpid stream, through which we can "see to the very
bottom." Many of the errors which have heretofore been pointed out to the
reader, are offences against perspicuity. Only three or four hints will
here be added.

PRECEPT I.--Place adjectives, relative pronouns, participles, adverbs, and
explanatory phrases near enough to the words to which they relate, and in a
position which will make their reference clear. The following sentences are
deficient in perspicuity: "Reverence is the veneration paid to superior
sanctity, _intermixed_ with a certain degree of awe."--_Unknown_. "The
Romans understood liberty, _at least_, as well as we."--See _Murray's
Gram._, p. 307. "Taste was never _made to cater_ for vanity."--_J. Q.
Adams's Rhet._, Vol. i, p. 119.

PRECEPT II.--In prose, avoid a poetic collocation of words. For example:
"Guard your weak side from being known. If it be attacked, the best way is,
to join in the attack."--KAMES: _Art of Thinking_, p. 75. This maxim of
prudence might be expressed more poetically, but with some loss of
perspicuity, thus: "Your weak side guard from being known. Attacked in
this, the assailants join."

PRECEPT III.--Avoid faulty ellipses, and repeat all words necessary to
preserve the sense. The following sentences require the words which are
inserted in crotchets: "Restlessness of mind disqualifies us, both for the
enjoyment of peace, and [_for_] the performance of our duty."--_Murray's
Key_, 8vo, p. 166. "Double Comparatives and [_Double_] Superlatives should
be avoided."--_Fowler's E. Gram._, 1850, p. 489.

PRECEPT IV.--Avoid the pedantic and sense-dimming style of charlatans and
new theorists, which often demands either a translation or a tedious study,
to make it at all intelligible to the ordinary reader. For example: "RULE
XL Part 3. An intransitive or receptive _asserter_ in the unlimited mode,
depending on a word in the possessive case, may have, after it, a word in
the subjective case, denoting the same thing: And, when it acts the part of
an assertive name, depending on a relative, it may have after it a word in
the subjective case. EXAMPLES:--John's being my _friend_, saved me from
inconvenience. Seth Hamilton was unhappy in being a _slave_ to party
prejudice."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, 1839, p. 201. The meaning of this
_third part of a Rule_ of syntax, is, in proper English, as follows: "A
participle not transitive, with the possessive case before it, may have
after it a nominative denoting the same thing; and also, when a preposition
governs the participle, a nominative may follow, in agreement with one
which precedes." In doctrine, the former clause of the sentence is
erroneous: it serves only to propagate false syntax by rule. See the former
example, and a note of mine, referring to it, on page 531 of this work.

SECTION V.--OF UNITY.

Unity consists in avoiding needless pauses, and keeping one object
predominant throughout a sentence or paragraph. Every sentence, whether its
parts be few or many, requires strict unity. The chief faults, opposite to
this quality of style, are suggested in the following precepts. PRECEPT
I.--Avoid brokenness, hitching, or the unnecessary separation of parts that
naturally come together. Examples: "I was, soon after my arrival, taken out
of my Indian habit."--_Addison, Tattler_, No. 249. Better: "Soon after my
arrival, _I_ was taken out of my Indian habit."--_Churchill's Gram._, p.
326. "Who can, either in opposition, or in the ministry, act alone?"--_Ib._
Better: "Who can act alone, either in opposition, or in the
ministry?"--_Ib._ "I, like others, have, in my youth, trifled with my
health, and old age now prematurely assails me."--_Ib._, p. 327. Better:
"Like others, I have trifled with my health, and old age now prematurely
assails me."

PRECEPT II.--Treat different topics in separate paragraphs, and distinct
sentiments in separate sentences. Error: "The two volumes are, indeed,
intimately _connected, and constitute_ one uniform system of English
Grammar."--_Murray's Preface_, p. iv. Better thus: "The two volumes are,
indeed, intimately connected. _They_ constitute one uniform system of
English _grammar_."

PRECEPT III.--In the progress of a sentence, do not desert the principal
subjects in favour of adjuncts, or change the scene unnecessarily. Example:
"After we came to anchor, they put me on shore, where I was welcomed by all
my friends, who received me with the greatest kindness, which was not then
expected." Better: "The vessel having come to anchor, I was put on shore;
where I was unexpectedly welcomed by all my friends, and received with the
greatest kindness."--See _Blair's Rhet._, p. 107.

PRECEPT IV.--Do not introduce parentheses, except when a lively remark may
be thrown in without diverting the mind too long from the principal
subject. Example: "But (saith he) since I take upon me to teach the whole
world, (it is strange, it should be so natural for this man to write
untruths, since I direct my _Theses_ only to the Christian world; but if it
may render me odious, such _Peccadillo's_ pass with him, it seems, but for
_Piae Fraudes_:) I intended never to write of those things, concerning which
we do not differ from others."--_R. Barclay's Works_, Vol. iii. p. 279. The
parts of this sentence are so put together, that, as a whole, it is
scarcely intelligible.

SECTION VI.--OF STRENGTH.

Strength consists in giving to the several words and members of a sentence,
such an arrangement as shall bring out the sense to the best advantage, and
present every idea in its due importance. Perhaps it is essential to this
quality of style, that there be animation, spirit, and _vigour of thought_,
in all that is uttered. A few hints concerning the Strength of sentences,
will here be given in the form of precepts.

PRECEPT I.--Avoid verbosity; a concise style is the most favourable to
strength. Examples: "No human happiness is so pure as not to contain _any_
alloy."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 270. Better: "No human happiness is
_unalloyed_." "He was so much skilled in the exercise of the oar, that few
could equal him."--_Ib._, p. 271. Better: "He was so _skillful at_ the oar,
that few could _match_ him." Or thus: "At the oar, he was _rarely
equalled_." "The reason why they [the pronouns] are considered separately
is, because there is something particular in their inflections."--
_Priestley's Gram._, p. 81. Better: "The pronouns are considered
separately, because there is something peculiar in their inflections."

PRECEPT II.--Place the most important words in the situation in which they
will make the strongest impression. Inversion of terms sometimes increases
the strength and vivacity of an expression: as, "All these things will I
give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me."--_Matt._, iv, 9.
"Righteous art thou, O Lord, and upright are thy judgements."--_Psalms_,
cxix, 137. "Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his
saints."--_Ps._, cxvi, 15.

PRECEPT III.--Have regard also to the relative position of clauses, or
members; for a weaker assertion should not follow a stronger; and, when the
sentence consists of two members, the longer should be the concluding one.
Example: "We flatter ourselves with the belief that we have forsaken our
passions, when they have forsaken us." Better: "When our passions have
forsaken us, we flatter ourselves with the belief that we have forsaken
them."--See _Blair's Rhet._, p. 117; _Murray's Gram._, p. 323.

PRECEPT IV.--When things are to be compared or contrasted, their
resemblance or opposition will be rendered more striking, if a pretty near
resemblance in the language and construction of the two members, be
preserved. Example: "The wise man is happy, when he gains his own
approbation; the fool, when he recommends himself to the applause of those
about him." Better: "The wise man is happy, when he gains his own
approbation; the fool, when he gains the applause of others."--See
_Murray's Gram._, p. 324.

PRECEPT V.--Remember that it is, in general, ungraceful to end a sentence
with an adverb, a preposition, or any inconsiderable word or phrase, which
may either be omitted or be introduced earlier. "For instance, it is a
great deal better to say, 'Avarice is a crime of which wise men are often
guilty,' than to say, 'Avarice is a crime which wise men are often guilty
of.'"--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 117; _Murray's Gram._, p. 323.

END OF THE THIRD APPENDIX.

APPENDIX IV.

TO PART FOURTH, OR PROSODY.

OF POETIC DICTION.

Poetry, as defined by Dr. Blair, "is the language of passion, or of
enlivened imagination, formed, most commonly, into regular
numbers."--_Rhet._, p. 377. The style of poetry differs, in many respects,
from that which is commonly adopted in prose. Poetic diction abounds in
bold figures of speech, and unusual collocations of words. A great part of
the figures, which have been treated of in one of the chapters of Prosody,
are purely poetical. The primary aim of a poet, is, to please and to move;
and, therefore, it is to the imagination, and the passions, that he speaks.
He may also, and he should, have it in his view, to instruct and to reform;
but it is indirectly, and by pleasing and moving, that such a writer
accomplishes this end. The exterior and most obvious distinction of poetry,
is versification: yet there are some forms of verse so loose and familiar,
as to be hardly distinguishable from prose; and there is also a species of
prose, so measured in its cadences, and so much raised in its tone, as to
approach very nearly to poetic numbers.

This double approximation of some poetry to prose, and of some prose to
poetry, not only makes it a matter of acknowledged difficulty to
distinguish, by satisfactory definitions, the two species of composition,
but, in many instances, embarrasses with like difficulty the attempt to
show, by statements and examples, what usages or licenses, found in English
works, are proper to be regarded as peculiarities of poetic diction. It is
purposed here, to enumerate sundry deviations from the common style of
prose; and perhaps all of them, or nearly all, may be justly considered as
pertaining only to poetry.

POETICAL PECULIARITIES.

The following are among the chief peculiarities in which the poets indulge,
and are indulged:--

I. They not unfrequently omit the ARTICLES, for the sake of brevity or
metre; as,

"What dreadful pleasure! there to stand sublime,
Like _shipwreck'd mariner_ on _desert_ coast!"
--_Beattie's Minstrel_, p. 12.

"_Sky lour'd_, and, muttering thunder, some sad drops
Wept at _completing_ of the mortal sin."
--_Milton, P. L._, B. ix, l. 1002.

II. They sometimes abbreviate common NOUNS, after a manner of their own:
as, _amaze_, for _amazement_; _acclaim_, for _acclamation_; _consult_, for
_consultation_; _corse_, for _corpse_; _eve_ or _even_, for _evening_;
_fount_, for _fountain_; _helm_, for _helmet_; _lament_, for _lamentation_;
_morn_, for _morning_; _plaint_, for _complaint_; _targe_, for _target_;
_weal_, for _wealth_.

III. By _enallage_, they use verbal forms substantively, or put verbs for
nouns; perhaps for brevity, as above: thus,

1. "Instant, without _disturb_, they took alarm."
--_P. Lost: Joh. Dict., w. Aware._

2. "The gracious Judge, without _revile_ reply'd."
--_P. Lost, B. x, l. 118._

3. "If they were known, as the _suspect_ is great."
--_Shakspeare._

4. "Mark, and perform it: seest thou? for the _fail_
Of any point in't shall be death."
--_Shakspeare._

IV. They employ several nouns that are not used in prose, or are used but
rarely; as, _benison, boon, emprise, fane, guerdon, guise, ire, ken, lore,
meed, sire, steed, welkin, yore_.

V. They introduce the noun _self_ after an other noun of the possessive
case; as,

1. "Affliction's semblance bends not o'er thy tomb,
Affliction's _self_ deplores thy youthful doom."--_Byron._

2. "Thoughtless of beauty, she was beauty's _self._"--_Thomson._

VI. They place before the verb nouns, or other words, that usually come
after it; and, after it, those that usually come before it: as,

1. "No jealousy _their dawn of love_ o'ercast,
Nor _blasted_ were _their wedded days_ with strife."
--_Beattie._

2. "No _hive_ hast _thou_ of hoarded sweets."
--_W. Allen's Gram._

3. "Thy chain _a wretched weight_ shall prove."
--_Langhorne._

4. "Follows the loosen'd aggravated _roar._"
--_Thomson._

5. "That _purple_ grows _the primrose pale._"
--_Langhorne._

VII. They more frequently place ADJECTIVES after their nouns, than do prose
writers; as,

1. "Or where the gorgeous East, with richest hand,
Show'rs on her kings _barbaric_, pearl and gold."
--_Milton, P. L._, B. ii, l. 2.

2. "Come, nymph _demure_, with mantle _blue_."
--_W. Allen's Gram._, p. 189.

3. "This truth _sublime_ his simple sire had taught."
--_Beattie's Minstrel_, p. 14.

VIII. They ascribe qualities to things to which they do not literally
belong; as,

1. "The ploughman homeward plods his _weary way_."
--_Gray's Elegy_, l. 3.

2. "Or _drowsy tinklings_ lull the distant folds."
--_Ibidem_, l. 8.

3. "Imbitter'd more and more from _peevish day_ to day."
--_Thomson_.

4. "All thin and naked, to the _numb_ cold _night_."
--_Shakspeare_.

IX. They use concrete terms to express abstract qualities; (i. e.,
adjectives for nouns;) as,

1. "Earth's meanest son, all trembling, prostrate falls,
And on the _boundless_ of thy goodness calls."
--_Young_.

2. "Meanwhile, whate'er of _beautiful_ or _new_,
_Sublime_ or _dreadful_, in earth, sea, or sky,
By chance or search, was offer'd to his view,
He scann'd with curious and romantic eye."
--_Beattie_.

3. "Won from the void and formless _infinite_."
--_Milton_.

4. "To thy large heart give utterance due; thy heart
Contains of _good, wise, just_, the perfect shape."
--_Id., P. R._, B. iii, l. 10.

X. They often substitute quality for manner; (i. e., adjectives for
adverbs;) as,

1. ----"The stately-sailing swan
Gives out his snowy plumage to the gale,
And, arching _proud_ his neck, with oary feet,
Bears forward _fierce_, and guards his osier isle."
--_Thomson_.

2. "Thither _continual_ pilgrims crowded still."
--_Id., Cos. of Ind._, i, 8.

3. "Level at beauty, and at wit;
The fairest mark is _easiest_ hit."
--_Butler's Hudibras_.

XI. They form new compound epithets, oftener than do prose writers; as,

1. "In _world-rejoicing_ state, it moves sublime."
--_Thomson_.

2. "The _dewy-skirted_ clouds imbibe the sun."
--_Idem_.

3. "By brooks and groves in _hollow-whispering_ gales."
--_Idem_.

4. "The violet of _sky-woven_ vest."
--_Langhorne_.

5. "A league from Epidamnum had we sail'd,
Before the _always-wind-obeying_ deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm."
--_Shakspeare_.

6. "'_Blue-eyed, strange-voiced, sharp-beaked, ill-omened_ fowl,
What art thou?' 'What I ought to be, an owl.'"
--_Day's Punctuation_, p. 139.

XII. They connect the comparative degree to the positive, before a verb;
as,

1. "_Near and more near_ the billows rise."
--_Merrick_.

2. "_Wide and wider_ spreads the vale."
--_Dyer's Grongar Hill_.

3. "_Wide and more wide_, the overflowings of the mind
Take every creature in, of every kind."
--_Pope_.

4. "_Thick and more thick_ the black blockade extends,
A hundred head of Aristotle's friends."
--_Id., Dunciad_.

XIII. They form many adjectives in _y_, which are not common in prose; as,
The _dimply_ flood,--_dusky_ veil,--a _gleamy_ ray,--_heapy_
harvests,--_moony_ shield,--_paly_ circlet,--_sheety_ lake,--_stilly_
lake,--_spiry_ temples,--_steely_ casque,--_steepy_ hill,--_towery_
height,--_vasty_ deep,--_writhy_ snake.

XIV. They employ adjectives of an abbreviated form: as, _dread_, for
_dreadful_; _drear_, for _dreary_; _ebon_, for _ebony_; _hoar_, for
_hoary_; _lone_, for _lonely_; _scant_, for _scanty_; _slope_, for
_sloping_: _submiss_, for _submissive_; _vermil_, for _vermilion_; _yon_,
for _yonder_.

XV. They employ several adjectives that are not used in prose, or are used
but seldom; as, _azure, blithe, boon, dank, darkling, darksome, doughty,
dun, fell, rife, rapt, rueful, sear, sylvan, twain, wan._

XVI. They employ the personal PRONOUNS, and introduce their nouns
afterwards; as,

1. "_It_ curl'd not Tweed alone, that _breeze_."
--_Sir W. Scott_.

2. "What may _it_ be, the heavy _sound_
That moans old Branksome's turrets round?"
--_Idem, Lay_, p. 21.

3. "Is it the lightning's quivering glance,
That on the thicket streams;
Or do _they_ flash on spear and lance,
The sun's retiring _beams_"
--_Idem, L. of L._, vi, 15.

XVII. They use the forms of the second person singular oftener than do
others; as,

1. "Yet I had rather, if I were to chuse,
_Thy_ service in some graver subject use,
Such as may make _thee_ search thy coffers round,
Before _thou clothe_ my fancy in fit sound."
--_Milton's Works_, p. 133.

2. "But _thou_, of temples old, or altars new,
_Standest_ alone--with nothing like to thee."
--_Byron, Pilg._, iv, 154.

3. "Thou seest not all; but piecemeal thou must break,
To separate contemplation, the great whole."
--_Id., ib._, iv, 157.

4. "Thou rightly deemst, fair youth, began the bard;
The form then sawst was Virtue ever fair."
--_Pollok, C. of T._, p. 16.

XVIII. They sometimes omit relatives that are nominatives; (see Obs. 22, at
p. 555;) as,

"For is there aught in sleep can charm the wise?"
--_Thomson_.

XIX. They omit the antecedent, or introduce it after the relative; as,

1. "_Who_ never fasts, no banquet e'er enjoys,
_Who_ never toils or watches, never sleeps."
--_Armstrong_.

2. "_Who_ dares think one thing and an other tell,
My soul detests _him_ as the gates of hell."
--_Pope's Homer_.

XX. They remove relatives, or other connectives, into the body of their
clauses; as,

1. "Parts the fine locks, her graceful head _that_ deck."
--_Darwin_.

2. "Not half so dreadful rises to the sight
Orion's dog, the year _when_ autumn weighs."
--_Pope, Iliad_, B. xxii, l. 37.

XXI. They make intransitive VERBS transitive, changing their class; as,

1. ----"A while he stands,
_Gazing_ the inverted landscape, half afraid
To _meditate_ the blue profound below."
--_Thomson_.

2. "Still in harmonious intercourse, they _liv'd_
The rural day, and _talk'd_ the flowing heart."
--_Idem_.

3. ----"I saw and heard, for we sometimes
Who _dwell_ this wild, constrain'd by want, come forth."
--_Milton, P. R._, B. i, l. 330.

XXII. They make transitive verbs intransitive, giving them no regimen; as,

1. "The soldiers should have _toss'd_ me on their pikes,
Before I would have _granted_ to that act."
--_Shakspeare_.

2. "This minstrel-god, well-pleased, amid the quire
Stood proud to _hymn_, and tune his youthful lyre."
--_Pope_.

XXIII. They give to the imperative mood the first and the third person; as,

1. "_Turn we_ a moment fancy's rapid flight."
--_Thomson_.

2. "_Be_ man's peculiar _work_ his sole delight."
--_Beattie_.

3. "And what is reason? Be _she_ thus _defin'd_:
Reason is upright stature in the soul."
--_Young_.

XXIV. They employ _can, could_, and _would_, as principal verbs transitive;
as,

1. "_What_ for ourselves we _can_, is always ours."
--_Anon_.

2. "Who does the best his circumstance allows,
Does well, acts nobly; angels _could_ no _more_."
--_Young_.

3. "What _would_ this man? Now upward will he soar,
And, little less than angel, would be more."
--_Pope_.

XXV. They place the infinitive before the word on which it depends; as,

1. "When first thy sire _to send_ on earth
Virtue, his darling child, _design'd_"
--_Gray_.

2. "As oft as I, _to kiss_ the flood, _decline_;
So oft his lips ascend, to close with mine."
--_Sandys_.

3. "Besides, Minerva, _to secure_ her care,
_Diffus'd_ around a veil of thicken'd air."
--_Pope_.

XXVI. They place the auxiliary verb after its principal, by hyperbaton; as,

1. "No longer _heed_ the sunbeam bright
That plays on Carron's breast he _can_"
--_Langhorne_.

2. "_Follow_ I _must_, I cannot go before."
--_Beauties of Shakspeare_, p. 147.

3. "The man who suffers, loudly may complain;
And _rage_ he _may_, but he shall rage in vain."
--_Pope_.

XXVII. Before verbs, they sometimes arbitrarily employ or omit prefixes:
_as, bide_, or _abide_; _dim_, or _bedim_; _gird_, or _begird_; _lure_, or
_allure_; _move_, or _emove_; _reave_, or _bereave_; _vails_, or _avails_;
_vanish_, or _evanish_; _wail_, or _bewail_; _weep_, or _beweep_; _wilder_,
or _bewilder_:--

1. "All knees to thee shall bow, of them that _bide_
In heav'n, or earth, or under earth in hell."
--_Milton, P. L._, B. iii, l. 321.

2. "Of a horse, _ware_ the heels; of a bull-dog, the jaws;
Of a bear, the embrace; of a lion, the paws."
--_Churchills Cram._, p. 215.

XXVIII. Some few verbs they abbreviate: as _list_, for _listen_; _ope_, for
_open_; _hark_, for _hearken_; _dark_, for _darken_; _threat_, for
_threaten_; _sharp_, for _sharpen_.

XXIX. They employ several verbs that are not used in prose, or are used but
rarely; as, _appal, astound, brook, cower, doff, ken, wend, ween, trow_.

XXX. They sometimes imitate a Greek construction of the infinitive; as,

1. "Who would not sing for Lycidas? he knew
Himself _to sing_, and _build_ the lofty rhyme."
--_Milton_.

2. "For not, _to have been dipp'd_ in Lethe lake,
Could save the son of Thetis _from to die_."
--_Spenser_.

XXXI. They employ the PARTICIPLES more frequently than prose writers, and
in a construction somewhat peculiar; often intensive by accumulation: as,

1. "He came, and, standing in the midst, explain'd
The peace _rejected_, but the truce _obtain'd_."
--_Pope_.

2. "As a poor miserable captive thrall
Comes to the place where he before had sat
Among the prime in splendor, now _depos'd,
Ejected, emptied, gaz'd, unpitied, shunn'd_,
A spectacle of ruin or of scorn."
--_Milton, P. R._, B. i, l. 411.

3. "Though from our birth the faculty divine
Is _chain'd_ and _tortured--cabin'd, cribb'd, confined_."
--_Byron, Pilg._, C. iv, St. 127.

XXXII. In turning participles to adjectives, they sometimes ascribe
actions, or active properties, to things to which they do not literally
belong; as,

"The green leaf quivering in the gale,
The _warbling hill_, the _lowing vale_."
--MALLET: _Union Poems_, p. 26.

XXXIII. They employ several ADVERBS that are not used in prose, or are used
but seldom; as, _oft, haply, inly, blithely, cheerily, deftly, felly,
rifely, starkly_.

XXXIV. They give to adverbs a peculiar location in respect to other words;
as,

1. "Peeping from _forth_ their alleys green."
--_Collins_.

2. "Erect the standard _there_ of ancient Night"
--_Milton_.

3. "The silence _often_ of pure innocence
Persuades, when speaking fails."
--_Shakspeare_.

4. "Where Universal Love _not_ smiles around."
--_Thomson_.

5. "Robs me of that which _not_ enriches him."
--_Shakspeare_.

XXXV. They sometimes omit the introductory adverb _there_: as,

"_Was_ nought around but images of rest."
--_Thomson_.

XXXVI. They briefly compare actions by a kind of compound adverbs, ending
in _like_; as,

"Who bid the stork, _Columbus-like_, explore
Heavens not his own, and worlds unknown before?"
--_Pope_.

XXXVII. They employ the CONJUNCTIONS, _or--or_, and _nor--nor_, as
correspondents; as,

1. "_Or_ by the lazy Scheldt _or_ wandering Po."
--_Goldsmith_.

2. "Wealth heap'd on wealth, _nor_ truth, _nor_ safety buys."
--_Johnson_.

3. "Who by repentance is not satisfied,
Is _nor_ of heaven, _nor_ earth; for these are pleas'd."
--_Shakspeare_.

4. "Toss it, _or_ to the fowls, _or_ to the flames."
--_Young, N. T._, p. 157.

5. "_Nor_ shall the pow'rs of hell, _nor_ wastes of time,
_Or_ vanquish, _or_ destroy."
--_Gibbon's Elegy on Davies_.

XXXVIII. They oftener place PREPOSITIONS and their adjuncts, before the
words on which they depend, than do prose writers; as,

"_Against_ your fame _with_ fondness hate _combines_;
The rival batters, and the lover mines."
--_Dr. Johnson_.

XXXIX. They sometimes place a long or dissyllabic preposition after its
object; as,

1. "When beauty, _Eden's bowers within_,
First stretched the arm to deeds of sin,
When passion burn'd and prudence slept,
The pitying angels bent and wept."
--_James Hogg_.

2. "The Muses fair, _these peaceful shades among_,
With skillful fingers sweep the trembling strings."
--_Lloyd_.

3. "Where Echo walks _steep hills among_,
List'ning to the shepherd's song."
--_J. Warton, U. Poems_, p. 33.

XL. They have occasionally employed certain prepositions for which,
perhaps, it would not be easy to cite prosaic authority; as, _adown, aloft,
aloof, anear, aneath, askant, aslant, aslope, atween, atwixt, besouth,
traverse, thorough, sans_. (See Obs. 10th, and others, at p. 441.)

XLI. They oftener employ INTERJECTIONS than do prose writers; as,

"_O_ let me gaze!--Of gazing there's no end.
_O_ let me think!--Thought too is wilder'd here."
--_Young_.

XLII. They oftener employ ANTIQUATED WORDS and modes of expression; as,

1. "_Withouten_ that, would come _an_ heavier bale."
--_Thomson_.

2. "He was, _to weet_, a little roguish page,
_Save_ sleep and play, who minded nought at all."
--_Id._

3. "Not one _eftsoons_ in view was to be found."
--_Id._

4. "To number up the thousands dwelling here,
_An_ useless were, and eke _an_ endless task."
--_Id._

5. "Of clerks good plenty here you _mote espy_."
--_Id._

6. "But these I _passen_ by with nameless numbers _moe_."
--_Id._

THE END OF APPENDIX FOURTH

INDEX TO THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS.

[Asterism] _In the following Index, the_ page _of the Grammar is directly
referred to_: Obs. _or_ N. _before a numeral, stands for_ Observation _or_
Observations, _or for_ Note _or_ Notes _of the text_: R. _after a
reference, stands for_ RULE. _The small letter_ n., _with an asterisk or
other mark affixed to it, relates to a_ footnote _with such mark in the
Grammar. Occasionally_, t., m., _or_ b., _or_ u., _or_ l., _accompanies a
reference, to indicate the_ top, middle, _or_ bottom, _or the_ upper _or
the_ lower half, _of the page referred to. Few abbreviations are employed
beyond those of the ordinary grammatical terms. The Index is not intended
to supersede the use of the_ Table of Contents, _which stands after the
Preface. It is occupied wholly with the matter of the_ Grammar _proper;
hence there are in it no references to the_ Introduction Historical and
Critical, _which precedes the didactic portion of the work. In the Table
before-mentioned must be sought the general division of English grammar,
and matters pertaining to praxis, to examination, and to the writing of
exercises_.

A.

A, lett., names itself
--its plur.
--sounds properly its own
--numb. of sounds pertaining to, orthoepists differ concerning
--diphthongs beginning with,
--triphth. do.
--its true sound to be carefully preserved at end of words,
_A_, as prep, or prefix
--before part, in _ing_.
_A_ and _an_, in Gr. derivatives.
_A_ or _an_, art., see _An, A_

_Abbreviations_, frequent in writt. lang.
--rule of punct. for.
C, M, D, &c., as numerals, see _Letters_.
Needless abbreviations, to be avoided

_Able, ible_, class of adjectives in, numerous in Eng.; difficulty with
resp. to the prop. form and signif. of; to what _able_ most properly
belongs
--application of _able_ to nouns, its propriety doubtf.
--_Able_ or _ible_, prop. application of, how far determined from Lat.
etymol.
--_Able_ and _ible_, words of the same meaning in, how formed from
different roots,

_About_, with infin., as substitute for Lat. fut. part, in _rus_
--_About_, with _of_ preced., ("OF ABOUT _one hundred feet_")
--_About_, derivat. of, from Sax.

_Abrupt_ transitions in the Bible

_Absolute_, when, and in what _case_, a noun or a pron. is put
--_Absol._, case, defect of the common rule for
--in how many ways the nom. case is put
--nom. case put, with part., to what often equivalent; what part.
frequently understood after nouns put
--case, its existence denied by what authors
--words put, punct. of,

_Abstract numbers_, synt. of the phraseology used in speaking of, ("_Twice
two_ IS _four_," or "_Twice two_ ARE _four_")

_Absurd_ or incompatible expressions, to be avoided

_Absurdities_ of expression, Crit. N. concerning

_Acatalectic_, when a line is said to be

_Accent_ and quantity, critical observations on

_Accent_, difficulty with respect to the import of the word
--various definitions of, cited
--_Accent_, confounded by some with _emphasis_
--defined, as commonly understood
--chief or primary and secondary
--_Accent_, by what regulated
--compared with emphasis
--as affected by do.
--is distinct from quantity
--as understood by DR. JOH.
--SHERID. teachings concerning; mostly adopted by MURR.
--what lett. of a word receives the mark of
--stress on a monosyl. more properly _emphasis_ than
--_Accents_, more than one on a word
--DR. ADAM'S view of

_Accentuation_, modern, of Gr. and Lat. words, by what regulated;
SANCTIUS'S rule for, new vers. of

_According to, as to_, resolved. _Accordingly_, whether may be said for the
questionable _according_

_Accusative_ before infin., in Lat. and Gr., of what reckoned the subject
--whether the construc. can in general be imitated in Eng.
--who adopt the Lat. doctrine of
--what our nearest approach to the Lat. construc. of

_Active_, in reference to verbs, in what sense may be used

_Active-transitive verb_, defined
--_Act.-trans. verbs_ gov. obj. case
--place of agent and object in respect to
--_Act.-trans. verb_, or part., has some noun or pron. for its object
--with two words in appos. ("_Proclaim_ THEE KING,")
--with do., neither in appos. nor connected by conjunc., ("_I paid_ HIM
_the_ MONEY,")
--with redund. _me, thee, you_
--should not be used without an object
--should not assume a governm. incompatible with its signif.

_Active-intransitive verb_, defined
--_Act.-intrans. verb_, with prep. and its object, put in the pass.
form
--in pass. form with neut. signif. ("_I_ AM COME,")
--should not be used transitively

_Addison_, undeservedly criticised by BLAIR, for his frequent use of
_that_, as a relative

_Addition, enumeration_, of numbers, by what _number_ of the verb to be
expressed

_Address_, ordinary fashion of, in Eng., the plur. numb.
--has introduced the anomal. compound _yourself_
--_Address_, direct, nom. absol. by
--terms of, _your Majesty, your Highness_, &c., in what construc. used
--general usage of, in Fr.; in Span., Portug., or Germ.

ADJECTIVES, Etymol. of
--Classes of, named and defined
--Modifications of
--Comparison of, reg.; by adverbs; irreg.
--_Adjectives_ in _able_ and _ible_, (see _Able, Ible_.)
--_Adjectives_, number of, in Eng.
--how have been otherwise called
--how distinguished from nouns
--other parts of speech may become
--MURR., on nouns assuming the nature of
--whether nouns plur. can assume the character of
--_Adjectives_ that cannot be compared
--that are compared by means of adverbs
--(See _Comparison, Comparative Deg._, and _Superlative Deg._)
--_Adjectives_ requiring the article _the_
--denoting place or situation, comparison of
--become adverbs
--use of, for adv., improper
--with prep., ellipt., equivalent to adv.
--poet., for nouns
--do., for adverbs
--_Adjectives_, Synt. of
--do., in what consists
--to what relate
--substituted ellipt. for their abstr. nouns
--relate to nouns or pronouns understood
--used with def. art., ellipt., as nouns
--two or more before a noun, order of
--two, joined by hyphens
--denoting unity or plurality, how agree with their nouns
--connected, position of
--differing in numb., connected without repetition of noun ("ONE _or
more letters_,")
--_much, little_, &c., preceded by _too, how_, &c., taken substantively
--_Adjectives_, punct. of
--derivation of, from nouns, from adjectives, &c.
--poet. peculiarities in respect to
--_Adjective_, taken abstractly with infin. or part.
--following a finite verb, without a noun
--do. an infin. or a part.
--position of, in Eng.
--when may either precede or follow its noun
--Whether _adj._ or adv. is required, how determined
--_Adjective_, one superadded to an other, without conjunc., position
of
--when the figure of, affects the sense, what to be done
--should not be represented by a pronoun
--ellipsis of, shown

_Adjectives, common_, probable numb. of, in Eng.
--enumeration of, according to their endings

_Adjectives, compound_, analogies of their formation, traced
--nouns derived from, generally disapproved

_Adjectives, numeral_, kinds of, named
--Cardinal numb. and its corresponding _numeral_, what denote
--Construction and figure of the _numerals_

_Adjectives, participial_, what words to be referred to the class of
--cannot be construed to govern obj. case

_Adjectives, pronominal_, list of
--which, sometimes used adverbially
--which, sometimes used partitively, appar. as nouns
--without nouns expressed, how parsed
--distribution of, by CHURCH See _Other_, &c.

_Adjectives, proper_, peculiarities of, considered
--rule for initial capital in

_Adjuncts_ of nominative in the agreement of a verb

_Admitting, allowing_, &c., appar. independent, to what may relate

ADVERBS, Etymol. of
--_Adverb_, defined
--_Adverbs_, serve to abbreviate expression
--other classes of words sometimes take the nature of
--appar. take the nat. of other parts of speech
--how distinguished from adjectives
--Classes of, named and defined
--proper classification of, by what indicated
--of time, place, and manner, with what connected; of degree, do.
--_conjunctive_ (see _Conjunctive Adverb_:)
--Modifications of
--number of, in Eng.
--Whether _adverb_ or adjective required, how determined
--_Adverbs_, Synt. of
--in what do. consists
--to what relate
--_Adverb_ before a prep. ("CONSIDERABLY _beyond_,")
--_Adverbs_, whether sometimes qualify nouns
--of participles which become nouns, how managed
--_above, then_, &c., as relating directly to a noun, how parsed
--_Adverbs_, of degree, to what adjectives not applicable
--direct use of, for pronouns, inelegant
--position of
--needless use of, for adjectives
--_hither_, &c., for _here_, &c., with verb of motion
--_hence_, &c., with _from_ prefixed
--_when_, &c., not to follow _is_ in a definition ("_Concord is_ WHEN,"
&c.,)
--_ever_ and _never_, to be carefully distinguished
--in _ly_, when preferable to other forms
--_Adverb_, appar. made object of a prep. ("_At_ ONCE,")
--emphatic, with verb of self-motion suppressed ("_I'll_ HENCE,")
--_Adverb_ HOW, misuse of ("_He said_ HOW," &c.,)
--NO, not to be used in reference to a verb or a part.
--_Adverbial_ form or character, words of, how parsed
--_Adverbs_, punct. of
--_Adverb_, ellips. of, shown
--_Adverbs_, derivation of,
--many common Eng., of Anglo-Sax. origin
--poet. peculiarities in the use of
--peculiar use of those of two syllables in _ly_, by MILT. and his
contemporaries
--_Adverbial phrase_, a needless and improper designation in analysis

_Affectation_ of fine writing, PREC. against

_Ago_ and _since_, difference between

AGREEMENT, of words, defined
--with what synonymous
--_Agreement_, how many of the parts of speech in Eng., incapable of;
none necessary between words unrelated
--as differing from relation
--of words in the same construc., not easy to determine
--rules of, as applied to articles, impertinent
--_Agreements_, syntactical, in Eng., specified
--_Agreement_, general principles of
--figurative, of pronouns with antecedents

_Ah_, sometimes departs from usage

_Alexandrine verse_, description of

_Alias_, for the equivocal _or_, use of, in judicial proceedings

_All_, when may be reckoned a noun

_Allegory_, defined
--_Allegory_ includes most parables of Script., and some fables

_Alphabet_, Eng., names and plur. numb. of the letters
--Hebrew, names and characters of, given,
--Greek, do.
--Latin, names of the letters of, scarcely known even to the learned;
account of its letters
--A _perfect alphabet_ in Eng., what it would effect
--Letters of the _alphabet_, when and how used in the sciences

_Alphabetic writing_, its advantage over the syllabic

_Ambiguous, construc._, with respect to the _class_ of a word
--do., with resp. to the _case_ of a word
--_expressions_, PREC. against

_Amen_, use and import of

_Among_ and _amongst, amid_ and _amidst_, different in sense and construc.
from _between_ and _betwixt_
--incompatible with the distributive _one an other_
--derivation of, from Sax.

_Amphibrach_, defined

_Amphimac, amphimacer_, or _Cretic_, defined.

_An_, conjunc., obsolete for _if_ ("_Nay_, AN _thou 'lt mouthe_," &c.,
SHAK.,)
--derivation of, from Sax.

_An, a_, art., one and the same
--preferable form before a particular sound
--_A_ or _an_ before _genus_
--how commonly limits the sense
--belongs to sing. numb. only
--with adjective of numb.
--its effect upon proper and common nouns
--is without agreem.
--Whether _an_ is from _a_ or _a_ from _an_
--_An, a_, origin of
--of proportion
--with numerals
--by what definitives superseded
--implies unity; sometimes precedes collective noun conveying the idea
of plurality
--present usage of, how differs from that of ancient writers
--use of, before _humble_, and its compounds and derivatives
--erroneous use of, as relating to a plural
--not to be used for _the_, to denote emphat. a whole kind

_Analysis_, "to analyze a sentence," what
--_Analysis_ of sentences shown in five different methods; which method
BROWN calls "the best and most thorough"
--_Analysis_, notices of the different methods of
--importance of, in teaching grammar; the truest method of, _parsing_

_Anapest_, defined

_Anapestic verse_, treated
--what syll. of, has stress; first foot of, how may be varied
--what variation of, produces composite verse
--whether a surplus syll. in, may compensate for a deficient one
--what number of syllables in the longest measure of
--_Anapestic verse_ shown in its four measures
--_Anapestic_, measures, why few
--_poetry_, pieces in general short
--(instance of a long piece, L. HUNT'S "Feast of the Poets,")

_And_, discriminated from _or_
--when preferable to _with, or_, or _nor_
--whether emphatic of word or phrase following it ("_Part pays_, AND
_justly_;" &c., POPE,)
--derivation of, from Sax.

_Anglo-Saxon_ dialect, and accessions thereto, as forming the modern Eng.
lang.

_An other_, see _Other_

_Antecedent_, proper sense of the term
--sometimes placed after its pronoun
--sometimes doubly restricted
--of pron., applied figuratively
--sing., with the adj. _many_, and a plur. pron.
--suppressed
--_Antecedents_ of different persons, numbers, and genders,
disjunctively connected, how represented
--joint, agreem. of pron. in ellipt. construct. of

_Antibacchy_, or _hypobacchy_, defined

_Antiquated_ words and modes of expression, more frequent in poetry than in
prose

_Antithesis_, defined

_Aorist_, or indefinite, may be applied to imperf. tense pot. and subjunc.

_Aphaeresis_, defined

_Apocope_, defined

_Apophasis_, or _paralipsis_, explained

_Apostrophe_, mark, what denotes; for what sometimes used
--at what period introduced into the poss. case _Apostrophe_, figure,
defined

_Apposition_, Synt.
--agreement between words in
--_Apposition_, what, and from whom received this name
--different from _same cases_ put after verbs and participles not
trans.; false teachings of MURR. _et al_. hereon
--the rule for, to _which_ apposed term applied; whether words in,
should be parsed separately
--common rule and definition of, wherein faulty
--which word of, the _explanatory_ term; _when_ explan. word placed
_first_
--in what case of, either word may be taken as the explan. term,
--why two possessive words cannot be in
--two or more nouns in, where sign of possession put
--whether compat. with, to supply relative and verb between the apposed
words
--_Apposition_, appar., of noun without poss. sign, _with_ pron.
possess. ("YOUR _success as an_ INSTRUCTER,")
--noun or pron. emphat. repeated ("_Cisterns, broken_ CISTERNS," &c.,)
--appar., of a noun to a sentence
--of words differing in numb. ("_Go_ YE _every_ MAN,")
--of proper nouns with appellatives ("_The river_ THAMES,")
--act. verb followed by two words in
--whether requires any other agreem. than that of cases
--words in, punct. of
--of a common with a prop. name, use of capital lett.

_Archaism_, what

_Aristotle_, division of the Greek letters
--what neoterics wiser than; how considers the compounding or
non-compounding of terms

_Arithmetical_ numbers, relation of the terms in

ARRANGEMENT of words, term defined
--_Arrang_. of words, of what importance in synt.; whether it affects
the method of parsing words

ARTICLES, Etymol. of
--_Article_, defined
--_Article_, common noun without; Eng. nouns without, taken
indefinitely partitive
--words of mere _being_, used without
--_Articles_, how often inserted
--needless, to be omitted
--Classes of, named and defined
--Modificat. (_an_ short, to _a_, the only,)
--_Articles_, the frequent use of; freq. misapplication of
--to be distinguished from adjectives, and from each other
--appar. used for adverbs
--_Article_, Eng., its demonstrative character
--do., compared with the Gr. def. art.; no rule for _agreement of_,
appropriate in Eng.
--use of, before names of rivers

Book of the day: