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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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languages which admit but two genders, all nouns are either masculine or
feminine, even though they designate beings _that_ are neither male _nor_
female."--_Id._ "It is called _Verb_ or _Word_ by way of eminence, because
it is the most essential word in a sentence, _and one_ without which the
other parts of speech _cannot_ form _any_ complete sense."--_Gould cor._
"The sentence will consist of two members, _and these will_ commonly _be_
separated from _each_ other by a comma."--_Jamieson cor._ "Loud and soft in
speaking _are_ like the _forte_ and _piano_ in music; _they_ only _refer_
to the different degrees of force used in the same key: whereas high and
low imply a change of key."--_Sheridan cor._ "They are chiefly three: the
acquisition of knowledge; the assisting _of_ the memory to treasure up this
knowledge; _and_ the communicating _of_ it to others."--_Id._

"_This_ kind of knaves I know, _who_ in this plainness
Harbour more craft, and _hide_ corrupter ends,
Than twenty silly ducking observants."--_Shak. cor._

LESSON XVII.--MANY ERRORS.

"A man will be forgiven, even _for_ great errors, _committed_ in a foreign
language; but, in _the use he makes of_ his own, even the least slips are
justly _pointed out_ and ridiculed."--_Amer. Chesterfield cor._ "LET
expresses _not only_ permission, but _entreaty, exhortation, and
command_."--_Lowth cor._; also _Murray, et al._ "That death which is our
leaving _of_ this world, is nothing else _than the putting-off of_ these
bodies."--_Sherlock cor._ "They differ from the saints recorded _in either_
the Old _or the_ New _Testament_."--_Newton cor._ "The nature of relation,
_therefore_, consists in the referring or comparing _of_ two things to
_each_ other; from which comparison, one or both _come_ to be
denominated."--_Locke cor._ "It is not credible, that there _is_ any one
who will say, that _through_ the whole course of _his life he_ has kept
_himself entirely_ undefiled, _without_ the least spot or stain of
sin."--_Witsius cor._ "If _to act_ conformably to the will of our
Creator,--if _to promote_ the welfare of mankind around us,--if _to secure_
our own happiness, _is an object_ of the highest moment; then are we loudly
called upon to cultivate and extend the great interests of religion and
virtue." Or: "If, to act conformably to the will of our Creator, to promote
the welfare of mankind around us, _and_ to secure our own happiness, _are
objects_ of the highest moment; then," &c.--_Murray et al. cor._ "The verb
being in the plural number, it is supposed, that _the officer and his guard
are joint agents. But this_ is not the case: the only nominative to the
verb is '_officer_.' In the expression, '_with his guard_,' the _noun
'guard' is_ in the objective case, _being_ governed by the preposition
_with_; and _consequently it_ cannot form the nominative, or any part of
it. The prominent subject _for the agreement_, the true nominative _to_ the
verb, _or the term_ to which the verb peculiarly refers, is the _word
'officer.'_"--_L. Murray cor._ "This is _an other_ use, that, in my
opinion, contributes to make a man learned _rather_ than wise; and is
_incapable_ of pleasing _either_ the understanding or _the_
imagination."--_Addison cor._ "The work is a dull performance; and is
_incapable_ of pleasing _either_ the understanding _or_ the
imagination."--_L. Murray cor._ "I would recommend the 'Elements of English
Grammar,' by Mr. Frost. _The_ plan _of this little work is similar to that
of Mr. L. Murray's smallest Grammar_; but, _in order_ to meet the
understanding of children, _its_ definitions and language _are_ simplified,
_so_ far as the nature of the subject will admit. It also embraces more
examples _for_ Parsing, than _are_ usual in elementary treatises."--_S. R.
Hall cor._ "More rain falls in the first two summer months, than in the
first two _months_ of winter; but _what falls_, makes a much greater show
upon the earth, in _winter_ than in _summer_, because there is a much
slower evaporation."--_L. Murray cor._ "They often contribute also to
_render_ some persons prosperous, though wicked; and, _what_ is still
worse, to _reward_ some actions, though vicious; and _punish_ other
actions, though virtuous."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Hence, to such a man,
_arise_ naturally a secret satisfaction, _a_ sense of security, and _an_
implicit hope of somewhat further."--_Id._ "So much for the third and last
cause of illusion, that was _noticed above; which arises_ from the abuse of
very general and abstract terms; _and_ which is the principal source of the
_abundant_ nonsense that _has_ been vented by metaphysicians, mystagogues,
and theologians."--_Campbell cor._ "As to those animals _which are_ less
common, or _which_, on account of the places they inhabit, fall less under
our observation, as fishes and birds, or _which_ their diminutive size
removes still further from our observation, we generally, in English,
employ a single noun to designate both genders, _the_ masculine and _the_
feminine."--_Fosdick cor._ "Adjectives may always be distinguished by their
_relation to other words: they express_ the quality, condition, _or
number_, of whatever _things are_ mentioned."--_Emmons cor._ "_An_ adverb
_is_ a word added to a verb, _a_ participle, _an_ adjective, or _an_ other
adverb; _and generally expresses time, place, degree, or
manner_."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 29. "The _joining-together of_ two objects,
_so_ grand, and the representing _of_ them both, as subject at one moment
to the command of God, _produce_ a noble effect."--_Dr. Blair cor._
"Twisted columns, for instance, are undoubtedly ornamental; but, as they
have an appearance of weakness, they displease _the eye, whenever_ they are
_used_ to support any _massy_ part of a building, _or what_ seems to
require a more substantial prop."--_Id._ "_In_ a vast number of
inscriptions, some upon rocks, some upon stones of a defined shape, is
found an Alphabet different from the _Greeks', the Latins'_, and _the
Hebrews'_, and also unlike that of any modern nation."--_W. C. Fowler cor._

LESSON XVIII.--MANY ERRORS.

"The empire of Blefuscu is an island situated on the northeast side of
Lilliput, from _which_ it is parted by a channel of _only_ 800 yards _in
width_."--_Swift and Kames cor._ "The nominative case usually _denotes_ the
agent or doer; and _any noun or pronoun which is_ the subject of a _finite_
verb, _is always in this case_."--_R. C. Smith cor._ "There _are, in_ his
allegorical personages, an originality, _a_ richness, and _a_ variety,
which almost _vie_ with the splendours of the ancient mythology."--_Hazlitt
cor._ "As neither the Jewish nor _the_ Christian revelation _has_ been
universal, and as _each has_ been afforded to a greater or _a_ less part of
the world at different times; so likewise, at different times, both
revelations have had different degrees of evidence."--_Bp. Butler cor._
"Thus we see, that, _to kill_ a man with a sword, _and to kill one_ with a
hatchet, are looked upon as no distinct species of action; but, if the
point of the sword first enter the body, _the action_ passes for a distinct
species, called _stabbing_."--_Locke cor._ "If a soul sin, and commit a
trespass against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbour _concerning_ that
which was delivered him to keep, or _deceive_ his neighbour, or _find_ that
which was lost, and _lie_ concerning it, and _swear_ falsely; in any of all
these that a man doeth, sinning therein, then it shall be," &c.--_Bible
cor._ "As, _to do_ and _teach_ the commandments of God, is the great proof
of virtue; so, _to break_ them, and _to teach_ others to break them, _are_
the great _proofs_ of vice."--_Wayland cor._ "The latter simile, _in_
Pope's terrific maltreatment of _it_, is true _neither_ to _the_ mind _nor
to the_ eye."--_Coleridge cor._ "And the two brothers were seen,
transported with rage and fury, like Eteocles and Polynices, _each
endeavouring_ to plunge _his sword_ into _the other's heart_, and to assure
_himself_ of the throne by the death of _his_ rival."--_Goldsmith cor._ "Is
it not plain, therefore, that neither the castle, _nor_ the planet, nor the
cloud, which you _here_ see, _is that_ real _one_ which you suppose _to_
exist at a distance?"--_Berkley cor._ "I have often wondered, how it comes
to pass, that every body should love _himself_ best, and yet value _his
neighbours'_ opinion about _himself_ more than _his_ own."--_Collier cor._
"Virtue, ([Greek: Aretae], _Virtus_,) as well as most of its species, _when
sex is figuratively ascribed to it, is made_ feminine, perhaps from _its_
beauty and amiable appearance."--_Harris cor._ "Virtue, with most of its
species, is _made_ feminine _when personified_; and so is Vice, _perhaps_
for being Virtue's opposite."--_Brit. Gram. cor._; also _Buchanan_. "From
this deduction, _it_ may _easily_ be seen, how it comes to pass, that
personification makes so great a figure in all compositions _in which_
imagination or passion _has_ any concern."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "An Article is
a word _placed before a noun_, to point _it_ out _as such_, and to show how
far _its_ signification extends."--_Folker cor._ "All men have certain
natural, essential, and inherent rights;--among which are the _rights of_
enjoying and defending life and liberty; _of_ acquiring, possessing, and
protecting property; and, in a word, of seeking and obtaining
happiness."--_Const. of N. H. cor._ "From _those_ grammarians who form
their ideas and make their decisions, respecting this part of English
grammar, _from_ the principles and construction of _other_ languages,--_of
languages_ which do not in these points _accord with_ our own, but _which_
differ considerably from it,--we may naturally expect grammatical schemes
that _will be neither_ perspicuous nor consistent, and _that_ will tend
_rather_ to perplex than _to_ inform the learner."--_Murray and Hall cor.
"Indeed_ there are but very few who know how to be idle and innocent, or
_who_ have a relish _for_ any pleasures that are not criminal; every
diversion _which the majority_ take, is at the expense of some one virtue
or _other_, and their very first step out of business is into vice or
folly."--_Addison cor._

"Hail, holy Love! thou _bliss_ that _sumst_ all bliss!
_Giv'st_ and _receiv'st_ all bliss; fullest when most
Thou _giv'st_; spring-head of all felicity!"--_Pollok cor._

CHAPTER XIII--GENERAL RULE.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE GENERAL RULE.

LESSON I.--ARTICLES.

(1.) "_The_ article is a part of speech placed before nouns." Or thus:
"_An_ article is a _word_ placed before nouns."--_Comly cor._ (2.) "_The_
article is a part of speech used to limit nouns."--_Gilbert cor._ (3.) "An
article is a _word_ set before nouns to fix their vague
signification."--_Ash cor._ (4.) "_The_ adjective is a part of speech used
to describe _something named by a_ noun."--_Gilbert cor._ (5.) "A pronoun
is a _word_ used _in stead_ of a noun."--_Id. and Weld cor.: Inst._, p. 45.
(6.) "_The_ pronoun is a part of speech which is often used _in stead_ of a
noun."--_Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor._ (7.) "A verb is a _word_ which
signifies _to be, to do_, or _to be acted upon_."--_Merchant cor._ (8.)
"_The_ verb is a part of speech which signifies _to be, to act_, or _to
receive an action_."--_Comly cor._ (9.) "_The_ verb is _the_ part of speech
by which any thing is asserted."--_Weld cor._ (10.) "_The_ verb is a part
of speech, which expresses action or existence in a direct
manner."--_Gilbert cor._ (11.) "A participle is a _word_ derived from a
verb, and expresses action or existence in an indirect manner."--_Id._
(12.) "_The_ participle is a part of speech derived from _the_ verb, and
denotes being, doing, or suffering, and implies time, as a verb
does."--_Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor._ (13.) "_The_ adverb is a part of
speech used to add _some modification_ to the meaning of verbs, adjectives,
and participles."--_Gilbert cor._ (14.) "An adverb is an indeclinable
_word_ added to a verb, [_a participle,] an_ adjective, or _an_ other
adverb, to express some circumstance, _accident_, or manner of _its_
signification."--_Adam and Gould cor._ (15.) "An adverb is a _word added_
to a verb, an adjective, a participle, _or an_ other adverb, to express the
circumstance of _time, place, degree, or manner_."--_Dr. Ash cor._ (16.)
"An adverb is a _word added_ to a verb, _an_ adjective, _a_ participle,
_or_, sometimes, _an_ other adverb, to express some _circumstance_
respecting _the sense_."--_Beck cor._ (17.) "_The_ adverb is a part of
speech, which is _added_ to _verbs, adjectives, participles_, or to other
_adverbs_, to express some modification or circumstance, quality or manner,
of their signification."--_Buchanan cor._ (18.) "_The_ adverb is a part of
speech _which we add_ to _the verb_, (whence the name,) _to the adjective
or participle likewise_, and sometimes even to _an other adverb_."--_Bucke
cor._ (19.) "A conjunction is a _word_ used to connect words _or_
sentences."--_Gilbert and Weld cor._ (20.) "_The_ conjunction is a part of
speech that joins words or sentences together."--_Ash cor._ (21.) "_The_
conjunction is that part of speech which _connects_ sentences, or parts of
sentences, or single words."--_D. Blair cor._ (22.) "_The_ conjunction is a
part of speech that is used principally to connect sentences, so as, out of
two, three, or more sentences, to make one."--_Bucke cor._ (23.) "_The_
conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect _words or_
sentences _together; but_, chiefly, _to join_ simple sentences into _such
as are_ compound."--_Kirkham cor._ (24.) "A conjunction is a _word_ which
joins _words or_ sentences together, and _shows_ the manner of their
_dependence, as they stand in connexion_."--_Brit. Gram. et al. cor._ (25.)
"A preposition is a _word_ used to show the relation between other words,
_and govern the subsequent term_."--_Gilbert cor._ (26.) "A preposition is
a _governing word_ which serves to connect _other_ words, and _to_ show the
relation between them."--_Frost cor._ (27.) "A preposition is a _governing
particle_ used to connect words and show their relation."--_Weld cor._
(28.) "_The_ preposition is that part of speech which shows the _various
positions_ of persons or things, _and_ the _consequent relations_ that
_certain words bear_ toward _one an_ other."--_David Blair cor._ (29.)
"_The_ preposition is a part of speech, which, being added to _certain_
other parts of speech, serves to _show_ their state _of_ relation, or
_their_ reference to each other."--_Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor._ (30.)
"_The_ interjection is a part of speech used to express sudden passion or
_strong_ emotion."--_Gilbert cor._ (31.) "An interjection is an
_unconnected word_ used in giving utterance to some sudden feeling or
_strong_ emotion."--_Weld cor._ (32.) "_The_ interjection is that part of
speech which denotes any sudden affection or _strong_ emotion of the
mind."--_David Blair cor._ (33.) "An interjection is _an independent word
or sound_ thrown into discourse, and denotes some sudden passion or
_strong_ emotion of the soul."--_Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor._

(34.) "_The_ scene might tempt some peaceful sage
To rear _a lonely_ hermitage."--_Gent. of Aberdeen cor._

(35.) "Not all the storms that shake the pole,
Can e'er disturb thy halcyon soul,
And _smooth unalter'd_ brow."--_Barbauld's Poems_, p. 42.

LESSON II.--NOUNS.

"The _throne_ of every monarchy felt the shock."--_Frelinghuysen cor._
"These principles ought to be deeply impressed upon the _mind_ of every
American."--_Dr. N. Webster cor._ "The _words_ CHURCH and SHIRE are
radically the same."--_Id._ "They may not, in their present form, be
readily accommodated to every circumstance belonging to the possessive
_case_ of nouns."--_L. Murray cor. "Will_, in the second and third
_persons_, only _foretells_."--_Id.; Lowth's Gram._, p. 41. "Which seem to
form the true distinction between the subjunctive and the indicative
_mood_."--_L. Murray cor._ "The very general approbation which this
performance of _Walker's_ has received from the public."--_Id._ "Lest she
carry her improvements _of this kind_ too far." Or thus: "Lest she carry
her improvements _in_ this way too far."--_Id. and Campbell cor._ "Charles
was extravagant, and by _his prodigality_ became poor and despicable."--_L.
Murray cor._ "We should entertain no _prejudice_ against simple and rustic
persons."--_Id._ "These are indeed the _foundation_ of all solid
merit."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "And his embellishment, by means of _figures,
musical cadences_, or other _ornaments_ of speech."--_Id._ "If he is at no
pains to engage us by the employment of figures, musical arrangement, or
any other _ornament of style_."--_Id._ "The most eminent of the sacred
poets, are, _David, Isaiah_, and the _author_ of the Book of Job."--_Id._
"Nothing in any _poem_, is more beautifully described than the death of old
Priam."--_Id._ "When two vowels meet together, and are _joined in one
syllable_, they are called _a diphthong_."--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._ "How many
_Esses_ would _goodness'_ then end with? Three; as _goodness's_."--_Id.
"Birds_ is a noun; it is the _common_ name of _feathered
animals_."--_Kirkham cor._ "Adam gave names to _all_ living _creatures_."
Or thus: "Adam gave _a name_ to every living creature."--_Bicknell cor._
"The steps of a _flight of stairs_ ought to be accommodated to the human
figure." Or thus: "_Stairs_ ought to be accommodated to the _ease of the
users_."--_Kames cor._ "Nor ought an emblem, more than a simile, to be
founded on _a_ low or familiar _object_."--_Id._ "Whatever the Latin has
not from the Greek, it has from the _Gothic_."--_Tooke cor._ "The _mint_,
and _the office of the secretary of state_, are neat buildings."--_The
Friend cor._ "The scenes of dead and still _existence_ are apt to pall upon
us."--_Blair cor._ "And Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, the angelical
_doctor_ and the subtle, are the brightest stars in the scholastic
constellation."--_Lit. Hist. cor._ "The English language has three methods
of distinguishing the _sexes_."--_Murray et al. cor._; also _R. C. Smith_.
"In English, there are the three following methods of distinguishing _the
sexes_."--_Jaudon cor._ "There are three ways of distinguishing the
_sexes_."--_Lennie et al. cor._; also _Merchant. "The sexes are_
distinguished in three ways."--_Maunder cor._ "Neither discourse in
general, nor poetry in particular, can be called altogether an imitative
_art_."--_Dr. Blair cor._

"Do we for this the gods and conscience brave,
That one may rule and _all_ the rest _enslave_?"--_Rowe cor._

LESSON III.--ADJECTIVES.

"There is a deal _more_ of heads, than _of_ either heart or
horns."--_Barclay cor._ "For, of all villains, I think he has the _most
improper name_."--_Bunyan cor._ "Of all the men that I met in my
pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the _wrongest_ name."--_Id._ "I am
_surprised_ to see so much of the distribution, and _so many of the_
technical terms, of the Latin grammar, retained in the grammar of our
tongue."--_Priestley cor._ "Nor did the Duke of Burgundy bring him _any_
assistance."--_Hume and Priestley cor._ "Else he will find it difficult to
make _an_ obstinate _person_ believe him."--_Brightland cor._ "Are there
any adjectives which form the degrees of comparison _in a manner_ peculiar
to themselves?"--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._ "Yet _all_ the verbs are of the
indicative mood."--_Lowth cor._ "The word _candidate_ is _absolute_, in the
_nominative_ case."--_L. Murray cor._ "An Iambus has the first syllable
unaccented, and the _last_ accented."--_L. Murray, D. Blair, Jamieson,
Kirkham, Bullions, Guy, Merchant_, and others. "A Dactyl has the first
syllable accented, and the _last two [syllables_] unaccented."--_Murray et
al. cor._ "It is proper to begin with a capital the first word of every
book, chapter, letter, note, or[553] other piece of writing."--_Jaudon's
Gram._, p. 195; _John Flint's_, 105. "Five and seven make twelve, and one
_more_ makes thirteen."--_L. Murray cor._ "I wish to cultivate a _nearer_
acquaintance with you."--_Id._ "Let us consider the means _which are
proper_ to effect our purpose." Or thus: "Let us consider _what_ means
_are_ proper to effect our purpose."--_Id._ "Yet they are of _so_ similar a
nature as readily to mix and blend."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The Latin is formed
on the same model, but _is_ more imperfect."--_Id._ "I know very well how
_great_ pains have been taken." Or thus: "I know very well how much _care
has_ been taken."--_Temple cor._ "The management of the breath requires a
_great_ deal of care."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Because the mind, during such a
momentary stupefaction, is, in a _great_ measure, if not totally,
insensible."--_Kames cor._ "Motives of reason and interest _alone_ are not
sufficient."--_Id._ "To render the composition distinct in its parts, and
on the whole _impressive_."--_Id._ "_A_ and _an_ are named _the Indefinite
article_, because they denote _indifferently any_ one thing of a
kind."--_Maunder cor._ "_The_ is named _the Definite article_, because it
points out some particular thing _or things_."--_Id._ "So much depends upon
the proper construction of sentences, that, in _any_ sort of composition,
we cannot be too strict in our attention to it." Or:--"that, in _every_
sort of composition, we _ought to be very_ strict in our attention to it."
Or:--"that, in _no_ sort of composition, _can we be_ too strict," &c.--_Dr.
Blair cor._ "_Every_ sort of declamation and public speaking was carried on
by them." Or thus: "All _sorts_ of declamation and public speaking, _were_
carried on by them."--_Id._ "The _former_ has, on many occasions, a
sublimity to which the latter never attains."--_Id._ "When the words,
_therefore, consequently, accordingly_, and the like, are used in connexion
with conjunctions, they are adverbs."--_Kirkham cor._ "Rude nations make
_few_ or no allusions to the productions of the arts."--_Jamieson cor._
"While two of her maids knelt on _each_ side of her." Or, if there were
only two maids kneeling, and not four: "While two of her maids knelt _one_
on _each_ side of her."--_Mirror cor._ "The personal pronouns _of the third
person_, differ from _one an_ other in meaning and use, as
follows."--_Bullions cor._ "It was happy for the state, that Fabius
continued in the command with _Minutius_: the phlegm _of the former_ was a
check _on_ the vivacity _of the latter_."--_L. Murray and others cor._: see
_Maunders Gram._, p. 4. "If it be objected, that the words _must_ and
_ought_, in the preceding sentences, are _both_ in the present tense." Or
thus: "If it be objected, that _in all_ the preceding sentences the words
_must_ and _ought_ are in the present tense."--_L. Murray cor._ "But it
will be well, if you turn to them now and then." Or:--"if you turn to them
_occasionally_."--_Bucke cor._ "That every part should have a dependence
on, and mutually contribute to support, _every_ other."--_Rollin cor._ "The
phrase, '_Good, my lord_,' is not common, and _is_ low." Or:--"is
_uncommon_, and low."--_Priestley cor._

"That brother should not war with brother,
And _one_ devour _or vex an_ other."--_Cowper cor._

LESSON IV.--PRONOUNS.

"If I can contribute to _our_ country's glory." Or:--"to _your glory_ and
_that of my country_."--_Goldsmith cor._ "As likewise of the several
subjects, which have in effect each _its_ verb."--_Lowth cor._ "He is
likewise required to make examples _for_ himself." Or: "He _himself_ is
likewise required to make examples."--_J. Flint cor._ "If the emphasis be
placed wrong, _it will_ pervert and confound the meaning wholly." Or: "If
the emphasis be placed wrong, the meaning _will be perverted_ and
_confounded_ wholly." Or: "If _we place_ the emphasis wrong, we pervert and
confound the meaning wholly."--_L. Murray cor._; also _Dr. Blair_. "It was
this, that characterized the great men of antiquity; it is this, _that_
must distinguish the moderns who would tread in their steps."--_Dr. Blair
cor._ "I am a great enemy to implicit faith, as well the Popish as _the_
Presbyterian; _for_, in that, _the Papists and the Presbyterians_ are
_very_ much alike."--_Barclay cor._ "Will he thence dare to say, the
apostle held _an other_ Christ than _him_ that died?"--_Id._ "_Why_ need
you be anxious about this event?" Or: "What need _have_ you to be anxious
about this event?"--_Collier cor._ "If a substantive can be placed after
the verb, _the latter_ is active."--_A. Murray cor._ "_To see_ bad men
honoured and prosperous in the world, is some discouragement to virtue."
Or: "_It_ is some discouragement to virtue, _to see_ bad men," &c.--_L.
Murray cor._ "It is a happiness to young persons, _to be_ preserved from
the snares of the world, as in a garden enclosed."--_Id._ "_At_ the court
of Queen Elizabeth, _where all_ was prudence and economy."--_Bullions cor._
"It is no wonder, if such a man did not shine at the court of Queen
Elizabeth, who was _so remarkable_ for _her_ prudence and
economy."--_Priestley, Murray, et al cor._ "A defective verb is _a verb_
that wants some parts. _The defective verbs_ are chiefly the _auxiliaries_
and _the_ impersonal verbs."--_Bullions cor._ "Some writers have given _to
the_ moods a much greater extent than _I_ have assigned to them."--_L.
Murray cor._ "The personal pronouns give _such_ information _as_ no other
words are capable of conveying."--_M'Culloch cor._ "When the article _a,
an_, or _the_, precedes the participle, _the latter_ also becomes a
noun."--_Merchant cor._ "To some of these, there is a preference to be
given, which custom and judgement must determine."--_L. Murray cor._ "Many
writers affect to subjoin to any word the preposition with which it is
compounded, or _that_ of which it _literally_ implies the idea."--_Id. and
Priestley cor._

"Say, dost thou know Vectidius? _Whom_, the wretch
Whose lands beyond the Sabines largely stretch?"--_Dryden cor._

LESSON V.--VERBS.

"We _should_ naturally expect, that the word _depend_ would require _from_
after it."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 158. "A dish which they pretend _is_
made of emerald."--_L. Murray cor._ "For the very nature of a sentence
implies _that_ one proposition _is_ expressed."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p.
311. "Without a careful attention to the sense, we _should_ be naturally
led, by the rules of syntax, to refer it to the rising and setting of the
sun."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "For any rules that can be given, on this subject,
_must be_ very general."--_Id._ "He _would be_ in the right, if eloquence
were what he conceives it to be."--_Id._ "There I _should_ prefer a more
free and diffuse manner."--_Id._ "Yet that they also _resembled one an
other, and agreed_ in certain qualities."--_Id._ "But, since he must
restore her, he insists _on having an other_ in her place."--_Id._ "But
these are far from being so frequent, or so common, as _they have_ been
supposed _to be_."--_Id._ "We are not _led_ to assign a wrong place to the
pleasant or _the_ painful feelings."--_Kames cor._ "Which are of greater
importance than _they are_ commonly thought."--_Id._ "Since these qualities
are both coarse and common, _let us_ find out the mark of a man of
probity."--_Collier cor._ "Cicero did what no man had ever done before him;
_he drew_ up a treatise of consolation for himself."--_Biographer cor._
"Then there can _remain_ no other doubt of the truth."--_Brightland cor._
"I have observed _that_ some satirists use the term." Or: "I have observed
some satirists _to_ use the term."--_Bullions cor._ "Such men are ready to
despond, or _to become_ enemies."--_Webster cor._ "Common nouns _are_ names
common to many things."--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._ "To make ourselves _heard_ by
one to whom we address ourselves."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "That, in reading
poetry, he may be the better able to judge of its correctness, and _may_
relish its beauties." Or:--"and _to_ relish its beauties."--_L. Murray
cor._ "On the stretch to keep pace with the author, and _comprehend his
meaning_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "For it might have been sold for more than
three hundred pence, and _the money_ have been given to the poor."--_Bible
cor._ "He is a beam that _has_ departed, and _has_ left no streak of light
behind."--_Ossian cor._ "No part of this incident ought to have been
represented, but _the whole should have been_ reserved for a
narrative."--_Kames cor._ "The rulers and people debauching themselves, _a
country is brought to ruin_." Or: "_When_ the rulers and people _debauch_
themselves, _they bring_ ruin on a country."--_Ware cor._ "When _a title_,
(as _Doctor, Miss, Master_, &c.,) is prefixed to a name, the _latter only_,
of the two words, is commonly _varied to form the_ plural; as, 'The _Doctor
Nettletons_,'--'The two _Miss Hudsons_.'"--_A. Murray cor._ "Wherefore that
field _has been_ called, '_The Field of Blood_,' unto this day."--_Bible
cor._ "To comprehend the situations of other countries, which perhaps _it_
may be necessary for him to explore."--_Dr. Brown cor._ "We content
ourselves now with fewer conjunctive particles than our ancestors
_used_."--_Priestley cor._ "And who will be chiefly liable to make mistakes
where others have _erred_ before them."--_Id._ "The voice of nature _and
that of_ revelation _unite_." Or: "_Revelation and_ the voice of nature
_unite_." Or: "The voice of nature _unites with revelation_." Or: "The
voice of nature unites _with that of_ revelation."--_Wayland cor._

"This adjective, you see, we can't admit;
But, changed to 'WORSE,' _the word is_ just and fit."--_Tobitt cor._

LESSON VI.--PARTICIPLES.

"Its application is not arbitrary, _or dependent_ on the caprice of
readers."--_L. Murray cor._ "This is the more expedient, _because the work
is_ designed for the benefit of private learners."--_Id._ "A man, he tells
us, ordered by his will, to have _a statue erected_ for him."--_Dr. Blair
cor._ "From some likeness too remote, and _lying_ too far out of the road
of ordinary thought."--_Id._ "In the commercial world, money is a _fluid,
running_ from hand to hand."--_Dr. Webster cor._ "He pays much attention to
_the_ learning and singing _of_ songs."--_Id._ "I would not be understood
to consider _the_ singing _of_ songs as criminal."--_Id._ "It is a _case
decided by Cicero_, the great master of writing."--_Editor of Waller cor._
"Did they ever bear a testimony against _the_ writing _of_ books?"--
_Bates's Rep. cor._ "Exclamations are sometimes _mistaken_ for
interrogations."--_Hist. of Print, cor._ "Which cannot fail _to prove_ of
service."--_Smith cor._ "Hewn into such figures as would make them
_incorporate_ easily and firmly."--_Beat, or Mur. cor._ "_After_ the rule
and example, _there_ are practical inductive questions."--_J. Flint cor._
"I think _it_ will be an advantage, _that I have_ collected _my_ examples
from modern writings."--_Priestley cor._ "He was eager _to recommend_ it to
his fellow-citizens."--_Id. and Hume cor._ "The good lady was careful _to
serve_ me _with_ every thing."--_Id._ "No revelation would have been given,
had the light of nature been sufficient, in such a sense as to render one
_superfluous_ and useless."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Description, again, is _a
representation which raises_ in the mind the conception of an object, by
means of some arbitrary or instituted symbols."--_Dr. Blair cor._
"Disappointing the expectation of the hearers, when they look for _an
end_." Or:--"for _the termination of_ our _discourse_."--_Id._ "There is a
distinction, which, in the use of them, is _worthy_ of attention."--
_Maunder cor._ "A model has been contrived, which is not very expensive,
and _which_ is easily managed."--_Ed. Reporter cor._ "The conspiracy was
the more easily discovered, _because the conspirators were_ many."--_L.
Murray cor._ "Nearly ten years _had_ that celebrated work _been published_,
before its importance was at all understood."--_Id._ "_That_ the _sceptre
is_ ostensibly grasped by a female hand, does not reverse the general order
of government."--_West cor._ "I have hesitated _about_ signing the
Declaration of Sentiments."--_Lib. cor._ "The prolonging of men's lives
when the world needed to be peopled, and _the subsequent_ shortening _of_
them when that necessity _had_ ceased."--_Rev. John Brown cor._ "Before the
performance commences, we _see_ displayed the insipid formalities of the
prelusive scene."--_Kirkham cor._ "It forbade the lending of money, or
_the_ sending _of_ goods, or _the_ embarking _of_ capital in anyway, in
transactions connected with that foreign traffic."--_Brougham cor._ "Even
abstract ideas have sometimes the same important _prerogative conferred_
upon them."--_Jamieson cor._ "_Ment_, like other terminations, changes _y_
into _i_, when _the y is preceded_ by a consonant."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p.
25. "The term PROPER is from the French _propre_, own, or the Latin
_proprius_; and _a Proper noun_ is _so called, because it_ is peculiar to
the individual _or family_ bearing the name. The term COMMON is from the
Latin _communis_, pertaining equally to several or many; and _a Common
noun_ is _so called, because it is common_ to every individual comprised in
the class."--_Fowler cor._

"Thus oft by mariners are _showed_ (Unless the men of Kent are liars)
Earl Godwin's castles _overflowed_, And palace-roofs, and steeple-
spires."--_Swift cor._

LESSON VII.--ADVERBS.

"He spoke to every man and woman _who was there_."--_L. Murray cor._
"Thought and language act and react upon each other."--_Murray's Key_, p.
264. "Thought and expression act _and react_ upon each other."--_Murray's
Gram._, 8vo, p. 356. "They have neither the leisure nor the means of
attaining any knowledge, except what lies within the contracted circle of
their several professions."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 160. "Before they are
capable of understanding _much_, or indeed any thing, of _most_ other
branches of education."--_Olney cor._ "There is _no_ more beauty in one of
them, than in _an other_."--_L. Murray cor._ "Which appear to be
constructed according to _no_ certain rule."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The
vehement manner of speaking became _less_ universal."--Or better:--"_less
general_."--_Id._ "_Not_ all languages, however, agree in this mode of
expression." Or: "This mode of expression, however, _is not common to all_
languages."--_Id._ "The great occasion of setting _apart_ this particular
day."--_Atterbury cor._ "He is much more promising now, than _he was_
formerly."--_L. Murray cor._ "They are placed before a participle, _without
dependence_ on the rest of the sentence."--_Id._ "This opinion _does not
appear to have been_ well considered." Or: "This opinion appears to _have
been formed without due consideration_."--_Id._ "Precision in language
merits a full explication; and _merits it_ the more, because distinct ideas
are, perhaps, _but rarely_ formed _concerning_ it."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "In
the more sublime parts of poetry, he is _less_ distinguished." Or:--"he is
not so _highly_ distinguished."--_Id._ "_Whether_ the author was altogether
happy in the choice of his subject, may be questioned."--_Id._ "But, _with
regard to this matter_ also, there is a great error in the common
practice."--_Webster cor._ "This order is the very order of the human mind,
which makes things we are sensible of, a means to come at those that are
not _known_." Or:--"which makes things _that_ are _already known, its_
means _of finding out_ those that are not so."--_Foreman cor._ "Now, who is
not discouraged, and _does not fear_ want, when he has no money?"--_C.
Leslie cor._ "Which the authors of this work consider of little or no
use."--_Wilbur and Liv. cor._ "And here indeed the distinction between
these two classes begins to be _obscure_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "But this is a
manner which deserves to be _avoided_." Or:--"which _does not deserve_ to
be imitated."--_Id._ "And, in this department, a person effects _very_
little, _whenever_ he attempts too much."--_Campbell and Murray cor._ "The
verb that signifies _mere_ being, is neuter."--_Ash cor._ "I hope to tire
_but little_ those whom I shall not happen to please."--_Rambler cor._ "Who
were utterly unable to pronounce some letters, and _who pronounced_ others
very indistinctly."--_Sheridan cor._ "The learner may point out the active,
passive, and neuter verbs in the following examples, and state the reasons
_for thus distinguishing them_." Or: "The learner may point out the active,
_the_ passive, and _the_ neuter verbs in the following examples, and state
the reasons _for calling them so_."--_C. Adams cor._ "These words are
_almost_ always conjunctions."--_Barrett cor._

"_How glibly_ nonsense trickles from his tongue!
How sweet the periods, neither said nor sung!"--_Pope cor._

LESSON VIII.--CONJUNCTIONS.

"Who, at least, either knew not, _or did not love_ to make, a distinction."
Or better thus: "Who, at least, either knew _no distinction_, or _did not
like_ to make _any_."--_Dr. Murray cor._ "It is childish in the last degree
_to let_ this become the ground of estranged affection."--_L. Murray cor._
"When the regular, _and when_ the irregular verb, is to be preferred
[sic--KTH], p. 107."--_Id._ "The books were to have been sold this day."
Or:--"_on_ this day."--_Priestley cor._ "Do, _an_ you will." Or: "Do, _if_
you will."--_Shak. cor._ "If a man had a positive idea _either_ of infinite
duration or _of infinite_ space, he could add two infinites together." Or:
"If a man had a positive idea of _what is_ infinite, either _in_ duration
or _in_ space, he could," &c.--_Murray's proof-text cor._ "None shall more
willingly agree _to_ and advance the same _than_ I."--_Morton cor._ "That
it cannot _but_ be hurtful to continue it."--_Barclay cor._ "A conjunction
joins words _or_ sentences."--_Beck cor._ "The copulative conjunction
connects words _or_ sentences together, and continues the sense."--_Frost
cor._ "The _copulative_ conjunction serves to connect [_words or clauses_,]
_and_ continue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a cause, or a
supposition."--_L. Murray cor._ "All construction is either true or
apparent; or, in other words, _either literal or_ figurative."--_Buchanan
and Brit. Gram. cor._ "But the divine character is such _as_ none but a
divine hand could draw." Or: "But the divine character is such, _that_ none
but a divine hand could draw _it_."--_A. Keith cor._ "Who is so mad, that,
on inspecting the heavens, _he_ is insensible of a God?"--_Gibbons cor._
"It is now submitted to an enlightened public, with little _further_ desire
on the part of the _author_, than for its general utility."--_Town cor._
"This will sufficiently explain _why_ so many provincials have grown old in
the capital without making any change in their original dialect."--
_Sheridan cor._ "Of these, they had chiefly three in general use, which
were denominated ACCENTS, the term _being_ used in the plural
number."--_Id._ "And this is one of the chief reasons _why_ dramatic
representations have ever held the first rank amongst the diversions of
mankind."--_Id._ "Which is the chief reason _why_ public reading is in
general so disgusting."--_Id._ "At the same time _in which_ they learn to
read." Or: "_While_ they learn to read."--_Id._ "He is always to pronounce
his words with _exactly_ the same accent that he _uses in
speaking_."--_Id._ "In order to know what _an other_ knows, and in the same
manner _in which_ he knows it."--_Id._ "For the same reason _for which_ it
is, in a more limited state, assigned to the several tribes of
animals."--_Id._ "Were there masters to teach this, in the same manner _in
which_ other arts are taught." Or: "Were there masters to teach this, _as_
other arts are taught."--_Id._

"Whose own example strengthens all his laws;
_Who_ is himself that great sublime he draws."--_Pope cor._

LESSON IX.--PREPOSITIONS.

"The word _so_ has sometimes the same meaning _as_ ALSO, LIKEWISE, _or_ THE
SAME."--_Priestley cor._ "The verb _use_ relates not to 'pleasures of the
imagination;' but to the terms _fancy_ and _imagination_, which he was to
employ as synonymous."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "It never can view, clearly and
distinctly, _more than_ one object at a time."--_Id._ "This figure
[Euphemism] is often the same _as_ the Periphrasis."--_Adam and Gould cor._
"All the _intermediate_ time _between_ youth and old age."--_W. Walker
cor._ "When one thing is said to act _upon an other_, or do something to
_it_."--_Lowth cor._ "Such a composition has as much of meaning in it, as a
mummy has _of_ life." Or: "Such a composition has as much meaning in it, as
a mummy has life."--_Lit. Conv. cor._ "That young men, from fourteen to
eighteen _years of age_, were not the best judges."--_Id._ "This day is a
day of trouble, and of rebuke, and _of_ blasphemy."--_Isaiah_, xxxvii, 3.
"Blank verse has the same pauses and accents _that occur in_
rhyme."--_Kames cor._ "In prosody, long syllables are distinguished by _the
macron_ (-); and short ones by what is called _the breve_ (~)."--_Bucke
cor._ "Sometimes both articles are left out, especially _from_
poetry."--_Id._ "_From_ the following example, the pronoun and participle
are omitted." Or: "In the following example, the pronoun and participle are
_not expressed_."--_L. Murray cor._ [But the example was faulty. Say.]
"Conscious of his weight and importance,"--or, "_Being_ conscious of his
own weight and importance, _he did_ not _solicit_ the aid of
others."--_Id._ "He was an excellent person; _even in his_ early youth, a
mirror of _the_ ancient faith."--_Id._ "The carrying _of_ its several parts
into execution."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Concord is the agreement which one
word has _with_ an other, in gender, number, case, _or_ person."--_L.
Murray's Gram._, p. 142. "It might perhaps have given me a greater taste
_for_ its antiquities."--_Addison cor._ "To call _on_ a person, and to wait
_on_ him."--_Priestley cor._ "The great difficulty they found in fixing
just sentiments."--_Id. and Hume cor._ "Developing the _differences of_ the
three."--_James Brown cor._ "When the singular ends in x, ch soft, sh, ss,
or s, we add _es to form_ the plural."--_L. Murray cor._ "We shall present
him a list or specimen of them." "It is very common to hear of the evils of
pernicious reading, how it enervates the mind, or how it depraves the
principles."--_Dymond cor._ "In this example, the verb _arises_ is
understood before 'curiosity' and _before_ 'knowledge.'"--_L. Murray et al.
cor._ "The connective is frequently omitted, _when_ several words _have the
same construction_."--_Wilcox cor._ "He shall expel them from before you,
and drive them _out from_ your sight."--_Bible cor._ "Who makes his sun
_to_ shine and his rain to descend, upon the just and the unjust." Or thus:
"Who makes his sun shine, and his rain descend, upon the just and the
unjust."--_M'Ilvaine cor._

LESSON X.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"This sentence violates _an established rule_ of grammar."--_L. Murray
cor._ "The words _thou_ and _shall_ are again reduced to _syllables of_
short _quantity_."--_Id._ "Have the _greatest_ men always been the most
popular? By no means."--_Lieber cor._ "St. Paul positively stated, that 'He
_that loveth an other, hath_ fulfilled the law.'"--_Rom._, xiii, 8. "More
_organs_ than one _are_ concerned in the utterance of almost every
consonant."--_M'Culloch cor._ "If the reader will pardon _me for_
descending so low."--_Campbell cor._ "To adjust them in _such a manner_ as
shall consist equally with the perspicuity and the grace of the period."
Or: "To adjust them so, _that they_ shall consist equally," &c.--_Dr. Blair
and L. Mur. cor._ "This class exhibits a lamentable inefficiency, and _a
great_ want of simplicity."--_Gardiner cor._ "Whose style, _in all its
course_, flows like a limpid stream, _through which_ we see to the very
bottom."--_Dr. Blair cor._; also _L. Murray_. "We _admit various
ellipses_." Or thus: "An _ellipsis_, or _omission_, of some words, is
frequently admitted."--_Lennie's Gram._, p. 116. "The ellipsis, of
_articles may occur_ thus."--_L. Murray cor._ "Sometimes the _article a_ is
improperly applied to nouns of different numbers; as, 'A magnificent house
and gardens.'"--_Id._ "In some very emphatical expressions, _no_ ellipsis
should be _allowed_."--_Id._ "_Ellipses_ of the adjective _may happen_ in
the following manner."--_Id._ "The following _examples show that there may
be an_ ellipsis of the pronoun."--_Id._ "_Ellipses_ of the verb _occur_ in
the following instances."--_Id._ "_Ellipses_ of the adverb _may occur_ in
the following manner."--_Id._ "The following _brief expressions are all of
them elliptical_." [554]--_Id._ "If no emphasis be placed on any words, not
only will discourse be rendered heavy and lifeless, but the meaning _will_
often _be left_ ambiguous."--_Id._; also _J. S. Hart and Dr. Blair cor._
"He regards his word, but thou dost not _regard thine_."--_Bullions,
Murray, et al., cor._ "I have learned my task, but you have not _learned
yours_."--_Iid._ "When the omission of a word would obscure the _sense_,
weaken _the expression_, or be attended with impropriety, _no ellipsis_
must be _indulged_."--_Murray and Weld cor._ "And therefore the verb is
correctly put in the singular number, and refers to _them all_ separately
and individually considered."--_L. Murray cor._ "_He was to me the most
intelligible_ of all who spoke on the subject."--_Id._ "I understood him
better than _I did_ any other who spoke on the _subject_."--_Id._ "The
roughness found on the entrance into the paths of virtue and learning
_decreases_ as we advance." Or: "The _roughnesses encountered in_ the paths
of virtue and learning _diminish_ as we advance."--_Id._ "_There is_
nothing _which more_ promotes knowledge, than _do_ steady application and
_habitual_ observation."--_Id._ "Virtue confers _on man the highest_
dignity _of which he is capable; it_ should _therefore_ be _the chief
object of_ his desire."--_Id. and Merchant cor._ "The supreme Author of our
being has so formed _the human soul_, that nothing but himself can be its
last, adequate, and proper happiness."--_Addison and Blair cor._ "The
inhabitants of China laugh at the plantations of our Europeans: 'Because,'
_say they_, 'any one may place trees in equal rows and uniform
figures.'"--_Iid._ "The divine laws are not _to be reversed_ by those of
men."--_L. Murray cor._ "In both of these examples, the relative _which_
and the verb _was_ are understood."--_Id. et al. cor._ "The Greek and Latin
languages, though for many reasons they cannot be called dialects of one
_and the same tongue_, are nevertheless closely connected."--_Dr. Murray
cor._ "To ascertain and settle _whether_ a white rose or a red breathes the
sweetest fragrance." Or thus: "To ascertain and settle which _of the two_
breathes the _sweeter_ fragrance, a white rose or a red _one_."--_J. Q.
Adams cor._ "To which he can afford to devote _but little_ of his time and
labour."--_Dr. Blair cor._

"Avoid extremes; and shun the fault of such
_As_ still are pleased too little or too much."--_Pope cor._

LESSON XI.--OF BAD PHRASES.

"He _might as well_ leave his vessel to the direction of the
winds."--_South cor._ "Without good-nature and gratitude, men _might as
well_ live in a wilderness as in society."--_L'Estrange cor._ "And, for
this reason, such lines _very seldom_ occur together."--_Dr. Blair cor._
"His _greatness_ did not make him _happy_."--_Crombie cor._ "Let that which
tends to _cool_ your love, be judged in all."--_Crisp cor._ "It is _worth_
observing, that there is no passion in the mind of man so weak but it mates
and masters the fear of death."--_Bacon cor._ "Accent dignifies the
syllable on which it is laid, and makes it more _audible_ than the
rest."--_Sheridan and Murray cor._ "Before he proceeds to argue on _either_
side."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The _general_ change of manners, throughout
Europe."--_Id._ "The sweetness and beauty of Virgil's numbers, _through
all_ his works."--_Id._ "The French writers of sermons, study neatness and
elegance in _the division of their discourses._"--_Id._ "This _seldom_
fails to prove a refrigerant to passion."--_Id._ "_But_ their fathers,
brothers, and uncles, cannot, as good relations and good citizens, _excuse
themselves for_ not standing forth to demand vengeance."--_Murray's
Sequel_, p. 114. "Alleging, that their _decrial_ of the church of Rome, was
a _uniting_ with the Turks."--_Barclay cor._ "To which is added the
Catechism _by the_ Assembly of Divines."--_N. E. Prim. cor._ "This
treachery was always present in _the thoughts of both of them_."--
_Robertson cor._ "Thus far their words agree." Or: "Thus far _the words of
both_ agree."--_W. Walker cor._ "Aparithmesis is _an_ enumeration _of the_
several parts of what, _as a whole_, might be expressed in few
words."--_Gould cor._ "Aparithmesis, or Enumeration, is _a figure in which_
what might be expressed in a few words, is branched out into several
parts."--_Dr. Adam cor._ "Which may sit from time to time, where you dwell,
or in the vicinity."--_J. O. Taylor cor._ "Place together a _large-sized
animal and a small one_, of the same species." Or: "Place together a large
and a small animal of the same species."--_Kames cor._ "The weight of the
swimming body is equal to that of the quantity of fluid displaced by
it."--_Percival cor._ "The Subjunctive mood, in all its tenses, is similar
to the Optative."--_Gwilt cor._ "No feeling of obligation remains, except
that of _an obligation to_ fidelity."--_Wayland cor._ "Who asked him _why_
whole audiences should be moved to tears at the representation of some
story on the stage."--_Sheridan cor._ "_Are you not ashamed_ to affirm that
the best works of the Spirit of Christ in his saints are as filthy
rags?"--_Barclay cor._ "A neuter verb becomes active, when followed by a
noun of _kindred_ signification."--_Sanborn cor._ "But he has judged better
in _forbearing_ to repeat the article _the_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Many
objects please us, _and are thought_ highly beautiful, which have _scarcely
any_ variety at all."--_Id._ "Yet they sometimes follow them."--_Emmons
cor._ "For I know of nothing more _important_ in the whole subject, than
this doctrine of mood and tense."--_R. Johnson cor._ "It is by no means
impossible for an _error_ to be _avoided_ or _suppressed_."--_Philol.
Museum cor._ "These are things of the highest importance to _children and
youth_."--_Murray cor._ "He _ought to_ have omitted the word _many_." Or:
"He _might_ better have omitted the word _many_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Which
_might_ better have been separated." Or: "Which _ought rather to_ have been
separated."--_Id._ "Figures and metaphors, therefore, should _never_ be
_used_ profusely."--_Id. and Jam. cor._ "Metaphors, _or_ other figures,
should _never_ be _used in_ too _great abundance_."--_Murray and Russell
cor._ "Something like this has been _alleged against_ Tacitus."--
_Bolingbroke cor._

"O thou, whom all mankind in vain withstand,
_Who with the blood of each_ must one day stain thy hand!"
--_Sheffield cor._

LESSON XII.--OF TWO ERRORS.

"Pronouns sometimes precede the _terms_ which they represent."--_L. Murray
cor._ "Most prepositions originally _denoted relations_ of place."--_Lowth
cor._ "WHICH is applied to _brute_ animals, and _to_ things without
life."--_Bullions cor._ "What _thing_ do they describe, or _of what do
they_ tell the kind?"--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._ "Iron _cannons_, as well as
brass, _are_ now universally cast solid."--_Jamieson cor._ "We have
philosophers, _more_ eminent perhaps _than those of_ any _other_
nation."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "This is a question about words _only_, and
_one_ which common sense easily determines."--_Id._ "The low pitch of the
voice, is _that which_ approaches to a whisper."--_Id._ "Which, as to the
effect, is just the same _as to use_ no such distinctions at all."--_Id._
"These two systems, therefore, _really_ differ from _each_ other _but_ very
little."--_Id._ "It _is_ needless to give many instances, as _examples_
occur so often."--_Id._ "There are many occasions _on which_ this is
neither requisite nor proper."--_Id._ "Dramatic poetry divides itself into
two forms, comedy _and_ tragedy."--_Id._ "No man ever rhymed _with more
exactness_ than he." [I.e., than Roscommon.]--_Editor of Waller cor._ "The
Doctor did not reap from his poetical labours a _profit_ equal to _that_ of
his prose."--_Johnson cor._ "We will follow that which we _find_ our
fathers _practised_." Or: "We will follow that which we _find to have been_
our _fathers'_ practice."--_Sale cor._ "And I _should_ deeply regret _that
I had_ published them."--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._ "Figures exhibit ideas _with
more vividness and power_, than could be _given them_ by plain
language."--_Kirkham cor._ "The allegory is finely drawn, _though_ the
heads _are_ various."--_Spect. cor._ "I should not have thought it worthy
_of this_ place." Or: "I should not have thought it worthy _of being
placed_ here."--_Crombie cor._ "In this style, Tacitus excels all _other_
writers, ancient _or_ modern."--_Kames cor._ "No _other_ author, ancient or
modern, possesses the art of dialogue _so completely as_ Shakspeare."--
_Id._ "The names of _all the things_ we see, hear, smell, taste, _or_ feel,
are nouns."--_Inf. S. Gram. cor. "Of_ what number are _the expressions_,
'these boys,' 'these pictures,' &c.?"--_Id._ "This sentence _has faults_
somewhat _like those_ of the last."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Besides perspicuity,
he pursues propriety, purity, and precision, in his language; which
_qualities form_ one degree, and no inconsiderable one, of beauty."--_Id._
"Many critical terms have unfortunately been employed in a sense too loose
and vague; none _with less precision_, than _the word_ sublime."--_Id._
"Hence no word in the language is used _with_ a more vague signification,
than _the word_ beauty."--_Id._ "But still, _in speech_, he made use of
general terms _only_."--_Id._ "These give life, body, and colouring, to the
_facts recited_; and enable us to _conceive of_ them as present, and
passing before our eyes."--_Id._ "Which carried an ideal chivalry to a
still more extravagant height, than _the adventurous spirit of knighthood_
had _ever attained_ in fact."--_Id._ "We write much more supinely, and
_with far less labour_, than _did_ the ancients."--_Id._ "This appears
indeed to form the characteristical difference between the ancient poets,
orators, and historians, _and_ the modern."--_Id._ "To violate this rule,
as the English too often _do, shows_ great incorrectness."--_Id._ "It is
impossible, by means of any _training_, to _prevent them from_ appearing
stiff and forced."--_Id. "And it also gives to_ the speaker the
disagreeable _semblance_ of one who endeavours to compel assent."--_Id._
"And _whenever_ a light or ludicrous anecdote is proper to be recorded, it
is generally better to throw it into a note, than to _run the_ hazard _of_
becoming too familiar."--_Id. "It is_ the great business of this life, to
prepare and qualify _ourselves_ for the enjoyment of a better."--_L. Murray
cor. "From_ some dictionaries, accordingly, it was omitted; and in others
_it is_ stigmatized as a barbarism."--_Crombie cor._ "You cannot see a
thing, or think of _one, the name of which is not_ a noun."--_Mack cor.
"All_ the fleet _have_ arrived, and _are_ moored in safety." Or better:
"The _whole_ fleet _has_ arrived, and _is_ moored in safety."--_L. Murray
cor._

LESSON XIII.--OF TWO ERRORS.

"They have _severally_ their distinct and exactly-limited _relations_ to
gravity."--_Hasler cor._ "But _where the additional s_ would give too much
of the hissing sound, the omission takes place even in prose."--_L. Murray
cor._ "After _o_, it [the _w_] is sometimes not sounded at all; _and_
sometimes _it is sounded_ like a single _u_."--_Lowth cor._ "It is
situation chiefly, _that_ decides the _fortunes_ and characters of
men."--_Hume cor._; also _Murray_. "The vice of covetousness is _that_
[vice] _which_ enters _more deeply_ into the soul than any other."--_Murray
et al. cor. "Of all vices_, covetousness enters the _most deeply_ into the
soul."--_Iid._ "_Of all the vices_, covetousness is _that which_ enters the
_most deeply_ into the soul."--_Campbell cor._ "The vice of covetousness is
_a fault which_ enters _more deeply_ into the soul _than_ any
other."--_Guardian cor._ "WOULD primarily denotes inclination of will; and
SHOULD, obligation: but _they_ vary their import, and are often used to
express simple _events_." Or:--"but _both of them_ vary their import," &c.
Or:--"but _both_ vary their import, and are used to express simple
_events_."--_Lowth, Murray, et al. cor._; also _Comly and Ingersoll_;
likewise _Abel Flint_. "A double _condition_, in two correspondent clauses
of a sentence, is sometimes made _by the word_ HAD; as, '_Had_ he done
this, he _had_ escaped.'"--_Murray and Ingersoll cor._ "The pleasures of
the understanding are preferable to those of the imagination, _as well as
to those_ of sense."--_L. Murray cor._ "Claudian, in a fragment upon the
wars of the giants, has contrived to render this idea of their throwing
_of_ the mountains, which in itself _has so much grandeur_, burlesque and
ridiculous."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "To which not only no other writings are to
be preferred, but _to which_, even in divers respects, _none are_
comparable."--_Barclay cor._ "To distinguish them in the understanding, and
treat of their several natures, in the same cool manner _that_ we _use_
with regard to other ideas."--_Sheridan cor._ "For it has nothing to do
with parsing, or _the_ analyzing _of_ language."--_Kirkham cor._ Or: "For
it has nothing to do with _the_ parsing, or analyzing, _of_
language."--_Id._ "Neither _has_ that language [the Latin] _ever been_ so
_common_ in Britain."--_Swift cor._ "All that I _purpose_, is, _to give_
some openings into the pleasures of taste."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "But the
following sentences would have been better _without it_."--_L. Murray cor._
"But I think the following sentence _would_ be better _without it_." Or:
"But I think it _should be expunged from_ the following sentence."--
_Priestley cor._ "They appear, in this case, like _ugly_ excrescences
jutting out from the body."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "And therefore the fable of
the Harpies, in the third book of the AEneid, and the allegory of Sin and
Death, in the second book of Paradise Lost, _ought not to have been
inserted_ in these celebrated poems."--_Id._ "Ellipsis is an elegant
suppression, or _omission_, of _some_ word or words, _belonging to_ a
sentence."--_Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor._ "The article A or AN _is not
very proper_ in this construction."--_D. Blair cor._ "Now suppose the
articles had not been _dropped from_ these passages."--_Bucke cor._ "To
_have given_ a separate _name_ to every one of those trees, would have been
an endless and impracticable undertaking."--_Blair cor._ "_Ei_, in general,
_has_ the same _sound_ as long and slender _a_." Or better: "_Ei generally
has_ the _sound of_ long _or_ slender _a_."--_L. Murray cor._ "When a
conjunction is used _with apparent redundance, the insertion of it_ is
called Polysyndeton."--_Adam and Gould cor._ "EACH, EVERY, EITHER, _and_
NEITHER, denote the persons or things _that_ make up a number, as taken
separately or distributively."--_M'Culloch cor._ "The principal sentence
must be expressed by _a verb_ in the indicative, imperative, or potential
_mood_"--_S. W. Clark cor._ "Hence he is diffuse, where he ought to _be
urgent_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "All _sorts_ of subjects admit of _explanatory_
comparisons."--_Id. et al. cor._ "The present or imperfect participle
denotes being, action, _or passion_, continued, _and_ not
perfected."--_Kirkham cor._ "What are verbs? Those words which _chiefly_
express what _is said of things_."--_Fowle cor._

"Of all those arts in which the wise excel,
_The very_ masterpiece is _writing-well_."--_Sheffield cor._

"Such was that muse whose rules and practice tell,
_That art's_ chief masterpiece is _writing-well_."--_Pope cor._

LESSON XIV.--OF THREE ERRORS.

"_From_ some words, the metaphorical sense has justled out the original
sense altogether; so that, in respect _to the latter_, they _have_ become
obsolete."--_Campbell cor._ "_Surely_, never any _other_ mortal was so
overwhelmed with grief, as I am at this present _moment_."--_Sheridan cor._
"All languages differ from _one an_ other in their _modes_ of
_inflection_."--_Bullions cor._ "_The noun_ and _the verb_ are the only
indispensable parts of speech: the one, to express the subject spoken of;
and the other, the predicate, or what is affirmed of _the
subject_."--_M'Culloch cor._ "The words _Italicized in_ the _last three_
examples, perform the office of substantives."--_L. Murray cor._ "A
sentence _so constructed_ is always _a_ mark of _carelessness in the
writer_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Nothing is more hurtful to the grace or _the_
vivacity of a period, than superfluous _and_ dragging words at the
conclusion."--_Id._ "When its substantive is not _expressed with_ it, but
_is_ referred to, _being_ understood."--_Lowth cor._ "Yet they _always_
have _substantives_ belonging to them, either _expressed_ or
understood."--_Id._ "Because they define and limit the _import_ of the
common _names_, or general _terms_, to which they refer."--_Id._ "Every new
object surprises _them_, terrifies _them_, and makes a strong impression on
their _minds_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "His argument required _a_ more _full
development_, in order to be distinctly apprehended, and to _have_ its due
force."--_Id._ "_Those_ participles which are derived from
_active-transitive_ verbs, will govern the objective case, as _do_ the
verbs from which they are derived."--_Emmons cor._ "Where, _in violation
of_ the rule, the objective case _whom_ follows the verb, _while_ the
nominative _I_ precedes _it_."--_L. Murray cor._ "_To use, after_ the same
conjunction, both the indicative and the subjunctive _mood_, in the same
sentence, and _under_ the same circumstances, seems to be a great
impropriety."--_Lowth, Murray, et al. cor._ "A nice discernment of _the
import of words_, and _an_ accurate attention to the best usage, are
necessary on these occasions."--_L. Murray cor._ "The Greeks and Romans,
the former especially, were, in truth, much more musical than we _are_;
their genius was more turned to _take_ delight in the melody of
speech."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "_In general, if_ the sense admits it _early_,
the sooner _a circumstance is introduced_, the better; that the more
important and significant words may possess the last place, _and be_ quite
disencumbered."--_Murray et al. cor._; also _Blair and Jamieson_. "Thus we
find it in _both_ the Greek and _the_ Latin _tongue_."--_Dr. Blair cor._
"_Several_ sentences, constructed in the same manner, and _having_ the same
number of members, should never be allowed to _come in succession_."--
_Blair et al. cor._ "I proceed to lay down the rules to be observed in the
conduct of metaphors; and _these, with little variation, will be applicable
to_ tropes of every kind."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "By _selecting_ words _with_ a
proper _regard to their sounds_, we may _often imitate_ other sounds which
we mean to describe."--_Dr. Blair and L. Mur. cor._ "The disguise can
_scarcely_ be so perfect _as to deceive_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The sense
_does not admit_ of _any_ other pause, than _one_ after the second syllable
'sit;' _this_ therefore must be the only pause made in the reading."--_Id._
"Not that I believe North America to _have been first_ peopled so _lately_
as _in_ the twelfth century, the period of Madoc's migration."--_Webster
cor._ "Money and commodities _will_ always flow to that country _in which_
they are most wanted, and _in which they will_ command the most
profit."--_Id._ "That it contains no visible marks of _certain_ articles
which are _of_ the _utmost importance_ to a just delivery."--_Sheridan
cor._ "And _Virtue_, from _her_ beauty, we call a fair and favourite
maid."--_Mack cor._ "The definite article may _relate to_ nouns _of either_
number."--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._

LESSON XV.--OF MANY ERRORS.

(1.) "Compound _words are_[, by L. Murray and others, improperly] included
_among the derivatives_."--_L. Murray corrected._ (2.) "_The_ Apostrophe,
_placed above the line_, thus ', is used to abbreviate or shorten _words.
But_ its chief use is, to _denote_ the _possessive_ case of nouns."--_Id._
(3.) "_The_ Hyphen, _made_ thus -, _connects the parts of compound_ words.
It is also used when a word is divided."--_Id._ (4.) "The Acute Accent,
_made_ thus , _denotes the syllable on which stress is laid, and sometimes
also, that the vowel is short_: as, '_Fancy_.' The Grave _Accent, made_
thus `, _usually denotes, (when applied to English words,) that the stress
is laid where a vowel ends the syllable_: as, '_Favour_.'"--_Id._ (5.) "The
stress is laid on long _vowels or_ syllables, and on short _ones_,
indiscriminately. In order to distinguish the _long or open vowels_ from
the _close or short ones_, some writers of dictionaries have placed the
grave _accent_ on the former, and the acute on the latter."--_Id._ (6.)
"_The_ Diaeresis, thus _made_ ", _is_ placed over one of two _contiguous_
vowels, _to show that they are not_ a diphthong."--_Id._ (7.) "_The_
Section, _made_ thus Sec., is _sometimes used to mark the subdivisions_ of a
discourse or chapter."--_Id._ (8.) "_The_ Paragraph, _made thus_ ,
_sometimes_ denotes the beginning of a new subject, or _of_ a _passage_ not
connected with the _text preceding_. This character is _now seldom_ used
[_for such a purpose_], _except_ in the Old and New Testaments." Or
better:--"except in the _Bible_."--_Id._ (9.) "_The_ Quotation _Points,
written thus_ " ", _mark_ the beginning _and the end_ of _what_ is quoted
or transcribed from _some_ speaker or author, in his own words. In type,
they are inverted commas at the beginning, _apostrophes_ at the
conclusion."--_Id._ (10.) "_The_ Brace _was formerly_ used in poetry at the
end of a triplet, or _where_ three lines _rhymed together in heroic verse;
it_ also _serves_ to connect _several terms_ with one, _when the one is
common to all_, and _thus_ to prevent a repetition _of the_ common
term."--_Id._ (11.) "_Several_ asterisks _put together_, generally denote
the omission of some _letters belonging to_ a word, or of some bold or
indelicate expression; _but sometimes they imply a_ defect in the
manuscript _from which the text is copied_."--_Id._ (12.) "_The_ Ellipsis,
_made thus_ ----, _or thus_ ****, is used _where_ some letters _of_ a word,
or some words _of_ a verse, are omitted."--_Id._ (13.) "_The_ Obelisk,
which is _made_ thus [Obelisk]; and _the_ Parallels, _which are made_ thus
||; _and sometimes_ the letters of the alphabet; and _also the Arabic_
figures; are used as references to _notes in_ the margin, or _at the_
bottom, of the page."--_Id._ (14.) "_The_ note of interrogation should not
be employed, where it is only said _that_ a question has been asked, and
where the words are not used as a question; _as_, 'The Cyprians asked me
why I wept.'"--_Id. et al. cor._ (15.) "_The note_ of interrogation is
improper after _mere_ expressions of admiration, or of _any_ other emotion,
_though they may bear the form of_ questions."--_Iid._ (16.) "The
parenthesis incloses _something which is thrown_ into the body of a
sentence, _in an under tone; and_ which affects neither the sense, nor the
construction, _of the main text_."--_Lowth cor._ (17.) "Simple members
connected by _a relative not used restrictively, or by a conjunction that
implies comparison_, are for the most part _divided_ by _the_
comma."--_Id._ (18.) "Simple members, _or_ sentences, connected _as terms
of comparison_, are for the most part _separated_ by _the_ comma."--_L.
Murray et al. cor._ (19.) "Simple sentences connected by _a comparative
particle_, are for the most part _divided_ by the comma."--_Russell cor._
(20.) "Simple sentences _or clauses_ connected _to form a comparison_,
should generally be _parted_ by _the_ comma."--_Merchant cor._ (21.) "The
simple members of sentences that express contrast or comparison, should
generally be divided by _the_ comma."--_Jaudon cor._ (22.) "_The_ simple
members of _a comparative sentence, when_ they _are_ long, are separated by
a comma."--_Cooper cor._ (23.) "Simple sentences connected _to form a
comparison, or_ phrases placed in opposition, or contrast, are _usually_
separated by _the comma_."--_Hiley and Bullions cor._ (24.) "On _whichever_
word we lay the emphasis,--whether on the first, _the_ second, _the_ third,
or _the_ fourth,--_every change of it_ strikes out a different sense."--_L.
Murray cor._ (25.) "To _say to_ those who do not understand sea phrases,
'We tacked to the larboard, and stood off to sea,' would _give them little
or no information_."--_Murray and Hiley cor._ (26.) "Of _those_
dissyllables which are _sometimes_ nouns and _sometimes_ verbs, _it may be
observed, that_ the verb _is_ commonly _accented_ on the latter _syllable_,
and the noun on the former."--_L. Murray cor._ (27.) "And this gives _to_
our language _an_ advantage _over_ most others, in the poetical _or_
rhetorical style."--_Id. et al. cor._ (28.) "And this gives _to_ the
English _language_ an advantage _over_ most _others_, in the poetical and
_the_ rhetorical style."--_Lowth cor._ (29.) "The second and _the_ third
scholar may read the same sentence; or as many _may repeat the text_, as
_are_ necessary to _teach_ it perfectly to the whole _class_."--_Osborn
cor._

(30.) "Bliss is the _same_, in subject, _or in_ king,
In who obtain defence, or who defend."
--_Pope's Essay on Man_, IV, 58.

LESSON XVI.--OF MANY ERRORS.

"The Japanese, the Tonquinese, and the _Coreans_, speak languages
_differing_ from one _an other_, and from _that of_ the inhabitants of
China; _while all_ use the same written characters, and, by means _of
them_, correspond intelligibly with _one an_ other in writing, though
ignorant of the language spoken _by their correspondents_: a plain proof,
that the Chinese characters are like hieroglyphics, _and essentially_
independent of language."--_Jamieson cor._; also _Dr. Blair_. "The curved
line, _in stead_ of _remaining_ round, is _changed to a_ square _one_, for
the reason _before mentioned_."--_Knight cor._ "Every _reader_ should
content himself with the use of those tones only, that he is habituated to
in speech; and _should_ give _to the words no_ other emphasis, _than_ what
he would _give_ to the same words, in discourse. [Or, perhaps the author
meant:--and _should_ give _to the emphatic words no_ other _intonation,
than_ what he would _give_, &c.] Thus, whatever he utters, will be
_delivered_ with ease, and _will_ appear natural."--_Sheridan cor._ "_A
stop_, or _pause, is_ a total cessation of sound, during a perceptible,
and, in _musical or poetical_ compositions, a measurable space of time."--_
Id._ "Pauses, or rests, in speaking _or_ reading, are total _cessations_ of
the voice, during perceptible, and, in many cases, measurable _spaces_ of
time."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "_Those derivative_ nouns which _denote_
small _things_ of the kind _named by their primitives_, are called
Diminutive Nouns: as, lambkin, hillock, satchel, gosling; from lamb, hill,
sack, goose."--_Bullions cor._ "_Why is it_, that nonsense so often escapes
_detection, its character not being perceived either_ by the writer _or_ by
the reader?"--_Campbell cor._ "An Interjection is a word used to express
sudden emotion. _Interjections_ are so called, because they are generally
thrown in between the parts of _discourse, and have no_ reference to the
structure of _those_ parts."--_M'Culloch_ cor. "_The verb_ OUGHT _has no
other inflection than_ OUGHTEST, _and this is nearly obsolete_."--
_Macintosh cor._ "But the _arrangement_, government, _and_ agreement _of
words_, and _also their_ dependence upon _others_, are referred to our
reason."--_Osborn cor._ "ME is a personal pronoun, _of the_ first person,
singular _number_, and _objective_ case."--_Guy cor._ "The _noun_ SELF is
_usually_ added to a pronoun; as, herself, himself, &c. _The compounds_
thus _formed are_ called reciprocal _pronouns_."--_ Id._ "One cannot _but
think_, that our author _would have_ done better, _had he_ begun the first
of these three sentences, with saying, '_It_ is novelty, _that_ bestows
charms on a monster.'"--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The idea which they present to
us, of _nature_ resembling art, of _art_ considered as an original, and
nature as a copy, seems not very distinct, _or_ well _conceived_, nor
indeed very material to our author's purpose."--_Id._ "_This faulty_
construction of the sentence, _evidently arose from haste and
carelessness_."--_Id._ "Adverbs serve to modify _terms_ of action or
quality, or to denote time, place, order, degree, _or_ some _other
circumstance_ which we have occasion to specify."--_Id._ "We may naturally
expect, _that_ the more any nation is improved by science, and the more
perfect _its_ language becomes, _the_ more will _that language_ abound with
connective particles."--_Id._ "Mr. Greenleaf's book is _far better_ adapted
_to the capacity of_ learners, _than_ any _other_ that has yet appeared, on
the subject."--_Feltus and Onderdonk's false praise Englished_.
"Punctuation is the art of marking, in writing _or in print_, the several
pauses, or rests, _which separate_ sentences, _or_ the parts of sentences;
_so as to denote_ their proper quantity or proportion, as _it is exhibited_
in a just and accurate _delivery_."--_Lowth cor._ "A compound sentence must
_generally_ be resolved into simple ones, and _these be_ separated by _the
comma_." Or better: "A compound sentence _is generally divided_, by _the
comma_, into _its_ simple _members_."--_Greenleaf and Fisk cor._ "Simple
sentences should _in general_ be separated from _one an_ other by _the
comma_, unless _a greater point is required_; as, 'Youth is passing away,
age is approaching, and death is near.'"--_S. R. Hall cor._ "_V_ has
_always_ one uniform sound, _which is that_ of _f flattened_, as in
_thieve_ from _thief: thus v_ bears to _f_ the same relation _that b_ does
to _p, d_ to _t_, hard _g_ to _k, or z_ to _s_."--_L. Murray and Fisk
cor._; also _Walker_; also _Greenleaf_. "The author is explaining the
_difference_ between sense and imagination, _as_ powers _of_ the human
mind."--_L. Murray cor._ Or, if this was the critic's meaning: "The author
is endeavouring to explain a very abstract point, the distinction between
the powers of sense and _those of_ imagination, _as two different faculties
of_ the human mind."--_ Id._; also _Dr. Blair cor._ "HE--(_from the_
Anglo-Saxon HE--) is a personal pronoun, of the third person, singular
number, masculine gender, _and_ nominative case. Decline HE."--_Fowler
cor._

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE CRITICAL NOTES.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE I.--OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

"The passive voice denotes _an action received_." Or: "The passive voice
denotes _the receiving of an action_."--_Maunder corrected_. "Milton, in
some of his prose works, has _many_ very _finely-turned_ periods."--_Dr.
Blair and Alex. Jam. cor._ "These will be found to be _wholly_, or chiefly,
of that class."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "All appearances of an author's
_affecting of_ harmony, are disagreeable."--_Id. and Jam. cor._ "Some nouns
have a double increase; that is, _they increase_ by more syllables than
one: as _iter, itin~eris_."--_Adam et al. cor._ "The powers of man are
enlarged by _progressive_ cultivation."--_Gurney cor._ "It is always
important to begin well; to make a favourable impression at _the first
setting out_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "For if one take a wrong method at _his
first setting-out_, it will lead him astray in all that follows."--_ Id._
"His mind is full of his subject, and _all_ his words are expressive."--_
Id._ "How exquisitely is _all_ this performed in Greek!"--_Harris cor._
"How _unworthy_ is all this to satisfy the ambition of an immortal
soul!"--_L. Murray cor._ "So as to exhibit the object in its _full
grandeur_, and _its_ most striking point of view."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "And
that the author know how to descend with propriety to the _plain style_, as
well as how to rise to the bold and figured."--_ Id._ "The heart _alone_
can answer to the heart."--_ Id._ "Upon _the_ first _perception of it_."
Or: "_As it is_ first perceived."--_Harris cor._ "Call for Samson, that he
may make _sport for us_."--_Bible cor._ "And he made _sport before
them_."--_ Id._ "The term '_to suffer_,' in this definition, is used in a
technical sense; and means simply, _to receive_ an action, or _to be_ acted
upon."--_Bullions cor._ "The text _only_ is what is meant to be taught in
schools."--_Brightland cor._ "The perfect participle denotes action or
_existence_ perfected or finished."--_Kirkham cor._ "From the intricacy and
confusion which are produced _when they are_ blended together."--_L. Murray
cor._ "This very circumstance, _that the word is_ employed antithetically
renders it important in the sentence."--_Kirkham cor._ "It [the pronoun
that,] is applied _both to_ persons and _to_ things."--_L. Murray cor._
"Concerning us, as being _everywhere traduced_."--_Barclay cor._ "Every
thing _else_ was buried in a profound silence."--_Steele cor._ "They raise
_fuller_ conviction, than any reasonings produce."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "It
appears to me _nothing but_ a fanciful refinement." Or: "It appears to me
_nothing_ more than a fanciful refinement"--_ Id._ "The regular _and
thorough_ resolution of a complete passage."--_Churchill cor._ "The
infinitive is _distinguished_ by the word TO, _which_ immediately _precedes
it_."--_Maunder cor._ "It will not be _a gain of_ much ground, to urge that
the basket, or vase, is understood to be the capital."--_Kames cor._ "The
disgust one has to drink ink in reality, is not to the purpose, where _the
drinking of it is merely figurative_."--_ Id._ "That we run not into the
extreme of pruning so very _closely_."--See _L. Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p.
318. "Being obliged to rest for a _little while_ on the preposition
itself." Or: "Being obliged to rest a _while_ on the preposition itself."
Or: "Being obliged to rest [for] a _moment_ on the preposition
_alone_."--_Blair and Jam. cor._ "Our days on the earth are as a shadow,
and there is _no_ abiding."--_Bible cor._ "There _may be attempted_ a more
particular expression of certain objects, by means of _imitative_
sounds."--_Blair, Jam., and Mur. cor._ "The right disposition of the shade,
makes the light and colouring _the more apparent_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "I
_observe_ that a diffuse style _is apt to run into_ long periods."--_ Id._
"Their poor arguments, which they only _picked up in the
highways_."--_Leslie cor._ "Which must be little _else than_ a transcribing
of their writings."--_Barclay cor._ "That single impulse is a _forcing-out_
of almost all the breath." Or: "That single impulse _forces_ out almost all
the breath."--_Hush cor._ "Picini compares modulation to the _turning-off_
from a road."--_Gardiner cor._ "So much has been written on and off almost
every subject."--_Sophist cor._ "By _the_ reading _of_ books written by the
best authors, his mind became highly improved." Or: "By _the study of the
most instructive_ books, his mind became highly improved."--_L. Mur. cor._
"For I never made _a rich provision a_ token of a spiritual
ministry."--_Barclay cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE II.--OF DOUBTFUL REFERENCE.

"However disagreeable _the task_, we must resolutely perform our
duty."--_L. Murray cor._ "The formation of _all_ English verbs, _whether
they be_ regular _or_ irregular, is derived from the Saxon
_tongue_."--_Lowth cor._ "Time and chance have an influence on all things
human, and nothing _do they affect_ more remarkably than
language."--_Campbell cor._ "Time and chance have an influence on all
things human, and on nothing _a_ more remarkable _influence_ than on
language."--_Jamieson cor._ "_That_ Archytases, _who was_ a virtuous man,
happened to perish once upon a time, is with him a sufficient ground."
&c.--_Phil Mu. cor._ "He will be the better qualified to understand the
meaning of _the_ numerous words _into_ which they _enter as_ material
_parts_."--_L. Murray cor._ "We should continually have the goal in view,
_that it may_ direct us in the race."--_ Id._ "But Addison's figures seem
to rise of their own accord from the subject and constantly _to_ embellish
it" Or:--"and _they_ constantly embellish it."--_Blair and Jam. cor._ "So
far as _they signify_ persons, animals, and things that we can see, it is
very easy to distinguish nouns."--_Cobbett cor._ "Dissyllables ending in
_y_ or mute _e_, or accented on the _final_ syllable, may _sometimes_ be
compared like monosyllables."--_Frost cor._ "_If_ the _foregoing_
objection _be admitted_, it will not overrule the design."--_Rush cor._
"These philosophical innovators forget, that objects, like men, _are known_
only by their actions."--_Dr. Murray cor._ "The connexion between words and
ideas, is arbitrary and conventional; _it has arisen mainly from_ the
agreement of men among themselves."--_Jamieson cor._ "The connexion between
words and ideas, may in general be considered as arbitrary and
conventional, _or as arising from_ the agreement of men among
themselves."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "A man whose inclinations led him to be
corrupt, and _who_ had great abilities to manage and multiply and defend
his corruptions."--_Swift cor._ "They have no more control over him than
_have_ any other men."--_Wayland cor._ "_All_ his old words are true
English, and _his_ numbers _are_ exquisite."--_Spect. cor._ "It has been
said, that _not Jesuits only_ can equivocate."--_Mur. in Ex. and Key, cor._
"_In Latin_, the nominative of the first _or_ second person, is seldom
expressed."--_Adam and Gould cor._ "Some words _have_ the same _form_ in
both numbers."--_Murray et al. cor._ "Some nouns _have_ the same _form_ in
both numbers."--_Merchant et al. cor._ "Others _have_ the same _form_ in
both numbers; as, _deer, sheep, swine_."--_Frost cor._ "The following list
denotes the _consonant_ sounds, _of which there are_ twenty-two." Or: "The
following list denotes the _twenty-two simple_ sounds of the
consonants."--_Mur. et al. cor._ "And is the ignorance of these peasants a
reason for _other persons_ to remain ignorant; or _does it_ render the
subject _the_ less _worthy of our_ inquiry?"--_Harris and Mur. cor._ "He is
one of the most correct, and perhaps _he is_ the best, of our prose
writers."--_Lowth cor._ "The motions of a vortex and _of_ a whirlwind are
perfectly similar." Or: "The motion of a vortex and _that of_ a whirlwind
are perfectly similar."--_Jamieson cor._ "What I have been saying, throws
light upon one important verse in the Bible; which _verse_ I should like to
_hear some one read_."--_Abbott cor._ "When there are any circumstances of
time, place, _and the like, by_ which the principal _terms_ of our sentence
_must be limited or qualified_."--_Blair, Jam. and Mur. cor._
"Interjections are words _that_ express emotion, affection, or passion, and
_that_ imply suddenness." Or: "Interjections express emotion, affection, or
passion, and imply suddenness."--_Bucke cor._ "But the genitive
_expressing_ the measure of things, is used in the plural number
_only_."--_Adam and Gould cor._ "The buildings of the institution have been
enlarged; _and an_ expense _has been incurred_, which, _with_ the increased
price of provisions, renders it necessary to advance the terms of
admission."--_L. Murray cor._ "These sentences are far less difficult than
complex _ones_."--_S. S. Greene cor._

"Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife
_They_ sober _lived, nor ever wished_ to stray."--_Gray cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE III.--OF DEFINITIONS.

(1.) "A definition is a _short and lucid_ description of _a thing, or
species, according to its nature and properties_."--G. BROWN: _Rev. David
Blair cor._ (2.) "Language, in general, signifies the expression of our
ideas by certain articulate sounds, _or written words_, which are used as
the signs of those ideas."--_Dr. Hugh Blair cor._ (3.) "A word is _one or
more syllables_ used by common consent as the sign of an idea."--_Bullions
cor._ (4.) "A word is _one or more syllables_ used as the _sign of an idea,
or of some manner_ of thought."--_Hazen cor._ (5.) "Words are articulate
sounds, _or their written signs_, used to convey ideas."--_Hiley cor._ (6.)
"A word is _one or more syllables_ used _orally or in writing_, to
represent some idea."--_Hart cor._ (7.) "A word is _one or more syllables_
used as the sign of an idea."--_S. W. Clark cor._ (8.) "A word is a letter
or a combination of letters, _a sound or a combination of sounds_, used as
the sign of an idea."--_Wells cor._ (9.) "Words are articulate sounds, _or
their written signs_, by which ideas are communicated."--_Wright cor._
(10.) "Words are certain articulate sounds, _or their written
representatives_, used by common consent as signs of our
ideas."--_Bullions, Lowth, Murray, et al. cor._ (11.) "Words are sounds _or
written symbols_ used as signs of our ideas."--_W. Allen cor._ (12.)
"Orthography _literally_ means _correct writing_"--_Kirkham and Smith cor._
[The word _orthography_ stands for different things: as, 1. The art or
practice of writing words with their proper letters; 2. That part of
grammar which treats of letters, syllables, separate words, and spelling.]
(13.) "A vowel is a letter which _forms a perfect_ sound _when uttered
alone_."--_Inst._, p. 16; _Hazen, Lennie, and Brace, cor._ (14-18.)
"Spelling is the art of expressing words by their proper letters."--G.
BROWN: _Lowth and Churchill cor._; also _Murray, Ing. et al._; also
_Comly_; also _Bullions_; also _Kirkham and Sanborn_. (19.) "A syllable is
_one or more letters_, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, and
constituting a word, or part of a word."--_Lowth, Mur., et al., cor._ (20.)
"A syllable is a _letter or a combination of letters_, uttered in one
complete sound."--_Brit. Gram. and Buch. cor._ (21.) "A syllable is _one or
more letters representing_ a distinct sound, _or what is_ uttered by a
single impulse of the voice."--_Kirkham cor._ (22.) "A syllable is so much
of a word as _is_ sounded at once, _whether it_ be the whole _or a
part_."--_Bullions cor._ (23.) "A syllable is _so many letters_ as _are_
sounded at once; _and is either_ a word, or a part of a word."--_Picket
cor._ (24.) "A diphthong is _a_ union of two vowels _in one syllable_, as
in _bear_ and _beat_."--_Bucke cor._ Or: "A diphthong is _the meeting_ of
two vowels in one syllable."--_Brit. Gram._, p. 15; _Buchanan's_, 3. (25.)
"A diphthong consists of two vowels _put together in_ one syllable; as _ea_
in _beat, oi_ in _voice_."--_Guy cor._ (26.) "A triphthong consists of
three vowels _put together in_ one syllable; as, _eau_ in _beauty_."--_Id._
(27.) "But _a_ triphthong is the union of three vowels _in one
syllable_."--_Bucke cor._ Or: "A triphthong is the meeting of three vowels
in one syllable."--_British Gram._, p. 21; _Buchanan's_, 3. (28.) "What is
a noun? A noun is the _name of something_; as, a man, a boy."--_Brit. Gram.
and Buchanan cor._ (29.) "An adjective is a word added to _a noun or
pronoun_, to describe _the object named or referred to_."--_Maunder cor._
(30.) "An adjective is a word _added_ to a noun _or pronoun_, to describe
or define _the object mentioned_."--_R. C. Smith cor._ (31.) "An adjective
is a word _which, without assertion or time, serves_ to describe or define
_something_; as, a _good_ man, _every_ boy."--_Wilcox cor._ (32.) "_An_
adjective is _a word_ added to _a_ noun _or pronoun, and generally
expresses a_ quality."--_Mur. and Lowth cor._ (33.) "An adjective expresses
the quality, _not_ of the noun _or pronoun_ to which it is applied, _but of
the person or thing spoken of_; and _it_ may generally be known by _the_
sense _which it thus makes_ in connexion with _its noun_; as, 'A _good_
man,' 'A _genteel_ woman.'"--_Wright cor._ (34.) "An adverb is a word used
to modify the sense of _a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other
adverb_."--_Wilcox cor._ (35.) "An adverb is a word _added_ to a verb, _a
participle_, an adjective, or an other adverb, to modify _the sense_, or
denote some circumstance."--_Bullions cor._ (36.) "A substantive, or noun,
is a name given to _some_ object which the senses can perceive, the
understanding comprehend, or the imagination entertain."--_Wright cor._
(37-54.) "_Genders are modifications that_ distinguish _objects_ in regard
to sex."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 35: _Bullions cor._: also _Frost_; also
_Perley_; also _Cooper_; also _L. Murray et al_.; also _Alden et al_.; also
_Brit. Gram., with Buchanan_; also _Fowle_; also _Burn_; also _Webster_;
also _Coar_; also _Hall_; also _Wright_; also _Fisher_; also _W. Allen_;
also _Parker and Fox_; also _Weld_; also _Weld again_. (55 and 56.) "_A_
case, _in grammar_, is the state or condition of a noun _or pronoun_, with
respect to _some_ other _word_ in _the_ sentence."--_Bullions cor._; also
_Kirkham_. (57.) "_Cases_ are modifications that distinguish the relations
of nouns and pronouns to other words."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 36. (58.)
"Government is the power which one _word_ has over an other, _to cause_ it
to _assume_ some particular _modification_."--_Sanborn et al. cor._ See
_Inst._, p. 104. (59.) "A simple sentence is a sentence which contains only
one _assertion, command, or question_."--_Sanborn et al. cor._ (60.)
"Declension means _the_ putting _of_ a noun _or pronoun_ through the
different cases _and numbers_."--_Kirkham cor._ Or better: "The declension
of a _word_ is a regular arrangement of its numbers and cases."--See
_Inst._, p. 37. (61.) "Zeugma is a _figure in which_ two or more _words
refer_ in common _to an other_ which _literally agrees with_ only one of
them."--_B. F. Fish cor._ (62.) "An irregular verb is _a verb that does not
form the preterit_ and the perfect participle _by assuming d_ or _ed_; as,
smite, smote, smitten."--_Inst._, p. 75. (63). "A personal _pronoun is a
pronoun that shows, by its form, of what person it is_."--_Inst._, p. 46.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE IV.--OF COMPARISONS.

"_Our language abounds_ more in vowel and diphthong sounds, than most
_other tongues_." Or: "We abound more in vowel and _diphthongal_ sounds,
than most _nations_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "A line thus accented has a more
spirited air, than _one which takes_ the accent on any other
syllable."--_Kames cor._ "Homer _introduces_ his deities with no greater
ceremony, that [what] he uses towards mortals; and Virgil has still less
moderation _than he_."--_Id._ "Which the more refined taste of later
writers, _whose_ genius _was_ far inferior to _theirs_, would have taught
them to avoid."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "_As a poetical composition_, however,
the Book of Job is not only equal to any other of the sacred writings, but
is superior to them all, except those of Isaiah alone."--_Id._ "On the
whole, Paradise Lost is a poem _which_ abounds with beauties of every kind,
and _which_ justly entitles its author to _be equalled in_ fame _with_ any
poet."--_Id._ "Most of the French writers compose in short sentences;
though their style, in general, is not concise; commonly less so than
_that_ of _most_ English writers, whose sentences are much longer."--_Id._
"The principles of the Reformation were _too deeply fixed_ in the prince's
mind, to be easily eradicated."--_Hume cor._ "Whether they do not create
jealousy and animosity, more than _sufficient to counterbalance_ the
benefit derived from them."--_Leo Wolf cor._ "The Scotch have preserved the
ancient character of their music more entire, than _have the inhabitants
of_ any other country."--_Gardiner cor._ "When the time or quantity of one
syllable exceeds _that of_ the rest, that syllable readily receives the
accent."--_Rush cor._ "What then can be more obviously true, than that it
should be made as just as we can _make it_."--_Dymond cor._ "It was not
likely that they would criminate themselves more than, they could _not_
avoid."--_Clarkson cor._ "_In_ their understandings _they_ were the most
acute people _that_ have ever lived."--_Knapp cor._ "The patentees have
printed it with neat types, and upon better paper than was _used_
formerly."--_John Ward cor._ "In reality, its relative use is not exactly
like _that of_ any other word."--_Felch cor._ "Thus, _in stead_ of _having
to purchase_ two books,--the Grammar and the Exercises,--the learner finds
both in one, for a price at _most_ not greater than _that of_ the
others."--_Alb. Argus cor._ "_They are_ not improperly regarded as
pronouns, though they are less _strictly_ such than the others."--_Bullions
cor._ "We have had, as will readily be believed, _a much better_
opportunity of becoming conversant with the case, than the generality of
our readers can be supposed to have had."--_Brit. Friend cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE V.--OF FALSITIES.

"The long sound of _i_ is _like a very quick union_ of the sound of _a_, as
heard in _bar_, and that of _e_, as heard in _be_."--_Churchill cor._ "The
omission of a word necessary to grammatical propriety, is _of course an
impropriety, and not a true_ ellipsis."--_Priestley cor._ "_Not_ every
substantive, _or noun_, is _necessarily_ of the third person."--_A. Murray
cor._ "A noun is in the third person, when the subject is _merely_ spoken
_of_; and in the second person, when the subject is spoken _to_; _and_ in
the first person, _when it names the speaker as such_."--_Nutting cor._
"With us, no nouns are _literally of the_ masculine _or the_ feminine
gender, except the names of male and female creatures."--_Dr. Blair cor._
"_The_ apostrophe is a little mark, either _denoting the possessive case of
nouns_, or signifying that something is shortened: as, '_William's_
hat;'--'the _learn'd_,' for 'the _learned_.'"--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._ "When a
word beginning with a vowel coupled with one beginning with a consonant,
the indefinite article must _not_ be repeated, _if the two words be
adjectives belonging to one and the same noun_; thus, 'Sir Matthew Hale was
_a_ noble and impartial judge;'--'Pope was _an_ elegant and nervous
writer.'"--_Maunder cor._[555] "_W_ and _y_ are consonants, when they
_precede a vowel heard in the same_ syllable: in every other situation,
they are vowels."--_L. Mur. et al. cor._ See _Inst._, p. 16. "_The_ is _not
varied_ before adjectives and substantives, let them begin as they
will."--_Bucke cor._ "_A few English_ prepositions, _and many which we have
borrowed from other languages_, are _often_ prefixed to words, in such a
manner as to coalesce with them, and to become _parts of the compounds or
derivatives thus formed_."--_Lowth cor._ "_H_, at the beginning of
syllables not accented, is _weaker_, but _not_ entirely silent; as in
_historian, widowhood_."--_Rev. D. Blair cor._ "_Not every_ word that will
make sense with _to_ before it, is a verb; for _to_ may govern nouns,
pronouns, or participles."--_Kirkham cor._ "_Most_ verbs do, in reality,
express actions; but they are _not_ intrinsically the mere names of
actions: _these must of course be nouns_."--_Id._ "The nominative _denotes_
the actor or subject; and the verb, the action _which is_ performed _or
received_ by _this actor or subject_."--_Id._ "_But_ if only one creature
or thing acts, _more than_ one action _may_, at the same instant, be done;
as, 'The girl not only _holds_ her pen badly, but _scowls_ and _distorts_
her features, while she _writes_.'"--_Id._ "_Nor is each of these verbs of
the singular number because it_ denotes but one action which the girl
performs, _but because the subject or nominative_ is of the singular
number, _and the words must agree_."--_Id._ "And when I say, '_Two men
walk_,' is it not equally apparent, that _walk_ is plural because it
_agrees with men_?"--_Id._ "The subjunctive mood is formed by _using the
simple verb in a suppositive sense, and without personal
inflection_."--_Beck cor._ "The possessive case _of nouns, except in
instances of apposition or close connexion_, should always be distinguished
by the apostrophe."--_Frost cor._ "'At these proceedings _of_ the Commons:'
Here _of_ is _a_ sign of the _objective_ case; and '_Commons_' is of that
case, _being_ governed _by this preposition_."--_A. Murray cor._ "Here let
it be observed again, that, strictly speaking, _all finite_ verbs have
numbers _and_ persons; _and so_ have _nearly all_ nouns _and_ pronouns,
_even_ when they refer to irrational creatures and inanimate
things."--_Barrett cor._ "The noun denoting the person or _persons_
addressed or spoken to, is in the nominative case independent: _except it
be put in apposition with a pronoun of the second person_; as, 'Woe to _you
lawyers_;'--'_You_ political _men_ are constantly manoeuvring.'"--_Frost
cor._ "Every noun, when _used in a direct address and set off by a comma_,
becomes of the second person, and is in the nominative case absolute; as,
'_Paul_, thou art beside thyself."--_Jaudon cor._ "Does the conjunction
_ever_ join words together? _Yes_; the conjunction _sometimes_ joins
_words_ together, _and sometimes_ sentences, _or certain parts of
sentences_."--_Brit. Gram. cor._; also _Buchanan_. "Every _noun of the
possessive form_ has a _governing_ noun, expressed or understood: as, _St.
James's_. Here _Palace_ is understood. _But_ one _possessive may_ govern an
other; as, '_William's father's_ house.'"--_Buchanan cor._ "Every adjective
(_with the exceptions noted under Rule_ 9th) belongs to a _noun or pronoun_
expressed or understood."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "_Not_ every adjective
qualifies a substantive, expressed or understood."--_Bullions cor._ "_Not_
every adjective belongs to _a_ noun expressed or understood."--_Ingersoll
cor._ "Adjectives belong to nouns _or pronouns, and serve to_ describe
_things_."--_R. C. Smith cor._ "_English_ adjectives, _in general, have no
modifications in which they can_ agree with the nouns _to_ which they
_relate_."--_Allen Fisk cor._ "The adjective, _if it denote unity or
plurality_, must agree with its substantive in number."--_Buchanan cor._
"_Not_ every adjective and participle, _by a vast many_, belongs to some
noun or pronoun, expressed or understood."--_Frost cor._ "_Not_ every verb
of the infinitive mood, supposes a verb before it, expressed or
understood."--_Buchanan cor._ "_Nor_ has every adverb its verb, expressed
or understood; _for some adverbs relate to participles, to adjectives, or
to other adverbs_."--_Id._ "_A conjunction that connects one_ sentence to
_an other, is not_ always placed betwixt the two propositions or sentences
which _it unites_."--_Id._ "The words _for all that_, are by no means
'low;' but the putting of this phrase for _yet_ or _still_, is neither
necessary nor elegant."--_L. Murray cor._; also _Dr. Priestley_. "The
reader or hearer then understands from AND, that _the author adds one
proposition, number, or thing, to an other_. Thus AND _often, very often_,
connects one thing with an other thing, _or_ one word with an other
word."--_James Brown cor._ "'Six AND six _are_ twelve.' Here it is
affirmed, that _the two sixes added together are_ twelve."--_Id._ "'John
AND his wife _have_ six children.' This is an instance _in which_ AND
_connects two nominatives in a simple sentence_. It is _not_ here affirmed
that John has six children, and that his wife has six _other_
children."--_Id._ "That 'Nothing can be great which is not right,' is
itself a _great falsity_: there are great blunders, great evils, great
sins."--_L. Murray cor._ "The highest degree of reverence should be paid to
_the most exalted virtue or goodness_."--_Id._ "There is in _all_ minds
_some_ knowledge, _or_ understanding."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "Formerly,
the nominative and objective cases of our pronouns, were _more generally
distinguished in practice_, than they now are."--_Kirkham cor._ "As it
respects a choice of words and expressions, _the just_ rules of grammar
_may_ materially aid the learner."--_S. S. Greene cor._ "_The name of_
whatever exists, or is conceived to exist, is a noun."--_Fowler cor._ "As
_not all_ men are brave, _brave_ is itself _distinctive_."--_Id._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VI.--OF ABSURDITIES.

(1.) "And sometimes two unaccented syllables _come together_."--_Dr. Blair
cor._ (2.) "What nouns frequently _stand together_?" Or: "What nouns _are_
frequently _used one after an other_?"--_Sanborn cor._ (3.) "Words are
derived from _other words_ in various ways."--_Idem et al. cor._ (4.) "_The
name_ PREPOSITION _is_ derived from the two Latin words _prae_ and _pono_,
which signify _before_ and _place_."--_Mack cor._ (5.) "He was _much_
laughed at for such conduct."--_Bullions cor._ (6.) "Every _pronominal
adjective_ belongs to some noun, expressed or understood."--_Ingersoll
cor._ (7.) "If he [Addison] fails in any thing, it is in strength and
precision; _the want of_ which renders his manner not altogether a proper
model."--_Dr. Blair cor._ (8.) "Indeed, if Horace _is_ deficient in any
thing _his fault_ is this, of not being sufficiently attentive to juncture,
_or the_ connexion of parts."--_Id._ (9.) "The pupil is now supposed to be
acquainted with the _ten parts_ of speech, and their most usual
modifications."--_Taylor cor._ (10.) "I could see, _feel_, taste, and smell
the rose."--_Sanborn cor._ (11.) "The _vowels iou are_ sometimes pronounced
distinctly in two syllables; as in _various, abstemious_; but not in
_bilious_."--_Murray and Walker cor._ (12.) "The diphthong _aa_ generally
sounds like _a_ short; as in _Balaam, Canaan, Isaac_; in _Baael_ and _Gaael_,
we make no diphthong."--_L. Mur. cor._ (13.) "Participles _cannot be said
to be_ 'governed by the article;' for _any_ participle, with _an_ article
before it, becomes a substantive, or an adjective used substantively: as,
_the learning, the learned_."--_Id._ (14.) "_From_ words ending with _y_
preceded by a consonant, _we_ form the plurals of nouns, the persons of
verbs, _agent_ nouns, _perfect_ participles, comparatives, and
superlatives, by changing the _y_ into _i_, and adding _es, ed, er, eth_,
or _est_."--_Walker, Murray, et al. cor._ (15.) "But _y_ preceded by a
vowel, _remains unchanged_, in the derivatives above named; as, _boy,
boys_."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ (16.) "But when _the final y_ is preceded
by a vowel, it _remains unchanged before an_ additional syllable; as, coy,
_coyly_."--_Iid._ (17.) "But _y_ preceded by a vowel, _remains unchanged_,
in _almost all_ instances; as, coy, _coyly_."--_Kirkham cor._ (18.)
"Sentences are of _two kinds_, simple and compound."--_Wright cor._ (19.)
"The neuter pronoun _it_ may be employed to _introduce a nominative_ of any
person, number, or gender: as, '_It_ is _he_:'--'_It_ is _she_;'--'_It is
they_;'--'_It_ is the _land_.'"--_Bucke cor._ (20 and 21.) "_It is_ and _it
was_, are _always singular_; but they _may introduce words of_ a plural
construction: as, '_It was_ the _heretics that_ first began to rail.'
SMOLLETT."--_Merchant cor._; also _Priestley et al._ (22.) "_W_ and _y_, as
consonants, have _each of them_ one sound."--_Town cor._ (23.) "The _word
as_ is frequently a relative _pronoun_."--_Bucke cor._ (24.) "_From a
series of_ clauses, the conjunction may _sometimes_ be omitted with
propriety."--_Merchant cor._ (25.) "If, however, the _two_ members are very
closely connected, the comma is unnecessary; as, 'Revelation tells us how
we may attain happiness.'"--_L. Murray et al. cor._ (26-27.) "The mind has
difficulty in _taking effectually_, in quick succession, so many different
views of the same object."--_Dr. Blair cor._; also _L. Mur_. (28.)
"_Pronominal adjectives_ are a kind of _definitives_, which _may either
accompany their_ nouns, _or represent them understood_."--_Kirkham cor._
(29.) "_When the nominative or antecedent is a collective noun_ conveying
_the idea of plurality, the_ verb or pronoun _must agree_ with it in the
plural _number_."--_Id. et al. cor._ (30-34.) "A noun or _a_ pronoun in the
possessive case, is governed by the _name of the thing possessed_."--
_Brown's Inst._, p. 176; _Greenleaf cor._; also _Wilbur and Livingston_;
also _Goldsbury_; also _P. E. Day_; also _Kirkham, Frazee, and Miller_.
(35.) "Here the boy is represented as acting: _the word boy_ is therefore
in the nominative case."--_Kirkham cor._ (36.) "_Do, be, have_, and _will_,
are _sometimes_ auxiliaries, _and sometimes_ principal verbs."--_Cooper
cor._ (37.) "_Names_ of _males_ are masculine. _Names_ of _females_ are
feminine."--_Adam's Gram._, p. 10; _Beck cor._ (38.) "'To-day's lesson is
longer than yesterday's.' Here _to-day's_ and _yesterday's_ are
substantives."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ (39.) "In this example, _to-day's_
and _yesterday's_ are nouns in the possessive case."--_Kirkham cor._ (40.)
"An Indian in Britain would be much surprised to _find by chance_ an
elephant feeding at large in the open fields."--_Kames cor._ (41.) "If we
were to contrive a new language, we might make any articulate sound the
sign of any idea: _apart from previous usage_, there would be no
impropriety in calling oxen _men_, or rational beings _oxen_."--_L. Murray
cor._ (42.) "All the parts of a sentence should _form a consistent
whole_."--_Id et al. cor._

(43.) "Full through his neck the weighty falchion sped,
Along the pavement rolled the _culprit's_ head."--_Pope cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VII.--OF SELF-CONTRADICTION.

(1.) "Though 'The king, _with_ the lords and commons,' _must have a
singular rather than_ a plural verb, the sentence would certainly stand
better thus: 'The king, the lords, _and_ the commons, _form_ an excellent
constitution.'"--_Mur. and Ing. cor._ (2-3.) "_L_ has a soft liquid sound;
as in _love, billow, quarrel_. _This letter_ is sometimes silent; as in
_half, task [sic for 'talk'--KTH], psalm_."--_Mur. and Fisk cor._; also
_Kirkham_. (4.) "The words _means_ and _amends_, though regularly derived
from the singulars _mean_ and _amend_, are _not_ now, _even_ by polite
writers, restricted to the plural number. Our most distinguished modern
authors _often_ say, 'by _this means_,' as well as, 'by _these
means_.'"--_Wright cor._ (5.) "A friend exaggerates a man's virtues; an
enemy, his crimes."--_Mur. cor._ (6.) "The auxiliary _have, or any form of_
the perfect tense, _belongs not properly to_ the subjunctive mood. _We
suppose past facts by the indicative_: as, If I _have loved_, If thou _hast
loved_, &c."--_Merchant cor._ (7.) "There is also an impropriety in _using_
both the indicative and the subjunctive _mood_ with the same conjunction;
as, '_If_ a man _have_ a hundred sheep, and one of them _is_ gone astray,'
&c. [This is Merchant's perversion of the text. It should be, 'and one of
them _go_ astray:' or, '_be gone_ astray,' as in Matt., xviii. 12.]"--_Id._
(8.) "The rising series of contrasts _conveys transcendent_ dignity and
energy to the conclusion."--_Jamieson cor._ (9.) "A groan or a shriek is
instantly understood, as a language extorted by distress, a _natural_
language which conveys a meaning that _words_ are _not adequate_ to
express. A groan or _a_ shriek speaks to the ear with _a_ far more
thrilling effect than words: yet _even this natural_ language of distress
may be counterfeited by art."--_Dr. Porter cor._ (10.) "_If_ these words
[_book_ and _pen_] cannot be put together in such a way as will constitute
plurality, then they cannot be '_these words_;' and then, also, _one and
one_ cannot be _two_."--_James Brown cor._ (11.) "Nor can the real pen and
the real book be _added or counted together_ in words, in such a manner as
will _not_ constitute plurality in grammar."--_Id._ (12.) "_Our_ is _a
personal_ pronoun, of the possessive _case. Murray does not_ decline
it."--_Mur. cor._ (13.) "_This_ and _that_, and their plurals _these_ and
_those_, are _often_ opposed to each other in a sentence. When _this_ or
_that_ is used alone, i.e., _without contrast, this_ is _applied_ to _what
is_ present or near; _that_, to _what is_ absent or distant."--_Buchanan
cor._ (14.) "Active and neuter verbs may be conjugated by adding their
_imperfect_ participle to the auxiliary verb _be_, through all its
variations."--"_Be_ is an auxiliary whenever it is placed before either the
perfect _or the imperfect_ participle of an other verb; but, in every other
situation, it is a principal verb."--_Kirkham cor._ (15.) "A verb in the
imperative mood is _almost_ always of the second person."--"The verbs,
according to a _foreign_ idiom, or the poet's license, are used in the
imperative, agreeing with a nominative of the first or third
person."--_Id._ (16.) "A personal _pronoun, is a pronoun that shows, by its
form, of what_ person _it is_."--"Pronouns of the first person do not
_disagree_ in person with the nouns they represent."--_Id._ (17.) "Nouns
have three cases; _the_ nominative, _the possessive_, and _the_
objective."--"Personal pronouns have, like nouns, _three_ cases; _the_
nominative, _the_ possessive, and _the_ objective."--_Beck cor._ (18.) "In
_many_ instances the preposition suffers _a_ change _and_ becomes an adverb
by its _mere_ application."--_L. Murray cor._ (19.) "Some nouns are used
only in the plural; as, _ashes, literati, minutiae_. Some nouns _have_ the
same _form_ in both numbers; as, _sheep, deer, series, species_. Among the
inferior parts of speech, there are some _pairs_ or _couples_."--_Rev. D.
Blair cor._ (20.) "Concerning the pronominal adjectives, that may, _or_ may
not, represent _their nouns_."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ (21.) "The _word a_ is
in a few instances employed in the sense of a preposition; as, 'Simon Peter
_saith unto them_, I go _a_ fishing;' i. e., I go _to_ fishing."--_Weld
cor._ (22.) "So, _too_, verbs _that are commonly_ transitive, are used
intransitively, when they have no object."--_Bullions cor._

(23.) "When first young Maro, in his boundless mind,
A work t' outlast _imperial_ Rome design'd."--_Pope cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VIII.--OF SENSELESS JUMBLING.

"_There are two numbers_, called the singular and _the_ plural, _which_
distinguish nouns as _signifying either_ one _thing_, or many of the same
kind."--_Dr. H. Blair cor._ "Here James Monroe is addressed, he is spoken
to; _the name_ is _therefore_ a noun of the second person."--_Mack cor._
"The number and _person_ of _an English_ verb can _seldom_ be ascertained
until its nominative is known."--_Emmons cor._ "A noun of multitude, or _a
singular noun_ signifying many, may have _a_ verb _or a_ pronoun agreeing
with it in _either_ number; yet not without regard to the import of the
_noun_, as conveying _the idea of_ unity or plurality."--_Lowth et al.
cor._ "To _form_ the present _tense_ and _the_ past imperfect of our
_active_ or neuter _verbs_, the auxiliary _do, and its preterit did, are
sometimes_ used: _as_, I _do_ now love; I _did_ then love."--_Lowth cor._
"If these _be_ perfectly committed _to memory, the learner_ will be able to
take twenty lines for _his second_ lesson, and _the task_ may be increased
each day."--_Osborn cor._ "_Ch is_ generally sounded in the same manner _as
if it were tch_: as in _Charles, church, cheerfulness_, and _cheese_. But,
_in Latin or Greek_ words, _ch is_ pronounced like _k_: as in _Chaos,
character, chorus_, and _chimera_. _And_, in _words_ derived from the
French, _ch is_ sounded like _sh_: as _in Chagrin, chicanery_, and
_chaise_."--_Bucke cor._ "Some _nouns literally_ neuter, are _made_
masculine or feminine by a figure of speech."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "In
the English language, words may be classified under ten general heads: the
_sorts, or chief classes, of words_, are usually termed the ten parts of
speech."--_Nutting cor._ "'Mercy is the true badge of nobility.' _Nobility_
is a _common_ noun, _of the_ third person, singular number, _neuter_
gender, and objective case; and is governed by _of_."--_Kirkham cor._ "_Gh
is_ either silent, _as in plough_, or _has_ the sound of _f_, as in
_laugh_."--_Town cor._ "Many _nations_ were destroyed, and as many
languages or dialects were lost and blotted out from the general
catalogue."--_Chazotte cor._ "Some languages contain a greater number of
moods than others, and _each_ exhibits _its own as_ forms _peculiar to
itself_."--_L. Murray cor._ "A SIMILE is a simple and express comparison;
and is generally introduced by _like, as_, or _so_."--_Id._ See _Inst._, p.
233. "The word _what_ is sometimes improperly used for the conjunction
_that_."--_Priestley, Murray, et al., cor._ "Brown makes _no_ ado _in
condemning_ the _absurd_ principles of preceding works, in relation to the
gender of pronouns."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "The nominative _usually_
precedes the verb, and _denotes the agent of_ the action."--_Wm. Beck cor._
"Primitive _words_ are those which _are not formed from other words_ more
simple."--_Wright cor._ "In monosyllables, the single vowel _i_ always
preserves its long sound before a single consonant with _e_ final; as _in
thine, strive_: except in _give_ and _live_, which are short; and in
_shire_, which has the sound of long _e_."--_L. Murray, et al. cor._ "But
the person or thing _that is merely_ spoken of, being _frequently_ absent,
and _perhaps_ in many respects unknown _to the hearer_, it is _thought
more_ necessary, that _the third person_ should be marked by a distinction
of gender."--_Lowth, Mur., et al., cor._ "_Both vowels of every diphthong
were_, doubtless, originally _vocal_. Though in many instances _they are_
not _so_ at present, _the_ combinations _in which one only is heard_, still
retain the name of diphthongs, _being distinguished from others_ by the
term _improper_."--_L. Mur., et al. cor._ "_Moods are different forms_ of
the verb, _each of which expresses_ the being, action, or passion, _in some
particular_ manner."--_Inst._, p. 33; _A. Mur. cor._ "The word THAT is a
demonstrative _adjective, whenever_ it is followed by a _noun_ to which it
refers."--_L. Mur. cor._

"The _guilty soul by Jesus wash'd_,
Is future glory's deathless heir."--_Fairfield cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE IX.--OF WORDS NEEDLESS.

"A knowledge of grammar enables us to express ourselves better in
conversation and in writing."--_Sanborn cor._ "And hence we infer, that
there is no dictator here but use."--_Jamieson cor._ "Whence little is
gained, except correct spelling and pronunciation."--_Town cor._ "The man
who is faithfully attached to religion, may be relied on with
confidence."--_Merchant cor._ "Shalt thou build me _a_ house to dwell in?"
Or: "Shalt thou build _a_ house for me to dwell in?"--_Bible cor._ "The
house was deemed polluted which was entered by so abandoned a woman."--_Dr.
Blair cor._ "The farther he searches, the firmer will be his
belief."--_Keith cor._ "I deny not that religion consists in these
things."--_Barclay cor._ "Except the king delighted in her, and she were
called by name."--_Bible cor._ "The proper method of reading these lines,
is, to read them as the sense dictates."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "When any words
become obsolete, or are used _only in_ particular phrases, it is better to
dispense with their service entirely, and give up the phrases."--_Campbell
and Mur cor._ "Those savage people seemed to have no element but war."--_L.
Mur. cor._ "_Man_ is a common noun, of the third person, singular number,
masculine gender, and nominative case."--_J. Flint cor._ "The orator, as
circumstances require, will employ them all."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "By
deferring repentence [sic--KTH], we accumulate our sorrows."--_L. Murray
cor._ "There is no doubt that public speaking became early an engine of
government."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The different _meanings_ of these two
words, may not at first occur."--_Id._ "The sentiment is well expressed by
Plato, but much better by Solomon."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "They have had
a greater privilege than we."--_L. Mur. cor._ "Every thing should be so
arranged, that what goes before, may give light and force to what
follows."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "So that his doctrines were embraced by great
numbers."--_Hist. cor._ "They have taken _an other_ and shorter
cut."--_South cor._ "The imperfect tense of a regular verb is formed from
the present by adding _d_ or _ed_; as, _love, loved_."--_Frost cor._ "The
pronoun _their_ does not agree in number with the noun '_man_', for which
it stands."--_Kirkham cor._ "This mark [!] denotes wonder, surprise, joy,
grief, or sudden emotion."--_Bucke cor._ "We all are accountable, each for
himself."--_L. Mur. et al. cor._ "If he has commanded it, I must
obey."--_R. C. Smith cor._ "I now present him a form of the diatonic
scale."--_Barber cor._ "One after an other, their favourite rivers have
been reluctantly abandoned." Or: "One after an other _of_ their favourite
rivers have _they_ reluctantly abandoned."--_Hodgson cor._ "_Particular_
and _peculiar_ are words of different import."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Some
adverbs admit of comparison; as, _soon, sooner, soonest_."--_Bucke cor._
"Having exposed himself too freely in different climates, he entirely lost
his health."--_L. Mur. cor._ "The verb must agree with its nominative in
number and person."--_Buchanan cor._ "Write twenty short sentences
containing adjectives."--_Abbott cor._ "This general tendency of the
language seems to have given occasion to a very great corruption."--
_Churchill's Gram._, p. 113. "The second requisite of a perfect sentence is
_unity_."--_L. Murray cor._ "It is scarcely necessary to apologize for
omitting their names."--_Id._ "The letters of the English alphabet are
twenty-six."--_Id. et al. cor._ "He who employs antiquated or novel
phraseology, must do it with design; he cannot err from inadvertence, as he
may with respect to provincial or vulgar expressions."--_Jamieson cor._
"The vocative case, in some grammars, is wholly omitted; why, if we must
have cases, I could never understand."--_Bucke cor._ "Active verbs are
conjugated with the auxiliary verb _have_; passive verbs, with the
auxiliary _am_ or _be_."--_Id._ "What then may AND be called? A
conjunction."--_Smith cor._ "Have they ascertained who gave the
information?"--_Bullions cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE X.--OF IMPROPER OMISSIONS.

"All _words signifying concrete_ qualities of things, are called adnouns,
or adjectives."--_Rev. D. Blair cor._ "The _macron_ [[=]] signifies _a_
long or accented syllable, and the breve [[~]] indicates a short or
unaccented syllable."--_Id._ "Whose duty _it_ is, to help young
ministers."--_Friends cor._ "The passage is closely connected with what
precedes and _what_ follows."--_Phil. Mu. cor._ "The work is not completed,
but _it_ soon will be."--_R. C. Smith cor._ "Of whom hast thou been afraid,
or _whom hast thou_ feared?"--_Bible cor._ "There is a God who made, and
_who_ governs, the world."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "It was this _that_ made them
so haughty."--_Goldsmith cor._ "How far the whole charge affected him, _it_
is not easy to determine."--_Id._ "They saw _these wonders of nature_, and
_worshiped_ the God that made them."--_Bucke cor._ "The errors frequent in
the use of hyperboles, arise either from overstraining _them_, or _from_
introducing them on unsuitable occasions."--_L. Mur. cor._ "The preposition
_in_ is set before _the names of_ countries, cities, and large towns; as,
'He lives _in_ France, _in_ London, or _in_ Birmingham.' But, before _the
names of_ villages, single houses, _or foreign_ cities, _at_ is used; as,
'He lives _at_ Hackney.'"--_Id. et al. cor._ "And, in such recollection,
the thing is not figured as in our view, nor _is_ any image
formed."--_Kames cor._ "Intrinsic _beauty_ and relative beauty must be
handled separately."--_Id._ "He should be on his guard not to do them
injustice by disguising _them_ or placing them in a false light."--_Dr.
Blair cor._ "In _perusing_ that work, we are frequently interrupted by _the
author's_ unnatural thoughts."--_L. Murray cor._ "To this point have tended
all the rules _which_ I have _just_ given."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "To _this
point_ have tended all the rules which have _just_ been given."--_L. Murray
cor._ "Language, as written, or _as_ oral, is addressed to the eye, or to
the ear."--_Journal cor._ "He will learn, Sir, that to accuse and _to_
prove are very different."--_Walpole cor._ "They crowded around the door so
as to prevent others _from_ going out."--_Abbott cor._ "_A word denoting_
one person or thing, is _of the_ singular number; _a word denoting_ more
than one person or thing: is _of the_ plural number."--_J. Flint cor._
"Nouns, according to the sense or relation in which they are used, are in
the nominative, _the_ possessive, or _the objective_ case: thus, Nom. man.
Poss. man's, Obj. man."--_Rev. D. Blair cor._ "Nouns or pronouns in the
possessive case are placed before the nouns which govern them, _and_ to
which they belong."--_Sanborn cor._ "A teacher is explaining the difference
between a noun and _a_ verb."--_Abbott cor._ "And therefore the two ends,
or extremities, must directly answer to the north and _the_ south
pole."--_Harris cor._ "WALKS or WALKETH, RIDES or RIDETH, _and_ STANDS or
STANDETH, are of the third person singular."--_Kirkham cor._ "I grew
immediately roguish and pleasant, to a _high_ degree, in the same
strain."--_Swift cor._ "An _Anapest_ has the first _two_ syllables
unaccented, and the last _one_ accented."--_Rev. D. Blair cor._; also
_Kirkham et al_.; also _L. Mur. et al_. "But hearing and vision differ not
more than words spoken and _words_ written." Or: "But hearing and vision
_do not differ_ more than _spoken words_ and written."--_Wilson cor._ "They
are considered by some _authors to be_ prepositions."--_Cooper cor._ "When
those powers have been deluded and _have_ gone astray."--_Phil Mu. cor._
"They will understand this, and _will_ like it."--_Abbott cor._ "They had
been expelled _from_ their native country Romagna."--_Hunt cor._ "Future
time is expressed _in_ two different ways."--_Adam and Gould cor._ "Such as
the borrowing _of some noted event_ from history."--_Kames cor._ "Every
_finite_ verb must agree with its nominative in number and person."--_Bucke
cor._ "We are struck, we know not how, with the symmetry of any _handsome_
thing we see."--_L. Murray cor._ "Under this head, I shall consider every
thing _that is_ necessary to a good delivery."--_Sheridan cor._ "A good ear
is the gift of nature; it may be much improved, but _it cannot be_ acquired
by art."--_L. Murray cor._ "'_Truth_' _is a common_ noun, _of the third
person_, singular _number_, neuter _gender_, and nominative
_case_."--_Bullions cor._ by _Brown's Form_. "'_Possess_' _is a regular_
active-transitive verb, _found in_ the indicative mood, present _tense_,
third person, _and_ plural number."--_Id._ "'_Fear_' is a _common_ noun,
_of the third person_, singular _number_, neuter _gender_, and nominative
_case_: and is the subject of _is: according to the Rule which says, 'A
noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the
nominative case.'_ Because the meaning is--'_fear is_.'"--_Id._ "'_Is_' is
an irregular _neuter_ verb, _from be_, was, _being_, been; _found_ in the
indicative _mood_, present _tense_, third person, _and_ singular _number_:
and agrees with its nominative _fear_; _according to the_ Rule _which
says_, '_Every finite_ verb _must agree with its subject, or nominative, in
person and number_' Because the meaning is--'_fear is_.'"--_Id._ "_Ae in
the word Gaelic_, has the sound of long _a_."--_Wells cor._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XI.--OF LITERARY BLUNDERS.

"Repeat some adverbs that are composed of the _prefix or preposition a_ and
nouns."--_Kirkham cor._ "Participles are so called, because _they
participate or partake the properties of verbs and of adjectives or nouns_.
The Latin word _participium_, which signifies _a participle, is_ derived
from _participo_, to partake."--_Merchant cor._ "The possessive _precedes_
an other noun, and is known by the sign _'s_, or by this ', the apostrophe
only."--_Beck cor._ "Reciprocal pronouns, _or compound personal pronouns_,
are formed by adding _self_ or _selves_ to the _simple_ possessives _of the
first and second persons, and to the objectives of the third person_; as,
_myself, yourselves, himself, themselves_."--_Id._ "The word SELF, and its
plural SELVES, _when used separately as names_, must be considered as
nouns; _but when joined to the simple pronouns, they are not nouns, but
parts of the compound personal pronouns_."--_Wright cor._ "The _Spondee
'rolls round_,' expresses beautifully the majesty of the sun in his
course."--_Webster and Frazee cor._ "_Active-transitive verbs_ govern the
objective case; as, 'John _learned_ his _lesson_.'"--_Frazee cor._ "Prosody
primarily signified _accent_, or _the modulation of the voice_; and, as the
name implies, related _to poetry, or song_."--_Hendrick cor._ "On such a
principle of forming _them_, there would be as many _moods_ as verbs; and,
_in stead_ of four moods, we should have _four thousand three hundred_,
which is the number of verbs in the English language, according to
Lowth." [556]--_Hallock cor._ "The phrases, 'To let _out_ blood,'--'To go
_a_ hunting,' are _not_ elliptical; for _out_ is needless, and _a_ is a
preposition, governing _hunting_."--_Bullions cor._ "In Rhyme, the last
syllable of every _line corresponds in_ sound _with that of some other line
or lines_."--_Id._ "The possessive case plural, _where the nominative ends
in s_, has the apostrophe _only_; as, '_Eagles'_ wings,'--'_lions'_
whelps,'--'_bears'_ claws.'"--_Weld cor._ "'_Horses-manes_,' plural, should
be written _possessively, 'horses' manes_:'" [_one "mane"_ is never
possessed by many "_horses_."]--_Id._ "W takes its _usual_ form from the
union of two _Vees_, V being the _figure_ of the Roman capital letter which
was anciently called _U_."--_Fowler cor._ "In the sentence, 'I saw the lady
who sings,' what word _is nominative to_ SINGS?"--_J. Flint cor._ "In the
sentence, 'This is the pen which John made,' what word _expresses the
object of_ MADE?"--_Id._ "'That we fall into _no_ sin:' _no_ is a
definitive or pronominal _adjective_, not compared, and relates to
_sin_."--_Rev. D. Blair cor._ "'That _all_ our doings may be ordered by thy
governance:' _all_ is a pronominal adjective, not compared, and relates to
_doings_."--_Id._ "'Let him be made _to_ study.' _Why is_ the sign _to_
expressed before _study_? Because _be made_ is passive; and passive verbs
do not take the infinitive after them without the preposition
_to_."--_Sanborn cor._ "The following verbs have _both the preterit tense
and the perfect participle like the present_: viz., Cast, cut, cost, shut,
let, bid, shed, hurt, hit, put, &c."--_Buchanan cor._ "The agreement which
_any_ word has with _an other_ in person, _number_, gender, _or_ case, is
called CONCORD; and _the_ power which one _word_ has over _an other_, in
respect to ruling its case, mood, or _form_, is called GOVERNMENT."--_Bucke
cor._ "The word _ticks_ tells what the watch is _doing_."--_Sanborn cor._
"_The_ Breve ([~]) marks a short vowel or syllable, and the _Macron_ ([=]),
a long _one_."--_Bullions and Lennie cor._ "'Charles, you, by your
diligence, make easy work of the task given you by your preceptor.' The
first _you_ is in the _nominative_ case, being the subject of the verb
_make_."--_Kirkham cor._ "_Uoy_ in _buoy_ is a proper _triphthong; eau_ in
_flambeau_ is an improper _triphthong_."--_Sanborn cor._ "'While I of
things to come, As past rehearsing, sing.'--POLLOK. That is, 'While I sing
of things to come, _as if I were rehearsing things that are_
past.'"--_Kirkham cor._ "A simple sentence _usually_ has in it but one
nominative, and _but_ one _finite_ verb."--_Folker cor._ "An irregular verb
is _a verb that does not form the preterit_ and _the_ perfect participle
_by assuming d or ed_."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 75. "But, when the antecedent
is used in a _restricted_ sense, a comma is _sometimes_ inserted before the
relative; as, 'There is no _charm_ in the female sex, _which_ can supply
the place of virtue.'"--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 273. Or: "But, when the
antecedent is used in a _restricted_ sense, no comma is _usually_ inserted
before the relative; as, 'There is in the female sex no _charm which_ can
supply the place of virtue.'"--_Kirkham cor._ "Two capitals _used_ in this
way, denote _different words_; but _one repeated, marks_ the plural number:
as, L. D. _Legis Doctor_; LL. D. _Legum Doctor_."--_Gould cor._ "Was any
person _present besides_ the mercer? Yes; his clerk."--_L. Murray cor._
"The word _adjective_ comes from the Latin _adjectivum_; and this, from
_ad_, to, and _jacio_, I cast."--_Kirkham cor._ "Vision, or _Imagery_, is a
figure _by which the speaker represents the objects of his imagination_, as
actually before _his_ eyes, and _present to his senses_. Thus Cicero, in
his fourth oration against Cataline: 'I seem to myself to behold this city,
the ornament of the earth, and the capital of all nations, suddenly
involved in one conflagration. I see before me the slaughtered heaps of
citizens lying unburied in the midst of their ruined country. The furious
countenance of Ceth[=e]'gus rises to my view, while with savage joy he is
triumphing in your miseries.'"--_Dr. Blair cor._; also _L. Murray_. "When
_two or more_ verbs follow the same nominative, _an_ auxiliary _that is
common to them both or all_, is _usually expressed to_ the first, and
understood to the rest: as, 'He _has gone_ and _left_ me;' that is, 'He
_has gone_ and _has left_ me.'"--_Comly cor._ "When I use the word _pillar
to denote a column that supports_ an edifice, I employ it
literally."--_Hiley cor._ "_In poetry_, the conjunction _nor_ is often used
for _neither_; as

'A stately superstructure, that _nor_ wind,
Nor wave, nor shock of falling years, could move.'--POLLOK."--_Id._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XII--OF PERVERSIONS.

"In the beginning God created the _heaven_ and the earth."--_Genesis_, i,
1. "Canst thou by searching find out _God_?"--_Job_, xi, 7. "Great _and
marvellous are thy works_, Lord _God Almighty_; just and true are thy ways,
thou King of saints."--_Rev._, xv. 3. "_Not_ every one that saith unto me,
Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven."--_Matt._, vii, 21.
"Though he was rich, yet for _your_ sakes he became poor."--_2 Cor._, viii,
9. "Whose foundation was _overthrown_ with a flood."--SCOTT'S BIBLE: _Job_,
xxii, 16. "Take my yoke upon _you, and learn of me_;" &c.--_Matt._, xi, 29.
"I _go_ to prepare a place for you."--_John_, xiv, 2. "_And you_ hath he
quickened, who _were_ dead _in_ trespasses _and sins_."--_Ephesians_, ii,
1. "Go, flee thee away into the land of _Judah_."--_Amos_, vii, 12;
_Lowth's Gram._, p. 44. Or: "Go, flee away into the land of
_Judah_."--_Hart cor._ "Hitherto shalt thou come, _but_ no
_further_."--_Job_, xxxviii, 11. "The day is thine, the night also is
thine."--_Psal._, lxxiv, 16. "_Tribulation_ worketh patience; and patience,
experience; and experience, hope."--_Romans_, v, 4. "_Then_ shall the dust
return to _the earth as it was_; and the _spirit shall return unto God_ who
gave it."--_Ecclesiastes_, xii, 7. "_At the last_ it biteth like a serpent,
and stingeth like an adder. _Thine eyes shall behold strange women_, and
_thine heart shall_ utter perverse things: _Yea_, thou _shalt_ be _as he
that_ lieth down in the midst of the sea."--_Prov._, xxiii, 32, 33, 34.
"The memory of the just _is blessed_; but the name of the wicked shall
rot."--_Prov._, x, 7. "He that is slow _to_ anger, is better than the
mighty; _and_ he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a
city."--_Prov._, xvi, 32. "_For whom the Lord loveth_, he correcteth;
_even_ as _a_ father the son in whom he delighteth."--_Prov._, iii, 12.
"The _first-future_ tense _is that which expresses_ what _will_ take place
hereafter."--_Brown's Inst. of E. Gram._, p. 54. "Teach me to feel
another's woe, To hide _the fault_ I see."--_Pope's Univ. Prayer_. "Surely
thou art one of them; for thou art a _Galilean_."--_Mark_, xiv, 70. "Surely
thou also art one of them; for thy speech bewrayeth thee."--_Matt._, xxvi,
73. "Strait is the gate, and narrow _is_ the way, _which leadeth_ unto
life."--_Matt._, vii, 14. "Thou buildest the wall, that thou _mayest_ be
their king."--_Nehemiah_, vi, 6. "There is forgiveness with thee, that thou
_mayest_ be feared."--_Psalms_, cxxx, 4. "But yesterday, the word _of
Caesar_ might Have stood against the world."--_Beauties of Shakspeare_, p.
250. "The North-East spends _his_ rage."--_Thomson's Seasons_, p. 34.
"Tells how the drudging _goblin_ swet."--_Milton's Allegro_, l. 105. "And
to his faithful _champion_ hath in place _Borne_ witness
gloriously."--_Milton's Sam. Agon._, l. 1752. "Then, if thou _fall'st_, O
Cromwell, Thou _fall'st_ a blessed martyr."--_Beauties of Shakspeare_, p.
173. Better: "Then, if thou _fall_, O Cromwell! thou _fallst_ a blessed
martyr."--_Shak. and Kirk. cor._ "I see the dagger-crest of Mar, I see the

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