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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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the Athenians took above two hundred ships."--_Goldsmith cor._ "To have
made and declared such orders as _were_ necessary."--_Hutchinson cor._ "The
idea of such a collection of men as _makes_ an army."--_Locke cor._ "I'm
not the first that _has_ been wretched."--_Southern cor._ "And the faint
sparks of it which _are_ in the angels, are concealed from our
view."--_Calvin cor._ "The subjects are of such a nature, as _allows_ room
(or, as to _allow_ room) for much diversity of taste and sentiment."--_Dr.
Blair cor._ "It is in order to propose examples of such perfection, as _is_
not to be found in the real examples of society."--_Formey cor._ "I do not
believe that he would amuse himself with such fooleries as _have_ been
attributed to him."--_Id._ "That shepherd, who first _taught_ the chosen
seed."--_Milton, P. L._, B. i, l. 8. "With respect to the vehemence and
warmth which _are_ allowed in popular eloquence."--_Dr. Blair cor._
"Ambition is one of those passions that _are_ never to be
satisfied."--_Home cor._ "Thou wast he that _led_ out and _brought_ in
Israel."--_Bible cor._ "Art thou the man of God, that _came_ from
Judah?"--_Id._

"How beauty is excell'd by manly grace
And wisdom, which alone _are_ truly fair."--_Milton cor._

"What art thou, speak, that on designs unknown,
While others sleep, thus _roamst_ the camp alone?"--_Pope cor._

UNDER NOTE II.--NOMINATIVE WITH ADJUNCTS.

"The literal sense of the words _is_, that the action had been done."--_Dr.
Murray cor._ "The rapidity of his movements _was_ beyond example."--_Wells
cor._ "Murray's Grammar, together with his Exercises and Key, _has_ nearly
superseded every thing else of the kind."--_Murray's Rec. cor._ "The
mechanism of clocks and watches _was_ totally unknown."--_Hume cor._ "The
_it_, together with the verb _to be, expresses a state_ of
being."--_Cobbett cor._ "Hence it is, that the profuse variety of objects
in some natural landscapes, _occasions neither_ confusion nor
fatigue."--_Kames cor._ "Such a clatter of sounds _indicates_ rage and
ferocity."--_Gardiner cor._ "One of the fields _makes_ threescore square
yards, and the other, only fifty-five."--_Duncan cor._ "The happy effects
of this fable _are_ worth attending to."--_Bailey cor._ "Yet the glorious
serenity of its parting rays, still _lingers_ with us."--_Gould cor._
"Enough of its form and force _is_ retained to render them
uneasy."--_Maturin cor._ "The works of nature, in this respect, _are_
extremely regular."--_Pratt cor._ "No small addition of exotic and foreign
words and phrases, _has_ been made by commerce."--_Bicknell cor._ "The
dialect of some nouns _is noticed_ in the notes."--_Milnes cor._ "It has
been said, that a discovery of the full resources of the arts, _affords_
the means of debasement, or of perversion."--_Rush cor._ "By which means,
the order of the words _is_ disturbed."--_Holmes cor._ "The two-fold
influence of these and the others, _requires_ the _verb_ to be in the
plural form."--_Peirce cor._ "And each of these _affords_
employment."--_Percival cor._ "The pronunciation of the vowels _is_ best
explained under the rules relative to the consonants."--_Coar cor._ "The
judicial power of these courts _extends_ to all cases in law and
equity."--_Hall and Baker cor._ "One of you _has_ stolen my
money."--_Humorist cor._ "Such redundancy of epithets, in stead of
pleasing, _produces_ satiety and disgust."--_Kames cor._ "It has been
alleged, that a compliance with the rules of Rhetoric, _tends_ to cramp the
mind."--_Hiley cor._ "Each of these _is_ presented to us in different
relations."--_Hendrick cor._ "The past tense of these verbs, (_should,
would, might, could_,) _is_ very indefinite with respect to
time."--_Bullions cor._ "The power of the words which are said to govern
this mood, _is_ distinctly understood."--_Chandler cor._

"And now, at length, the fated term of years
The world's desire _hath_ brought, and lo! the God appears."
--_Lowth cor._

"Variety of numbers still _belongs_
To the soft melody of _odes_, or _songs_."
--_Brightland cor._

UNDER NOTE III.--COMPOSITE OR CONVERTED SUBJECTS.

"Many are the works of human industry, which to begin and finish, _is_
hardly granted to the same man."--_Johnson cor._ "To lay down rules for
these, _is_ as inefficacious."--_Pratt cor._ "To profess regard and act
_injuriously, discovers_ a base mind."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "To magnify
to the height of wonder things great, new, and admirable, extremely
_pleases_ the mind of man."--_Fisher cor._ "In this passage, '_according
as_' _is_ used in a manner which is very common."--_Webster cor._ "A CAUSE
DE, _is_ called a preposition; A CAUSE QUE, a conjunction."--_Webster cor._
"To these _it is_ given to speak in the name of the Lord."--_The Friend
cor._ "While _wheat_ has no plural, _oats has_ seldom any
singular."--_Cobbett cor._ "He cannot assert that _ll_ (i.e., _double Ell_)
_is_ inserted in _fullness_ to denote the sound of _u_"--_Cobb cor._ "_Ch_,
in Latin, _has_ the power of _k_."--_Gould cor._ "_Ti_, before a vowel, and
unaccented, _has_ the sound of _si_ or _ci_."--_Id._ "In words derived from
French, as _chagrin, chicanery_, and _chaise, ch is sounded_ like
_sh_."--_Bucke cor._ "But, in the _words schism, schismatic_, &c., the _ch
is_ silent."--_Id._ "_Ph_, at the beginning of words, _is_ always sounded
like _f_."--_Bucke cor._ "_Ph has_ the sound of _f_ as in
_philosophy_."--_Webster cor._ "_Sh has_ one sound only, as in
_shall_."--_Id._ "_Th has_ two sounds."--_Id._ "_Sc_, before _a, o, u, or
r, has_ the sound of _sk_."--_Id._ "_Aw has_ the sound of _a_ in
_hall_."--_Bolles cor._ "_Ew sounds_ like _u_"--_Id._ "_Ow_, when both
_vowels are_ sounded, _has_ the _power_ of _ou in thou_."--_Id._ "_Ui_,
when both _vowels are_ pronounced in one syllable, _sounds_ like _wi short,
as_ in _languid_."--_Id._

"_Ui_ three _other sounds at least expresses_,
As _who hears_ GUILE, REBUILD, and BRUISE, _confesses_."
--_Brightland cor._

UNDER NOTE IV.--EACH, ONE, EITHER, AND NEITHER.

"When each of the letters which compose this word, _has_ been
learned."--_Dr. Weeks cor._ "As neither of us _denies_ that both Homer and
Virgil have great beauties."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Yet neither of them _is_
remarkable for precision."--_Id._ "How far each of the three great epic
poets _has_ distinguished _himself_."--_Id._ "Each of these _produces_ a
separate, agreeable sensation."--_Id._ "On the Lord's day, every one of us
Christians _keeps_ the sabbath."--_Tr. of Iren. cor._ "And each of them
_bears_ the image of purity and holiness."--_Hope of Is. cor._ "_Was_
either of these meetings ever acknowledged or recognized?"--_Foster cor._
"Whilst neither of these letters _exists_ in the Eugubian
inscription."--_Knight cor._ "And neither of them _is_ properly termed
indefinite."--_Dr. Wilson cor._ "As likewise of the several subjects, which
have in effect _their several verbs_:" or,--"_each of which has_ in effect
_its own verb_."--_Lowth cor._ "Sometimes, when the word ends in _s_,
neither of the signs _is_ used."--_A. Mur. cor._ "And as neither of these
manners _offends_ the ear."--_J. Walker cor._ "Neither of these two tenses
_is_ confined to this signification only."--_R. Johnson cor._ "But neither
of these circumstances _is_ intended here."--_Tooke cor._ "So that all are
indebted to each, and each _is_ dependent upon all."--_Bible Rep. cor._
"And yet neither of them _expresses_ any more action in this case, than
_it_ did in the other."--_Bullions cor._ "Each of these expressions
_denotes_ action."--_Hallock cor._ "Neither of these moods _seems_ to be
defined by distinct boundaries."--_Butler cor._ "Neither of these solutions
_is_ correct."--_Bullions cor._ "Neither _bears_ any sign of case at
all."--_Fowler cor._

"Each in _his_ turn, like Banquo's monarchs, _stalks._" Or:--
"_All_ in _their_ turn, like Banquo's monarchs, _stalk_."--_Byron cor._

"And tell what each _doth_ by _the_ other lose."--_Shak. cor._

UNDER NOTE V.--VERB BETWEEN TWO NOMINATIVES.

"The quarrels of lovers _are but_ a renewal of love."--_Adam et al. cor._
"Two dots, one placed above the other, _are_ called _a Sheva."--Wilson
cor._ "A few centuries more or less _are_ a matter of small
consequence."--_Id._ "Pictures were the first step towards the art of
writing; _hieroglyphics were_ the second step."--_Parker cor._ "The
comeliness of youth _is_ modesty and frankness; of age, condescension and
dignity." Or, much better: "The _great ornaments_ of youth are,"
&c.--_Murray cor._ "Merit and good works _are_ the end of man's
motion."--_Bacon cor._ "Divers philosophers hold, that the lips _are_
parcel of the mind."--_Shak. cor._ "The clothing of the natives _was_ the
skins of wild beasts." Or thus: "The _clothes_ of the natives _were_ skins
of wild beasts."--_Hist. cor._ "Prepossessions in _favour_ of our _native_
town, _are_ not a matter of surprise."--_Webster cor._ "Two shillings and
sixpence _are_ half a crown, but not a half crown."--_Priestley and
Bicknell cor._ "Two vowels, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice,
and uniting in one sound, _are_ called a _diphthong_."--_Cooper cor._ "Two
or more sentences united together _are_ called a Compound Sentence."--_Day
cor._ "Two or more words rightly put together, but not completing an entire
proposition, _are_ called a Phrase."--_Id._ "But the common number of times
_is_ five." Or, to state the matter truly: "But the common number of
_tenses is six_."--_Brit. Gram. cor._ "Technical terms, injudiciously
introduced, _are an other_ source of darkness in composition."--_Jamieson
cor._ "The United States _are_ the great middle division of North
America."--_Morse cor._ "A great cause of the low state of industry, _was_
the restraints put upon it."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 199; _Churchill's_,
414. "Here two tall ships _become_ the victor's prey."--_Rowe cor._ "The
expenses incident to an outfit _are_ surely no object."--_The Friend cor._

"Perhaps their loves, or else their sheep,
_Were_ all that did their silly thoughts so busy keep."--_Milt. cor._

UNDER NOTE VI.--CHANGE OF THE NOMINATIVE.

"Much _care_ has been taken, to explain all the kinds of words."--_Inf. S.
Gr. cor._ "Not _fewer_ [years] than three years, are spent in attaining
this faculty." Or, perhaps better: "Not less than three _years' time, is_
spent in attaining this faculty." Or thus: "Not less _time_ than three
years, _is_ spent," &c.--_Gardiner cor._ "Where this night are met in state
Many _friends_ to gratulate His wish'd presence."--_Milton cor._ "Peace! my
darling, here's no danger, Here's no _ox anear_ thy bed."--_Watts cor._
"But _all_ of these are mere conjectures, and some of them very unhappy
ones."--_Coleridge cor._ "The old theorists' _practice_ of calling the
Interrogatives and Repliers ADVERBS, is only a part of their regular system
of naming words."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "Where _several sentences_ occur,
place them in the order _of the facts_."--_Id._ "And that _all the events_
in conjunction make a regular chain of causes and effects."--_Kames cor.
"In regard to their_ origin, the Grecian and Roman republics, though
equally involved in the obscurities and uncertainties of fabulous events,
present one remarkable distinction."--_Adams cor._ "In these respects,
_man_ is left by nature an unformed, unfinished creature."--_Bp. Butler
cor._ "The _Scriptures_ are the oracles of God himself."--_Hooker cor._
"And at our gates are all _kinds_ of pleasant fruits."--_S. Song cor._ "The
_preterits_ of _pluck, look_, and _toss_, are, in speech, pronounced
_pluckt, lookt, tosst_."--_Fowler corrected_.

"Severe the doom that days _prolonged impose_,
To stand sad witness of unnumbered woes!"--_Melmoth cor._

UNDER NOTE VII.--FORMS ADAPTED TO DIFFERENT STYLES.

_1. Forms adapted to the Common or Familiar Style._ "Was it thou[538] that
_built_ that house?"--_Brown's Institutes_, Key, p. 270. "That boy _writes_
very elegantly."--_Ib. "Could_ not thou write without blotting thy
book?"--_Ib. "Dost_ not thou think--or, _Don't_ thou think, it will rain
to-day?"--_Ib. "Does_ not--or, _Don't_ your cousin intend to visit
you?"--_Ib._ "That boy _has_ torn my book."--_Ib._ "Was it thou that
_spread_ the hay?"--_Ib._ "Was it James, or thou, that _let_ him
in?"--_Ib._ "He _dares_ not say a word."--_Ib._ "Thou _stood_ in my way and
_hindered_ me."--_Ib._

"Whom _do_ I _see_?--Whom _dost_ thou _see_ now?--Whom _does_ he
_see_?--Whom _dost_ thou _love_ most?--What _art_ thou _doing_
to-day?--What person _dost_ thou _see_ teaching that boy?--He _has_ two new
knives.--Which road _dost_ thou _take_?--What child is he
_teaching_?"--_Ingersoll cor._ "Thou, who _mak'st_ my shoes, _sellst_ many
more." Or thus: "_You_, who _make_ my shoes, _sell_ many more."--_Id._

"The English language _has_ been much cultivated during the last two
hundred years. It _has_ been considerably polished and refined."--_Lowth
cor._ "This _style_ is ostentatious, and _does_ not suit grave
writing."--_Priestley cor._ "But custom _has_ now appropriated _who_ to
persons, and _which_ to things" [and brute animals].--_Id._ "The indicative
mood _shows_ or _declares something_; as, _Ego amo_, I love; or else _asks_
a question; as, _Amas tu_? Dost thou love?"--_Paul's Ac. cor._ "Though thou
_cannot_ do much for the cause, thou _may_ and _should_ do
something."--_Murray cor._ "The support of so many of his relations, was a
heavy tax: but thou _knowst_ (or, _you know_) he paid it
cheerfully."--_Id._ "It may, and often _does_, come short of
it."--_Murray^s Gram._, p. 359.

"'Twas thou, who, while thou _seem'd_ to chide,
To give me all thy pittance _tried_."--_Mitford cor._

2. _Forms adapted to the Solemn or Biblical Style_. "The Lord _hath
prepared_ his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom _ruleth_ over
all."--_Psalms_, ciii, 19. "Thou _answeredst_ them, O Lord our God; thou
_wast_ a God that forgave[539] them, though thou _tookest_ vengeance of
their inventions."--See _Psalms_, xcix, 8. "Then thou _spakest_ in vision
to thy Holy One, and _saidst_, I have laid help upon one that is
mighty."--_Ib._, lxxxix, 19. "'So then, it is not of him that _willeth_,
nor of him that _runneth_, but of God that _showeth_ mercy;' who
_dispenseth_ his blessings, whether temporal or spiritual, as _seemeth_
good in his sight."--_Christian Experience of St. Paul_, p. 344; see
_Rom._, ix, 16.

"Thou, the mean while, _wast_ blending with my thought;
Yea, with my life, and life's own secret joy."--_Coleridge cor._

UNDER NOTE VIII.--EXPRESS THE NOMINATIVE.

"Who is here so base, that _he_ would be a bondman?"--_Shak. cor._ "Who is
here so rude, _he_ would not be a _Roman_?"--_Id._ "There is not a sparrow
_which_ falls to the ground without his notice." Or better: "_Not a
sparrow_ falls to the ground, without his notice."--_Murray cor._ "In order
to adjust them _in such a manner_ as shall consist equally with the
perspicuity and the strength of the period."--_Id. and Blair cor._ "But
sometimes there is a verb _which_ comes in." Better: "But sometimes there
is a verb _introduced_."--_Cobbett cor._ "Mr. Prince has a genius _which_
would prompt him to better things."--_Spect. cor._ "It is this _that_
removes that impenetrable mist."--_Harris cor._ "By the praise _which_ is
given him for his courage."--_Locke cor._ "There is no man _who_ would be
more welcome here."--_Steele cor._ "Between an antecedent and a consequent,
or what goes before, and _what_ immediately follows."--_Blair cor._ "And as
connected with what goes before and _what_ follows."--_Id._ "No man doth a
wrong for the wrong's sake."--_Bacon cor._ "All the various miseries of
life, which people bring upon themselves by negligence _or_ folly, and
_which_ might have been avoided by proper care, are instances of
this."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Ancient philosophers have taught many things in
_favour_ of morality, so far at least as _it respects_ justice and goodness
towards our fellow-creatures."--_Fuller cor._ "Indeed, if there be any
such, _who_ have been, or _who_ appear to be of us, as suppose there is not
a wise man among us all, nor an honest man, that is able to judge betwixt
his brethren; we shall not covet to meddle in their _matters_."--_Barclay
cor._ "There were _some_ that drew back; there were _some_ that made
shipwreck of faith; yea, there were _some_ that brought in damnable
heresies."--_Id._ "The nature of the cause rendered this plan altogether
proper; and, _under_ similar _circumstances, the orator's method_ is fit to
be imitated."--_Blair cor._ "This is an idiom to which our language is
strongly inclined, and _which_ was formerly very prevalent."--_Churchill
cor._ "His roots are wrapped about the heap, and _he_ seeth the place of
stones."--_Bible cor._

"New York, Fifthmonth 3d, 1823.

Dear friend,

_I_ am sorry to hear of thy loss; but _I_ hope it may be retrieved. I
should be happy to render thee any assistance in my power. _I_ shall call
to see thee to-morrow morning. Accept assurances of my regard. A. B."

"New York, May 3d, P. M., 1823.

Dear sir,

_I_ have just received the kind note _you_ favoured me with this morning;
and _I_ cannot forbear to express my gratitude to you. On further
information, _I_ find _I_ have not lost so much as _I_ at first supposed;
and _I_ believe _I_ shall still be able to meet all my engagements. _I_
should, however, be happy to see you. Accept, dear sir, my most cordial
thanks. C. D."

See _Brown's Institutes_, p. 271.

"Will martial flames forever fire thy mind,
And _wilt thou_ never be to Heaven resign'd?"--_Pope cor._

UNDER NOTE IX.--APPLICATION OF MOODS.

_First Clause of the Note.--The Subjunctive Present_.

"He will not be pardoned unless he _repent_."--_Inst._, p. 191. "If thou
_find_ any kernelwort in this marshy meadow, bring it to me."--_Neef cor._
"If thou _leave_ the room, do not forget to shut that drawer."--_Id._ "If
thou _grasp_ it stoutly, thou wilt not be hurt:" or, (familiarly,)--"thou
_will_ not be hurt."--_Id._ "On condition that he _come_, I will consent to
stay."--_Murray's Key_, p. 208. "If he _be_ but discreet, he will
succeed."--_Inst._, p. 280. "Take heed that thou _speak_ not to
Jacob."--_Gen._, xxxi, 24. "If thou _cast_ me off, I shall be
miserable."--_Inst._, p. 280. "Send them to me, if thou _please_."--_Ib._
"Watch the door of thy lips, lest thou _utter_ folly."--_Ib._ "Though a
liar _speak_ the truth, he will hardly be believed."--_Bartlett cor._ "I
will go, unless I _be_ ill."--_L. Murray cor._ "If the word or words
understood _be_ supplied, the true construction will be apparent."--_Id._
"Unless thou _see_ the propriety of the measure, we shall not desire thy
support."--_Id._ "Unless thou _make_ a timely retreat, the danger will be
unavoidable."--_Id._ "We may live happily, though our possessions _be_
small."--_Id._ "If they _be_ carefully studied, they will enable the
student to parse all the exercises."--_Id._ "If the accent _be_ fairly
preserved on the proper syllable, this drawling sound will never be
heard."--_Id._ "One phrase may, in point of sense, be equivalent to an
other, though its grammatical nature _be_ essentially different."--_Id._
"If any man _obey_ not our word by this epistle, note that man."--_2
Thess._, iii, 14. "Thy skill will be the greater, if thou _hit_
it."--_Putnam, Cobb, or Knowles, cor._ "We shall overtake him, though he
_run_."--_Priestley et al. cor._ "We shall be disgusted, if he _give_ us
too much."--_Blair cor._

"What is't to thee, if he _neglect_ thy urn,
Or without spices _let_ thy body burn?"--_Dryden cor._

_Second Clause of Note IX.--The Subjunctive Imperfect_.[540]

"And so would I, if I _were_ he."--_Inst._, p. 191. "If I _were_ a Greek, I
should resist Turkish despotism."--_Cardell cor._ "If he _were_ to go, he
would attend to your business."--_Id._ "If thou _felt_ as I do, we should
soon decide."--_Inst._, p. 280. "Though thou _shed_ thy blood in the cause,
it would but prove thee sincerely a fool."--_Ib._ "If thou _loved_ him,
there would be more evidence of it."--_Ib._ "If thou _convinced_ him, he
would not act accordingly."--_Murray cor._ "If there _were_ no liberty,
there would be no real crime."--_Formey cor._ "If the house _were_ burnt
down, the case would be the same."--_Foster cor._ "As if the mind _were_
not always in action, when it prefers any thing."--_West cor._ "Suppose I
_were_ to say, 'Light is a body.'"--_Harris cor._ "If either oxygen or
azote _were_ omitted, life would be destroyed."--_Gurney cor._ "The verb
_dare is_ sometimes used as if it _were_ an auxiliary."--_Priestley cor._
"A certain lady, whom I could name, if it _were_ necessary."--_Spect. cor._
"If the _e were_ dropped, _c_ and _g_ would assume their hard
sounds."--_Buchanan cor._ "He would no more comprehend it, than if it
_were_ the speech of a Hottentot."--_Neef cor._ "If thou _knew_ the gift of
God," &c.--_Bible cor._ "I wish I _were_ at home."--_O. B. Peirce cor._
"Fact alone does not constitute right: if it _did_, general warrants were
lawful."--_Junius cor._ "Thou _lookst_ upon thy boy, as though thou
_guessed_ it."--_Putnam, Cobb, or Knowles, cor._ "He fought as if he
_contended_ for life."--_Hiley cor._ "He fought as if he _were contending_
for his life."--_Id._

"The dewdrop glistens on thy leaf,
As if thou _shed for me_ a tear;
As if thou _knew_ my tale of grief,
_Felt_ all my sufferings severe."--_Letham cor._

_Last Clause of Note IX.--The Indicative Mood_.

"If he _knows_ the way, he does not need a guide."--_Inst._, p. 191. "And
if there _is_ no difference, one of them must be superfluous, and ought to
be rejected."--_Murray cor._ "I cannot say that I admire this construction
though it _is_ much used."--_Priestley cor._ "We are disappointed, if the
verb _does_ not immediately follow it."--_Id._ "If it _was_ they, _that_
acted so ungratefully, they are doubly in fault."--_Murray cor._ "If art
_becomes_ apparent, it disgusts the reader."--_Jamieson cor._ "Though
perspicuity _is_ more properly a rhetorical than a grammatical quality, I
thought it better to include it in this book."--_Campbell cor._ "Although
the efficient cause _is_ obscure, the final cause of those sensations lies
open."--_Blair cor._ "Although the barrenness of language, or the want of
words, _is_ doubtless one cause of the invention of tropes."--_Id._ "Though
it _enforces_ not its instructions, yet it furnishes a greater
variety."--_Id._ "In other cases, though the idea _is_ one, the words
remain quite separate."--_Priestley cor._ "Though the form of our language
_is_ more simple, and has that peculiar beauty."--_Buchanan cor._ "Human
works are of no significancy till they _are_ completed."--_Kames cor._ "Our
disgust lessens gradually till it _vanishes_ altogether."--_Id._ "And our
relish improves by use, till it _arrives_ at perfection."--_Id._ "So long
as he _keeps_ himself in his own proper element."--_Coke cor._ "Whether
this translation _was_ ever published or not, I am wholly ignorant."--_Sale
cor._ "It is false to affirm, 'As it is day, it is light,' unless it
actually _is_ day."--_Harris cor._ "But we may at midnight affirm, 'If it
_is_ day, it is light.'"--_Id._ "If the Bible _is_ true, it is a volume of
unspeakable interest."--_Dickinson cor._ "Though he _was_ a son, yet
learned he obedience by the things which he suffered."--_Bible cor._ "If
David then _calleth_ (or _calls_) him Lord, how is he his son?"--_Id._

"'Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill
_Appears_ in writing, or in judging, ill."--_Pope cor._

UNDER NOTE X.--FALSE SUBJUNCTIVES.

"If a man _has built_ a house, the house is his."--_Wayland cor._ "If God
_has required_ them of him, as is the fact, he has time."--_Id._ "Unless a
previous understanding to the contrary _has been had_ with the
principal."--_Berrian cor._ "O! if thou _hast hid_ them in some flowery
cave."--_Milton cor._ "O! if Jove's will _has linked_ that amorous power to
thy soft lay."--_Id._ "SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD: If thou love, If thou
loved."--_Dr. Priestley, Dr. Murray, John Burn, David Blair, Harrison, and
others_. "Till Religion, the pilot of the soul, _hath_ lent thee her
unfathomable coil."--_Tupper cor._ "Whether nature or art _contributes_
most to form an orator, is a trifling inquiry."--_Blair cor._ "Year after
year steals something from us, till the decaying fabric _totters_ of
itself, and _at length crumbles_ into dust."--_Murray cor._ "If spiritual
pride _has_ not entirely vanquished humility."--_West cor._ "Whether he
_has_ gored a son, or _has_ gored a daughter."--_Bible cor._ "It is
doubtful whether the object introduced by way of simile, _relates_ to what
goes before or to what follows."--_Kames cor._

"And bridle in thy headlong wave,
Till thou our summons answer'd _hast_." Or:--
"And bridle in thy headlong wave,
Till thou _hast granted what we crave_."--_Milt. cor._

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XV AND ITS NOTE.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE IDEA OF PLURALITY.

"The gentry _are_ punctilious in their etiquette."--_G. B_. "In France, the
peasantry _go_ barefoot, and the middle sort _make_ use of wooden
shoes."--_Harvey cor._ "The people _rejoice_ in that which should cause
sorrow."--_Murray varied_. "My people _are_ foolish, they have not known
me."--_Bible and Lowth cor._ "For the people _speak_, but _do_ not
write."--_Phil. Mu. cor._ "So that all the people that _were_ in the camp,
trembled."--_Bible cor._ "No company _like_ to confess that they are
ignorant."--_Todd cor._ "Far the greater part of their captives _were_
anciently sacrificed."--_Robertson cor._ "_More than_ one half of them
_were_ cut off before the return of spring."--_Id._ "The other class,
termed Figures of Thought, _suppose_ the words to be used in their proper
and literal meaning."--_Blair and Mur. cor._ "A multitude of words in their
dialect _approach_ to the Teutonic form, and therefore afford excellent
assistance."--_Dr. Murray cor._ "A great majority of our authors _are_
defective in manner."--_J. Brown cor._ "The greater part of these
new-coined words _have_ been rejected."--_Tooke cor._ "The greater part of
the words it contains, _are_ subject to certain modifications _or_
inflections."--_The Friend cor._ "While all our youth _prefer_ her to the
rest."--_Waller cor._ "Mankind _are_ appointed to live in a future
state."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "The greater part of human kind _speak_ and
_act_ wholly by imitation."--_Rambler_, No. 146. "The greatest part of
human gratifications _approach_ so nearly to vice."--_Id._, No. 160.

"While still the busy world _are_ treading o'er
The paths they trod five thousand years before."--_Young cor._

UNDER THE NOTE.--THE IDEA OF UNITY.

"In old English, this species of words _was_ numerous."--_Dr. Murray cor._
"And a series of exercises in false grammar _is_ introduced towards the
end."--_Frost cor._ "And a jury, in conformity with the same idea, _was_
anciently called _homagium_, the homage, or manhood."--_Webster cor._ "With
respect to the former, there _is_ indeed _a_ plenty of means."--_Kames
cor._ "The number of school districts _has_ increased since the last
year."--_Throop cor._ "The Yearly Meeting _has_ purchased with its funds
these publications."--_Foster cor._ "_Has_ the legislature power to
prohibit assemblies?"--_Sullivan cor._ "So that the whole number of the
streets _was_ fifty."--_Rollin cor._ "The number of inhabitants _was_ not
more than four millions."--_Smollett cor._ "The house of Commons _was_ of
small weight."--_Hume cor._ "The assembly of the wicked _hath_ (or _has_)
inclosed me."--_Psal. cor._ "Every kind of convenience and comfort _is_
provided."--_C. S. Journal cor._ "Amidst the great decrease of the
inhabitants in Spain, the body of the clergy _has_ suffered no diminution;
but _it_ has rather been gradually increasing."--_Payne cor._ "Small as the
number of inhabitants _is_, yet their poverty is extreme."--_Id._ "The
number of the names _was_ about one hundred and twenty."--_Ware and Acts
cor._

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XVI AND ITS NOTES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF--THE VERB AFTER JOINT NOMINATIVES.

"So much ability and [so much] merit _are_ seldom found."--_Mur. et al.
cor._ "The _etymology and syntax_ of the language _are_ thus spread before
the learner."--_Bullions cor._ "Dr. Johnson tells us, that, in English
poetry, the accent and the quantity of syllables _are_ the same
thing."--_Adams cor._ "Their general scope and tendency, having never been
clearly apprehended, _are_ not remembered at all."--_L. Murray cor._ "The
soil and sovereignty _were_ not purchased of the natives."--_Knapp cor._
"The boldness, freedom, and variety, of our blank verse, _are_ infinitely
more favourable to _sublimity of style_, than [are the constraint and
uniformity of] rhyme."--_Blair cor._ "The vivacity and sensibility of the
Greeks _seem_ to have been much greater than ours."--_Id._ "For sometimes
the mood and tense _are_ signified by the verb, sometimes they are
signified of the verb by something else."--_R. Johnson cor._ "The verb and
the noun making a complete sense, _whereas_ the participle and the noun
_do_ not."--_Id._ "The growth and decay of passions and emotions, traced
through all their mazes, _are_ a subject too extensive for an undertaking
like the present."--_Kames cor._ "The true meaning and etymology of some of
his words _were_ lost."--_Knight cor._ "When the force and direction of
personal satire _are_ no longer understood."--_Junius cor._ "The frame and
condition of man _admit_ of no other principle."--_Dr. Brown cor._ "Some
considerable time and care _were_ necessary."--_Id._ "In consequence of
this idea, much ridicule and censure _have_ been thrown upon
Milton."--_Blair cor._ "With rational beings, nature and reason _are_ the
same thing."--_Collier cor._ "And the flax and the barley _were_
smitten."--_Bible cor._ "The colon and semicolon _divide_ a period; this
with, and that without, a connective."--_Ware cor._ "Consequently, wherever
space and time _are_ found, there God must also be."--_Newton cor._ "As the
past tense and perfect participle of LOVE _end_ in ED, it is
regular."--_Chandler cor._ "But the usual arrangement and nomenclature
_prevent_ this from being readily seen."--_N. Butler cor._ "_Do_ and _did_
simply _imply_ opposition or emphasis."--_A. Murray cor._ "_I_ and _an
other_ make the plural WE; _thou_ and _an other are equivalent to_ YE; _he,
she_, or _it_, and _an other_, make THEY."--_Id._ "_I_ and _an other_ or
_others are_ the same as WE, the first person plural; _thou_ and _an other_
or _others are_ the same as YE, the second person plural; _he, she_, or
_it_, and _an other_ or _others, are_ the same as THEY, the third person
plural."--_Buchanan and Brit. Gram. cor._ "God and thou _are_ two, and thou
and thy neighbour are two."--_Love Conquest cor._ "Just as AN and A _have_
arisen out of the numeral ONE."--_Fowler cor._ "The tone and style of _all_
of them, particularly _of_ the first and the last, _are_ very
different."--_Blair cor._ "Even as the roebuck and the hart _are_
eaten."--_Bible cor._ "Then I may conclude that two and three _do not make_
five."--_Barclay cor._ "Which, at sundry times, thou and thy brethren
_have_ received from us."--_Id._ "Two and two _are_ four, and one is five:"
i, e., "and _one, added to four, is five_."--_Pope cor._ "Humility and
knowledge with poor apparel, _excel_ pride and ignorance under costly
array."--See _Murray's Key_, Rule 2d. "A page and a half _have_ been added
to the section on composition."--_Bullions cor._ "Accuracy and expertness
in this exercise _are_ an important acquisition."--_Id._

"Woods and groves are of thy dressing,
Hill and dale _proclaim_ thy blessing." Or thus:--
"Hill and _valley_ boast thy blessing."--_Milton cor._

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE VERB BEFORE JOINT NOMINATIVES.

"There _are_ a good and a bad, a right and a wrong, in taste, as in other
things."--_Blair cor._ "Whence _have_ arisen much stiffness and
affectation."--_Id._ "To this error, _are_ owing, in a great measure, that
intricacy and [that] harshness, in his figurative language, which I before
_noticed_."--_Blair and Jamieson cor._ "Hence, in his Night Thoughts, there
_prevail_ an obscurity and _a_ hardness _of_ style."--_Blair cor._ See
_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 167. "There _are_, however, in that work, much good
sense and excellent criticism."--_Blair cor._ "There _are_ too much low wit
and scurrility in Plautus." Or: "There _is, in Plautus_, too much _of_ low
wit and scurrility."--_Id._ "There _are_ too much reasoning and refinement,
too much pomp and studied beauty, in them." Or: "There _is_ too much _of_
reasoning and refinement, too much _of_ pomp and studied beauty, in
them."--_Id._ "Hence _arise_ the structure and characteristic expression of
exclamation."--_Rush cor._ "And such pilots _are_ he and his brethren,
according to their own confession."--_Barclay cor._ "Of whom _are_ Hymeneus
and Philetus; who concerning the truth have erred."--_Bible cor._ "Of whom
_are_ Hymeneus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan."--_Id._
"And so _were_ James and John, the sons of Zebedee."--_Id._ "Out of the
same mouth, _proceed_ blessing and cursing."--_Id._ "Out of the mouth of
the Most High, _proceed_ not evil and good."--_Id._ "In which there _are_
most plainly a right and a wrong."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "In this sentence,
there _are_ both an actor and an object."--_R. C. Smith cor._ "In the
breastplate, _were_ placed the mysterious Urim and Thummim."--_Milman cor._
"What _are_ the gender, number, and person, _of the pronoun_[541] in the
first _example_?"--_R. C. Smith cor._ "There _seem_ to be a familiarity and
_a_ want of dignity in it."--_Priestley cor._ "It has been often asked,
what _are_ Latin and Greek?"--_Lit. Journal cor._ "For where _do_ beauty
and high wit, But in your constellation, meet?"--_Sam. Butler cor._ "Thence
to the land where _flow_ Ganges and Indus."--_Milton cor._ "On these
foundations, _seem_ to rest the midnight riot and dissipation of modern
assemblies."--_Dr. Brown cor._ "But what _have_ disease, deformity, and
filth, upon which the thoughts can be allured to dwell?"--_Dr. Johnson
cor._ "How _are_ the gender and number of the relative known?"--_Bullions
cor._

"High rides the sun, thick rolls the dust,
And feebler _speed_ the blow and thrust."--_Scott cor._

UNDER NOTE I.--CHANGE THE CONNECTIVE.

"In every language, there prevails a certain structure, _or_ analogy of
parts, which is understood to give foundation to the most reputable
usage."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "There runs through his whole manner a stiffness,
_an_ affectation, which renders him [Shaftsbury] very unfit to be
considered a general model."--_Id._ "But where declamation _for_
improvement in speech is the sole aim."--_Id._ "For it is by these,
chiefly, that the train of thought, the course of reasoning, the whole
progress of the mind, in continued discourse of _any kind_, is laid
open."--_Lowth cor._ "In all writing and discourse, the proper composition
_or_ structure of sentences is of the highest importance."--_Dr. Blair
cor._ "Here the wishful _and expectant_ look of the beggar naturally leads
to a vivid conception of that which was the object of his
thoughts."--_Campbell cor._ "Who say, that the outward naming of Christ,
_with the sign of_ the cross, puts away devils."--_Barclay cor._ "By which
an oath _with a_ penalty was to be imposed _on_ the members."--_Junius
cor._ "Light, _or_ knowledge, in what manner soever afforded us, is equally
from God."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "For instance, sickness _or_ untimely death
is the consequence of intemperance."--_Id._ "When grief _or_ blood
ill-tempered _vexeth_ him." Or: "When grief, _with_ blood ill-tempered,
_vexes_ him"--_Shak. cor._ "Does continuity, _or_ connexion, create
sympathy and relation in the parts of the body?"--_Collier cor._ "His
greatest concern, _his_ highest enjoyment, was, to be approved in the sight
of his Creator."--_L. Murray cor._ "Know ye not that there is[542] a
prince, a great man, fallen this day in Israel?"--_Bible cor._ "What is
vice, _or_ wickedness? No rarity, you may depend on it."--_Collier cor._
"There is also the fear _or_ apprehension of it."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "The
apostrophe _with s_ (_'s_) is an abbreviation for _is_, the termination of
the old English genitive."--_Bullions cor._ "_Ti, ce_, OR _ci_, when
followed by a vowel, usually has the sound of _sh_; as in _partial, ocean,
special_."--_Weld cor._

"Bitter constraint _of_ sad occasion dear
Compels me to disturb your season due."--_Milton cor._

"_Debauch'ry, or_ excess, though with less noise,
As great a portion of mankind destroys."--_Waller cor._

UNDER NOTE II.--AFFIRMATION WITH NEGATION.

"Wisdom, and not wealth, _procures_ esteem."--_Inst., Key_, p. 272.
"Prudence, and not pomp, _is_ the basis of his fame."--_Ib._ "Not fear, but
labour _has_ overcome him."--_Ib._ "The decency, and not the abstinence,
_makes_ the difference."--_Ib._ "Not her beauty, but her talents _attract_
attention."--_Ib._ "It is her talents, and not her beauty, _that attract_
attention."--_Ib._ "It is her beauty, and not her talents, _that attracts_
attention."--_Ib._

"His belly, not his brains, this impulse _gives_:
He'll grow immortal; for he cannot live." Or thus:--
"His _bowels_, not his brains, this impulse give:
He'll grow immortal; for he cannot live."--_Young cor._

UNDER NOTE III.--AS WELL AS, BUT, OR SAVE.

"Common sense, as well as piety, _tells_ us these are proper."--_Fam. Com.
cor._ "For without it the critic, as well as the undertaker, ignorant of
any rule, _has_ nothing left but to abandon _himself_ to chance."--_Kames
cor._ "And accordingly hatred, as well as love, _is_ extinguished by long
absence'."--_Id._ "But at every turn the richest melody, as well as the
sublimest sentiments, _is_ conspicuous."--_Id._ "But it, as well as the
lines immediately subsequent, _defies_ all translation."--_Coleridge cor._
"But their religion, as well as their customs and manners, _was_ strangely
misrepresented."--_Bolingbroke, on History_, Paris Edition of 1808, p. 93.
"But his jealous policy, as well as the fatal antipathy of Fonseca, _was_
conspicuous."--_Robertson cor._ "When their extent, as well as their value,
_was_ unknown."--_Id._ "The etymology, as well as the syntax, of the more
difficult parts of speech, _is_ reserved for his attention at a later
period."--_Parker and Fox cor._ "What I myself owe to him, no one but
myself _knows_."--_Wright cor._ "None, but thou, O mighty prince! _can_
avert the blow."--_Inst., Key_, p. 272. "Nothing, but frivolous amusements,
_pleases_ the indolent."--_Ib._

"Nought, save the gurglings of the rill, _was_ heard."--_G. B._

"All songsters, save the hooting owl, _were_ mute."--_G. B._

UNDER NOTE IV.--EACH, EVERY, OR NO.

"Give every word, and every member, _its_ due weight and force."--_Murray's
Gram._, Vol. i, p. 316. "And to one of these _belongs_ every noun, and
every third person of every verb."--_Dr. Wilson cor._ "No law, no
restraint, no regulation, _is_ required to keep him _within_
bounds."--_Lit. Journal cor._ "By that time, every window and every door in
the street _was_ full of heads."--_Observer cor._ "Every system of
religion, and every school of philosophy, _stands_ back from this field,
and _leaves_ Jesus Christ alone, the solitary example." Or: "_All systems_
of religion, and _all schools_ of philosophy, _stand_ back from this
field, and _leave_ Jesus Christ alone, the solitary example."--_Abbott
cor._ "Each day, and each hour, _brings its_ portion of duty."--_Inst.,
Key_, p. 272. "And every one that was in distress, and every one that was
in debt, and every one that was discontented, _resorted_ unto him."--_Bible
cor._ "Every private Christian, _every_ member of the church, ought to read
and peruse the Scriptures, that _he_ may know _his_ faith and belief _to
be_ founded upon them."--_Barclay cor._ "And every mountain and _every_
island was moved out of _its place_."--_Bible cor._

"No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride,
No cavern'd hermit _rests_ self-satisfied."--_Pope_.

UNDER NOTE V.--WITH, OR, &c., FOR AND.

"The _sides_, A, B, _and_ C, compose the triangle."--_Tobitt, Felch_, and
_Ware cor._ "The stream, the rock, _and_ the tree, must each of them stand
forth, so as to make a figure in the imagination."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "While
this, with euphony, _constitutes_, finally, the whole."--_O. B. Peirce
cor._ "The bag, with the guineas and dollars in it, _was_
stolen."--_Cobbett cor._ "Sobriety, with great industry and talent,
_enables_ a man to perform great deeds." Or: "Sobriety, industry, and
talent, _enable_ a man to perform great deeds."--_Id._ "The _it_, together
with the verb, _expresses a state_ of being."--_Id._ "Where Leonidas the
Spartan king, _and_ his chosen band, fighting for their country, were cut
off to the last man."--_Kames cor._. "And Leah also, and _her_ children,
came near and bowed themselves."--_Bible cor._ "The First _and_ the Second
will either of them, by _itself_, coalesce with the Third, but _they do_
not _coalesce_ with each other."--_Harris cor._ "The whole must centre in
the query, whether Tragedy _and_ Comedy are hurtful and dangerous
representations."--_Formey cor._ "_Both_ grief _and_ joy are infectious:
the emotions _which_ they raise in the spectator, resemble them
perfectly."--_Kames cor._ "But, in all other words, the _q and u_ are both
sounded."--_Ensell cor._ "_Q and u_ (which are always together) have the
sound of _kw_, as in _queen_; or _of k only_, as in _opaque_." Or, better:
"_Q_ has always the sound of _k_; and the _u_ which follows it, that of
_w_; except in French words, in which the _u_ is silent."--_Goodenow cor._
"In this selection, the _a and i_ form distinct syllables."--_Walker cor._
"And a considerable village, with gardens, fields, &c., _extends_ around on
each side of the square."--_Lib. cor._ "Affection _and_ interest guide our
notions and behaviour in the affairs of life; imagination and passion
affect the sentiments that we entertain in matters of taste."--_Jamieson
cor._ "She heard none of those intimations of her defects, which envy,
petulance, _and_ anger, produce among children."--_Johnson cor._ "The King,
Lords, and Commons, constitute an excellent form of government."--_Crombie
et al. cor._ "If we say, 'I am the man who commands you,' the relative
clause, with the antecedent _man, forms_ the predicate."--_Crombie cor._

"The spacious firmament on high,
The blue ethereal _vault_ of sky,
And spangled heav'ns, a shining frame,
Their great Original proclaim."--_Addison cor._

UNDER NOTE VI.--ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTIONS.

"There _are_ a reputable and a disreputable practice." Or: "There is a
reputable, and _there is_ a disreputable practice."--_Adams cor._ "This
_man_ and this _were_ born in her."--_Milton cor._ "This _man_ and that
_were_ born in her."--_Bible cor._ "This and that man _were_ born
there."--_Hendrick cor._ "Thus _le_ in _l~ego_, and _le_ in _l=egi_, seem
to be sounded equally long."--_Adam and Gould cor._ "A distinct and an
accurate articulation _form_ the groundwork of good delivery." Or: "A
distinct and accurate articulation _forms_ the groundwork of good
delivery."--_Kirkham cor._ "How _are_ vocal and written language
understood?"--_Sanders cor._ "The good, the wise, and the learned man, _are
ornaments_ to human society." Or: "The good, wise, and learned man is an
ornament to human society."--_Bartlett cor._ "_In_ some points, the
expression of song and _that of_ speech _are_ identical."--_Rush cor._ "To
every room, there _were_ an open and _a_ secret passage."--_Johnson cor._
"There _are_ such _things as a true_ and _a_ false taste; and the latter
_as_ often directs fashion, _as_ the former."--_Webster cor._ "There _are_
such _things_ as a prudent and an imprudent institution of life, with
regard to our health and our affairs."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "The lot of the
outcasts of Israel, and _that of_ the dispersed of Judah, however different
in one respect, have in an other corresponded with wonderful
exactness."--_Hope of Israel cor._ "On these final syllables, the radical
and _the_ vanishing movement _are_ performed."--_Rush cor._ "To be young or
old, _and to be_ good, just, or the contrary, are physical or moral
events."--_Spurzheim cor., and Felch._ "The eloquence of George Whitfield
and _that_ of John Wesley _were_ very different _in_ character each from
the other."--_Dr. Sharp cor._ "The affinity of _m_ for the series
_beginning with b_, and _that_ of _n_ for the series _beginning with t_,
give occasion for other euphonic changes."--_Fowler cor._

"Pylades' soul, and mad Orestes', _were_
In these, if _right the Greek philosopher_." Or thus:--
"Pylades' and Orestes' soul _did pass
To_ these, if we believe Pythagoras." Or, without ellipsis:--
"Pylades and Orestes' _souls_ did pass
To these, if we believe Pythagoras."--_Cowley corrected._

UNDER NOTE VII.--DISTINCT SUBJECT PHRASES.

"To be moderate in our views, and to proceed temperately in the pursuit of
them, _are_ the best _ways_ to ensure success."--_L. Murray cor._ "To be of
any species, and to have a right to the name of that species, _are both_
one."--_Locke cor._ "With whom, to will, and to do, _are_ the same."--_Dr.
Jamieson cor._ "To profess, and to possess, _are_ very different
things."--_Inst., Key_, p. 272. "To do justly, to love mercy, and to walk
humbly with God, _are_ duties of universal obligation."--_Ib._ "To be round
or square, to be solid or fluid, to be large or small, and to be moved
swiftly or slowly, _are_ all equally alien from the nature of
thought."--_Dr. Johnson._ "The resolving of a sentence into its elements,
or parts of speech, and [_a_] stating [_of_] the accidents which belong to
these, _are_ called PARSING." Or, according to Note 1st above: "The
resolving of a sentence into its elements, or parts of speech, _with_ [a]
stating [of] the accidents which belong to these, _is_ called
PARSING."--_Bullions cor._ "To spin and to weave, to knit and to sew,
_were_ once a girl's _employments_; but now, to dress, and _to_ catch a
beau, _are_ all she calls _enjoyments_."--_Kimball cor._

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XVII AND ITS NOTES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--NOMINATIVES CONNECTED BY OR.

"We do not know in what either reason or instinct _consists_."--_Johnson
corrected._ "A noun or a pronoun joined with a participle, _constitutes_ a
nominative case absolute."--_Bicknell cor._ "The relative will be of that
case which the verb or noun following, or the preposition going before,
_uses_ to govern:" or,--"usually _governs_."--_Adam, Gould, et al., cor._
"In the different modes of pronunciation, which habit or caprice _gives_
rise to."--_Knight cor._ "By which he, or his deputy, _was_ authorized to
cut down any trees in Whittlebury forest."--_Junius cor._ "Wherever objects
were named, in which sound, noise, or motion, _was_ concerned, the
imitation by words was abundantly obvious."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The pleasure
or pain resulting from a train of perceptions in different circumstances,
_is_ a beautiful contrivance of nature for valuable purposes."--_Kames
cor._ "Because their foolish vanity, or their criminal ambition,
_represents_ the principles by which they are influenced, as absolutely
perfect."--_D. Boileau cor._ "Hence naturally _arises_ indifference or
aversion between the parties."--_Dr. Brown cor._ "A penitent unbeliever, or
an impenitent believer, _is a character nowhere_ to be found."--_Tract
cor._ "Copying whatever is peculiar in the talk of all those whose birth or
fortune _entitles_ them to imitation."--_Johnson cor._ "Where love, hatred,
fear, or contempt, _is_ often of decisive influence."--_Duncan cor._ "A
lucky anecdote, or an enlivening tale, _relieves_ the folio
page."--_D'Israeli cor._ "For outward matter or event _fashions_ not the
character within." Or: (according to the antique style of this modern book
of proverbs:)--"_fashioneth_ not the character within."--_Tupper cor._ "Yet
sometimes we have seen that wine, or chance, _has_ warmed cold
brains."--_Dryden cor._ "Motion is a genus; flight, a species; this flight
or that flight _is an individual_."--_Harris cor._ "When _et, aut, vel,
sive_, or _nec, is repeated before_ different members of the same
sentence."--_Adam, Gould, and Grant, cor._ "Wisdom or folly _governs_
us."--_Fisk cor._ "_A_ or _an is_ styled _the_ indefinite article"--_Folker
cor._ "A rusty nail, or a crooked pin, _shoots_ up into _a
prodigy_."--_Spect. cor._ "_Is_ either the subject or the predicate in the
second sentence modified?"--_Prof. Fowler cor._

"Praise from a friend, or censure from a foe,
_Is_ lost on hearers that our merits know."--_Pope cor._

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--NOMINATIVES CONNECTED BY NOR.

"Neither he nor she _has_ spoken to him."--_Perrin cor._ "For want of a
process of events, neither knowledge nor elegance _preserves_ the reader
from weariness."--_Johnson cor._ "Neither history nor tradition _furnishes_
such information."--_Robertson cor._ "Neither the form nor _the_ power of
the liquids _has_ varied materially."--_Knight cor._ "Where neither noise
nor motion _is_ concerned."--_Blair cor._ "Neither Charles nor his brother
_was_ qualified to support such a system."--_Junius cor._ "When, therefore,
neither the liveliness of representation, nor the warmth of passion
_serves_, as it were, to cover the trespass, it is not safe to leave the
beaten track."--_Campbell cor._ "In many countries called Christian,
neither Christianity, nor its evidence, _is_ fairly laid before men."--_Bp.
Butler cor._ "Neither the intellect nor the heart _is_ capable of being
driven."--_Abbott cor._ "Throughout this hymn, neither Apollo nor Diana
_is_ in any way connected with the Sun or Moon."--_Coleridge cor._ "Of
which, neither he, nor this grammar, _takes_ any notice."--_R. Johnson
cor._ "Neither their solicitude nor their foresight _extends_ so
far."--_Robertson cor._ "Neither Gomara, nor Oviedo, nor Herrera,
_considers_ Ojeda, or his companion Vespucci, as the first _discoverer_ of
the continent of America."--_Id._ "Neither the general situation of our
colonies, nor that particular distress which forced the inhabitants of
Boston to take up arms, _has_ been thought worthy of a moment's
consideration."--_Junius cor._

"Nor war nor wisdom _yields_ our Jews delight,
They will not study, and they dare not fight."--_Crabbe cor._

"Nor time nor chance _breeds_ such confusions yet,
Nor are the mean so rais'd, nor sunk the great."--_Rowe cor._

UNDER NOTE I.--NOMINATIVES THAT DISAGREE.

"The definite article, _the_, designates what particular thing or things
_are_ meant."--_Merchant cor._ "Sometimes a word, or _several_ words,
necessary to complete the grammatical construction of a sentence, _are_ not
expressed, but _are_ omitted by ellipsis."--_Burr cor._ "Ellipsis, (better,
_Ellipses_,) or abbreviations, _are_ the wheels of language."--_Maunder
cor._ "The conditions or tenor of none of them _appears_ at this day." Or:
"The _tenor or conditions_ of none of them _appear_ at this day."--
_Hutchinson cor._ "Neither men nor money _was_ wanting for the service."
Or: "Neither _money nor men were_ wanting for the service."--_Id._ "Either
our own feelings, or the representation of those of others, _requires_
emphatic distinction _to be frequent_."--_Dr. Barber cor._ "Either Atoms
and Chance, or Nature, _is_ uppermost: now I am for the latter part of the
disjunction."--_Collier cor._ "Their riches or poverty _is_ generally
proportioned to their activity or indolence."--_Cox cor._ "Concerning the
other part of him, neither _he nor you_ seem to have entertained an
idea."--_Horne cor._ "Whose earnings or income _is_ so small."--_Discip.
cor._ "Neither riches nor fame _renders_ a man happy."--_Day cor._ "The
references to the pages always point to the first volume, unless the
Exercises or Key _is_ mentioned." Or, better:--"unless _mention is made of_
the Exercises or Key." Or: "unless the Exercises or Key _be named_."--_L.
Murray cor._

UNDER NOTE II.--COMPLETE THE CONCORD.

"My lord, you wrong my father; _neither is_ he, nor _am_ I, capable of
harbouring a thought against your peace."--_Walpole cor._ "There was no
division of acts; _there were_ no pauses, or _intervals, in the
performance_; but the stage was continually full; occupied either by the
actors, or _by_ the chorus."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Every word ending in _b,
p_, or _f, is_ of this order, as also _are_ many _that end_ in _v_."--_Dr.
Murray cor._ "Proud as we are of human reason, nothing can be more absurd
than _is_ the general system of human life and human knowledge."--
_Bolingbroke cor._ "By which the body of sin and death is done away, and we
_are_ cleansed."--_Barclay_ cor. "And those were already converted, and
regeneration _was_ begun in them."--_Id._ "For I am an old man, and my wife
_is_ well _advanced_ in years."--_Bible cor._ "Who is my mother? or _who
are_ my brethren?"--See _Matt._, xii, 48. "Lebanon is not sufficient to
burn, nor _are_ the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt-offering."--
_Bible cor._ "Information has been obtained, and some trials _have been_
made."--_Martineau cor._ "It is as obvious, and its causes _are_ more
easily understood."--_Webster cor._ "All languages furnish examples of this
kind, and the English _contains_ as many as any other."--_Priestley cor._
"The winters are long, and the cold _is_ intense."--_Morse cor._ "How have
I hated instruction, and _how hath_ my heart despised reproof!"--_Prov.
cor._ "The vestals were abolished by Theodosius the Great, and the fire of
Vesta _was_ extinguished."--_Lempriere cor._ "Riches beget pride; pride
_begets_ impatience."--_Bullions cor._ "Grammar is not reasoning, any more
than organization is thought, or letters _are_ sounds."--_Enclytica cor._
"Words are implements, and grammar _is_ a machine."--_Id._

UNDER NOTE III.--PLACE OF THE FIRST PERSON.

"_Thou or I_ must undertake the business."--_L. Murray cor._ "_He and I_
were there."--_Ash cor._ "And we dreamed a dream in one night, _he and
I_."--_Bible cor._ "If my views remain the same as _his and mine_ were in
1833."--_Goodell cor._ "_My father and I_ were riding out."--_Inst., Key_,
p. 273. "The premiums were given to _George and me_."--_Ib._ "_Jane and I_
are invited."--_Ib._ "They ought to invite _my sister and me_."--_Ib._
"_You and I_ intend to go."--_Guy cor._ "_John and I_ are going to
town."--_Brit. Gram. cor._ "_He and I are_ sick."--_James Brown cor._
"_Thou and I_ are well."--_Id._ "_He and I are_."--_Id._ "_Thou and I
are_."--_Id._ "_He, and I write_."--_Id._ "_They and I_ are well."--_Id._
"_She, and thou, and I_, were walking."--_Id._

UNDER NOTE IV.--DISTINCT SUBJECT PHRASES.

"To practise tale-bearing, or even to countenance it, _is_ great
injustice."--_Inst., Key_, p. 273. "To reveal secrets, or to betray one's
friends, _is_ contemptible perfidy."--_Id._ "To write all substantives with
capital letters, or to exclude _capitals_ from adjectives derived from
proper names, may perhaps be thought _an offence_ too small for
animadversion; but the evil of innovation is always something."--_Dr.
Barrow cor._ "To live in such families, or to have such servants, _is a
blessing_ from God."--_Fam. Com. cor._ "How they portioned out the country,
what revolutions they experienced, _or_ what wars they maintained, _is_
utterly unknown." Or: "How they portioned out the country, what revolutions
they experienced, _and_ what wars they maintained, _are things_ utterly
unknown."--_Goldsmith cor._ "To speak or to write perspicuously and
agreeably, _is an attainment_ of the utmost consequence to all who purpose,
either by speech or _by_ writing, to address the public."--_Dr. Blair cor._

UNDER NOTE V.--MAKE THE VERBS AGREE.

"Doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and _go_ into the mountains, and
_seek_ that which is gone astray?"--_Bible cor._ "Did he not fear the Lord,
and _beseech_ the Lord, and _did not_ the Lord _repent_ of the evil which
he had pronounced?"--_Id._ "And dost thou open thine eyes upon such _a_
one, and _bring_ me into judgement with thee?"--_Id._ "If any man among you
_seemeth_ to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his
own heart, this man's religion is vain."--_Id._ "If thou sell aught unto
thy neighbour, or _buy_ aught of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress
one an other."--_Id._ "And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee, _become_
poor, and be sold to thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve as a
bond-servant."--_Id._ "If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there
_remember_ that thy brother hath aught against thee," &c.--_Id._ "Anthea
was content to call a coach, and _so to cross_ the brook." Or:--"and _in
that she crossed_ the brook."--_Johnson cor._ "It is either totally
suppressed, or _manifested only_ in its lowest and most imperfect
form."--_Blair cor._ "But if any man _is_ a worshiper of God, and doeth his
will, him he heareth." Or: "If any man _be_ a worshiper of God, and _do_
his will, him _will_ he _hear_."--_Bible cor._ "Whereby his righteousness
and obedience, death and sufferings without, become profitable unto us, and
_are made_ ours."--_Barclay cor._ "Who ought to have been here before thee,
and _to have objected_, if they had _any thing_ against me."--_Bible cor._

"Yes! thy proud lords, unpitied land, shall see,
That man _has_ yet a soul, and _dares_ be free."--_Campbell cor._

UNDER NOTE VI.--USE SEPARATE NOMINATIVES.

"_H_ is only an aspiration, or breathing; and sometimes, at the beginning
of a word, _it_ is not sounded at all."--_Lowth cor._ "Man was made for
society, and _he_ ought to extend his good will to all men."--_Id._ "There
is, and must be, a Supreme Being, of infinite goodness, power, and wisdom,
who created, and _who_ supports them."--_Beattie cor._ "Were you not
affrighted, and _did you not mistake_ a spirit for a body?"--_Bp. Watson
cor._ "The latter noun or pronoun is not governed by the conjunction _than_
or _as_, but _it either_ agrees with the verb, or is governed by the verb
or the preposition, expressed or understood."--_Mur. et al. cor._ "He had
mistaken his true _interest_, and _he_ found himself forsaken."--_Murray
cor._ "The amputation was exceedingly well performed, and _it_ saved the
patient's life."--_Id._ "The intentions of some of these philosophers, nay,
of many, might have been, and probably _they_ were, good."--_Id._ "This may
be true, and yet _it_ will not justify the practice."--_Webster cor._ "From
the practice of those who have had a liberal education, and _who_ are
therefore presumed to be best acquainted with men and things."--_Campbell
cor._ "For those energies and bounties which created, and _which_ preserve,
the universe."--_J. Q. Adams cor._ "I shall make it once for all, and _I_
hope it will be remembered."--_Blair cor._ "This consequence is drawn too
abruptly. _The argument_ needed more explanation." Or: "This consequence is
drawn too abruptly, and _without sufficient_ explanation."--_Id._ "They
must be used with more caution, and _they_ require more
preparation."--_Id._ "The apostrophe denotes the omission of an _i_, which
was formerly inserted, and _which_ made an addition of a syllable to the
word."--_Priestley cor._ "The succession may be rendered more various or
more uniform, but, in one shape or an other, _it_ is unavoidable."--_Kames
cor._ "It excites neither terror nor compassion; nor is _it_ agreeable in
any respect."--_Id._

"Cheap vulgar arts, whose narrowness affords
No flight for thoughts,--_they_ poorly stick at words."--_Denham cor._

UNDER NOTE VII.--MIXTURE OF DIFFERENT STYLES.

"Let us read the living page, whose every character _delights_ and
instructs us."--_Maunder cor._ "For if it _is_ in any degree obscure, it
puzzles, and _does_ not please."--_Kames cor._ "When a speaker _addresses_
himself to the understanding, he proposes the instruction of his
hearers."--_Campbell cor._ "As the wine which strengthens and _refreshes_
the heart."--_H. Adams cor._ "This truth he _wraps_ in an allegory, and
feigns that one of the goddesses had taken up her abode with the
other."--_Pope cor._ "God searcheth and _understandeth_ the heart." Or:
"God _searches_ and _understands_ the heart."--_T. a. Kempis cor._ "The
grace of God, that _bringeth_ salvation, hath appeared to all
men."--_Titus_, ii, 11. "Which things also we speak, not in the words which
man's wisdom _teacheth_, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth."--_1 Cor._, ii,
13. "But he _has_ an objection, which he _urges_, and by which he thinks to
overturn all."--_Barclay cor._ "In that it gives them not that comfort and
joy which it _gives to_ them who love it."--_Id._ "Thou here misunderstood
the place and _misapplied_ it." Or: "Thou here _misunderstoodst_ the place
and _misappliedst_ it."--_Id._ Or: (as many of our grammarians will have
it:) "Thou here _misunderstoodest_ the place and _misappliedst_ it."--_Id._
"Like the barren heath in the desert, which knoweth not when good
_cometh_."--See _Jer._, xvii, 6. "It _speaks_ of the time past, _and shows_
that something was then doing, but not quite finished."--_Devis cor._ "It
subsists in spite of them; it _advances_ unobserved."--_Pascal cor._

"But where is he, the pilgrim of my song?--
Methinks he _lingers_ late and tarries long."--_Byron cor._

UNDER NOTE VIII.--CONFUSION OF MOODS.

"If a man _have_ a hundred sheep, and one of them _go_ (or _be gone_)
astray," &c.--_Matt._, xviii, 12. Or: "If a man _has_ a hundred sheep, and
one of them _goes_ (or _is gone_) astray," &c. Or: "If a man _hath_ a
hundred sheep, and one of them _goeth_ (or _is gone_) astray,"
&c.--_Kirkham cor._ "As a speaker _advances_ in his discourse, and
_increases_ in energy and earnestness, a higher and a louder tone will
naturally steal upon him."--_Id._ "If one man _esteem one_ day above an
other, and an other _esteem_ every day alike; let every man be fully
persuaded in his own mind."--_Barclay cor._ See _Rom._, xiv, 5. "If there
be but one body of legislators, it _will be_ no better than a tyranny; if
there _be_ only two, there will want a casting voice."--_Addison cor._
"Should you come up this way, and I _be_ still here, you need not be
assured how glad I _should_ be to see you."--_Byron cor._ "If he repent and
_become_ holy, let him enjoy God and heaven."--_Brownson cor._ "If thy
fellow approach thee, naked and destitute, and thou _say_ unto him, 'Depart
in peace, be warmed and filled,' and yet _thou give_ him not those things
_which_ are needful to him, what benevolence is there in thy
conduct?"--_Kirkham cor._

"Get on your nightgown, lest occasion _call_ us,
And _show_ us to be watchers."--_Singer's Shakspeare_.

"But if it _climb_, with your assisting _hand_,
The Trojan walls, and in the city _stand_."--_Dryden cor._

----------------"Though Heaven's King
_Ride_ on thy wings, and thou with thy compeers,
Used to the yoke, _draw_ his triumphant wheels."--_Milton cor._

UNDER NOTE IX.--IMPROPER ELLIPSES.

"Indeed we have seriously wondered that Murray should leave some things as
he has _left them_."--_Reporter cor._ "Which they neither have _done_ nor
can do."--_Barclay cor._ "The Lord hath _revealed_, and doth and will
reveal, his will to his people; and hath _raised up_, and doth raise up,
members of his body," &c.--_Id._ "We see, then, that the Lord hath _given_,
and doth give, such."--_Id._ "Towards those that have _declared_, or do
declare, themselves members."--_Id._ "For which we can _give_, and have
given, our sufficient reasons."--_Id._ "When we mention the several
properties of the different words in sentences, as we have _mentioned_
those of _the word William's_ above, what is the exercise called?"--_R. C.
Smith cor._ "It is however to be doubted, whether this Greek idiom ever has
_obtained_, or _ever_ will obtain, extensively, in English."--_Nutting
cor._ "Why did not the Greeks and Romans abound in auxiliary words as much
as we _do_?"--_Murray cor._ "Who delivers his sentiments in earnest, as
they ought to be _delivered_ in order to move and persuade."--_Kirkham
cor._

UNDER NOTE X.--DO, USED AS A SUBSTITUTE.

"And I would avoid it altogether, if it could be _avoided_." Or: "I would
avoid it altogether, if _to avoid_ it _were practicable_."--_Kames cor._
"Such a sentiment from a man expiring of his wounds, is truly heroic; and
_it_ must elevate the mind to the greatest height _to which it can be
raised_ by a single expression."--_Id._ "Successive images, _thus_ making
deeper and deeper impressions, must elevate _the mind_ more than any single
image can."--_Id._ "Besides making a deeper impression than can be _made_
by cool reasoning."--_Id._ "Yet a poet, by the force of genius alone, _may_
rise higher than a public speaker _can_." Or:--"than _can_ a public
speaker."--_Blair cor._ "And the very same reason that has induced several
grammarians to go so far as they have _gone_, should have induced them to
go farther."--_Priestley cor._ "The pupil should commit the first section
_to memory_ perfectly, before he _attempts_ (or _enters upon_) the second
part of grammar."--_Bradley cor._ "The Greek _ch_ was pronounced hard, as
we now _pronounce it_ in _chord_."--_Booth cor._ "They pronounce the
syllables in a different manner from what they _adopt_ (or, in a _manner
different_ from _that which_ they _are accustomed to use_) at other
times."--_L. Murray cor._ "And give him the _cool and formal_ reception
that Simon had _given_."--_Scott cor._ "I do not say, as some have
_said_."--_Bolingbroke cor._ "If he suppose the first, he _may_ the
last."--_Barclay cor._ "Who are now despising Christ in his inward
appearance, as the Jews of old _despised_ him in his outward
[advent]."--_Id._ "That text of Revelations must not be understood as he
_understands_ it."--_Id._ "Till the mode of parsing the noun is so familiar
to him that he can _parse_ it readily."--_R. C. Smith cor._ "Perhaps it is
running the same course _that_ Rome had _run_ before."--_Middleton cor._
"It ought even on this ground to be avoided; _and it_ easily _may be_, by a
different construction."--_Churchill cor._ "These two languages are now
pronounced in England as no other nation in Europe _pronounces
them_."--_Creighton cor._ "Germany ran the same risk that Italy had
_run_."--_Bolingbroke, Murray, et al., cor._

UNDER NOTE XI.--PRETERITS AND PARTICIPLES.

"The beggars themselves will be _broken_ in a trice."--_Swift cor._ "The
hoop is _hoisted_ above his nose."--_Id._ "And _his_ heart was _lifted_ up
in the ways of the Lord."--_2 Chron._, xvii, 6. "Who sin so oft have
mourned, Yet to temptation _run_."--_Burns cor._ "Who would not have let
them _appear_."--_Steele cor._ "He would have had you _seek_ for ease at
the hands of Mr. Legality."--_Bunyan cor._ "From me his madding mind is
_turned: He woos_ the widow's daughter, of the glen."--_Spenser cor._ "The
man has _spoken_, and _he_ still speaks."--_Ash cor._ "For you have but
_mistaken_ me all this while."--_Shak. cor._ "And will you _rend_ our
ancient love asunder?"--_Id._ "Mr. Birney has _pled_ (or _pleaded_) the
inexpediency of passing such resolutions."--_Liberator cor._ "Who have
_worn_ out their years in such most painful labours."--_Littleton cor._
"And in the conclusion you were _chosen_ probationer."--_Spectator cor._

"How she was lost, _ta'en_ captive, made a slave;
And how against him set that should her save."--_Bunyan cor._

UNDER NOTE XII.--OF VERBS CONFOUNDED.

"But Moses preferred to _while_ away his time."--_Parker cor._ "His face
shone with the rays of the sun."--_John Allen cor._ "Whom they had _set_ at
defiance so lately."--_Bolingbroke cor._ "And when he _had sat down_, his
disciples came unto him."--_Bible cor._ "When he _had sat down_ on the
judgement-seat." Or: "_While_ he _was sitting_ on the judgement-seat."--
_Id._ "And, _they having kindled_ a fire in the midst of the hall and _sat_
down together, Peter sat down among them."--_Id._ "So, after he had washed
their feet, and had taken his garments, and _had sat_ down again,[or,
literally,'_sitting down again_,'] he said _to_ them, _Do_ ye _know_ what I
have done to you?"--_Id._ "Even as I also overcame, and _sat_ down with my
Father in his throne."--_Id._ Or: (rather less literally:) "Even as I _have
overcome_, and _am sitting_ with my Father _on_ his throne."--_Id._ "We
have such a high priest, who _sitteth_ on the right hand of the throne of
the Majesty in the heavens."--_Id._ "And _is now sitting_ at the right hand
of the throne of God."--_Id._ "He _set_ on foot a furious persecution."--
_Payne cor._ "There _lieth_ (or _lies_) an obligation upon the saints to
help such."--_Barclay cor._ "There let him _lie_."--_Byron cor._ "Nothing
but moss, and shrubs, and _stunted_ trees, can grow upon it."--_Morse cor._
"Who had _laid_ out considerable sums purely to distinguish themselves."--
_Goldsmith cor._ "Whereunto the righteous _flee_ and are safe."--_Barclay
cor._ "He _rose_ from supper, and laid aside his garments."--_Id._
"Whither--_oh!_ whither--shall I _flee_?"--_L. Murray cor._ "_Fleeing_ from
an adopted murderer."--_Id._ "To you I _flee_ for refuge."--_Id._ "The sign
that should warn his disciples to _flee_ from _the_ approaching ruin."--
_Keith cor._ "In one she _sits_ as a prototype for exact imitation."--_Rush
cor._ "In which some only bleat, bark, mew, _whinny_, and bray, a little
better than others."--_Id._ "Who represented to him the unreasonableness of
being _affected_ with such unmanly fears."--_Rollin cor._ "Thou _sawest_
every action." Or, familiarly: "Thou _saw_ every action."--_Guy cor._ "I
taught, thou _taughtest_, or _taught_, he or she taught."--_Coar cor._
"Valerian was taken by Sapor and _flayed_ alive, A. D. 260."--_Lempriere
cor._ "What a fine vehicle _has_ it now become, for all conceptions of the
mind!"--_Blair cor._ "What _has_ become of so many productions?"--_Volney
cor._ "What _has_ become of those ages of abundance and of life?"--_Keith
cor._ "The Spartan admiral _had_ sailed to the Hellespont."--_Goldsmith
cor._ "As soon as he _landed_, the multitude thronged about him."--_Id._
"Cyrus _had_ arrived at Sardis."--_Id._ "Whose year _had_ expired."--_Id._
"It _might_ better have been, 'that faction which,'" Or; "'That faction
which,' _would_ have been better."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 157. "This people
_has_ become a great nation."--_Murray and Ingersoll cor._ "And here we
_enter_ the region of ornament."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The ungraceful
parenthesis which follows, _might_ far better have been avoided." "Who
forced him under water, and there held him until _he was drowned_."--_Hist.
cor._

"I _would_ much rather be myself the slave,
And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him."--_Cowper cor._

UNDER NOTE XIII.--WORDS THAT EXPRESS TIME.

"I _finished_ my letter _before_ my brother arrived." Or: "I _had finished_
my letter _when_ my brother arrived."--_Kirkham cor._ "I _wrote_ before I
received his letter."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "From what _was formerly_
delivered."--_Id._ "Arts _were at length_ introduced among them." Or: "Arts
_have been of late_ introduced among them."--_Id._ [But the latter reading
suits not the Doctor's context.] "I am not of opinion that such rules _can
be_ of much use, unless persons _see_ them exemplified." Or:--"_could be_,"
and "_saw_."--_Id._ "If we _use_ the noun itself, we _say_, (or _must
say_,) 'This composition is John's.'" Or: "If we _used_ the noun itself, we
_should say_," &c.--_L. Murray cor._ "But if the assertion _refer_ to
something that _was transient_, or _to something that is not_ supposed to
be _always the same_, the past tense must be preferred:" [as,] "They told
him that Jesus of Nazareth _was passing_ by."--_Luke and L. Murray cor._
"There is no particular intimation but that I _have continued_ to work,
even to the present moment."--_R. W. Green cor._ "Generally, as _has been_
observed already, it is but hinted in a single word or phrase."--_Campbell
cor._ "The wittiness of the passage _has been_ already illustrated."--_Id._
"As was observed _before_."--_Id._ Or: "As _has been_ observed
_already_"--_Id._ "It _has been_ said already in general _terms_."--_Id._
"As I hinted _before_."--_Id._ Or: "As I _have hinted already_."--_Id._
"What, I believe, was hinted once _before_."--_Id._ "It is obvious, as
_was_ hinted formerly, that this is but an artificial and arbitrary
connexion."--_Id._ "They _did_ anciently a great deal of hurt."--
_Bolingbroke cor._ "Then said Paul, I knew not, brethren, that he _was_ the
high priest."--See _Acts_, xxiii, 5; _Webster cor._ "Most prepositions
originally _denoted_ the _relations_ of place; and _from these_ they _were_
transferred, to denote, by similitude, other relations."--_Lowth and
Churchill cor._ "His gift was but a poor offering, _in comparison with_ his
_great_ estate."--_L. Murray cor._ "If he should succeed, and obtain his
end, he _would_ not be the happier for it." Or, better: "If he _succeed_,
and _fully attain_ his end, he will not be the happier for it."--_Id._
"These are torrents that swell to-day, and _that will_ have spent
themselves by to-morrow."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Who have called that wheat _on
one day_, which they have called tares _on the next_."--_Barclay cor._ "He
thought it _was_ one of his tenants."--_Id._ "But if one went unto them
from the dead, they _would_ repent."--_Bible cor._ "Neither _would_ they be
persuaded, though one rose from the dead."--_Id._ "But it is while men
_sleep_, that the arch-enemy always _sows_ his tares."--_The Friend cor._
"Crescens would not _have failed_ to _expose_ him."--_Addison cor._

"Bent _is_ his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound;
Fierce as he _moves_, his silver shafts resound."--_Pope cor._

UNDER NOTE XIV.--VERBS OF COMMANDING, &C.

"Had I commanded you to _do_ this, you would have thought hard of it."--_G.
B_. "I found him better than I expected to _find_ him."--_L Murray's
Gram._, i, 187. "There are several smaller faults which I at first intended
to _enumerate_."--_Webster cor._ "Antithesis, therefore, may, on many
occasions, be employed to advantage, in order to strengthen the impression
which we intend that any object _shall_ make."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The girl
said, if her master would but have let her _have_ money, she might have
been well long ago."--_Priestley et al. cor._ "Nor is there the least
ground to fear that we _shall here_ be cramped within too narrow
limits."--_Campbell cor._ "The Romans, flushed with success, expected to
_retake_ it."--_Hooke cor._ "I would not have let _fall_ an unseasonable
pleasantry in the venerable presence of Misery, to be entitled to all the
wit that ever Rabelais scattered."--_Sterne cor._ "We expected that he
_would arrive_ last night."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 282. "Our friends intended
to _meet_ us."--_Ib._ "We hoped to _see_ you."--_Ib._ "He would not have
been allowed to _enter_."--_Ib._

UNDER NOTE XV.--PERMANENT PROPOSITIONS.

"Cicero maintained, that whatsoever _is_ useful _is_ good."--_G. B_. "I
observed that love _constitutes_ the whole moral character of
God."--_Dwight cor._ "Thinking that one _gains_ nothing by being a good
man."--_Voltaire cor._ "I have already told you, that I _am_ a
gentleman."--_Fontaine cor._ "If I should ask, whether ice and water _are_
two distinct species of things."--_Locke cor._ "A stranger to the poem
would not easily discover that this _is_ verse."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, i,
260. "The doctor affirmed that fever always _produces_ thirst."--_Brown's
Inst._, p. 282. "The ancients asserted, that virtue _is_ its own
reward."--_Ib._ "They should not have repeated the error, of insisting that
the infinitive _is_ a mere noun."--_Tooke cor._ "It was observed in Chap.
III, that the distinctive OR _has_ a double use."--_Churchill cor._ "Two
young gentlemen, who have made a discovery that there _is_ no
God."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 206.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XVIII; INFINITIVES.

INSTANCES DEMANDING THE PARTICLE TO.

"William, please _to_ hand me that pencil."--_Smith cor._ "Please _to_
insert points so as to make sense."--_P. Davis cor._ "I have known lords
_to_ abbreviate almost half of their words."--_Cobbett cor._ "We shall find
the practice perfectly _to_ accord with the theory."--_Knight cor._ "But it
would tend to obscure, rather than _to_ elucidate, the subject."--_L.
Murray cor._ "Please _to_ divide it for them, as it should be
_divided_"--_J. Willetts cor._ "So as neither to embarrass nor _to_ weaken
the sentence."--_Blair and Mur. cor._ "Carry her to his table, to view his
poor fare, and _to_ hear his heavenly discourse."--_Same_. "That we need
not be surprised to find this _to_ hold [i.e., to find _the same to be
true_, or to find _it so_] in eloquence."--_Blair cor._ "Where he has no
occasion either to divide or _to_ explain" [_the topic in debate_.]--_Id._
"And they will find their pupils _to_ improve by hasty and pleasant
steps."--_Russell cor._ "The teacher, however, will please _to_ observe,"
&c.--_Inf. S. Gr. cor._ "Please _to_ attend to a few rules in what is
called syntax."--_Id._ "They may dispense with the laws, to favour their
friends, or _to_ secure their office."--_Webster cor._ "To take back a
gift, or _to_ break a contract, is a wanton abuse."--_Id._ "The legislature
_has_ nothing to do, but _to_ let it bear its own price."--_Id._ "He is not
to form, but _to_ copy characters."--_Rambler cor._ "I have known a woman
_to_ make use of a shoeing-horn."--_Spect. cor._ "Finding this experiment
_to_ answer, in every respect, their wishes."--_Day cor._ "In fine, let him
cause his arrangement _to_ conclude in the term of the question."--_Barclay
cor._

"That he permitted not the winds of heaven
_To visit her_ too roughly."
[Omit "_face_," to keep the measure: or say,]
"That he _did never let_ the winds of heaven
_Visit her face_ too roughly."--_Shak. cor._

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XIX.--OF INFINITIVES.

Instances after Bid, Dare, Feel, Hear, Let, Make, Need, See.

"I dare not proceed so hastily, lest I give offence."--See _Murray's Key_,
Rule xii. "Their character is formed, and made _to_ appear."--_Butler cor._
"Let there be but matter and opportunity offered, and you shall see them
quickly revive again."--_Bacon cor._ "It has been made _to_ appear, that
there is no presumption against a revelation."--_Bp. Butler cor._
"MANIFEST, v. t. To reveal; to make appear; to show plainly."--_Webster
cor._ "Let him reign, like good Aurelius, or let him bleed like _Seneca_:"
[Socrates did not bleed, he was poisoned.]--_Kirkham's transposition of
Pope cor._ "_Sing_ I could not; _complain_ I durst not."--_Fothergill cor._
"If T. M. be not so frequently heard _to_ pray by them."--_Barclay cor._
"How many of your own church members were never heard _to_ pray?"--_Id._
"Yea, we are bidden _to_ pray one for an other."--_Id._ "He was made _to_
believe that neither the king's death nor _his_ imprisonment would help
him."--_Sheffield cor._ "I felt a chilling sensation creep over
me."--_Inst._, p. 279. "I dare say he has not got home yet."--_Ib._ "We
sometimes see bad men honoured."--_Ib._ "I saw him move"--_Felch cor._ "For
see thou, ah! see thou, a hostile world its _terrors_ raise."--_Kirkham
cor._ "But that he make him rehearse so."--_Lily cor._ "Let us
rise."--_Fowle cor._

"Scripture, you know, exhorts us to it;
It bids us 'seek peace, and ensue it.'"--_Swift cor._

"Who bade the mud from Dives' wheel
_Bedash_ the rags of Lazarus?
Come, brother, in that dust we'll kneel,
Confessing heaven that ruled it thus."--_Christmas Book cor._

CHAPTER VII.--PARTICIPLES.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE XX.

UNDER NOTE I.--EXPUNGE OF.

"In forming his sentences, he was very exact."--_L. Murray_. "For not
believing which, I condemn them."--_Barclay cor._ "To prohibit his hearers
from reading that book."--_Id._ "You will please them exceedingly in crying
down ordinances."--_Mitchell cor._ "The warwolf subsequently became an
engine for casting stones." Or:--"for _the_ casting of stones."--_Cons.
Misc. cor._ "The art of dressing hides and working in leather was
practised."--_Id._ "In the choice they had made of him for restoring
order."--_Rollin cor._ "The Arabians exercised themselves by composing
orations and poems."--_Sale cor._ "Behold, the widow-woman was there,
gathering sticks."--_Bible cor._ "The priests were busied in offering
burnt-offerings."--_Id._ "But Asahel would not turn aside from following
him."--_Id._ "He left off building Ramah, and dwelt in Tirzah."--_Id._
"Those who accuse us of denying it, belie us."--_Barclay cor._ "And
breaking bread from house to house."--_Acts_, iv, 46. "Those that set about
repairing the walls."--_Barclay cor._ "And secretly begetting
divisions."--_Id._ "Whom he has made use of in gathering his
church."--_Id._ "In defining and distinguishing the _acceptations_ and uses
of those particles."--_W. Walker cor._

"In _making this a crime_, we overthrow
The laws of nations and of nature too."--_Dryden cor._

UNDER NOTE II.--ARTICLES REQUIRE OF.

"The mixing _of_ them makes a miserable jumble of truth and
fiction."--_Kames cor._ "The same objection lies against the employing _of_
statues."--_Id._ "More efficacious than the venting _of_ opulence upon the
fine arts."--_Id._ "It is the giving _of_ different names to the same
object."--_Id._ "When we have in view the erecting _of_ a column."--_Id._
"The straining _of_ an elevated subject beyond due bounds, is a vice not so
frequent."--_Id._ "The cutting _of_ evergreens in the shape of animals, is
very ancient."--_Id._ "The keeping _of_ juries without _meat_, drink, or
fire, can be accounted for only on the same idea."--_Webster cor._ "The
writing _of_ the verbs at length on his slate, will be a very useful
exercise."--_Beck cor._ "The avoiding _of_ them is not an object of any
moment."--_Sheridan cor._ "Comparison is the increasing or decreasing _of_
the signification of a word by degrees."--_Brit. Gram. cor._ "Comparison is
the increasing or decreasing _of_ the quality by degrees."--_Buchanan cor._
"The placing _of_ a circumstance before the word with which it is connected
is the easiest of all inversion."--_Id._ "What is emphasis? It is the
emitting _of_ a stronger and fuller sound of voice," &c.--_Bradley cor._
"Besides, the varying _of_ the terms will render the use of them more
familiar."--_A. Mur. cor._ "And yet the confining _of_ themselves to this
true principle, has misled them."--_Tooke cor._ "What is here commanded, is
merely the relieving _of_ his misery."--_Wayland cor._ "The accumulating
_of_ too great a quantity of knowledge at random, overloads the mind _in
stead_ of adorning it."--_Formey cor._ "For the compassing _of_ his
point."--_Rollin cor._ "To the introducing _of_ such an inverted order of
things."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Which require only the doing _of_ an external
action."--_Id._ "The imprisoning _of_ my body is to satisfy your
wills."--_Fox cor._ "Who oppose the conferring _of_ such extensive command
on one person."--_Duncan cor._ "Luxury contributed not a little to the
enervating _of_ their forces."--_Sale cor._ "The keeping _of_ one day of
the week for a sabbath."--_Barclay cor._ "The doing _of_ a thing is
contrary to the forbearing of it."--_Id._ "The doubling _of_ the Sigma is,
however, sometimes regular."--_Knight cor._ "The inserting _of_ the common
aspirate too, is improper."--_Id._ "But in Spenser's time the pronouncing
_of_ the _ed_ [as a separate syllable,] seems already to have been
something of an archaism."--_Phil. Mu. cor._ "And to the reconciling _of_
the effect of their verses on the eye."--_Id._ "When it was not in their
power to hinder the taking _of_ the whole."--_Dr. Brown cor._ "He had
indeed given the orders himself for the shutting _of_ the gates."--_Id._
"So his whole life was a doing _of_ the will of the Father."--_Penington
cor._ "It signifies the suffering or receiving _of_ the action
expressed."--_Priestley cor._ "The pretended crime therefore was the
declaring _of_ himself to be the Son of God."--_West cor._ "Parsing is the
resolving _of_ a sentence into its different parts of speech."--_Beck cor._

UNDER NOTE II.--ADJECTIVES REQUIRE OF.

"There is _no_ expecting _of_ the admiration of beholders."--_Baxter cor._
"There is no hiding _of_ you in the house."--_Shak. cor._ "For the better
regulating _of_ government in the province of Massachusetts."--_Brit. Parl.
cor._ "The precise marking _of_ the shadowy boundaries of a complex
government."--_Adams cor._ "This state of discipline requires the voluntary
foregoing _of_ many things which we desire, and _the_ setting _of_
ourselves to what we have no inclination to."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "This
amounts to an active setting _of_ themselves against religion."--_Id._
"Which engaged our ancient friends to the orderly establishing _of_ our
Christian discipline."--_Friends cor._ "Some men are so unjust that there
is no securing _of_ our own property or life, but by opposing force to
force."--_Rev. John Brown cor._ "An Act for the better securing _of_ the
Rights and Liberties of the Subject."--_Geo. III cor._ "Miraculous curing
_of_ the sick is discontinued."--_Barclay cor._ "It would have been no
transgressing _of_ the apostle's rule."--_Id._ "As far as consistent with
the proper conducting _of_ the business of the House."--_Elmore cor._
"Because he would have no quarrelling at the just condemning _of_ them at
that day." Or:--"at _their just condemnation_ at that day."--_Bunyan cor._
"That transferring _of_ this natural manner will insure propriety."--_Rush
cor._ "If a man were porter of hell-gate, he should have old [i.e.,
frequent] turning _of_ the key."--_Singer's Shakspeare cor._

UNDER NOTE II.--POSSESSIVES REQUIRE OF.

"So very simple a thing as a man's wounding _of_ himself."--_Dr. Blair
cor., and Murray_. "Or with that man's avowing _of_ his
designs."--_Blair, Mur., et al. cor._ "On his putting _of_ the
question."--_Adams cor._ "The importance of teachers' requiring _of_ their
pupils to read each section many times over."--_Kirkham cor._ "Politeness
is a kind of forgetting _of_ one's self, in order to be agreeable to
others."--_Ramsay cor._ "Much, therefore, of the merit and the
agreeableness of epistolary writing, will depend on its introducing _of_ us
into some acquaintance with the writer."--_Blair and Mack cor._ "Richard's
restoration to respectability depends on his paying _of_ his debts."--_O.
B. Peirce cor._ "Their supplying _of_ ellipses where none ever existed;
their parsing _of the_ words of sentences already full and perfect, as
though depending on words understood."--_Id._ "Her veiling _of_ herself,
and shedding _of_ tears, &c., her upbraiding _of_ Paris for his cowardice,"
&c.--_Blair cor._ "A preposition may be made known by its admitting _of_ a
personal pronoun after it, in the objective case."--_Murray et al. cor._
"But this forms no just objection to its denoting _of_ time."--_L. Mur.
cor._ "Of men's violating or disregarding _of_ the relations _in_ which God
has _here_ placed them."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Success, indeed, no more
decides for the right, than a man's killing _of_ his antagonist in a
duel."--_Campbell cor._ "His reminding _of_ them."--_Kirkham cor._ "This
mistake was corrected by his preceptor's causing _of_ him to plant some
beans."--_Id._ "Their neglecting _of_ this was ruinous."--_Frost cor._
"That he was serious, appears from his distinguishing _of_ the others as
'finite.'"--_Felch cor._ "His hearers are not at all sensible of his doing
_of_ it." Or:--"_that he does_ it."--_Sheridan cor._

UNDER NOTE III.--CHANGE THE EXPRESSION.

"An allegory is _a fictitious story the meaning of which is figurative, not
literal_; a double meaning, or dilogy, is the saying _of_ only one thing,
_when we have_ two in view."--_Phil. Mu. cor._ "A verb may generally be
distinguished by _the sense which it makes_ with any of the personal
pronouns, or _with_ the word TO, before it."--_Murray et al. cor._ "A noun
may in general be distinguished by _the article which comes_ before it, or
by _the sense which it makes_ of itself."--_Merchant et al. cor._ "An
adjective may usually be known by _the sense which it makes_ with the word
_thing_; as, a _good_ thing, a _bad_ thing."--_Iid._ "It is seen _to be_ in
the objective case, _because it denotes_ the object affected by the act of
leaving."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "It is seen _to be_ in the possessive case,
_because it denotes_ the possessor of something."--_Id._ "The _noun_ MAN is
caused by the _adjective_ WHATEVER to _seem like_ a twofold _nominative, as
if it denoted_, of itself, one person as the subject of the two
remarks."--_Id._ "WHEN, as used in the last line, is a connective, _because
it joins_ that line to the other part of the sentence."--_Id._ "_Because
they denote_ reciprocation."--_Id._ "To allow them _to make_ use of that
liberty;"--"To allow them _to use_ that liberty;"--or, "To allow them that
liberty."--_Sale cor._ "The worst effect of it is, _that it fixes_ on your
mind a habit of indecision."--_Todd cor._ "And you groan the more deeply,
as you reflect that _you have not power to shake_ it off."--_Id._ "I know
of nothing that can justify the _student in_ having recourse to a Latin
translation of a Greek writer."--_Coleridge cor._ "Humour is the _conceit
of_ making others act or talk absurdly."--_Hazlitt cor._ "There are
remarkable instances _in which they do not affect_ each other."--_Bp.
Butler cor._ "_That Caesar was left out_ of the commission, was not from any
slight."--_Life cor._ "Of the _thankful reception_ of this toleration, I
shall say no more," Or: "Of the _propriety of_ receiving this toleration
thankfully, I shall say no more."--_Dryden cor._ "Henrietta was delighted
with Julia's _skill in_ working lace."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "And it is
_because each of them represents_ two different words, that the confusion
has arisen."--_Booth cor._ "AEschylus died of a fracture of his skull,
caused by an eagle's _dropping of_ a tortoise on his head." Or:--"caused by
_a tortoise which an eagle let fall_ on his head."--_Biog. Dict. cor._ "He
doubted _whether they had_ it."--_Felch cor._ "_To make_ ourselves clearly
understood, is the chief end of speech."--_Sheridan cor._ "_One cannot
discover_ in their countenances any signs which are the natural
concomitants of the feelings of the heart."--_Id._ "Nothing can be more
common or less proper, than to speak of a _river as emptying
itself_."--_Campbell cor._ "Our _non-use of_ the former expression, is
owing to this."--_Bullions cor._

UNDER NOTE IV.--DISPOSAL OF ADVERBS.

"To this generally succeeds the division, or the _laying-down_ of the
method of the discourse."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "To the _pulling-down_ of
strong holds."--_Bible cor._ "Can a mere _buckling-on of_ a military weapon
infuse courage?"--_Dr. Brown cor._ "_Expensive_ and _luxurious_ living
destroys health."--_L. Murray cor._ "By _frugal_ and _temperate_ living,
health is preserved." Or: "By living frugally and temperately, _we preserve
our_ health."--_Id._ "By the _doing-away_ of the necessity."--_The Friend
cor._ "He recommended to them, however, the _immediate_ calling of--(or,
_immediately to call_--) the whole community to the church."--_Gregory
cor._ "The separation of large numbers in this manner, certainly
facilitates the _right_ reading _of_ them."--_Churchill cor._ "From their
_mere_ admitting of a twofold grammatical construction."--_Phil. Mu. cor._
"His _grave_ lecturing _of_ his friend about it."--_Id._ "For the
_blotting-out_ of sin."--_Gurney cor._ "From the _not-using_ of water."--
_Barclay cor._ "By the gentle _dropping-in_ of a pebble."--_Sheridan cor._
"To the _carrying-on_ of a great part of that general course of
nature."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Then the _not-interposing_ is so far from
being a ground of complaint."--_Id._ "The bare omission, (or rather, the
_not-employing_,) of what is used."--_Campbell and Jamieson cor._ "The
_bringing-together_ of incongruous adverbs is a very common fault."--
_Churchill cor._ "This is a presumptive proof _that it does_ not _proceed_
from them."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "It represents him in a character to which
_any injustice_ is peculiarly unsuitable."--_Campbell cor._ "They will aim
at something higher than _a mere dealing-out_ of harmonious sounds."--
_Kirkham cor._ "This is intelligible and sufficient; and _any further
account of the matter_ seems beyond the reach of our faculties."--_Bp.
Butler cor._ "Apostrophe is a _turning-off_ from the regular course of the
subject."--_Mur. et al. cor._ "Even Isabella was finally prevailed upon to
assent to the _sending-out_ of a commission to investigate his
conduct."--_Life of Columbus cor._ "For the _turning-away_ of the simple
shall slay them."--_Bible cor._

"Thick fingers always should command
Without _extension_ of the hand."--_King cor._

UNDER NOTE V.--OF PARTICIPLES WITH ADJECTIVES.

"Is there any Scripture _which_ speaks of the _light_ as being
inward?"--_Barclay cor._ "For I believe not _positiveness_ therein
essential to salvation."--_Id._ "Our _inability_ to act _a uniformly_ right
part without some thought and care."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "_On the_
supposition _that it is reconcilable_ with the constitution of
nature."--_Id._ "_On the ground that it is_ not discoverable by reason or
experience."--_Id._ "_On the ground that they are_ unlike the known course
of nature."--_Id._ "Our _power_ to discern reasons for them, gives a
positive credibility to the history of them."--_Id._ "From its _lack of
universality_."--_Id._ "That they may be turned into passive _participles_
in _dus_, is no decisive argument _to prove them_ passive."--_Grant cor._
"With the implied idea _that St. Paul was_ then absent from the
Corinthians."--_Kirkham cor._ "_Because it becomes_ gradually weaker, until
it finally dies away into silence."--_Id._ "Not without the author's _full
knowledge_."--_Id._ "_Wit_ out of season is one sort of folly."--_Sheffield
cor._ "Its _general susceptibility_ of a much stronger evidence."--
_Campbell cor._ "At least, _that they are_ such, rarely enhances our
opinion, either of their abilities or of their virtues."--_Id._ "Which were
the ground of our _unity_."--_Barclay cor._ "But they may be distinguished
from it by their _intransitiveness_."--_L. Murray cor._ "To distinguish the
higher degree of our persuasion of a thing's _possibility_."--_Churchill
cor._

"_That he was_ idle, and dishonest too,
Was that which caused his utter overthrow."--_Tobitt cor._

UNDER NOTE VI.--OF COMPOUND VERBAL NOUNS.

"When it denotes _subjection_ to the exertion of an other."--_Booth cor._
"In the passive sense, it signifies _a subjection_ to the influence of the
action."--_Felch cor._ "_To be_ abandoned by our friends, is very
deplorable."--_Goldsmith cor._ "Without waiting _to be_ attacked by the
Macedonians."--_Id._ "In progress of time, words were wanted to express
men's _connexion_ with certain conditions of fortune."--_Dr. Blair cor._
"Our _acquaintance_ with pain and sorrow has a tendency to bring us to a
settled moderation."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "The chancellor's _attachment_ to
the king, secured _to the monarch_ his crown."--_L. Murray et al. cor._
"The general's _failure_ in this enterprise occasioned his disgrace."--
_Iid._ "John's _long application to_ writing had wearied him."--_Iid._ "The
sentence _may_ be, 'John's _long application_ to writing has wearied
him.'"--_Wright cor._ "Much depends on _the observance of_ this _rule_."--
_L. Murray cor._ "He mentioned _that a boy had been_ corrected for his
faults."--_Alger and Merchant cor._ "The boy's _punishment_ is shameful to
him."--_Iid._ "The greater the difficulty of remembrance is, and the more
important the _being-remembered_ is to the attainment of the ultimate
end."--_Campbell cor._ "If the parts in the composition of similar objects
were always in equal quantity, their _being-compounded_ (or their
_compounding_) would make no odds."--_Id._ "Circumstances, not of such
importance as that the scope of the relation is affected by their
_being-known_"--or, "by the _mention of them_."--_Id._ "A passive verb
expresses the receiving of an action, or _represents its subject as_ being
acted upon; as, 'John is beaten.'"--_Frost cor._ "So our language has an
other great advantage; namely, _that it is little_ diversified by
genders."--_Buchanan cor._ "The _slander concerning Peter_ is no fault of
_his_."--_Frost cor._ "Without _faith in Christ_, there is no
_justification_."--_Penn cor._ "_Habituation_ to danger begets intrepidity;
i.e., lessens fear."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "It is not _affection of any kind_,
but _action that_ forms those habits."--_Id._ "In order _that we may be_
satisfied of the truth of the apparent paradox."--_Campbell cor._ "_A trope
consists_ in _the employing of a word_ to signify something that is
different from its original _or usual_ meaning."--_Blair, Jamieson, Murray,
and Kirkham cor._; also _Hiley_. "The scriptural view of our _salvation_
from punishment."--_Gurney cor._ "To submit and obey, is not a renouncing
_of_ the _Spirit's leading_."--_Barclay cor._

UNDER NOTE VII.--PARTICIPLES FOR INFINITIVES, &c.

"_To teach_ little children is a pleasant employment." Or: "_The_ teaching
_of_ little children," &c.--_Bartlett cor._ "_To deny_ or _compromise the_
principles of truth, is virtually _to deny_ their divine
Author."--_Reformer cor._ "A severe critic might point out some expressions
that would bear _retrenching_"--"_retrenchment_"--or, "_to be
retrenched_."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "Never attempt _to prolong_ the pathetic
too much."--_Id._ "I now recollect _to have_ mentioned--(or, _that I_
mentioned--) a report of that nature."--_Whiting cor._ "Nor of the
necessity which there is, for their _restraint_--(or, for _them to be_
restrained--) in them."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "But, _to do_ what God commands
because he commands it, is obedience, though it proceeds from hope or
fear."--_Id._ "Simply _to close_ the nostrils, does not so entirely prevent
resonance."--_Gardiner cor._ "Yet they absolutely refuse _to do_
so."--_Harris cor._ "But Artaxerxes could not refuse _to pardon_
him."--_Goldsmith cor._ "_The_ doing _of_ them in the best manner, is
signified by the _names_ of these arts."--_Rush cor._ "_To behave_ well for
the time to come, may be insufficient."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "The compiler
proposed _to publish_ that part by itself."--_Adam cor._ "To smile _on_
those _whom_ we should censure, is, _to bring_ guilt upon
ourselves."--_Kirkham cor._ "But it would be great injustice to that
illustrious orator, to bring his genius down to the same level."--_Id._
"_The doubt that_ things go ill, often hurts more, than to be sure they
do."--_Shak. cor._ "This is called _the_ straining _of_ a metaphor."--
_Blair and Murray cor._ "This is what Aristotle calls _the_ giving _of_
manners to the poem."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The painter's _entire confinement_
to that part of time which he has chosen, deprives him of the power of
exhibiting various stages of the same action."--_L. Mur. cor._ "It imports
_the retrenchment of_ all superfluities, and _a_ pruning _of_ the
expression."--_Blair et al. cor._ "The necessity for _us to be_ thus
exempted is further apparent."--_Jane West cor._ "Her situation in life
does not allow _her to be_ genteel in every thing."--_Same_. "Provided you
do not dislike _to be_ dirty when you are invisible."--_Same_. "There is
now an imperious necessity for her _to be_ acquainted with her title to
eternity."--_Same_. "_Disregard to_ the restraints of virtue, is misnamed
ingenuousness."--_Same_. "The legislature prohibits _the_ opening _of shops
on_ Sunday."--_Same_. "To attempt _to prove_ that any thing is right."--_O.
B. Peirce cor._ "The comma directs _us to make_ a pause of a second in
duration, or less."--_Id._ "The rule which directs _us to put_ other words
into the place of it, is wrong."--_Id._ "They direct _us to_ call the
specifying adjectives, or adnames, adjective pronouns."--_Id._ "William
dislikes _to attend_ court."--_Frost cor._ "It may perhaps be worth while
_to remark_, that Milton makes a distinction."--_Phil. Mu. cor._ "_To
profess_ regard and _act injuriously, discovers_ a base mind."--_Murray et
al. cor._ "_To profess_ regard and _act_ indifferently, _discovers_ a base
mind."--_Weld cor._ "You have proved beyond contradiction, that _this
course of action_ is the sure way to procure such an object."--_Campbell
cor._

UNDER NOTE VIII.--PARTICIPLES AFTER BE, IS, &c.

"Irony is _a figure in which the speaker sneeringly utters the direct
reverse of what he intends shall be understood_."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 235.
[Correct by this the four false definitions of "Irony" cited from _Murray,
Peirce, Fisher_, and _Sanborn_.] "This is, in a great measure, _a_
delivering _of_ their own compositions."--_Buchanan cor._ "But purity is _a
right use of_ the words of the language."--_Jamieson cor._ "But the most
important object is _the_ settling _of_ the English quantity."--_Walker
cor._ "When there is no affinity, the transition from one meaning to an
other is a very wide step _taken_."--_Campbell cor._ "It will be _a loss
of_ time, to attempt further to illustrate it."--_Id._ "This _leaves_ the
sentence too bare, and _makes_ it to be, if not nonsense, hardly
sense."--_Cobbett cor._ "This is _a_ requiring _of_ more labours from every
private member."--_J. West cor._ "Is not this, _to use_ one measure for our
neighbours and _an other_ for ourselves?"--_Same_. "_Do we_ not _charge_
God foolishly, when we give these dark colourings to human
nature?"--_Same_. "This is not, _to endure_ the cross, as a disciple of
Jesus Christ; but, _to snatch_ at it, like a _partisan_ of Swift's
Jack."--_Same_. "What is spelling? It is _the_ combining _of_ letters to
form syllables and words."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "It is _the_ choosing _of_
such letters to compose words," &c.--_Id._ "What is parsing? (1.) It is _a_
describing _of_ the nature, use, and powers of words."--_Id._ (2.) "For
Parsing is _a_ describing _of_ the words of a sentence as they are
used."--_Id._ (3.) "Parsing is only _a_ describing _of_ the nature and
relations of words as they are used."--_Id._ (4.) "Parsing, let the pupil
understand and remember, is a _statement of_ facts concerning words; or _a_
describing _of words_ in their offices and relations as they are."--_Id._
(5.) "Parsing is _the_ resolving and explaining _of_ words according to the
rules of grammar."--_Id._ Better: "Parsing is _the_ resolving _or_
explaining _of a sentence_ according to the _definitions and_ rules of
grammar."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 28. (6.) "_The_ parsing _of_ a word,
remember, is _an_ enumerating and describing _of_ its various qualities,
and its grammatical relations to other words in the sentence."--_Peirce
cor._ (7.) "For the parsing _of_ a word is _an_ enumerating and describing
_of_ its various properties, and [_its_] relations to [_other words in_]
the sentence."--_Id._ (8.) "_The_ parsing _of_ a noun is _an explanation_
of _its_ person, number, gender, and case; and also of its grammatical
_relation_ in a sentence, with respect to _some_ other _word or_
words."--_Ingersoll cor._ (9.) "_The_ parsing _of_ any part of speech is
_an explanation of_ all its properties and relations."--_Id._ (10.)"
Parsing is _the_ resolving _of_ a sentence into its elements."--_Fowler
cor._ "The highway of the _upright_ is, _to depart_ from evil."--_Prov._,
xvi, 17. "Besides, the first step towards exhibiting _the_ truth, should
be, _to remove_ the veil of error."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "Punctuation is
_the_ dividing _of_ sentences, and the words of sentences, by _points for_
pauses."--_Id._ "_An other_ fault is _the_ using _of_ the imperfect _tense_
SHOOK _in stead_ of the participle SHAKEN."--_Churchill cor._ "Her
employment is _the_ drawing _of_ maps."--_Alger cor._ "_To go_ to the play,
according to his notion, is, _to lead_ a sensual life, and _to expose
one's_ self to the strongest temptations. This is _a_ begging _of_ the
question, and _therefore_ requires no answer."--_Formey cor._ "It is _an_
overvaluing _of_ ourselves, to reduce every thing to the narrow measure of
our capacities."--_Comly's Key, in his Gram._, p. 188; _Fisk's Gram._, p.
135. "What is vocal language? It is _speech_, or _the_ expressing of ideas
by the human voice."--_C. W. Sanders cor._

UNDER NOTE IX.--VERBS OF PREVENTING.

"The annulling power of the constitution prevented that _enactment from_
becoming a law."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "Which prevents the _manner from_
being brief."--_Id._ "This close prevents _them from_ bearing forward as
nominatives."--_Rush cor._ "Because this prevents _it from_ growing
_drowsy_."--_Formey cor._ "Yet this does not prevent _him from_ being
great."--_Id._ "To prevent _it from_ being insipid."--_Id._ "Or whose
interruptions did not prevent its _continuance_." Or thus: "Whose
interruptions did not prevent _it from_ being continued."--_Id._ "This by
no means prevents _them from_ being also punishments."--_Wayland cor._
"This hinders _them_ not _from_ being also, in the strictest sense,
punishments."--_Id._ "The noise made by the rain and wind, prevented _them
from_ being heard."--_Goldsmith cor._ "He endeavoured to prevent _it from_
taking effect."--_Id._ "So sequestered as to prevent _them from_ being
explored."--_Jane West cor._ "Who prevented her _from_ making a more
pleasant party."--_Same_. "To prevent _us from_ being tossed about by every
wind of doctrine."--_Same_. "After the infirmities of age prevented _him
from_ bearing his part of official duty."--_R. Adam cor._ "To prevent
splendid trifles _from_ passing for matters of importance."--_Kames cor._
"Which prevents _him from_ exerting himself to any good purpose."--_Beattie
cor._ "The _nonobservance_ of this rule very frequently prevents _us from_
being punctual in the performance of our duties."--_Todd cor._ "Nothing
will prevent _him from_ being a student, and possessing the means of
study."--_Id._ "Does the present accident hinder _you from_ being honest
and brave?"--_Collier cor._ "The _e_ is omitted to prevent two _Ees from_
coming together."--_Fowle cor._ "A pronoun is used for, or in place of, a
noun,--to prevent _a repetition of_ the noun."--_Sanborn cor._ "Diversity
in the style relieves the ear, and prevents _it from_ being tired with the
frequent recurrence of the rhymes."--_Campbell cor._; also _Murray_.
"Timidity and false shame prevent _us from_ opposing vicious
customs."--_Mur. et al. cor._ "To prevent _them from_ being moved by
such."--_Campbell cor._ "Some obstacle, or impediment, that prevents _it
from_ taking place."--_Priestley cor._ "Which prevents _us from_ making a
progress towards perfection."--_Sheridan cor._ "This method of
distinguishing words, must prevent any regular proportion of time _from_
being settled."--_Id._ "That nothing but affectation can prevent _it from_
always taking place."--_Id._ "This did not prevent _John from_ being
acknowledged and solemnly inaugurated Duke of Normandy." Or:
"_Notwithstanding_ this, _John was_ acknowledged and solemnly inaugurated
Duke of Normandy."--_Henry, Webster, Sanborn, and Fowler cor._

UNDER NOTE X.--THE LEADING WORD IN SENSE.

"This would _make it impossible for a noun_, or any other _word_, ever _to
be_ in the possessive case."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "A great part of our
pleasure arises from _finding_ the plan or story well conducted."--_Dr.
Blair cor._ "And we have no reason to wonder _that this was_ the
case."--_Id._ "She objected only, (as Cicero says,) to Oppianicus _as_
having two sons by his present wife."--_Id._ "_The subjugation of_ the
Britons by the Saxons, was a necessary consequence of their _calling of_
these Saxons to their assistance."--_Id._ "What he had there said
concerning the Saxons, _that they expelled_ the Britons, and _changed_ the
customs, the religion, and the language of the country, is a clear and a
good reason _why_ our present language _is_ Saxon, rather than
British."--_Id._ "The only material difference between them, _except that_
the one _is_ short and the other _more_ prolonged, is, that a metaphor _is
always explained_ by the words that are connected with it."--_Id. et Mur.
cor._ "The description of _Death_, advancing to meet Satan on his
arrival."--_Rush cor._ "Is not the bare fact, _that_ God _is_ the witness
of it, sufficient ground for its credibility to rest upon?"--_Chalmers
cor._ "As in the case of one _who is_ entering upon a new study."--_Beattie
cor._ "The manner _in which_ these _affect_ the copula, is called the
imperative _mood_."--_Wilkins cor._ "We are freed from the trouble,
_because_ our nouns _have scarcely any_ diversity of endings."--_Buchanan
cor._ "The verb is rather indicative of the _action as_ being doing, or
done, than _of_ the time _of the event_; but indeed the ideas are
undistinguishable."--_Booth cor._ "Nobody would doubt _that_ this _is_ a
sufficient proof."--_Campbell cor._ "Against the doctrine here maintained,
_that_ conscience as well as reason, _is_ a natural faculty."--_Beattie
cor._ "It is one cause _why_ the Greek and English languages _are_ much
more easy to learn, than the Latin."--_Bucke cor._ "I have not been able to
make out a solitary instance _in which_ such _has been_ the fact."--_Lib.
cor._ "An _angel_, forming the appearance of a hand, and writing the king's
condemnation on the wall, checked their mirth, and filled them with
terror."--_Wood cor._ "The _prisoners, in attempting_ to escape, aroused
the keepers."--_O. B. Peirce cor._ "I doubt not, in the least, _that_ this
_has_ been one cause of the multiplication of divinities in the heathen
world."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "From the general rule he lays down, _that the
verb is_ the parent word of all language."--_Tooke cor._ "He was accused of
being idle." Or: "He was accused of _idleness_."--_Felch cor._ "Our meeting
is generally dissatisfied with him _for_ so removing." Or: "with _the
circumstances of his removal_."--_Edmondson cor._ "The spectacle is too
rare, of _men_ deserving solid fame while not seeking it."--_Bush cor._
"What further need was there _that_ an other priest _should
rise_?"--_Heb._, vii, 11.

UNDER NOTE XI.--REFERENCE OF PARTICIPLES.

"Viewing them separately, _we experience_ different emotions." Or:
"_Viewed_ separately, _they produce_ different emotions."--_Kames cor._
"But, _this being left_ doubtful, an other objection occurs."--_Id._ "_As
he proceeded_ from one particular to an other, the subject grew under his
hand."--_Id._ "But this is still an interruption, and a link of the chain
_is_ broken."--_Id._ "After some _days_' hunting,--(or, After some days
_spent in_ hunting,)--Cyrus communicated his design to his
officers."--_Rollin cor._ "But it is made, without the appearance of _being
made_ in form."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "These would have had a better effect,
_had they been_ disjoined, thus."--_Blair and Murray cor._ "_In_ an
improper diphthong, but one of the vowels _is_ sounded."--_Murray, Alger,
et al. cor._ "And _I_ being led to think of both together, my view is
rendered unsteady."--_Blair, Mur., and Jam. cor._ "By often doing the same
thing, _we make the action_ habitual." Or: "_What is_ often _done_, becomes
habitual."--_L. Murray cor._ "They remain with us in our dark and solitary
hours, no less than when _we are_ surrounded with friends and cheerful
society."--_Id._ "Besides _showing_ what is right, _one may further
explain_ the matter by pointing out what is wrong."--_Lowth cor._ "The
former teaches the true pronunciation of words, _and comprises_ accent,
quantity, emphasis, _pauses_, and _tones_."--_L. Murray cor._ "_A person
may reprove others_ for their negligence, by saying, 'You have taken great
care indeed.'"--_Id._ "The _word_ preceding and _the word_ following it,
are in apposition to each other."--_Id._ "_He_ having finished his speech,
the assembly dispersed."--_Cooper cor._ "Were the voice to fall at the
close of the last line, as many a reader is in the habit of _allowing it to
do_."--_Kirkham cor._ "The misfortunes of his countrymen were but
negatively the effects of his wrath, _which only deprived_ them of his
assistance."--_Kames cor._ "Taking them as nouns, _we may explain_ this
construction thus."--_Grant cor._ "These have an active signification,
_except_ those which come from neuter verbs."--_Id._ "From _its evidence_
not being universal." Or: "From the _fact that its evidence is not_
universal."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "And this faith will continually grow, _as
we acquaint_ ourselves with our own nature."--_Channing cor._
"Monosyllables ending with any consonant but _f, l_, or _s_, never double
the final consonant, _when it is preceded by a single vowel_; except _add,
ebb_," &c.--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 23. Or: "_Words_ ending with any
consonant except _f, l_, or _s_, do not double the final letter.
Exceptions. Add, ebb, &c."--_Bullions's E. Gram._, p. 3. (See my 2d Rule
for Spelling, of which this is a partial copy.) "The relation of _Maria as_
being the object of the action, is expressed by the change of the noun
_Maria_ to _Mariam_;" [i. e., in the _Latin_ language.]--_Booth cor._ "In
analyzing a proposition, _one must_ first _divide it_ into its logical
subject and predicate."--_Andrews and Stoddard cor._ "In analyzing a simple
sentence, _one_ should first _resolve it_ into its logical subject and
logical predicate."--_Wells cor._

UNDER NOTE XII.--OF PARTICIPLES AND NOUNS.

"The _instant discovery of_ passions at their birth, is essential to our
well-being."--_Kames cor._ "I am now to enter on _a consideration of_ the
sources of the pleasures of taste."--_Blair cor._ "The varieties in _the
use of_ them are indeed many."--_Murray cor._ "_The_ changing _of_ times
and seasons, _the_ removing and _the setting-up_ of kings, belong to
Providence alone."--_Id._ "_Adherence_ to the partitions, seemed the cause
of France; _acceptance of_ the will, that of the house of
Bourbon."--_Bolingbroke cor._ "An other source of darkness in
_composition_, is the injudicious introduction of technical words and
phrases."--_Campbell cor._ "These are the rules of grammar; by observing
which, you may avoid mistakes."--_L. Murray et al. cor._ "By observing the
rules, you may avoid mistakes."--_Alger cor._ "By observing these rules, he
succeeded."--_Frost cor._ "_The praise bestowed on him_ was his
ruin."--_Id._ "_Deception_ is not _convincement_."--_Id._ "He never feared
_the loss_ of a friend."--_Id._ "_The_ making _of_ books is his
amusement."--_Alger cor._ "We call it _the_ declining--(or, _the
declension_--) _of_ a noun."--_Ingersoll cor._ "Washington, however,
pursued the same policy of neutrality, and opposed firmly _the_ taking _of_
any part in the wars of Europe."--_Hall and Baker cor._ "The following is a
note of Interrogation, or _of a_ question: (?)."--_Inf. S. Gram. cor._ "The
following is a note of Admiration, or _of_ wonder: (!)."--_Id._ "_The use
or omission of_ the article A forms a nice distinction in the
sense."--_Murray cor._ "_The_ placing _of_ the preposition before the word,
_which_ it governs, is more graceful."--_Churchill cor._ (See _Lowth's
Gram._, p. 96; _Murray's_, i, 200; _Fisk's_, 141; _Smith's_, 167.)
"Assistance is absolutely necessary to their recovery, and _the_ retrieving
_of_ their affairs."--_Bp. Butler cor._ "Which termination, [_ish_,] when
added to adjectives, imports diminution, or _a_ lessening of the
quality."--_Mur. and Kirkham cor._ "After what _has been_ said, will it be
thought _an excess of refinement_, to suggest that the different orders are
qualified for different purposes?"--_Kames cor._ "Who has nothing to think
of, but _the_ killing _of_ time."--_West cor._ "It requires no nicety of
ear, as in the distinguishing of tones, or _the_ measuring _of_
time."--_Sheridan cor._ "The _possessive case_ [is that form or state of a
noun or pronoun, which] denotes possession, or _the relation of
property_."--_S. R. Hall cor._

UNDER NOTE XIII.--PERFECT PARTICIPLES.

"Garcilasso was master of the language _spoken_ by the Incas."--_Robertson
cor._ "When an interesting story is _broken_ off in the middle."--_Kames
cor._ "Speaking of Hannibal's elephants _driven_ back by the enemy."--_Id._
"If Du Ryer had not _written_ for bread, he would have equalled
them."--_Formey cor._ "Pope describes a rock _broken_ off from a mountain,
and hurling to the plain."--_Kames cor._ "I have written, Thou hast
written, He hath or has written; &c."--_Ash and Maltby cor._ "This was
_spoken_ by a pagan."--_Webster cor._ "But I have _chosen_ to follow the
common arrangement."--_Id._ "The language _spoken_ in Bengal."--_Id._ "And
sound sleep thus _broken_ off with _sudden_ alarms, is apt enough to
discompose any one."--_Locke cor._ "This is not only the case of those open
sinners before _spoken_ of."--_Leslie cor._ "Some grammarians have written
a very perplexed and difficult doctrine on Punctuation."--_Ensell cor._
"There hath a pity _arisen_ in me towards thee."--_G. Fox Jun. cor._ "Abel
is the only man that has _undergone_ the awful change of death."--_De
Genlis, Death of Adam_.

"Meantime, on Afric's glowing sands,
_Smit_ with keen heat, the traveller stands."--_Ode cor._

CHAPTER VIII.--ADVERBS.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE XXI.

UNDER NOTE I.--THE PLACING OF ADVERBS.

"_Not_ all that is favoured by good use, is proper to be retained."--_L.
Murray corrected._ "_Not_ everything favoured by good use, is on that
account worthy to be retained."--_Campbell cor._ "Most men dream, but _not_
all."--_Beattie cor._ "By hasty composition, we shall _certainly_ acquire a
very bad style."--_Dr. Blair cor._ "The comparisons are short, touching on
_only_ one point of resemblance."--_Id._ "Having _once_ had some
considerable object set before us."--_Id._ "The positive seems to be
_improperly_ called a degree." [543]--_Adam and Gould cor._ "In some
phrases, the genitive _only_ is used."--_Iid._ "This blunder is said to
have _actually_ occurred."--_Smith cor._ "But _not_ every man is called
James, nor every woman, Mary."--_Buchanan cor._ "Crotchets are employed for
_nearly_ the same purpose as the parenthesis."--_Churchill cor._ "There is
a _still_ greater impropriety in a double comparative."--_Priestley cor._
"We often have occasion to speak of time."--_Lowth cor._ "The following
sentence cannot _possibly_ be understood."--_Id._ "The words must
_generally_ be separated from the context."--_Comly cor._ "Words ending in
_ator, generally_ have the accent on the penultimate."--_L. Mur. cor._ "The
learned languages, with respect to voices, moods, and tenses, are, in
general, constructed _differently_ from the English tongue."--_Id._
"Adverbs seem to have been _originally_ contrived to express compendiously,
in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more."--_Id._ "But it
is so, _only_ when the expression can be converted into the regular form of
the possessive case."--_Id._ "'Enter _boldly_,' says he, 'for here too
there are gods.'"--_Harris cor._ "For none _ever_ work for so little a
pittance that some cannot be found to work for less."--_Sedgwick cor._ "For
sinners also lend to sinners, to receive _again_ as much."--_Bible cor._
Or, as Campbell has it in his version:--"_that they may_ receive as much
_in return_."--_Luke_, vi, 34. "They must be viewed in _exactly_ the same
light."--_L. Murray cor._ "If he _speaks but_ to display his abilities, he
is unworthy of attention."--_Id._

UNDER NOTE II.--ADVERBS FOR ADJECTIVES.

"_Upward_ motion is commonly more agreeable than motion _downward_."--_Dr.
Blair cor._ "There are but two _possible_ ways of justification before
God."--_Cox cor._ "This construction sounds rather _harsh_."--_Mur. and
Ing. cor._ "A clear conception, in the mind of the learner, of _regular_
and well-formed letters."--_C. S. Jour. cor._ "He was a great hearer of * *
* Attalus, Sotion, Papirius, Fabianus, of whom he makes _frequent_
mention."--_L'Estrange cor._ "It is only the _frequent_ doing of a thing,
that makes it a custom."--_Leslie cor._ "Because W. R. takes _frequent_

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