Part 46 out of 54
_Moray's_ silver star, _Wave_ o'er the cloud of Saxon war, That up the lake
_comes_ winding far!"--_Scott's Lady of the Lake_, p. 162. "Each _beast_,
each insect, happy in its own."--_Pope, on Man_, Ep. i, l. 185. "_And he
that is_ learning to arrange _his_ sentences with accuracy and order, _is_
learning, at the same time, to think with accuracy and order."--_Blair's
Lect._, p. 120. "We, then, as workers together with _him_, beseech you also
that ye receive not the grace of God in vain."--_2 Cor._, vi, 1. "And on
the _boundless_ of thy goodness calls."--_Young's Last Day_, B. ii, l. 320.
"Knowledge dwells In heads replete with thoughts of other men; Wisdom, in
minds _attentive_ to their own."--_Cowper's Task_, B. vi, l. 90. "_O_! let
me listen to the _words_ of life!"--_Thomson's Paraphrase on Matt_. vi.
"Save that, from yonder ivy-mantled _tower_." &c.--_Gray's Elegy_, l. 9.
"_Weighs_ the _men's_ wits against the _Lady's hair_."--_Pope's Rape of the
Lock_, Canto v, l. 72. "_Till_ the publication of _Dr_. Lowth's _small
Introduction_, the grammatical study of our language formed no part of the
ordinary method of instruction."--_Hiley's Preface_, p. vi. "Let there be
no strife, _I pray thee, between_ me and thee."--_Gen._, xiii, 8.
"What! canst thou not _forbear_ me half an hour?"--_Shakspeare_.
"Till then who knew the force of those dire _arms_?"--_Milton_.
"In words, as fashions, the _same_ rule will hold;
Alike fantastic, if too new or old:
Be not the first by whom the new _are_ tried
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside."--_Pope, on Criticism_, l. 333.
UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XIII.--OF AWKWARDNESS.
"They slew Varus, _whom_ I mentioned before."--_L. Murray cor._ "Maria
rejected Valerius, _whom_ she had rejected before." Or: "Maria rejected
Valerius _a second time_."--_Id._ "_In_ the English _language, nouns have_
but two different terminations for cases."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 64.
"Socrates and Plato were _the wisest men, and_ the most eminent
philosophers _in_ Greece."--_Buchanan's Gram._, Pref., p. viii. "Whether
more than one were concerned in the business, does not yet appear." Or:
"_How many_ were concerned in the business, does not yet appear."--_L.
Murray cor._ "And that, consequently, the verb _or_ pronoun agreeing with
it, _can never_ with propriety be used in the plural number."--_Id. et al.
cor._ "A second help may be, _frequent_ and _free converse_ with _others_
of your own sex who are like minded."--_Wesley cor._ "Four of the
_semivowels_, namely, _l, m, n_, and _r_, are _termed_ LIQUIDS, _on account
of the fluency of_ their sounds."--See _Brown's Inst._, p. 16. "Some
conjunctions _are used in pairs_, so that _one_ answers to _an other, as
its regular_ correspondent."--_Lowth et al. cor._ "The mutes are those
consonants whose sounds cannot be protracted; the _semivowels have
imperfect_ sounds _of their own_, which can be continued at
pleasure."--_Murray et al. cor._ "HE _and_ SHE _are_ sometimes used as
_nouns_, and, _as such, are_ regularly declined: as, 'The _hes_ in
birds.'--BACON. 'The _shes_ of Italy.'--SHAK."--_Churchill cor._ "The
separation of a preposition from the word which it governs, is [censured by
some writers, as being improper."--_C. Adams cor._ "The word WHOSE,
_according to some critics, should_ be restricted to persons; but good
writers _still occasionally_ use it _with reference to_
things."--_Priestley et al. cor._ "New and surpassing wonders present
themselves to our _view_."--_Sherlock cor._ "The degrees of comparison are
often _inaccurately_ applied and construed."--_Alger's Murray_. Or:
"_Passages_ are often found in which the degrees of comparison _have not an
accurate construction_."--_Campbell cor._; also _Murray et al_. "The _sign
of possession_ is placed too _far from the name_, to _form a construction
that is_ either perspicuous or agreeable."--_L. Murray cor._ "_The simple
tenses_ are those which are formed _by_ the principal verb without an
auxiliary."--_Id._ "The _more intimate_ men _are_, the more _they affect
one another's happiness_."--_Id._ "This is the machine that he
_invented_."--_Nixon cor._ "To give this sentence the interrogative form,
_we must express it_ thus." Or: "This sentence, _to have_ the interrogative
form, should be expressed thus."--_L. Murray cor._ "Never employ words
_that are_ susceptible of a sense different from _that which_ you intend
_to convey_."--_Hiley cor._ "Sixty pages are occupied in explaining what,
according to the ordinary method, would not require more than ten or
twelve."--_Id._ "The participle in _ing_ always expresses action,
suffering, or being, as continuing, _or in progress_."--_Bullions cor._
"The _first_ participle of all active verbs, has _usually_ an active
signification; as, 'James is _building_ the house.' _Often_, however, it
_takes_ a passive _meaning_; as, '_The house is building_.'"--_Id._
"_Previously_ to parsing this sentence, the young pupil may be _taught to
analyze_ it, by such questions as the following: viz."--_Id._ "_Since_ that
period, however, attention has been paid to this important subject."--_Id.
and Hiley cor._ "A definition of a word is _a brief_ explanation _of_ what
_it means_."--G. BROWN: _Hiley cor._
UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XIV.--OF IGNORANCE.
"What is _a verb_? It is _a word_ which signifies _to be, to act_, or _to
be acted upon_." Or thus: "What is an _assertor_? Ans. 'One who affirms
positively; an affirmer, supporter, or vindicator.'--WEBSTER'S
DICT."--_Peirce cor._ "Virgil wrote the _AEneid_."--_Kirkham cor._ "Which,
to a supercilious or inconsiderate _native of Japan_, would seem very idle
and impertinent."--_Locke cor._ "Will not a look of disdain cast upon you
throw you into a _ferment_?"--_Say cor._ "Though only the conjunction _if_
is _here set before_ the verb, there are several others, (as _that, though,
lest, unless, except_,) which may be _used with_ the subjunctive
mood."--_L. Murray cor._ "When proper names have an article _before_ them,
they are used as common names."--_Id. et al. cor._ "When a proper noun has
an article _before_ it, it is used as a common noun."--_Merchant cor._
"Seeming to _rob_ the death-field of its terrors."--_Id._ "For the same
reason, we might, without any _detriment_ to the language, dispense with
the terminations of our verbs in the singular."--_Kirkham cor._ "It
_removes_ all possibility of being misunderstood."--_Abbott cor._
"Approximation to _perfection_ is all that we can expect."--_Id._ "I have
often joined in singing with _musicians_ at Norwich."--_Gardiner cor._
"When not standing in regular _prosaic_ order." Or:--"in _the_ regular
order _of prose_."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "_Regardless_ of the dogmas and
edicts of the philosophical umpire."--_Kirkham cor._ "Others begin to talk
before their mouths are open, _prefixing_ the mouth-closing M to most of
their words; as, '_M-yes_,' for '_Yes_.'"--_Gardiner cor._ "That noted
close of his '_esse videatur_,' exposed him to censure among his
_contemporaries_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "A man's _own is_ what he _has, or
possesses by right; the word own_ being a past participle of _the_ verb _to
owe_, which formerly signified _to have or possess_."--_Kirkham cor._ "As
requires so; expressing a comparison of _manner_; as, '_As_ the one dieth,
_so_ dieth the other.'"--_L. Mur. et al. cor._ "To obey our parents, is _an
obvious_ duty."--_Parker and Fox cor._ "_Almost_ all the political papers
of the kingdom have touched upon these things."--_H. C. Wright cor._ "I
shall take _the liberty_ to make a few observations on the
subject."--_Hiley cor._ "His loss I have endeavoured to supply, _so_ far as
_by_ additional vigilance and industry _I could_."--_Id._ "That they should
make vegetation so _exuberant_ as to anticipate every want."--_Frazee cor._
"The _guillemets_, or _quotation points_, [""] denote that one or more
words are extracted from an other author."--_P. E. Day cor._ "_Nineveh, the
capital of_ Assyria, _was one_ of the most noted cities of ancient
_times_."--_Id._ "It may, however, be rendered definite by _the mention of_
some _particular_ time; as, yesterday, last week, &c."--_Bullions cor._
"The last is called heroic measure, and is the same that is used by Milton,
Young, _Thomson, Pollok_. &c."--_Id._ "_Perennial_ ones must be sought in
the delightful regions above."--_Hallock cor._ "Intransitive verbs are
those which are _inseparable_ from the effect produced." Or better:
"Intransitive verbs are those which _express action without governing an
object_."--_Cutler cor._ "_The Feminine_ gender belongs to women, and
animals of the female kind."--_Id._ "_Wo_ unto you, scribes and
_Pharisees_, hypocrites!"--ALGER'S BIBLE: _Luke_, xi, 44. "A _pyrrhic_,
which has both its syllables short."--_Day cor._ "What kind of _jessamine_?
A _jessamine_ in flower, or a flowery _jessamine_."--_Barrett cor._
"LANGUAGE, _a word_ derived from LINGUA, the tongue, _now signifies any
series of sounds or letters formed into words, and used for the expression
of thought_."--_Id._ See _this Gram. of E. Grammars_, p. 145. "Say
'_none_,' not '_ne'er a one_.'"--_Staniford cor._ "'_E'er a one_,' [is
sometimes used for '_any_'] or '_either_.'"--_Pond cor._
"Earth loses thy _pattern_ for ever and aye;
O sailor-boy! sailor-boy! peace to thy soul."
"His brow was sad; his eye beneath
Flashed like a _falchion_ from its sheath."
--_Longfellow's Ballads_, p. 129.
[Fist] [The examples exhibited for exercises under Critical Notes 15th and
16th, being judged either incapable of correction, or unworthy of the
endeavour, are submitted to the criticism of the reader, without any
attempt to amend them, or to offer substitutes in this place.]
PROMISCUOUS CORRECTIONS OF FALSE SYNTAX.
LESSON I.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.
"_Why is_ our language less refined than that of Italy, Spain, or
France?"--_L. Murray cor. "Why is_ our language less refined than _the
French_?"--_Ingersoll cor._ "I believe your Lordship will agree with me, in
the reason why our language is less refined than _that_ of Italy, Spain, or
France."--_Swift cor._ "Even in this short sentence, 'why our language is
less refined than _those_ of Italy, Spain, or France,' we may discern an
inaccuracy; the _pronominal adjective 'those'_ is made plural, when the
substantive to which it refers, or the thing for which it stands, 'the
_language_ of Italy, Spain, or France,' is singular."--_Dr. H. Blair cor._
"The sentence _would_ have run much better in this way:--'why our language
is less refined than the Italian, _the_ Spanish, or _the_ French.'"--_Id._
"But when arranged in an entire sentence, _as_ they must be to make a
complete sense, they show it still more evidently."--_L. Murray cor._ "This
is a more artificial and refined construction, than that in which the
common connective is simply _used_."--_Id._ "_I_ shall present _to_ the
reader a list of _certain_ prepositions _or prefixes_, which are derived
from the Latin and Greek languages."--_Id. "A relative sometimes
comprehends_ the meaning of a _personal_ pronoun and a copulative
conjunction."--_Id._ "Personal pronouns, being used to supply the _places_
of nouns, are not _often_ employed in the same _clauses with_ the _nouns_
which they represent."--_Id. and Smith cor._ "There is very seldom any
occasion for a substitute where the principal word is present."--_L. Mur.
cor._ "We hardly consider little children as persons, because _the_ term
_person_ gives us the idea of reason, _or intelligence_."--_Priestley et
al. cor._ "The _occasions_ for exerting these _two_ qualities _are_
different."--_Dr. Blair et al. cor._ "I'll tell you _with whom_ time ambles
withal, _with whom_ time trots withal, _with whom_ time gallops withal, and
_with whom_ he stands still withal. I pray thee, _with whom_ doth he trot
withal?"--_Buchanan's Gram._, p. 122. "By greatness, I mean, _not_ the bulk
of any single object _only_ but the largeness of a whole view."--_Addison
cor._ "The question may then be put, What _more_ does he than mean?"--_Dr.
Blair cor._ "The question might be put, What more does he than
mean?"--_Id._ "He is surprised to find himself _at_ so great a distance
from the object with which he _set_ out."--_Id._; also _Murray cor._ "Few
rules can be given which will hold _good_ in all cases."--_Lowth and Mur.
cor._ "Versification is the arrangement of _words into metrical lines_,
according to the laws _of verse_."--_Johnson cor._ "Versification is the
arrangement _of words into rhythmical lines of some particular length, so
as to produce harmony by the regular alternation of syllables differing in
quantity_."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "_Amelia's_ friend Charlotte, to whom
no one imputed blame, was too prompt in her own vindication."--_L. Murray
cor._ "Mr. Pitt's joining _of_ the war party in 1793, the most striking and
the most fatal instance of this offence, is the one which at once presents
itself."--_Brougham cor._ "To the framing _of_ such a sound constitution of
mind."--_Lady cor._ "'I beseech you,' said St. Paul to his Ephesian
converts, 'that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called.'
"--See _Eph._, iv, 1. "So as to prevent _it from_ being equal to
that."--_Booth cor._ "When speaking of an _action_ as being performed." Or:
"When speaking of _the performance of an action_."--_Id._ "And, in all
questions of _actions_ being so performed, _est_ is added _for_ the second
person."--_Id._ "No account can be given of this, _but_ that custom has
blinded their eyes." Or: "No _other_ account can be given of this, _than_
that custom has blinded their eyes."--_Dymond cor._
"Design, or chance, _makes_ others wive;
But nature did this match contrive."--_Waller cor._
LESSON II.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.
"I suppose each of you _thinks_ it is _his_ own nail."--_Abbott cor._ "They
are useless, _because they are_ apparently based upon this
supposition."--_Id._ "The form, _or_ manner, in which this plan may be
adopted is various."--_Id. "The_ making _of_ intellectual effort, and _the_
acquiring _of_ knowledge, are always pleasant to the human mind."--_Id._
"This will do more than the best lecture _that_ ever was delivered."--_Id.
"The_ doing _of_ easy things is generally dull work."--_Id._ "Such _are_
the tone and manner of some teachers."--_Id._ "Well, the fault is, _that
some one was_ disorderly at prayer time."--_Id._ "Do you remember _to have
spoken_ on this subject in school?"--_Id._ "The course above recommended,
is not _the_ trying _of_ lax and inefficient measures"--_Id._ "Our
community _agree_ that there is a God."--_Id._ "It prevents _them from_
being interested in what is said."--_Id._ "We will also suppose that I call
an other boy to me, _whom_ I have reason to believe to be a sincere
Christian."--_Id._ "Five _minutes'_ notice is given by the bell."--_Id._
"The Annals of Education _give_ notice of it." Or: "The _work entitled_
'Annals of Education' _gives_ notice of it."--_Id. "Teachers'_ meetings
will be interesting and useful."--_Id._ "She thought _a_ half hour's study
would conquer all the difficulties."--_Id._ "The difference between an
honest and _a_ hypocritical confession."--_Id._ "There is no point of
attainment _at which_ we must stop."--_Id._ "Now six _hours' service_ is as
much as is expected of teachers."--_Id._ "How _many_ are seven times
nine?"--_Id._ "Then the reckoning proceeds till it _comes_ to ten
hundred."--_Frost cor._ "Your success will depend on your own exertions;
see, then, that you _be_ diligent."--_Id._ "Subjunctive Mood, Present
Tense: If I _be_ known, If thou _be_ known, If he _be_ known;" &c.--_Id._
"If I be loved, If thou be loved, If he be loved;" &c.--_Frost right._ "An
Interjection is a word used to express sudden emotion. _Interjections_ are
so called because they are generally thrown in between the parts of
_discourse_, without any reference to the structure of _those_
parts."--_Frost cor._ "The _Cardinal numbers_ are those which _simply tell
how many_; as, one, two, three."--_Id._ "More than one organ _are_
concerned in the utterance of almost every consonant." Or thus: "More
_organs_ than one _are_ concerned in the utterance of almost _any_
consonant."--_Id._ "To extract from them all the terms _which_ we _use_ in
our divisions and subdivisions of the art."--_Holmes cor._ "And there
_were_ written therein lamentations, and mourning, and woe."--_Bible cor._
"If I were to be judged as to my behaviour, compared with that of
_John_."--_Whiston's Jos. cor._ "The preposition _to_, signifying _in order
to_, was anciently preceded by _for_; as, 'What went ye out _for to
see?_'"--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 184. "This makes the proper perfect tense,
which in English is always expressed by the auxiliary verb _have; as_, 'I
have written.'"--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Indeed, in the formation of character,
personal exertion is the first, the second, and the third
_virtue_."--_Sanders cor._ "The reducing _of_ them to the condition of the
beasts that perish."--_Dymond cor._ "Yet this affords no reason to deny
that the nature of the gift is the same, or that both are divine." Or: "Yet
this affords no reason to _aver_ that the nature of the gift is not the
same, or that both are not divine."--_Id._ "If God _has_ made known his
will."--_Id._ "If Christ _has_ prohibited them, nothing else can prove them
right."--_Id._ "That the taking _of_ them is wrong, every man who simply
consults his own heart, will know."--_Id._ "_From these evils the world_
would be spared, if one did not write."--_Id._ "It is in a great degree our
own _fault_."--_Id._ "It is worthy _of_ observation, that lesson-learning
is nearly excluded."--_Id._ "Who spares the aggressor's life, even to the
endangering _of_ his own."--_Id._ "Who advocates the taking _of_ the life
of an aggressor."--_Id._ "And thence up to the intentionally and
_voluntarily_ fraudulent."--_Id._ "And the contention was so _sharp
between_ them, that they departed asunder one from _the_ other."--SCOTT'S,
FRIENDS', ALGER'S, BRUCE'S BIBLE, AND OTHERS: _Acts_, xv, 39. "Here the man
is John, and John is the man; so the words are _imagination_ and _fancy;
but THE imagination_ and THE fancy are _not words_: they are intellectual
powers."--_Rev. M. Harrison cor._ "The article, which is here so emphatic
in the Greek, is _quite forgotten_ in our translation."--_Id._ "We have no
_fewer_ than _twenty-four_ pronouns."--_Id._ "It will admit of a pronoun
joined to it."--_Id._ "From intercourse and from conquest, all the
languages of Europe participate _one_ with _an_ other."--_Id._ "It is not
always necessity, therefore, that has been the cause of our introducing
_of_ terms derived from the classical languages."--_Id._ "The man of genius
stamps upon it any impression that pleases _him_." Or: "any impression that
he _chooses_."--_Id._ "The proportion of names ending in SON
_preponderates_ greatly among the Dano-Saxon population of the
North."--_Id._ "As a proof of the strong similarity between the English
_language_ and the Danish."--_Id._ "A century from the time _when_ (or _at
which_) Hengist and Horsa landed on the Isle of Thanet."--_Id._
"I saw the colours waving in the wind,
And _them_ within, to mischief how combin'd."--_Bunyan cor._
LESSON III.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.
"A ship excepted: of _which_ we say, '_She_ sails well.'"--_Jonson cor._
"Honesty is reckoned _of_ little worth."--_Lily cor._ "Learn to esteem life
as _you_ ought."--_Dodsley cor._ "As the soundest health is less perceived
than the lightest malady, so the highest joy toucheth us less _sensibly_
than the smallest sorrow."--_Id._ "_Youth_ is no apology for
_frivolousness_."--_Whiting cor._ "The porch was _of_ the same width as the
temple."--_Milman cor._ "The other tribes contributed _neither_ to his rise
_nor to his_ downfall."--_Id._ "His whole religion, _with all its laws_,
would have been shaken to its foundation."--_Id._ "The English has most
commonly been neglected, and children _have been_ taught only _in_ the
Latin syntax."--_J. Ward cor._ "They are not _noticed_ in the notes."--
_Id._ "He walks in righteousness, doing what he would _have others do to
him_."--_Fisher cor._ "They stand _independent_ of the rest of the
sentence."--_Ingersoll cor._ "My uncle _and_ his son were in town
yesterday."--_Lennie cor._ "She _and_ her sisters are well."--_Id._ "His
purse, with its contents, _was_ abstracted from his pocket."--_Id._ "The
great constitutional feature of this institution being, that directly
_after_ the acrimony of the last election is over, the acrimony of the next
begins."--_Dickens cor._ "His disregarding _of_ his parents' advice has
brought him into disgrace."--_Farnum cor._ "Can you tell me _why_ his
father _made_ that remark?"--_Id._ "_Why does_ our teacher _detain_ us so
long?"--_Id._ "I am certain _that_ the boy said so."--_Id._ "WHICH means
any thing or things before named; and THAT may represent any person or
persons, thing or things, _that_ have been speaking, spoken to, or spoken
of."--_Perley cor._ "A certain number of syllables _occurring in a
particular order_, form a foot. _Poetic feet_ are so called because it is
by their aid that the voice, as it were, steps along."--_L. Murray et al.
cor._ "_Questions asked by_ a principal verb _only_--as, _'Teach I?' 'Burns
he?'_ &c.,--are _archaisms_, and now _peculiar to the poets_."--_A. Murray
cor._ "Tell whether the 18th, _the_ 19th, _the_ 20th, _the_ 21st, _the_
22d, or _the_ 23d _rule is_ to be used, and repeat the rule."--_Parker and
Fox cor._ "The resolution was adopted without much deliberation, _and
consequently_ caused great dissatisfaction." Or: "The resolution, _which_
caused great dissatisfaction, was adopted without much deliberation."--
_Iid._ "The man is now much _noticed_ by the people thereabouts."--_Webb's
Edward's Gram. cor._ "The sand prevents _them from_ sticking to one an
other."--_Id._ "Defective verbs are those which are used only in some of
_the_ moods and tenses."--_Greenleaf's Gram., p. 29; Ingersoll's, 121;
Smith's, 90; Merchant's, 64; Nutting's, 68; L. Murray, Guy, Russell, Bacon,
Frost, Alger, S. Putnam, Goldsbury, Felton, et al. cor._ "Defective verbs
are those which want some of _the_ moods _or_ tenses."--_Lennie et al.
cor._ "Defective verbs want some of _the_ parts _common to other
verbs_."--_Bullions cor._ "A Defective verb is one that wants some of _the_
parts _common to verbs_."--_Id._ "To the irregular verbs _may_ be added the
defective; which are not only irregular, but also wanting in some
parts."--_Lowth cor._ "To the irregular verbs _may_ be added the defective;
which are not only wanting in some parts, but are, when inflected,
irregular."--_Churchill cor._ "When two or more nouns _occur together_ in
the possessive case."--_Farnum cor._ "When several short sentences _come
together_"--_Id._ "Words are divided into ten classes, called Parts of
Speech."--_L. Ainsworth cor._ "A passive verb has its agent or doer always
in the objective case, governed by a preposition."--_Id._ "I am surprised
at your _inattention_."--_Id._ "SINGULAR: Thou lovest, _not_ You love.
_You_ has always a plural verb."--_Bullions cor._ "How do you know that
love is _of_ the first person? Ans. Because _we, the pronoun_, is _of_ the
first _person_."--_Id. and Lennie cor._ "The lowing herd _winds_ slowly
_o'er_ the lea."--_Gray's Elegy_, l. 2: _Bullions cor._ "Iambic verses have
_their_ second, fourth, and other even syllables accented."--_Bullions
cor._ "Contractions _that_ are not allowable in prose, are often made in
poetry."--_Id._ "Yet to their general's voice they _soon obey'd_"--
_Milton_. "It never presents to his mind _more than_ one new subject at the
same time."--_Felton cor._ "An _abstract noun_ is the name of some
particular quality considered apart from its substance."--_Brown's Inst. of
E. Gram._, p. 32. "_A noun is of_ the first person when _it denotes the
speaker_."--_Felton cor._ "Which of the two brothers _is a graduate_?"--
_Hallock cor._ "I am a linen-draper bold, As all the world doth
know."--_Cowper_. "_Oh_ the _pain_, the _bliss_ of dying!"--_Pope_. "This
do; take _to_ you censers, _thou_, Korah, and all _thy_ company."--_Bible
cor._ "There are _three_ participles; the _imperfect, the perfect_, and
_the preperfect_: as, reading, read, having read. Transitive verbs have an
_active and passive_ participle: that is, their form for the perfect is
sometimes active, and sometimes passive; as, _read_, or _loved_."--_S. S.
"O _Heav'n_, in my connubial hour decree
_My spouse this man_, or such a _man_ as he."--_Pope cor._
LESSON IV.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.
"The past tenses (of Hiley's subjunctive mood) represent conditional past
_facts_ or _events_, of which the speaker is uncertain."--_Hiley cor._
"Care also should be taken that they _be_ not introduced too
abundantly."--_Id._ "Till they _have_ become familiar to the mind." Or:
"Till they _become_ familiar to the mind."--_Id._ "When once a particular
arrangement and phraseology _have_ become familiar to the mind."--_Id._ "I
have furnished the student with the plainest and most practical directions
_that_ I could devise."--_Id._ "When you are conversant with the Rules of
Grammar, you will be qualified to commence the study of Style."--_Id._ "_C
before e, i, or y, always_ has a soft sound, like _s_."--_L. Murray cor._
"_G_ before _e, i, or y_, is _generally_ soft; as in _genius, ginger,
Egypt_."--_Id._ "_C_ before _e, i, or y, always_ sounds soft, like
_s_."--_Hiley cor._ "_G_ is _generally_ soft before _e, i, or y_; as in
_genius, ginger, Egypt_."--_Id._ "A perfect alphabet must always contain
_just_ as many letters as there are elementary sounds in the language: the
English alphabet, _having fewer letters than sounds, and sometimes more
than one letter for the same sound_, is both defective and
redundant."--_Id._ "A common _noun is a name_, given to a whole class or
species, and _is_ applicable to every individual of that class."--_Id._
"Thus an adjective has _usually_ a noun either expressed or
understood."--_Id._ "Emphasis is _extraordinary force used in the
enunciation of such words as we wish to make prominent in discourse_." Or:
"Emphasis is _a peculiar stress of voice, used in the utterance of words
specially significant_."--_Dr. H. Blair cor._; also _L. Murray_. "_So_
simple _a_ question as. 'Do you ride to town to-day?' is capable of _as
many as_ four different acceptations, _the sense varying_ as the emphasis
is differently placed."--_Iid._ "Thus, _bravely, for_ 'in a brave manner.'
is derived from _brave-like_."--_Hiley cor._ "In _this_ manner, _several_
different parts of speech are _often_ formed from _one root_ by means of
_different affixes_."--_Id._ "Words derived from _the same root_, are
always more or less allied in signification."--_Id._ "When a noun of
multitude conveys _the idea of unity_, the verb and pronoun should be
singular; but when it conveys _the idea of plurality_, the verb and pronoun
must be plural."--_Id._ "They have spent their whole time to make the
sacred chronology agree with the profane."--_Id._ "I have studied my
lesson, but you have not _looked at yours_."--_Id._ "When words _are
connected_ in pairs, there is _usually_ a comma _after_ each pair."--
_Hiley, Bullions, and Lennie, cor._ "When words _are connected_ in pairs,
the pairs should be marked by the comma."--_Farnum cor._ "His _book
entitled_, 'Studies of Nature,' is deservedly a popular work."--_Biog.
"Here _rests_ his head _upon the lap of earth_,
A youth to Fortune and to Fame unknown."--GRAY.
"'_Youth_,' here, is in the _nominative case_, (the verb '_rests_' being,
in this instance, _transitive_,) and is _the subject of the sentence_. The
meaning is, '_A youth here rests his head_,' &c."--_Hart cor._ "The pronoun
_I, as well as_ the interjection _O_, should be written with a capital."
Or: "The pronoun _I, and_ the interjection _O_, should be written with
_capitals_"--_Weld cor._ "The pronoun _I_ should _always_ be written with a
capital."--_Id._ "He went from _London_ to York."--_Id._ "An adverb is a
_word added_ to _a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an_ other _adverb_,
to modify _its_ meaning."--_Id._ (See Lesson 1st under the General Rule.)
"SINGULAR signifies, '_expressing only one;' denoting but_ one person or
thing. PLURAL, (Latin _pluralis_, from _plus_, more,) signifies,
'_expressing_ more than one.'"--_Weld cor._ "When the present ends in _e,
d_ only is added to form the imperfect _tense_ and _the_ perfect participle
of regular verbs."--_Id._ "Synaeresis is the contraction of two syllables
into one; as, _seest_ for _seest, drowned_ for _drown-ed_."--_Id._ (See
_Brown's Inst_. p. 230.) "Words ending in _ee are often inflected by mere
consonants, and without_ receiving an additional syllable beginning with
_e_: as, _see, seest, sees; agree, agreed, agrees_."--_Weld cor._ "_In_
monosyllables, final _f, l_, or _s_, preceded by a single vowel, _is_
doubled; as in _staff, mill, grass_."--_Id._ "_Before ing_, words ending
_in ie_ drop the _e_, and _change the i into y; as, die, dying_."--_Id._"
One number may be used for _the_ other--_or, rather, the plural may be used
for the singular_; as, _we_ for _I, you_ for _thou_."--_S. S. Greene cor._
"STR~OB'ILE, _n._ A pericarp made up of scales that lie _one over an
"Yet ever, from the clearest source, _hath run_
Some gross _alloy_, some tincture of the man."--_Lowth cor._
LESSON V.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.
"The possessive case is _usually_ followed by _a_ noun, _expressed or
understood_, which is the name of the thing possessed."--_Felton cor._
"Hadmer of Aggstein was as pious, devout, and praying a Christian, as _was_
Nelson, Washington, or Jefferson; or as _is_ Wellington, Tyler, Clay, or
Polk."--_H. C. Wright cor._ "A word in the possessive case is not an
independent noun, and cannot stand by _itself_."--_J. W. Wright cor._ "Mary
is not handsome, but she is good-natured; _and good-nature_ is better than
beauty."--_St. Quentin cor._ "After the practice of joining _all_ words
together had ceased, _a note_ of distinction _was placed_ at the end of
every word."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "Neither Henry nor Charles
_dissipates_ his time."--_Hallock cor._ "'He had taken from the _Christians
above_ thirty small castles.' KNOLLES:"--_Brown's Institutes_, p. 200;
_Johnson's Quarto Dict., w. What._ "In _what_ character Butler was
admitted, is unknown." Or: "In _whatever_ character Butler was admitted,
_that character_ is unknown."--_Hallock cor._ "How _are_ the agent of a
passive and the object of an active verb often left?"--_Id._ "By SUBJECT,
is meant the word of _whose object_ something is declared." Or: "By
SUBJECT, is meant the word _which has_ something declared of _the thing
signified_."--_Chandler cor._ "Care should also be taken that _a
transitive_ verb _be_ not used _in stead_ of a _neuter or intransitive_;
as, _lay_ for _lie, raise_ for _rise, set_ for _sit_, &c."--_Id._ "On them
_depends_ the duration of our Constitution and our country."--_Calhoun
cor._ "In the present sentence, neither the sense nor the measure
_requires_ WHAT."--_Chandler cor._ "The Irish thought themselves oppressed
by the _law_ that forbid them to draw with their _horses'
tails_."--_Brightland cor._ "_So and willingly_ are adverbs. _So_ is _an_
adverb of _degree_, and qualifies _willingly. Willingly_ is an adverb of
_manner_, and qualifies _deceives_."--_Cutler cor._ "Epicurus, for
_experiment's_ sake, confined himself to a narrower diet than that of the
severest prisons."--_Id._ "Derivative words are such as are _formed from_
other words _by prefixes or suffixes_; as, _injustice, goodness,
falsehood_."--_Id._ "The distinction here insisted on is as old as
Aristotle, and should not be lost _from_ sight." Or: "and _it_ should
_still_ be _kept in view_."--_Hart cor._ "The Tenses of the Subjunctive and
Potential Moods." Or: "The Tenses of the Subjunctive and _the_ Potential
Mood."--_Id._ "A triphthong is a union of three vowels, uttered _by a
single impulse of the voice_; as, _uoy_ in _buoy_"--_Pardon Davis cor._ "A
common _noun is_ the _name_ of a species or kind."--_Id._ "The superlative
degree _implies_ a comparison _either_ between _two_ or _among_
more."--_Id._ "An adverb is a word serving to give an additional idea _to_
a verb, _a participle, an adjective_, or _an other_ adverb."--_Id._ "When
several nouns in the possessive case _occur in succession_, each showing
possession _of things_ of the same _sort_, it is _generally_ necessary to
add the sign of the possessive case to _each of them_: as, 'He sells
_men's, women's_, and children's shoes.'--'_Dogs', cats'_, and _tigers'_
feet are digitated.'"--_Id._ "'A _rail-road_ is _being made_,' should be,
'A _railroad_ is _making_;' 'A _school-house_ is _being built_,' should be,
'A _schoolhouse_ is _building_.'"--_Id._ "Auxiliaries _are_ of themselves
verbs; _yet_ they resemble, in their character and use, those terminational
or other inflections _which_, in other languages, _serve_ to express the
action in the _mood_, tense, _person_, and _number_ desired."--_Id._
"Please _to_ hold my horse while I speak to my friend."--_Id._ "If I say,
'Give me _the_ book,' I _demand_ some particular book."--_Noble Butler
cor._ "_Here_ are five men."--_Id._ "_After_ the active _verb_, the object
may be omitted; _after_ the passive, the name of the agent may be
omitted."--_Id._ "The Progressive and Emphatic forms give, in each case, a
different shade of meaning to the verb."--_Hart cor._ "THAT _may be called_
a Redditive Conjunction, when it answers to so _or_ SUCH."--_Ward cor._ "He
attributes to negligence your _want of success_ in that business."--_Smart
cor._ "_Do_ WILL and GO express but _one_ action?" Or: "_Does_ '_will go_'
express but _one_ action?"--_Barrett cor._ "Language is the _principal_
vehicle of thought."--_G. Brown's Inst., Pref._, p. iii. "_Much_ is applied
to things weighed or measured; _many_, to those that are numbered. _Elder_
and _eldest_ _are applied_ to persons only; _older_ and _oldest_, to
_either_ persons or things."--_Bullions cor._ "If there are any old maids
still extant, while _misogynists_ are so rare, the fault must be
attributable to themselves."--_Kirkham cor._ "The second method, used by
the Greeks, has never been the practice of any _other people_ of
Europe."--_Sheridan cor._ "Neither consonant nor vowel _is_ to be dwelt
upon beyond _its_ common quantity, when _it closes_ a sentence." Or:
"Neither _consonants_ nor _vowels_ are to be dwelt upon beyond their common
quantity, when they close a sentence." Or, better thus: "Neither _a_
consonant nor _a_ vowel, when _it closes_ a sentence, _is_ to be
_protracted_ beyond _its usual length_."--_Id._ "Irony is a mode of speech,
in which what is said, is the opposite of what is meant."--_McElligott's
Manual_, p. 103. "The _person_ speaking, _and the person or persons_ spoken
to, are supposed to be present."--_Wells cor._; also _Murray_. "A _Noun_ is
_a name_, a word used to express the _idea_ of an object."--_Wells cor._ "A
syllable is _such_ a word, or _part_ of a word, as is uttered by one
"Thus wond'rous fair; thyself how wond'rous then!
Unspeakable, who _sitst_ above these heavens."--_Milton_, B. v, l. 156.
"And feel thy _sovran_ vital lamp; but thou
_Revisitst_ not these eyes, that roll in vain."--_Id._, iii, 22.
"Before all temples _th'_ upright _heart_ and pure."--_Id._, i, 18.
"In forest wild, in thicket, _brake_, or den."--_Id._, vii, 458.
"The rogue and fool by fits _are_ fair and wise;
And e'en the best, by fits, what they despise."--_Pope cor._
THE KEY.--PART IV.--PROSODY.
SECTION I.--THE COMMA.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF SIMPLE SENTENCES.
"A short simple _sentence_ should _rarely_ be _divided_ by _the_
comma."--_Felton cor._ "A regular and virtuous education is an inestimable
blessing."--_L. Mur. cor._ "Such equivocal expressions mark an intention to
deceive."--_Id._ "They are _this_ and _that_, with their plurals _these_
and _those_."--_Bullions cor._ "A nominative and a verb sometimes make a
complete sentence; as, He sleeps."--_Felton cor._ "TENSE expresses the
action _as_ connected with certain relations of time; MOOD represents it as
_further_ modified by circumstances of contingency, conditionality,
&c."--_Bullions cor._ "The word _noun_ means _name_."--_Ingersoll cor._
"The present or active participle I explained then."--_Id._ "Are some verbs
used both transitively and intransitively?"--_Cooper cor._ "Blank verse is
verse without rhyme."--_Brown's Institutes_, p. 235. "A distributive
adjective denotes each one of a number considered separately."--_Hallock
"And may at last my weary age
Find out the peaceful hermitage."
--MILTON: _Ward's Gr._, 158; _Hiley's_, 124.
UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING SIMPLE SENTENCES.
"A noun without an _article_ to limit it, is taken in its widest
sense."--_Lennie_, p. 6. "To maintain a steady course amid all the
adversities of life, marks a great mind."--_Day cor._ "To love our Maker
supremely and our neighbour as ourselves, comprehends the whole moral
law."--_Id._ "To be afraid to do wrong, is true courage."--_Id._ "A great
fortune in the hands of a fool, is a great misfortune."--_Bullions cor._
"That he should make such a remark, is indeed strange."--_Farnum cor._ "To
walk in the fields and groves, is delightful."--_Id._ "That he committed
the fault, is most certain."--_Id._ "Names common to all things of the same
sort or class, are called _Common nouns_; as, _man, woman,
day_."--_Bullions cor._ "That it is our duty to be pious, admits not of any
doubt."--_Id._ "To endure misfortune with resignation, is the
characteristic of a great mind."--_Id._ "The assisting of a friend in such
circumstances, was certainly a duty."--_Id._ "That a life of virtue is the
safest, is certain."--_Hallock cor._ "A collective noun denoting the idea
of unity, should be represented by a pronoun of the singular
UNDER RULE II.--OF SIMPLE MEMBERS.
"When the sun had arisen, the enemy retreated."--_Day cor._ "If he _become_
rich, he may be less industrious."--_Bullions cor._ "The more I study
grammar, the better I like it."--_Id._ "There is much truth in the old
adage, that fire is a better servant than master."--_Id._ "The verb _do_,
when used as an auxiliary, gives force or emphasis to the expression."--_P.
E. Day cor._ "Whatsoever is incumbent upon a man to do, it is surely
expedient to do well."--_Adams cor._ "The soul, which our philosophy
divides into various capacities, is still one essence."--_Channing cor._
"Put the following words in the plural, and give the rule for forming
it."--_Bullions cor._ "We will do it, if you wish."--_Id._ "He who does
well, will be rewarded."--_Id._ "That which is always true, is expressed in
the present tense."--_Id._ "An observation which is always true, must be
expressed in the present tense."--_Id._ "That part of orthography which
treats of combining letters to form syllables and words, is called
SPELLING."--_Day cor._ "A noun can never be of the first person, except it
is in apposition with a pronoun of that person."--_Id._ "When two or more
singular nouns or pronouns refer to the same object, they require a
singular verb and pronoun."--_Id._ "James has gone, but he will return in a
few days."--_Id._ "A pronoun should have the same person, number, and
gender, as the noun for which it stands."--_Id._ "Though he is out of
danger, he is still afraid."--_Bullions cor._ "She is his inferior in
sense, but his equal in prudence."--_Murray's Exercises_, p. 6. "The man
who has no sense of religion, is little to be trusted."--_Bullions cor._
"He who does the most good, has the most pleasure."--_Id._ "They were not
in the most prosperous circumstances, when we last saw them."--_Id._ "If
the day continue pleasant, I shall return."--_Felton cor._ "The days that
are past, are gone forever."--_Id._ "As many as are friendly to the cause,
will sustain it."--_Id._ "Such as desire aid, will receive it."--_Id._ "Who
gave you that book, which you prize so much?"--_Bullions cor._ "He who made
it, now preserves and governs it."--_Id._
"Shall he alone, whom rational we call,
Be pleas'd with nothing, if not _blest_ with all?"--_Pope_.
UNDER THE EXCEPTIONS CONCERNING SIMPLE MEMBERS.
"Newcastle is the town in which Akenside was born."--_Bucke cor._ "The
remorse which issues in reformation, is true repentance."--_Campbell cor._
"Men who are intemperate, are destructive members of community."--
_Alexander cor._ "An active-transitive verb expresses an action which
extends to an object."--_Felton cor._ "They to whom much is given, will
have much, to answer for."--_L. Murray cor._ "The prospect which we have,
is charming."--_Cooper cor._ "He is the person who informed me of the
matter."--_Id._ "These are the trees that produce no fruit."--_Id._ "This
is the book which treats of the subject."--_Id._ "The proposal was such as
pleased me."--_Id._ "Those that sow in tears, shall reap in joy."--_Id._
"The pen with which I write, makes too large a mark."--_Ingersoll cor._
"Modesty makes large amends for the pain it gives the persons who labour
under it, by the prejudice it affords every worthy person, in their
favour."--_Id._ "Irony is a figure whereby we plainly intend something very
different from what our words express."--_Bucke cor._ "Catachresis is a
figure whereby an improper word is used in stead of a proper one."--_Id._
"The man whom you met at the party, is a Frenchman."--_Frost cor._
UNDER RULE III.--OF MORE THAN TWO WORDS.
"John, James, and Thomas, are here: that is, John, _and_ James, and Thomas,
are here."--_Cooper cor._ "Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other
adverbs."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 116. "To Nouns belong Person, Gender,
Number, and Case."--_Id., ib._, p. 9. "Wheat, corn, rye, and oats, are
extensively cultivated."--_Bullions cor._ "In many, the definitions, rules,
and leading facts, are prolix, inaccurate, and confused."--_Finch cor._
"Most people consider it mysterious, difficult, and useless."--_Id._ "His
father, and mother, and uncle, reside at Rome."--_Farnum cor._ "The
relative pronouns are _who, which_, and _that_."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p.
23. "_That_ is sometimes a demonstrative, sometimes a relative, and
sometimes a conjunction."--_Bullions cor._ "Our reputation, virtue, and
happiness, greatly depend on the choice of our companions."--_Day cor._
"The spirit of true religion is social, kind, and cheerful."--_Felton cor._
"_Do, be, have_, and _will_, are sometimes principal verbs."--_Id._ "John,
and Thomas, and Peter, reside at Oxford."--_Webster cor._ "The most
innocent pleasures are the most rational, the most delightful, and the most
durable."--_Id._ "Love, joy, peace, and blessedness, are reserved for the
good."--_Id._ "The husband, wife, and children, suffered extremely."--_L.
Murray cor._ "The husband, wife, and children, suffer extremely."--_Sanborn
cor._ "He, you, and I, have our parts assigned us."--_Id._
"He moaned, lamented, tugged, and tried,
Repented, promised, wept, and sighed."--_Cowper_.
UNDER RULE IV.--OF ONLY TWO WORDS.
"Disappointments derange and overcome vulgar minds."--_L. Murray cor._ "The
hive of a city or kingdom, is in the best condition, when there is the
least noise or buzz in it."--_Id._ "When a direct address is made, the noun
or pronoun is in the nominative case, independent."--_Ingersoll cor._ "The
verbs _love_ and _teach_, make _loved_ and _taught_, in the imperfect and
participle."--_Id._ "Neither poverty nor riches were injurious to
him."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 152. "Thou or I am in fault."--_Id._, p.
152. "A verb is a word that expresses action or being."--_P. E. Day cor._
"The Objective Case denotes the object of a verb or a preposition."--_Id._
"Verbs of the second conjugation may be either transitive or
intransitive."--_Id._ "Verbs of the fourth conjugation may be either
transitive or intransitive."--_Id._ "If a verb does not form its past
indicative by adding _d_ or _ed_ to the indicative present, it is said to
be _irregular_."--_Id._ "The young lady is studying rhetoric and
logic."--_Cooper cor._ "He writes and speaks the language very
correctly."--_Id._ "Man's happiness or misery is, in a great measure, put
into his own hands."--_Mur. cor._ "This accident or characteristic of
nouns, is called their _Gender_."--_Bullions cor._
"Grant that the powerful still the weak _control_;
Be _man_ the _wit_ and _tyrant_ of the whole."--_Pope cor._
UNDER EXCEPTION I.--TWO WORDS WITH ADJUNCTS.
"Franklin is justly considered the ornament of the New World, and the pride
of modern philosophy."--_Day cor._ "Levity, and attachment to worldly
pleasures, destroy the sense of gratitude to Him."--_L. Mur. cor._ "In the
following Exercise, point out the adjectives, and the substantives which
they qualify."--_Bullions cor._ "When a noun or pronoun is used to explain,
or give emphasis to, a preceding noun or pronoun."--_Day cor._ "Superior
talents, and _brilliancy_ of intellect, do not always constitute a great
man."--_Id._ "A word that makes sense after an article, or _after_ the
phrase _speak of_, is a noun."--_Bullions cor._ "All feet used in poetry,
are reducible to eight kinds; four of two syllables, and four of
three."--_Hiley cor._ "He would not do it himself, not let me do
it."--_Lennie's Gram._, p. 64. "The old writers give examples of the
subjunctive _mood_, and give other _moods_ to explain what is meant by the
words in the subjunctive."--_O. B. Peirce cor._
UNDER EXCEPTION II.--TWO TERMS CONTRASTED.
"We often commend, as well as censure, imprudently."--_L. Mur. cor._ "It is
as truly a violation of the right of property, to take a little, as to take
much; to purloin a book or a penknife, as to steal money; to steal fruit,
as to steal a horse; to defraud the revenue, as to rob my neighbour; to
overcharge the public, as to overcharge my brother; to cheat the
post-office, as to cheat my friend."--_Wayland cor._ "The classification of
verbs has been, and still is, a vexed question."--_Bullions cor._ "Names
applied only to individuals of a sort or class, and not common to all, are
called _Proper nouns_."--_Id._ "A hero would desire to be loved, as well as
to be reverenced."--_Day cor._ "Death, or some worse misfortune, now
divides them." Better: "Death, or some _other_ misfortune, _soon_ divides
them."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 151. "Alexander replied, 'The world will not
permit two suns, nor two sovereigns.'"--_Goldsmith cor._
"From nature's chain, whatever link you strike,
Tenth, or _ten-thousandth_, breaks the chain alike."--_Pope_.
UNDER EXCEPTION III.--OF AN ALTERNATIVE OF WORDS.
"_Metre_, or _Measure_, is the number of poetical feet which a verse
contains."--_Hiley cor._ "The _Caesura_, or _division_, is the pause which
takes place in a verse, and which divides it into two parts."--_Id._ "It is
six feet, or one fathom, deep."--_Bullions cor._ "A _Brace_ is used in
poetry, at the end of a triplet, or three lines which rhyme
together."--_Felton cor._ "There are four principal kinds of English verse,
or poetical feet."--_Id._ "The period, or full stop, denotes the end of a
complete sentence."--_Sanborn cor._ "The scholar is to receive as many
_jetons_, or counters, as there are words in the sentence."--_St. Quentin
cor._ "_That_ [thing], or _the thing, which_ purifies, fortifies also the
heart."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "_That thing_, or _the thing_, which would
induce a laxity in public or private morals, or indifference to guilt and
wretchedness, should be regarded as the deadly Sirocco."--_Id._ "_What_ is,
elliptically, _what thing_, or _that thing which_."--_Sanborn cor._
"_Demonstrate_ means _show_, or _point out precisely_."--_Id._ "_The_ man,
or _that_ man, who endures to the end, shall be saved."--_Hiley cor._
UNDER EXCEPTION IV.--OF A SECOND COMMA.
"That reason, passion, answer one great _aim_."--POPE: _Bullions and Hiley
cor._ "Reason, virtue, answer one great aim."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 269;
_Cooper's Murray_, 182; _Comly_, 145; _Ingersoll_, 282; _Sanborn_, 268;
_Kirkham_, 212; _et al._ "Every good gift, and every perfect gift, is from
above."--_James_, i, 17. "Every plant, and every tree, produces others
after its kind."--_Day cor._ "James, and not John, was paid for his
services."--_Id._ "The single dagger, or obelisk [Dagger], is the
second."--_Id._ "It was I, not he, that did it."--_St. Quentin cor._ "Each
aunt, each cousin, hath her speculation."--_Byron._ "'I shall see you
_when_ you come,' is equivalent to, 'I shall see you _then_, or _at that
time_, when you come.'"--_N. Butler cor._
"Let wealth, let honour, wait the wedded dame;
August her deed, and sacred be her fame."--_Pope cor._
UNDER RULE V.--OF WORDS IN PAIRS.
"My hopes and fears, joys and sorrows, centre in you."--_Greenleaf or
Sanborn cor._ "This mood implies possibility or liberty, will or
obligation."--_Ingersoll cor._ "Substance is divided into _body_ and
_spirit_, into _extended_ and _thinking_."--_Brightland cor._ "These
consonants, [_d_ and _t_,] like _p_ and _b, f_ and _v, k_ and hard _g_, and
_s_ and _z_, are letters of the same organ."--_J. Walker cor._ "Neither fig
nor twist, pigtail nor Cavendish, _has_ passed my lips since; nor ever
shall again."--_Cultivator cor._ "The words _whoever_ or _whosoever,
whichever_ or _whichsoever_, and _whatever_ or _whatsoever_, are called
Compound Relative Pronouns."--_Day cor._ "Adjectives signifying profit or
disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, govern the dative."--_Bullions cor._
UNDER RULE VI.--OF WORDS ABSOLUTE.
"Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me."--_Psalm_ xxiii 4. "Depart, ye
wicked."--_J. W. Wright cor._ "He saith unto his mother. Woman, behold thy
son!"--_John_, xix, 26. "Thou, God, seest me."--_Bullions cor._ "John,
write me a letter. Henry, go home."--_O. B. Peirce cor., twice_. "Now, G.
Brown, let us reason together."--_Id._ "_Mr._ Smith, _you_ say, on page
11th, '_The_ objective case denotes the object'"--_Id._ "Gentlemen, will
you always speak as you mean?"--_Id._ "John, I sold my books to William,
for his brothers."--_Id._ "Walter, and Seth, I will take my things, and
leave yours."--_Id._ "Henry, Julia and Jane left their umbrella, and took
yours."--_Id._ "John, harness the horses, and go to the mine for some
coal."--_Id._ "William, run to the store, for a few pounds of tea."--_Id._
"The king being dead, the parliament was dissolved."--_Chandler cor._
"Cease, fond Nature, cease thy strife,
And let me languish into life."
--_Pope, Brit. Poets_, vi, 317.
"Forbear, great man, in arms renown'd, forbear."
--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 127.
"Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind!
Each prayer accepted, and each wish resign'd."
--_Pope, Brit. Poets_, vi, 335.
UNDER RULE VII.--OF WORDS IN APPOSITION.
"We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect
union, establish justice," &c.--_Constit. of U. S._ "The Lord, the covenant
God of his people, requires it."--_A. S. Mag. cor._ "He, as a patriot,
deserves praise."--_Hallock cor._ "Thomson, the watchmaker and jeweller
from London, was of the party."--_Bullions cor._ "Every body knows that the
person here spoken of by the name of '_the Conqueror_,' is William, duke of
Normandy."--_L. Mur. cor._ "The words _myself, thyself, himself, herself,
itself_, and their plurals, _ourselves, yourselves_, and _themselves_, are
called Compound Personal Pronouns."--_Day cor._
"For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey,
This pleasing, anxious being e'er resign'd,
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day
Nor cast one longing, ling'ring look behind?"--GRAY: _Mur. Seq._
UNDER THE EXCEPTIONS CONCERNING APPOSITION.
"Smith & _Williams's_ store; Nicholas the emperor's army."--_Day cor._ "He
was named _William the Conqueror._"--_Id._ "John the Baptist was
beheaded."--_Id._ "Alexander the coppersmith did me _much evil_."--_2
Tim._, iv, 14. "A nominative in immediate apposition: as, 'The boy _Henry_
speaks.'"--_Smart cor._ "A noun objective can be in apposition with some
other; as, 'I teach the boy _Henry_.'"--_Id._
UNDER RULE VIII.--OF ADJECTIVES.
"But he found me, not singing at my work, ruddy with health, vivid with
cheerfulness; but pale," &c.--DR. JOHNSON: _Murray's Sequel_, p. 4. "I
looked up, and beheld an inclosure, beautiful as the gardens of paradise,
but of a small extent."--HAWKESWORTH: _ib._, p. 20. "_A_ is an article,
indefinite, and belongs to '_book_.'"--_Bullions cor._ "The first expresses
the rapid movement of a troop of horse over the plain, eager for the
combat."--_Id._ "He [, the Indian chieftain, King Philip,] was a patriot,
attached to his native soil; a prince, true to his subjects, and indignant
of their wrongs; a soldier, daring in battle, firm in adversity, patient of
fatigue, of hunger, of every variety of bodily suffering, and ready to
perish in the cause he had espoused."--_W. Irving_.
"For thee, who, mindful of th' unhonour'd dead,
Dost in these lines their artless tale relate."
--GRAY: _Mur. Seq._, p. 258.
"Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest;
Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country's blood."
--GRAY: _Enf. Sp._, p. 245.
"Idle after dinner [,] in his chair,
Sat a farmer, ruddy, fat, and fair."
--_Murray's Gram._, p. 257.
UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING ADJECTIVES.
"When an attribute becomes a title, or is emphatically applied to a name,
it follows it: as, Charles the Great; Henry the First; Lewis the
Gross."--_Webster cor._ "Feed me with food convenient for me."--_Prov._,
xxx, 8. "The words and phrases necessary to exemplify every principle
progressively laid down, will be found strictly and exclusively adapted to
the illustration of the principles to which they are referred."--_Ingersoll
cor._ "The Infinitive _Mood_ is that form of the verb which expresses
_being or action_ unlimited by person or number."--_Day cor._ "A man
diligent in his business, prospers."--_Frost cor._
"_Oh_ wretched state! oh bosom black as death!"
--SHAK.: _Enfield_, p. 368.
UNDER RULE IX.--OF FINITE VERBS.
"The Singular denotes _one_; the Plural, _more_ than one."--_Bullions and
Lennie cor._ "The _Comma_ represents the shortest pause; the _Semicolon_, a
pause longer than the comma; the _Colon_, longer than the semicolon; and
the _Period_, longer than the colon."--_Hiley cor._ "The Comma represents
the shortest pause; the Semicolon, a pause double that of the Comma; the
Colon, double that of the semicolon; and the Period, double that of the
colon."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 266. "WHO is applied only to persons;
WHICH, to animals and things; WHAT, to things only; and THAT, to persons,
animals, and things."--_Day cor._ "_A_ or _an_ is used before the singular
number only; _the_, before either singular or plural."--_Bullions cor._
"Homer was the greater genius; Virgil, the better artist."--_Day cor._;
also _Pope_. "Words are formed of syllables; syllables, of letters."--_St.
Quentin cor._ "The conjugation of an active verb is styled the ACTIVE
VOICE; and that of a passive verb, the PASSIVE VOICE."--_Frost cor._; also
_Smith: L. Murray's Gram._, p. 77. "The possessive is sometimes called the
_genitive_ case; and the objective, the _accusative_."--_L. Murray cor._
"Benevolence is allied to few vices; selfishness, to fewer
virtues."--_Kames cor._ "Orthography treats of Letters; Etymology, of
words; Syntax, of Sentences; and Prosody, of Versification."--_Hart cor._
"Earth praises conquerors for shedding blood;
Heaven, those that love their foes, and do them good."--_Waller_.
UNDER RULE X.--OF INFINITIVES.
"His business is, to observe the agreement or disagreement of
words."--_Bullions cor._ "It is a mark of distinction, to be made a member
of this society."--_Farnum cor._ "To distinguish the conjugations, let the
pupil observe the following rules."--_Day cor._ "He was now sent for, to
preach before the Parliament."--_E. Williams cor._ "It is incumbent on the
young, to love and honour their parents."--_Bullions cor._ "It is the
business of every man, to prepare for death."--_Id._ "It argued the
sincerest candor, to make such an acknowledgement."--_Id._ "The proper way
is, to complete the construction of the first member, and leave that of the
second _elliptical_."--_Id._ "ENEMY is a name. It is a term of distinction,
given to a certain person, to show the character in which he is
represented."--_Peirce cor._ "The object of this is, to preserve the soft
_sounds_ of _c_ and _g_."--_Hart cor._ "The design of grammar is, to
facilitate the reading, writing, and speaking of a language."--_Barrett
cor._ "Four kinds of type are used in the following pages, to indicate the
portions that are considered more or less elementary."--_Hart cor._
UNDER RULE XI.--OF PARTICIPLES.
"The chancellor, being attached to the king, secured his crown."--_Murray's
Grammar_, p. 66. "The officer, having received his orders, proceeded to
execute them."--_Day cor._ "Thus used, it is in the present
tense."--_Bullions, E. Gr._, 2d Ed., p. 35. "The imperfect tense has three
distinct forms, corresponding to those of the present tense."--_Bullions
cor._ "Every possessive case is governed by some noun, denoting the thing
possessed."--_Id._ "The word _that_, used as a conjunction, is [generally]
preceded by a comma."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 114. "His narrative, being
composed upon _so_ good authority, deserves credit."--_Cooper cor._ "The
hen, being in her nest, was killed and eaten there by the eagle."--_Murray
cor._ "Pronouns, being used _in stead_ of nouns, are subject to the same
modifications."--_Sanborn cor._ "When placed at the beginning of words,
they are consonants."--_Hallock cor._ "Man, starting from his couch, shall
sleep no more."--_Young._ "_His_ and _her_, followed by a noun, are
possessive pronouns; not followed by a noun, they are personal
"He, with viny crown advancing,
First to the lively pipe his hand address'd."--_Collins_.
UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING PARTICIPLES.
"But when they convey the idea of many acting individually, or separately,
they are of the plural number."--_Day cor._ "Two or more singular
antecedents connected by _and_, [when they happen to introduce more than
one verb and more than one pronoun,] require verbs and pronouns of the
plural number."--_Id._ "Words ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant change
_y_ into _i_, when a termination is added."--_N. Butler cor._ "A noun used
without an article to limit it, is generally taken in its widest
sense."--_Ingersoll cor._ "Two nouns meaning the same person or thing,
frequently come together."--_Bucke cor._ "Each one must give an account to
God for the use, or abuse, of the talents committed to him."--_Cooper cor._
"Two vowels united in one sound, form a diphthong."--_Frost cor._ "Three
vowels united in one sound, form a triphthong."--_Id._ "Any word joined to
an adverb, is a secondary adverb."--_Barrett cor._ "The person spoken _to_,
is put in the _Second_ person; the person spoken _of_, in the _Third_
person."--_Cutler cor._ "A man devoted to his business, prospers."--_Frost
UNDER RULE XII.--OF ADVERBS.
"So, in indirect questions; as, 'Tell me _when_ he will come.'"--_Butler
cor._ "Now, when the verb tells what one person or thing does to _an other,
it_ is transitive."--_Bullions cor._ "Agreeably to your request, I send
this letter."--_Id._ "There seems, therefore, to be no good reason for
giving them a different classification."--_Id._ "Again, the kingdom of
heaven is like unto a merchant-man seeking good pearls."--_Scott's Bible,
Smith's, and Bruce's_. "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net
that was cast into the sea."--_Same._ "_Cease_, however, is used as a
transitive verb by our best writers."--_Webster cor._ "Time admits of three
natural divisions; namely, Present, Past, and Future."--_Day cor._ "There
are three kinds of comparison; namely, Regular, Irregular, and
Adverbial"--_Id._ "There are five personal pronouns; namely, _I, thou, he,
she_, and _it_."--_Id._ "Nouns have three cases: viz., the Nominative,
_the_ Possessive, and _the_ Objective."--_Bullions cor._ "Hence, in
studying Grammar, we have to study words."--_Frazee cor._ "Participles,
like verbs, relate to nouns and pronouns."--_Miller cor._ "The time of the
participle, like that of the infinitive, is estimated from the time of the
leading verb."--_Bullions cor._
"The dumb shall sing, the lame his crutch forego,
And leap exulting, like the bounding roe."--_Pope._
UNDER RULE XIII.--OF CONJUNCTIONS.
"But he said, Nay; lest, while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the
wheat with them."--_Scott's Bible et al._ "Their intentions were good: but,
wanting prudence, they missed the mark at which they aimed."--_L. Mur.
cor._ "The verb _be_ often separates the name from its attribute; as,
'_War_ is expensive.'"--_Webster cor._ "_Either_ and _or_ denote an
alternative; as, 'I will take _either_ road at your pleasure.'"--_Id._
"_Either_ is also a substitute for a name; as, '_Either_ of the roads is
good.'"--_Id._ "But, alas! I fear the consequence."--_Day cor._ "Or, if he
ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent?"--_Luke_, xi, 11. "Or,
if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?"--ALGER'S BIBLE:
_Luke, xi, 12_. "The infinitive sometimes performs the office of a
nominative case; as, 'To enjoy is to obey.'--POPE."--_Cutler cor._ "The
plural is commonly formed by adding _s_ to the singular; as, _book_,
books."--_Bullions, P. Lessons_, p. 16. "As, 'I _were_ to blame, if I did
"Or, if it be thy will and pleasure,
Direct my plough to find a treasure."
UNDER RULE XIV.--OF PREPOSITIONS.
"Pronouns agree with the nouns for which they stand, in gender, number, and
person."--_Butler and Bullions cor._ "In the first two examples, the
antecedent is _person_, or something equivalent; in the last [_one_], it is
_thing_."--_N. Butler cor._ "In what character he was admitted, is
unknown."--_Id._ "To what place he was going, is not known."--_Id._ "In the
preceding examples, _John, Caesar_, and _James_, are the subjects."--_Id._
"_Yes_ is generally used to denote assent, _in answer_ to a
question."--_Id._ "_That_, in its origin, is the passive participle of the
Anglo-Saxon verb _thean_, [_thegan, thicgan, thicgean_, or _thigan_,] _to
take_."--_Id._ "But, in all these sentences, _as_ and _so_ are
adverbs."--_Id._ "After an interjection or _an_ exclamatory sentence, is
_usually_ placed the mark of exclamation."--_D. Blair cor._ "Intransitive
verbs, from their nature, can have no distinction of voice."--_Bullions
cor._ "To the inflection of verbs, belong Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers,
and Persons."--_Id._ "_As_ and _so_, in the antecedent member of a
comparison, are properly Adverbs." Better: "_As_ OR _so_, in the antecedent
member of a comparison, _is_ properly _an adverb_."--_Id._ "In the
following Exercise, point out the words in apposition."--_Id._ "In the
following Exercise, point out the noun or pronoun denoting the
possessor."--_Id._ "_Its_ is not found in the Bible, except by
misprint."--_Brown's Institutes_, p. 49. "No one's interest is concerned,
except mine."--_Hallock cor._ "In most of the modern languages, there are
four concords."--_St. Quentin cor._ "In illustration of these remarks, let
us suppose a case."--_Hart cor._ "On the right management of the emphasis,
depends the life of pronunciation."--_J. S. Hart and L. Murray cor._ See
_Blair's Rhet._, p. 330.
UNDER RULE XV.--OF INTERJECTIONS.
"Behold, he is in the desert."--_Friend's Bible_. "And Lot said unto them,
Oh, not so, my Lord."--_Alger's Bible_. "Oh, let me escape thither, (is it
not a little one?) and my soul shall live."--_Friend's Bible, and Alger's_.
"Behold, I come quickly."--_Rev._, xxii, 7. "Lo, I am with you
always."--_Day cor._ "And, lo, I am with you alway."--_Alger's Bible: Day
cor._; also _Scott and Bruce_. "Ha, ha, ha; how laughable that
is!"--_Bullions cor._ "Interjections of laughter; _ha, ha, Ha_."--_Wright
UNDER RULE XVI.--OF WORDS REPEATED.
"Lend, lend your wings!" &c.--_Pope._ "To bed, to bed, to bed. There is a
knocking at the gate. Come, come, come. What is done, cannot be undone. To
bed, to bed, to bed."--SHAKSPEARE: _Burghs Speaker_, p. 130. "I will roar,
that the duke shall cry, Encore, encore, let him roar, let him roar, once
more, once more."--_Id., ib._, p. 136.
"Vital spark of heavenly flame!
Quit, oh quit this mortal frame!"--_Pope_.
"O the pleasing, pleasing anguish,
When we love, and when we languish."--_Addison_.
"Praise to God, immortal praise,
For the love that crowns our days!"--_Barbauld_.
UNDER RULE XVII.--OF DEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.
"Thus, of an infant, we say, '_It_ is a lovely creature.'"--_Bullions cor._
"No being can state a falsehood in saying, '_I am_;' for no one can utter
_this_, if it is not true."--_Cardell cor._ "I know they will cry out
against this, and say, 'Should he pay,' means, 'If he should pay.'"--_O. B.
Peirce cor._ "For instance, when we say, '_The house is building_,' the
advocates of the new theory ask,--'building _what?_' We might ask in turn,
When you say, 'The field _ploughs_ well,'--ploughs _what?_ 'Wheat _sells_
well,'--sells _what?_ If _usage_ allows us to say, 'Wheat _sells_ at a
dollar,' in a sense that is not active; why may it not also allow us to
say, 'Wheat is _selling_ at a dollar' in a sense that is not
active?"--_Hart cor._ "_Man_ is accountable,' equals, '_Mankind_ are
accountable.'"--_Barrett cor._ "Thus, when we say, 'He may be reading,'
_may_ is the real verb; the other parts are verbs by name only."--_Smart
cor._ "Thus we say, _an apple, an hour_, that two vowel sounds may not come
together."--_Id._ "It would be as improper to say, _an unit_, as to say,
_an youth_; to say, _an one_, as to say, _an wonder_."--_Id._ "When we say,
'He died for the truth,' _for_ is a preposition."--_Id._ "We do not say, 'I
might go yesterday;' but, 'I might have gone yesterday.'"--_Id._ "By
student, we understand, one who has by matriculation acquired the rights of
academical citizenship; but, by _bursche_, we understand, one who has
already spent a certain time at the university."--_Howitt cor._
SECTION II.--THE SEMICOLON.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF COMPLEX MEMBERS.
"The buds spread into leaves, and the blossoms swell to fruit; but they
know not how they grow, nor who causes them to spring up from the bosom of
the earth."--_Day cor._ "But he used his eloquence chiefly against Philip,
king of Macedon; and, in several orations, he stirred up the Athenians to
make war against him."--_Bullions cor._ "For the sake of euphony, the _n_
is dropped before a consonant; and, because most words begin with a
consonant, this of course is its more common form."--_Id._ "But if I say,
'Will _a_ man be able to carry this burden?' it is manifest the idea is
entirely changed; the reference is not to number, but to the species; and
the answer might be, 'No; but a horse will.'"--_Id._ "In direct discourse,
a noun used by the speaker or writer to designate himself [in the special
relation of speaker or writer], is said to be of the _first_ person; used
to designate the person addressed, it is said to be of the _second_ person;
and, when used to designate a person or thing [merely] spoken of, it is
said to be of the _third_ person."--_Id._ "Vice stings us, even in our
pleasures; but virtue consoles us, even in our pains."--_Day cor._ "Vice is
infamous, though in a prince; and virtue, honourable, though in a
peasant."--_Id._ "Every word that is the name of a person or thing, is a
_noun_; because, 'A noun is the name of any person, place, or
"This is the sword with which he did the deed;
And that, the shield by which he was defended."--_Bucke cor._
UNDER RULE II.--OF SIMPLE MEMBERS. "A deathlike paleness was diffused over
his countenance; a chilling terror convulsed his frame; his voice burst out
at intervals into broken accents."--_Jerningham cor._ "The Lacedemonians
never traded; they knew no luxury; they lived in houses built of rough
materials; they _ate_ at public tables; fed on black broth; and despised
every thing effeminate or luxurious."--_Whelpley cor._ "Government is the
agent; society is the principal."--_Wayland cor._ "The essentials of speech
were anciently supposed to be sufficiently designated by the _Noun_ and the
_Verb_; to which was subsequently added the _Conjunction_."--_Bullions
cor._ "The first faint gleamings of thought in its mind, are but
reflections from the parents' own intellect; the first manifestations of
temperament, are from the contagious parental fountain; the first
aspirations of soul, are but the warmings and promptings of the parental
spirit."--_Jocelyn cor._ "_Older_ and _oldest_ refer to maturity of age;
_elder_ and _eldest_, to priority of right by birth. _Farther_ and
_farthest_ denote place or distance; _further_ and _furthest_, quantity or
addition."--_Bullions cor._ "Let the divisions be _natural_; such as
obviously suggest themselves to the mind; _such_ as may aid your main
design; and _such as may_ be easily remembered."--_Goldsbury cor._
"Gently make haste, of labour not afraid;
A hundred times consider what you've said."--_Dryden cor._
UNDER RULE III.--OF APPOSITION, &C.
(1.) "Adjectives are divided [, in Frost's Practical Grammar,] into two
classes; adjectives denoting _quality_, and adjectives denoting
_number_."--_Frost cor._ (2.) "There are [, according to some authors,] two
classes of adjectives; _qualifying_ adjectives, and _limiting_
adjectives."--_N. Butler cor._ (3-5.) "There are three genders; the
_masculine_, the _feminine_, and the _neuter_."--_Frost et al. cor._; also
_L. Mur. et al_.; also _Hendrick: Inst._, p. 35. (6.) "The Singular denotes
_one_; the Plural, _more_ than one."--_Hart cor._ (7.) "There are three
cases; viz., the Nominative, the Possessive, and the Objective."--_Hendrick
cor._ (8.) "Nouns have three cases; the _nominative_, the _possessive_, and
the _objective_."--_Kirkham cor._ (9.) "In English, nouns have three cases;
the _nominative_, the _possessive_, and the _objective_."--_Smith cor._
(10.) "Grammar is divided into four parts; namely, Orthography, Etymology,
Syntax, Prosody."--_Hazen_. (11.) "It is divided into four parts; viz.,
Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, Prosody."--_Mur. et al. cor._ (12.) "It is
divided into four parts; viz., Orthography. Etymology, Syntax,
Prosody."--_Bucke cor._ (13.) "It is divided into four parts; namely,
Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody."--_Lennie, Bullions, et al_.
(14.) "It is divided into four parts; viz., Orthography, Etymology, Syntax,
and Prosody."--_Hendrick cor._ (15.) "Grammar is divided into four parts;
viz., Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody."--_Chandler cor._ (16.)
"It is divided into four parts; Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and
Prosody."--_Cooper and Frost cor._ (17.) "English Grammar has been usually
divided into four parts; viz., Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and
Prosody."--_Nutting cor._ (18.) "Temperance leads to happiness;
intemperance, to misery."--_Hiley and Hart cor._ (19, 20.) "A friend
exaggerates a man's virtues; an enemy, his crimes."--_Hiley cor._; also
_Murray_. (21.) "Many writers use a plural noun after the second of two
numeral adjectives; thus, 'The first and second _pages_ are
torn.'"--_Bullions cor._ (22.) "Of these, [i. e., of _Cases_,] the Latin
has six; the Greek, five; the German, four; the Saxon, six; the French,
"In _ing_ it ends, when doing is expressed;
In _d, t, n_, when suffering's confessed."--_Brightland cor._
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"In old books, _i_ is often used for _j; v_, for _u; vv_, for _w_; and _ii_
or _ij_, for _y_."--_Hart cor._ "The forming of letters into words and
syllables, is also called _Spelling_."--_Id._ "Labials are formed chiefly
by the _lips_; dentals, by the _teeth_; palatals, by the palate; gutturals,
by the _throat_; nasals, by the _nose_; and linguals, by the
_tongue_."--_Id._ "The labials are _p, b, f, v_; the dentals, _t, d, s, z_;
the palatals, _g_ soft and _j_; the gutturals, _k, q_, and _c_ and _g_
hard; the nasals, _m_ and _n_; and the linguals, _l_ and _r_."--_Id._
"Thus, '_The_ man, _having finished_ his letter, will carry it to the
_post-office_.'"--_Id._ "Thus, in the sentence, '_He_ had a dagger
concealed under his cloak,' _concealed_ is passive, signifying _being
concealed_; but, in the former combination, it goes to make up a form the
force of which is active."--_Id._ "Thus, in Latin, '_He_ had concealed the
dagger,' would be, '_Pugionem abdiderat_;' but, '_He_ had the dagger
concealed,' would be, '_Pugionem abditum habebat_."--_Id._ "_Here_, for
instance, means, 'in this place;' _now_, 'at this time;' &c."--_Id._ "Here
_when_ both declares the _time_ of the action, and so is an adverb; and
also _connects_ the two verbs, and so _resembles_ a conjunction."--_Id._
"These words were all, no doubt, originally other parts of speech; viz.,
verbs, nouns, and adjectives."--_Id._ "The principal parts of a sentence,
are the subject, the attribute, and the object; in other words, the
nominative, the verb, and the objective."--_Id._ "Thus, the adjective is
connected with the noun; the adverb, with the verb or adjective; _the
pronoun_, with _its antecedent_; &c." "_Between_ refers to two; _among_, to
more than two."--_Id._ "_At_ is used after a verb of rest; _to_, after a
verb of motion."--_Id._ "Verbs are of three kinds; Active, Passive, and
Neuter."--_L. Murray_. [Active] "Verbs are divided into two classes;
Transitive and Intransitive."--_Hendrick cor._ "The Parts of Speech, in the
English language, are nine; viz., _the_ Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun,
Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, and Conjunction."--_Bullions cor._
See _Lennie_. "Of these, the Noun, Pronoun, and Verb, are declined; the
rest are indeclinable."--_Bullions, Analyt. and Pract. Gram._, p. 18. "The
first expression is called 'the _Active_ form;' the second, 'the _Passive_
"O, 'tis a godlike privilege to save;
And he that scorns it, is himself a slave."--_Cowper cor._
SECTION III.--THE COLON.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF ADDITIONAL REMARKS.
"_Of_ is a preposition: it expresses the relation between _fear_ and
_Lord_."--_Bullions cor._ "Wealth and poverty are both temptations to man:
_that_ tends to excite pride; _this_, discontentment."--_Id. et al cor._
"Religion raises men above themselves; irreligion sinks them beneath the
brutes: _this_ binds them down to a poor pitiable speck of perishable
earth; _that_ opens for them a prospect to the skies."--_Murray's Key_,
8vo, p. 189. "Love not idleness: it destroys many."--_Ingersoll cor._
"Children, obey your parents: 'Honour thy father and mother,' is the first
commandment with promise."--_Bullions cor._ "Thou art my _hiding-place_ and
my shield; I hope in thy _word_."--_Psalm_ cxix, 114. "The sun shall not
smite _thee_ by day, nor the moon by night. The Lord _shall_ preserve
_thee_ from _all_ evil: _he shall preserve thy_ soul."--_Psalm_ cxxi, 6.
"Here _to_ Greece is assigned the highest place in the class of objects
among which she is numbered--the nations of antiquity: she is one of
them."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 114.
"From short (as usual) and disturb'd repose,
I wake: how happy they who wake no more!"--_Young, N. T._, p. 3.
UNDER RULE II.--OF GREATER PAUSES.
"A taste _of_ a thing, implies actual enjoyment of it; but a tase
[sic--KTH] _for_ it, implies only capacity for enjoyment: as, 'When we have
had a true taste _of_ the pleasures of virtue, we can have no relish _for_
those of vice.'"--_Bullions cor._ "The Indicative mood simply declares a
thing: as, 'He _loves_;' 'He _is_ loved:' or it asks a question; as,
'_Lovest_ thou me?'"--_Id. and Lennie cor._; also _Murray_. "The Imperfect
(or Past) tense represents an action or event indefinitely as past; as,
'Caesar _came_, and _saw_, and _conquered_:' or it represents the action
definitely as unfinished and continuing at a certain time now entirely
past; as, 'My father _was coming_ home when I met him.'"--_Bullions cor._
"Some nouns have no plural; as, _gold, silver, wisdom_: others have no
singular: as, _ashes, shears, tongs_: others are alike in both numbers; as,
_sheep, deer, means, news_."--_Day cor._ "The same verb may be transitive
in one sense, and intransitive in an other: thus, in the sentence, 'He
believes my story,' _believes_ is transitive; but, in this phrase, 'He
believes in God,' it is intransitive."--_Butler cor._ "Let the divisions be
_distinct_: one part should not include _an other_, but each should have
its proper place, and be of importance in that place; and all the parts,
well fitted together and united, should present a _perfect_
whole."--_Goldsbury cor._ "In the use of the transitive verb, there are
always _three_ things implied; the _actor_, the _act_, and the _object_
acted upon: in the use of the intransitive, there are only _two_; the
subject, or _the thing_ spoken of, and the _state_ or _action_ attributed
to it."--_Bullions cor._
"Why labours reason? instinct were as well;
Instinct, far better: what can choose, can err."--_Young_, vii, 622.
UNDER RULE III.--OF INDEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.
"The sentence may run thus: 'He is related to the same person, and is
governed by him.'"--_Hart cor._ "Always remember this ancient proverb:
'Know thyself.'"--_Hallock cor._ "Consider this sentence: 'The boy runs
swiftly.'"--_Frazee cor._ "The comparative is used thus: 'Greece was more
polished than any other nation of antiquity.' The same idea is expressed by
the superlative, when the word _other_ is left out: thus, 'Greece was the
most polished nation of antiquity.'"--_Bullions and Lennie cor._ "Burke, in
his speech on the Carnatic war, makes the following allusion to the well
known fable of _Cadmus_ sowing dragon's teeth:--'Every day you are
fatigued and disgusted with this cant: 'The Carnatic is a country that will
soon recover, and become instantly as prosperous as ever.' They think they
are talking to innocents, who believe that by the sowing of dragon's teeth,
men may come up ready grown and ready made.'"--_Hiley and Hart cor._
"For sects he car'd not: 'They are not of us,
Nor need we, brethren, their concerns discuss.'"--_Crabbe cor._
"Habit, with him, was all the test of truth:
'It must be right; I've done it from my youth.'
Questions he answer'd in as brief a way:
'It must be wrong; it was of yesterday.'"--_Id._
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"This would seem to say, 'I doubt nothing, save one thing; namely, that he
will _fulfill_ his promise:' whereas that is the very thing not
doubted."--_Bullions cor._ "The common use of language requires, that a
distinction be made between _morals_ and _manners_: the former depend upon
internal dispositions; the latter, _upon_ outward and visible
accomplishments."--_Beattie cor._ "Though I detest war in each particular
fibre of my heart, yet I honour the heroes among our fathers, who fought
with bloody hand. Peacemakers in a savage way, they were faithful to their
light: the most inspired can be no more; and we, with greater light, do, it
may be, far less."--_T. Parker cor._ "The article _the_, like _a_, must
have a substantive joined with it; whereas _that_, like _one_, may have it
understood: thus, speaking of books, I may select one, and say, 'Give me
that;' but not, 'Give me _the_;'--[so I may say,] 'Give me _one_;' but not,
'Give me _a_.'"--_Bullions cor._ "The Present tense has three distinct
forms: the _simple_; as, I read: the _emphatic_; as, I do read: and the
_progressive_; as, I am reading." Or thus: "The Present tense has three
distinct forms;--the _simple_; as, 'I read;'--the _emphatic_; as, 'I do
read;'--and the _progressive_; as, 'I am reading.'"--_Id._ "The tenses in
English are usually reckoned six: the _Present_, the _Imperfect_, the
_Perfect_, the _Pluperfect_, the _First-future_, and the
_Second-future_."--_Id._ "There are three participles; the Present or
Active, the Perfect or Passive, and the Compound Perfect: as, _loving,
loved, having loved_." Or, better: "There are three participles from each
verb; namely, the _Imperfect_, the _Perfect_, and the _Preperfect_; as,
_turning, turned, having turned_."--_Murray et al. cor._ "The participles
are three; the Present, the Perfect, and the Compound Perfect: as, _loving,
loved, having loved_." Better: "The participles of each verb are three; the
_Imperfect_, the _Perfect_, and the _Preperfect_: as, _turning, turned,
having turned_."--_Hart cor._ "_Will_ is conjugated regularly, when it is a
principal verb: as, present, I _will_; past, I _willed_; &c."--_Frazee
cor._ "And both sounds of _x_ are compound: one is that of _gz_, and the
other, that of _ks_."--_Id._ "The man is happy; he is benevolent; he is
useful."--_L. Mur._, p. 28: _Cooper cor._ "The pronoun stands _in stead_ of
the noun: as, 'The man is happy; _he_ is benevolent; _he_ is useful.'"--_L.
Murray cor._ "A Pronoun is a word used _in stead_ of a noun, to _prevent_
too frequent _a_ repetition of it: as, 'The man is happy; _he_ is
benevolent; _he_ is useful.'"--_Id._ "A Pronoun is a word used in the room
of a noun, or as a substitute for one or more words: as, 'The man is happy;
_he_ is benevolent; _he_ is useful.'"--_Cooper cor._ "A common noun is the
name of a sort, kind, or class, of beings or things; as, _Animal, tree,
insect, fish, fowl_."--_Id._ "Nouns have three persons; the _first_, the
_second_, and the _third_."--_Id._
"_So_ saying, her rash hand in evil hour
Forth reaching to the fruit, she pluck'd, she _eat_:
Earth felt the wound; and _Nature_ from her seat,
Sighing through all her works, gave signs of _woe_,
That all was lost."--MILTON, P. L., Book ix, l. 780.
SECTION IV.--THE PERIOD.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF DISTINCT SENTENCES.
"The third person is the position of _a word by which an object is merely_
spoken of; as, 'Paul and Silas were imprisoned.'--'The earth
thirsts.'--'The sun shines.'"--_Frazee cor._
"Two, and three, and four, make nine. If he were here, he would assist his
father and mother; for he is a dutiful son. They live together, and are
happy, because they enjoy each other's society. They went to Roxbury, and
tarried all night, and came back the next day."--_Goldsbury cor._
"We often resolve, but seldom perform. She is wiser than her sister. Though
he is often advised, yet he does not reform. Reproof either softens or
hardens its object. He is as old as his classmates, but not so learned.
Neither prosperity, nor adversity, has improved him. Let him that standeth,
take heed lest he fall. He can acquire no virtue, unless he make some
"Down from his neck, with blazing gems array'd,
Thy image, lovely Anna! hung portray'd;
Th' unconscious figure, smiling all serene,
Suspended in a golden chain was seen."--_Falconer._
UNDER RULE II.--OF ALLIED SENTENCES.
"This life is a mere prelude to _an other_ which has no limits. _It_ is a
little portion of duration. As death leaves us, so the day of _judgement_
will find us."--_Merchant cor._
"He went from Boston to New York.--He went (I say) from Boston; he went to
New York. In walking across the floor, he stumbled over a
"I saw him on the spot, going along the road, looking towards the house.
During the heat of the day, he sat on the ground, under the shade of a
"'George came home; I saw him yesterday.' _Here_ the word _him_ can extend
only to the individual George."--_Barrett corrected_.
"Commas are often used now, where parentheses were [adopted] formerly. I
cannot, however, esteem this an improvement."--_Bucke's Classical
Grammar_, p. 20.
"Thou, like a sleeping, faithless sentinel,
Didst let them pass unnotic'd, unimprov'd.
And know, for that thou _slumberst_ on the guard,
Thou shalt be made to answer at the bar
For every fugitive."--COTTON: _Hallock and Enfield cor._
UNDER RULE III.--OF ABBREVIATIONS.
"The term _pronoun_ (Lat. _pronomen_) strictly means a word used _for_, or
_in stead of_, a noun."--_Bullions corrected_.
"The period is also used after abbreviations; as, A. D., P. S., G. W.
Johnson."--_N. Butler cor._
"On this principle of classification, the later Greek grammarians divided
words into eight classes, or parts of speech: viz., the Article, Noun,
Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, and Conjunction."--
"'_Metre [Melody]_ is not confined to verse: there is a tune in all good
prose; and Shakspeare's was a sweet one.'--_Epea Pter._, ii, 61. [_First
American Ed._, ii, 50.] Mr. H. Tooke's idea was probably just, agreeing
with Aristotle's; but [, if so, it is] not accurately expressed."--
"Mr. J. H. Tooke was educated at Eton and at Cambridge, in which latter
college he took the degree of A. M. Being intended for the established
church of England, he entered into holy orders when young; and obtained the
living of Brentford, near London, which he held ten or twelve
years."--_Tooke's Annotator cor._
"I, nor your plan, nor book condemn;
But why your name? and why A. M.?"--_Lloyd cor._
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath," &c.--_Isaiah_, lviii, 13.
"He that hath eeris of hervnge, _here he_."--WICKLIFFE: _Matt._, xi, 15.
"See General Rules for Spelling, iii, v, and vii."--_N. Butler cor._ "False
witnesses did rise up."--_Ps._, xxxv, 11.
"An _explicative_ sentence is used for explaining; an _interrogative_
sentence, for inquiring; an _imperative_ sentence, for commanding."--
_Barrett cor._ "In October, corn is gathered in the field by men, who go
from hill to hill with baskets, into which they put the ears.--Susan
labours with her needle for a livelihood.--Notwithstanding his poverty, he
is a man of integrity."--_Golds, cor._
"A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable; a word of two syllables,
a dissyllable; a word of three syllables, a trissyllable; a word of four or
more syllables, a polysyllable."--_Frazee cor._
"If I say, '_If it did not rain_, I would take a walk;' I convey the idea
that it _does_ rain at the time of speaking. '_If it rained_,' or, '_Did it
rain_,' in [reference to] the present time, implies _that_ it does _not_
rain. '_If it did not rain_,' or, '_Did it not rain_,' in [reference to
the] present time, implies that it _does_ rain. Thus, in this peculiar
_application_, an affirmative sentence always implies a negation; and a
negative sentence, an affirmation."--_Id._ "'_If I were loved_' and, '_Were
I loved_;' imply I am _not_ loved: '_If I were not loved_,' and, '_Were I
not loved_,' imply I _am_ loved. A negative sentence implies an
affirmation, and an affirmative sentence implies a negation, in these forms
of the subjunctive."--_Id._
"What is Rule III?"--_Hart cor._ "How is Rule III violated?"--_Id._ "How do
you parse _letter_ in the sentence, 'James writes a letter?' Ans. _Letter_
is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, _neuter_ gender,
and objective case; and is governed by the verb _writes_, according to Rule
III, which says, 'A transitive verb governs the objective case.'"--_Id._
"Creation sleeps. 'Tis as the gen'ral pulse
Of life stood still, and nature made a pause;
An awful pause! prophetic of her end.
And let her prophecy be soon fulfill'd:
Fate, drop the curtain; I can lose no more."--_Young_.
SECTION V.--THE DASH.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF ABRUPT PAUSES.
"And there is something in your very strange story, that resembles--Does
Mr. Bevil know your history particularly?"--_Burgh's Speaker_, p. 149.
"Sir,--Mr. Myrtle--Gentlemen--You are friends--I am but a
servant--But--"--_Ib._, p. 118.
"An other man now would have given plump into this foolish story; but
I--No, no, your humble servant for that."--GARRICK, _Neck or Nothing_.
"Do not plunge thyself too far in anger, lest thou hasten thy trial; which
if--Lord have mercy on thee for a hen!"--SHAKSPEARE, _All's Well_.
"But ere they came,--O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before."--IDEM, _Com. of Errors_.
UNDER RULE II.--OF EMPHATIC PAUSES.
"M,--Malvolio;--M,--why, that begins my name."--SINGER'S SHAK., _Twelfth
"Thus, by the creative influence of the Eternal Spirit, were the heavens
and the earth finished in the space of six days--so admirably finished--an
unformed chaos changed into a system of perfect order and beauty--that the
adorable Architect himself pronounced it _very good_, and _all the sons of
God shouted for joy_."--_Historical Reader_, p. 10.
"If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop
remained in my country, I never would lay down my arms--never, never,
"Madam, yourself are not exempt in this,--
Nor your son Dorset;--Buckingham, nor you."--SHAK.
UNDER RULE III.--OF FAULTY DASHES.
"'You shall go home directly, Le Fevre,' said my uncle Toby, 'to my house;
and we'll send for a doctor to see what's the matter; and we'll have an
apothecary; and the corporal shall be your nurse: and I'll be your servant,
Le Fevre.'"--_Sterne cor._
"He continued: 'Inferior artists may be at a stand, because they want
materials.'"--_Harris cor._ "Thus, then, continued he: 'The end, in other
arts, is ever distant and removed.'"--_Id._
"The nouns must be coupled with _and_; and when a pronoun is used, it must
be plural, as in the example. When the nouns are _disjoined_, the pronoun
must be singular."--_Lennie cor._
"_Opinion_ is a common noun, or substantive, of the third person, singular
number, neuter gender, and nominative case."--_Wright cor._
"The mountain, thy pall and thy prison, may keep thee;
I shall see thee no more, but till death I will weep thee."
--_See Felton's Gram._, p. 93.
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"If to accommodate man and beast, heaven and earth--if this be beyond me,
'tis not possible.--What consequence then follows? Or can there be any
other than this?--_if_ I seek an interest of my own, detached from that of
others, I seek an interest which is chimerical, and can never have
"Again: I must have food and clothing. Without a proper genial warmth, I
instantly perish. Am I not related, in this view, to the very earth
itself?--_to_ the distant sun, from whose beams I derive vigour?"--_Id._
"Nature instantly ebbed again; the film returned to its place; the pulse
fluttered--stopped--went on--throbbed--stopped again--moved--stopped.--
Shall I go on?--No."--_Sterne cor._
"Write ten nouns of the masculine gender;--ten of the feminine;--ten of the
neuter; ten indefinite in gender."--_Davis cor._
"The infinitive _mood_ has two tenses; the indicative, six; the potential,
_four_; the subjunctive, _two_; and the imperative, one."--_Frazee cor._
"Now notice the following sentences: 'John runs.'--'Boys run.'--'Thou
"The Pronoun sometimes stands for a name; sometimes for an adjective, a
sentence, _or_ a part of a sentence; and, sometimes, for a whole series of
"The self-applauding bird, the peacock, see;
Mark what a sumptuous pharisee is he!"--_Cowper cor._
SECTION VI.--THE EROTEME.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF QUESTIONS DIRECT.
"When will his ear delight in the sound of arms? When shall I, like Oscar,
travel in the light of my steel?"--_Ossian_, Vol. i, p. 357. "Will Henry
call on me, while he shall be journeying south?"--_Peirce cor._
"An Interrogative Pronoun is one that is used in asking a question; as,
'_Who_ is he? and _what_ does he want?'"--_P. E. Day cor._ "_Who_ is
generally used when we would inquire _about_ some unknown person or
persons; as, '_Who_ is that man?'"--_Id._ "_Your_ fathers, where are they?
and the prophets, do they live forever?"--_Zech._, i. 5.
"It is true, that some of our best writers have used _than whom_; but it is
also true that they have used _other_ phrases which we have rejected as
ungrammatical: then why not reject this too?--The sentences in the
exercises, with _than who_, are correct as they stand."--_Lennie cor._
"When the perfect participle of an active-intransitive verb is annexed to
the neuter verb _to be_, what does the combination form?"--_Hallock cor._
"Those adverbs which answer to the question _where_? _whither_? or
_whence_? are called adverbs of _place_."--_Id._ "Canst thou by searching
find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? It is as
high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou
know?"--SCOTT, ALGER, BRUCE, AND OTHERS: _Job_, xi, 7 and 8.
"Where, where, for shelter shall the wicked fly,
When consternation turns the good man pale?"--_Young_.
UNDER RULE II.--OF QUESTIONS UNITED.
"Who knows what resources are in store, and what the power of God may do
for thee?"--STERNE: _Enfield's Speaker_, p. 307.
"God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he
should repent: hath he said, and shall he not do it? or hath he spoken, and
shall he not make it good?"--SCOTT'S BIBLE, ALGER'S, FRIENDS', BRUCE'S, AND
OTHERS: _Numb._, xxiii, 19. "Hath the Lord said it, and shall he not do it?
hath he spoken it, and shall he not make it good?"--_Lennie and Bullions
"Who calls the council, states the certain day,
Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way?"--_Pope's Essay_.
UNDER RULE III.--OF QUESTIONS INDIRECT.
"To be, or not to be;--that is the question."--_Shak. et al. cor._ "If it
be asked, why a pause should any more be necessary to emphasis than to an
accent,--or why an emphasis alone will not sufficiently distinguish the
members of sentences from each other, without pauses, as accent does
words,--the answer is obvious: that we are preacquainted with the sound of
words, and cannot mistake them when distinctly pronounced, however rapidly;
but we are not preacquainted with the meaning of sentences, which must be
pointed out to us by the reader or speaker."--_Sheridan cor._
"Cry, 'By your priesthood, tell me what you are.'"--_Pope cor._
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"Who else can he be?"--_Barrett cor._ "Where else can he go?"--_Id._ "In
familiar language, _here, there_, and _where_, are used for _hither,
thither_, and _whither_."--_N. Butler cor._ "Take, for instance, this
sentence: 'Indolence undermines the foundation of virtue.'"--_Hart cor._
"Take, for instance, the sentence before quoted: 'Indolence undermines the
foundation of virtue.'"--_Id._ "Under the same head, are considered such
sentences as these: '_He_ that _hath ears to hear_, let him hear.'--'_Gad_,
a troop shall overcome him.'"--_Id._
"Tenses are certain modifications of the verb, which point out the
distinctions of time."--_Bullions cor._ "Calm was the day, and the scene,
delightful."--_Id._ See _Murray's Exercises_, p. 5. "The capital letters
used by the Romans to denote numbers, were C, I, L, V, X; which are
therefore called Numeral Letters. I denotes _one_; V, _five_; X, _ten_; L,
_fifty_; and C, _a hundred_."--_Bullions cor._ "'I shall have written;'
viz., at or before some future time or event."--_Id._ "In Latin words, the
liquids are _l_ and _r_ only; in Greek words, _l, r, m_, and _n_."--_Id._
"Each legion was divided into ten cohorts; each cohort, into three
maniples; and each maniple, into two centuries."--_Id._ "Of the Roman
literature previous to A. U. 514, scarcely a vestige remains."--_Id._
"And that which He delights in, must be happy.
But when? or where? This world was made for Caesar."--CATO.
"Look next on greatness. Say where greatness lies.
Where, but among the heroes and the wise?"--_Pope_.
SECTION VII--THE ECPHONEME.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF INTERJECTIONS, &c.
(1.) "O! that he were wise!"--_Bullions cor._ (2.) "O! that his heart
_were_ tender!"--_See Murray's Ex._ or _Key_, under Rule xix. (3 and 4.)
"Oh! what a sight is here!"--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 71; (Sec.37;) _Pract.
Les._, p. 82; _Analyt. and Pract. Gram._, p. 111. (5-9.) "O Virtue! how
amiable thou art!"--_Farnum's Gram._, p. 12; _Bullions's Analyt. and Pract.
Gram._, p. 111. (10.) "Oh! that I had been more diligent!"--_Hart cor._;
and _Hiley_. (11.) "O! the humiliation to which vice reduces us!"--_Farnum_
and _Mur. cor._ (12.) "O! that he were more prudent!"--_Farnum cor._ (13
and 14.) "Ah me!"--_Davis cor._
(15.) "Lately, alas! I knew a gentle boy," &c.--_Dial cor._
(16 and 17.) "Wo is me, Alhama!"--_Byron's Poems: Wells cor._
UNDER RULE II.--OF INVOCATIONS.
"Weep on the rocks of roaring winds, O maid of Inistore!"--_Ossian_. "Cease
a little while, O wind! stream, be thou silent a while! let my voice be
heard around. Let my wanderer hear me! Salgar! it is Colma who calls. Here
is the tree, and the rock. Salgar, my love! I am here. Why delayest thou
thy coming? Lo! the calm moon comes forth. The flood is bright in the
vale."--_Id._, Vol. i, p. 369.
"Ah, stay not, stay not! guardless and alone:
Hector! my lov'd, my dearest, bravest son!"--_Pope_, II., xxii, 61.
UNDER RULE III.--OF EXCLAMATORY QUESTIONS.
"How much better is wisdom than gold!"--See _Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 272.
"O Virtue! how amiable art thou!"--See _Murray's Grammar_, 2d Edition, p.
95. "At that hour, O how vain was all sublunary happiness!"--_Brown's
Institutes_, p. 117; see _English Reader_, p. 135. "Alas! how few and
transitory are the joys which this world affords to man!"--_P. E. Day cor._
"Oh! how vain and transitory are all things here below!"--_Id._
"And O! what change of state, what change of rank,
In that assembly everywhere was seen!"--_Pollok cor._; also _Day_.
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"O _Shame_! where is thy blush?"--_Shak._ "_John_, give me my
hat."--_Barrett cor._ "What! is Moscow in flames?"--_Id._ "_O_! what
happiness awaits the virtuous!"--_Id._
"_Ah, welladay_! do what we can for him, said Trim, maintaining his
point,--the poor soul will die."--_Sterne_ or _Enfield cor._; also
"Will John return to-morrow?"--_Barrett cor._ "Will not John return
to-morrow?"--_Id._ "John, return to-morrow."--_Id._ "Soldiers, stand
firm."--_Id._ "If _mea_, which means _my_, is an adjective in Latin, why
may not _my_ be so called in English? and if my is an adjective, why not
"O Absalom, my son!"--See _2 Sam._, xix, 4. "O star-eyed Science! whither
hast thou fled?"--_Peirce cor._ "Why do you tolerate your own
inconsistency, by calling it the present tense?"--_Id._ "Thus the
declarative mood [i.e., the indicative mood] may be used in asking a
question: as, '_What_ man _is_ frail?'"--_Id._ "What connection has motive,
wish, or supposition, with the the term _subjunctive_?"--_Id._ "A grand
reason, truly, for calling it a golden key!"--_Id._ "What '_suffering_' the
man who can say this, must be enduring!"--_Id._ "What is Brown's Rule in
relation to this matter?"--_Id._ "Alas! how short is life!"--_P. E. Day
cor._ "Thomas, study your book."--_Id._ "Who can tell us who they
are?"--_Sanborn cor._ "Lord, have mercy on my son; for he is lunatic, and
sorely vexed."--See _Matt._, xvii, 15. "O ye wild groves! O where is now
your bloom?"--_Felton cor._
"O who of man the story will unfold?"--_Farnum cor._.
"Methought I heard Horatio say, To-morrow.
Go to--I will not hear of it--to-morrow!"--COTTON.
"How his eyes languish! how his thoughts adore
That painted coat which Joseph never wore!"
SECTION VIII.--THE CURVES.
CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF PARENTHESES.
"_Another_ [, better written as a phrase, _An other_,] is composed of the
indefinite article _an_, (which etymologically means _one_,) and _other_;
and denotes _one other_."--_Hallock cor._
"Each mood has its peculiar Tense, Tenses, or Times."--_Bucke cor._
"In some very ancient languages, (as the Hebrew,) which have been employed
chiefly for expressing plain sentiments in the plainest manner, without
aiming at any elaborate length or harmony of periods, this pronoun [the
relative] occurs not so often."--_L. Murray cor._
"Before I shall say those things, O Conscript Fathers! about the public
affairs, which are to be spoken at this time; I shall lay before you, in
few words, the motives of the journey and the return."--_Brightland cor._
"Of well-chose words some take not care enough,
And think they should be, like the subject, rough."--_Id._
"Then, having _showed_ his wounds, he'd sit him down."--_Bullions cor._
UNDER RULE II.--OF INCLUDED POINTS.
"Then Jael smote the nail into his temples, and fastened it _into_ the
ground: (for he was fast asleep, and weary:) so he died."--SCOTT'S BIBLE:
_Judges_, iv, 21.
"Every thing in the Iliad has manners, (as Aristotle expresses it,) that
is, every thing is acted or spoken."--_Pope cor._
"Those nouns that end in _f_, or _fe_. (except some few _which_ I shall
mention presently,) form plurals by changing those letters into _ves_: as,
thief, _thieves_: wife, _wives_."--_Bucke cor._
"_As_ requires _as_; (expressing equality _of degree_;) _thus_, 'Mine is
_as_ good _as_ yours.' _As_ [requires] _so_; (expressing equality _or
proportion_;) _thus_, '_As_ the stars, _so_ shall thy seed be.' _So_
[requires] _as_; (with a negative expressing inequality;) _as_, 'He is _not
so_ wise _as_ his brother.' _So_ [requires] _that_; (expressing _a_
consequence:) _as_, 'I am _so_ weak _that_ I cannot walk.'"
"A captious question, sir, (and yours is one,)
Deserves an answer similar, or none."--_Cowper cor._
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"Whatever words the verb TO BE serves to unite, referring to the same
thing, must be of the same case; (Sec.61;) as, '_Alexander_ is a
_student_.'"--_Bullions cor._ "When the objective is a relative _or_ [_an_]
interrogative, it comes before the verb that governs it: (Sec.40, Rule 9:)
Murray's 6th rule is unnecessary."--_Id._ "It is generally improper, except
in poetry, to omit the antecedent to a relative; and always, to omit a
relative, when of the nominative case."--_Id._ "In every sentence, there
must be a verb and a nominative or subject, expressed or
understood."--_Id._ "Nouns and pronouns, and especially words denoting
time, are often governed by prepositions understood; or are used to
restrict verbs or adjectives, without a governing word: (Sec.50, Rem. 6 and
Rule:) as, 'He gave [to] me a full account of the affair.'"--_Id._ "When
_should_ is used in stead of _ought_, to express _present_ duty, (Sec.20, 4,)
it may be followed by the present; as, 'You _should_ study that you _may_
become learned.'"--_Id._ "The indicative present is frequently used after
the words _when, till, before, as soon as, after_, to express the relative
time of a future action: (Sec.24, I, 4;) as, 'When he _comes_, he will be
welcome.'"--_Id._ "The relative is parsed, [_according to Bullions_,] by
stating its gender, number, case, and antecedent; (the gender and number
being always the same as those of the antecedent;) thus, 'The boy
who'--'_Who_ is a relative pronoun, masculine, singular, the nominative;
and refers to '_boy_' as its antecedent."--_Id._
"'Now, now, I seize, I clasp _thy_ charms;
And now _you_ burst, ah cruel! from my arms.'--_Pope_.
"Here is an unnecessary change from the second person singular to the
second _person_ plural. _The text_ would have been better, thus:--
'Now, now, I seize, I clasp _your_ charms;
And now _you_ burst, ah cruel! from my arms.'"--_John Burn cor._
See _Lowth's Gram._, p. 35; _Churchill's_, 293.
SECTION IX.--ALL POINTS.
MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.
"The principal stops are the following: the Comma [,], the Semicolon [;],
the Colon [:], the Period, or Full Stop [.], the Note of Interrogation [?],
the Note of Exclamation [!], the Parenthesis [()], and the Dash
[--]."--_Bullions cor._ "The modern punctuation in Latin is the same as in
English. The _chief_ marks employed are the Comma [,], _the_ Semicolon [;],
_the_ Colon [:], _the_ Period [.], _the Note of_ Interrogation [?], _the
Note of_ Exclamation (!), _the Parenthesis_ [()], _and the Dash_
"Plato reproving a young man for playing at some childish game, 'You chide
me,' says the youth, 'for a trifling fault.' 'Custom,' replied the
philosopher, 'is no trifle.' 'And,' adds _Montaigne_, 'he was in the right;
for our vices begin in infancy.'"--_Home cor._
"A merchant at sea asked the skipper what death his father died. 'My
father,' says the skipper, 'my grandfather, and my great-grandfather, were
all drowned.' 'Well,' replies the merchant, 'and are not you afraid of
being drowned too?'"--_Id._
"The use of inverted commas derives from France, where one Guillemet was
the author of them; [and,] as an acknowledgement for the improvement, his
countrymen call them after his name, GUILLEMETS."--_Hist. cor._
"This, however, is seldom if ever done, unless the word following the
possessive begins with _s_; thus, we do not say, 'the _prince_' feather;'
but, 'the _prince's_ feather.'"--_Bullions cor._ "And this phrase must
mean, '_the feather of the prince_;' but '_prince's-feather_,' written as
one word, [and with both apostrophe and hyphen,] is the name of a plant, a
species of amaranth."--_G. Brown_. "Boethius soon had the satisfaction of
obtaining the highest honours his country could bestow."--_Ingersoll cor._;
also _L. Murray_.
"When an example, a quotation, or a speech, is introduced, it is separated
from the rest of the sentence either by a _comma_ or _by_ a colon; as, 'The
Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity, in these words:
_God is love_.'"--_Hiley cor._ "Either the colon or _the comma_ may be
used, [according to the nature of the case,] when an example, a quotation,
or a speech, is introduced; as, 'Always remember this ancient maxim: _Know
thyself_.'--'The Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity,
in these words: _God is love_.'"--_Bullions cor._
"The first word of a quotation introduced after a colon, or _of any
sentence quoted_ in a direct form, must begin with a capital: as, '_Always_
remember this ancient maxim: _Know_ thyself.'--'Our great lawgiver says,
_Take_ up thy cross daily, and follow me.'"--_Bullions and Lennie cor._;
also _L. Murray_; also _Weld_. See _Luke_, ix, 23.
"Tell me, in whose house do you live?"--_N. Butler cor._ "He that acts
wisely, deserves praise."--_Id._ "He who steals my purse, steals
trash."--_Id._ "The antecedent is _sometimes_ omitted; as, 'Who steals my
purse, steals trash.'--[_Shak._] That is, '_He_ who,' or, 'The _person_
who.'"--_Id._ "Thus, 'Whoever steals my purse, steals trash;'--'Whoever
does no good, does harm.'"--_Id._ "Thus, 'Whoever sins, will suffer.' This
means, that any one, without exception, who sins, will suffer."--_Id._
"Letters form syllables; syllables, words; words, sentences; and sentences,
combined and connected, form discourse."--_Cooper cor._ "A letter which
forms a perfect sound when uttered by itself, is called a vowel; as, _a, e,
i_."--_Id._ "A proper noun is the name of an individual, [or of a
particular people or place]; as, John, Boston, Hudson, America."--_Id._
"Many men have been capable of doing a wise thing; more, a cunning thing;
but very few, a generous thing."--_Davis cor._ "In the place of an ellipsis
of the verb, a comma must be inserted."--_Id._ "A common noun unlimited by
an article, is sometimes understood in its broadest acceptation: thus,
'_Fishes_ swim,' is understood to mean _all_ fishes; '_Man_ is mortal,'
"Thus, those sounds formed principally by the throat, are called
_gutturals_; those formed principally by the palate, _palatals_; those
formed by the teeth, _dentals_; those by the lips, _labials; and_ those by
the nose, _nasals_."--_Davis cor._
"Some adjectives are compared irregularly: as, _Good, letter, best; Bad,
worse, worst; Little, less, least_."--_Felton cor._
"Under the fourth head of grammar, therefore, four topics will be
considered; viz., PUNCTUATION, ORTHOEPY [sic--KTH], FIGURES, and
"Direct her onward to that peaceful shore,
Where peril, pain, and death, are felt no more!"--_Falconer cor._
GOOD ENGLISH RIGHTLY POINTED.
LESSON I.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.
"Discoveries of such a character are sometimes made in grammar also; and
such, too, _are_ often their origin and their end."--_Bullions cor._
"TRAVERSE, [literally to _cross_,] To deny what the opposite party has
alleged. To traverse an indictment, _or the like_, is to deny it."--_Id._
"The _Ordinal_ numerals denote the _order_, or _succession_, in which any
number of persons or things _are_ mentioned; as, _first, second, third_,
fourth, &c."--_Hiley cor._
"Nouns have three persons; _the_ First, _the_ Second, and _the_ Third. The
First person is _that which denotes_ the speaker: the Second is _that which
denotes the person or thing_ spoken to; the Third is _that which denotes_
the _person or thing merely_ spoken of."--_Hart cor._
"Nouns have three cases; _the_ Nominative, _the_ Possessive, and _the_
Objective. The _relations_ indicated by the _cases_ of a noun, _include_
three _distinct_ ideas; viz., those of subject, object, and
"In speaking of animals that are of inferior size, or whose sex is not
known or not regarded, _we_ often _treat them_ as without sex: thus, we say
of a cat, '_It_ is treacherous;' of an infant, '_It_ is beautiful;' of a
deer, '_It_ was killed.'"--_Id._
"When THIS _and_ THAT, or THESE _and_ THOSE, refer to a preceding sentence;
THIS or THESE _represents_ the latter member or term, _and_ THAT or THOSE,
the former."--_Churchill cor._; and _Lowth_.
"The rearing of them became his first care; their fruit, his first food;
and _the_ marking _of_ their kinds, his first knowledge."--_N. Butler cor._
"After the period used with abbreviations, we should employ other points,
if the construction demands _them_; thus, after 'Esq.,' in the last
example, there should be, besides _the_ period, a comma."--_Id._
"In the plural, the verb _has_ the same _form_ in all the persons; _but
still_ the principle in _Rem._ 5, under Rule iii, that the first or second
person takes precedence, is applicable to verbs, _in parsing_."--_Id._
"Rex and Tyrannus are of very different characters. The one rules his
people by laws to which they consent; the other, by his absolute will and