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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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"From whence the inference is plain,
Your friend MAT PRIOR wrote with pain."
--LLOYD: _B. P._, Vol. viii, p. 188.




"The third person is the position of the name spoken of; as, Paul and Silas
were imprisoned, the earth thirsts, the sun shines."--_Frazee's Gram._, 1st
Ed., p. 21; Ster. Ed., p. 23.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because three totally distinct sentences are here
thrown together as examples, with no other distinction than what is made by
two commas. But, according to Rule 1st for the Period, "When a sentence,
whether long or short, is complete in respect to sense, and independent in
respect to construction, it should be marked with the period." Therefore,
these commas should be periods; and, of course, the first letter of each
example must be a capital.]

"Two and three and four make nine; if he were here, he would assist his
father and mother, for he is a dutiful son; they live together, and are
happy, because they enjoy each other's society; they went to Roxbury, and
tarried all night, and came back the next day."--_Goldsbury's Parsing
Lessons in his Manual of E. Gram._, p. 64.

"We often resolve, but seldom perform; she is wiser than her sister; though
he is often advised, yet he does not reform; reproof either softens or
hardens its object; he is as old as his classmates, but not so learned;
neither prosperity, nor adversity, has improved him; let him that standeth,
take heed lest he fall; he can acquire no virtue, unless he make some

"Down from his neck, with blazing gems array'd,
Thy image, lovely Anna! hung portray'd,
Th' unconscious figure, smiling all serene,
Suspended in a golden chain was seen,"--_S. Barrett's E. Gr._, p. 92.


"This life is a mere prelude to another, which has no limits, it is a
little portion of duration. As death leaves us, so the day of judgment will
find us."--_Merchant's School Gram._, p. 76.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pause after _limits_, which is
sufficient for the period, is marked only by the comma. But, according to
Rule 2d, "The period is often employed between two sentences which have a
general connexion, expressed by a personal pronoun, a conjunction, or a
conjunctive adverb." It would improve the passage, to omit the first comma,
change the second to a period, and write the pronoun _it_ with a capital.
_Judgment_ also might be bettered with an _e_, and _another_ is properly
two words.]

"He went from Boston to New York; he went from Boston; he went to New York;
in walking across the floor, he stumbled over a chair."--_Goldsbury's
Manual of E. Gram._, p. 62.

"I saw him on the spot, going along the road, looking towards the house;
during the heat of the day, he sat on the ground, under the shade of a
tree."--_Id., ib._

"George came home, I saw _him_ yesterday, here; the word him, can extend
only to the individual _George_"--_S. Barrett's E. Gram._, 10th Ed., p. 45.

"Commas are often used now, where parentheses were formerly; I cannot,
however, esteem this an improvement."--See the _Key_.

"Thou, like a sleeping, faithless sentinel
Didst let them pass unnoticed, unimproved,
And know, for that thou slumb'rest on the guard,
Thou shalt be made to answer at the bar
For every fugitive."
--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 222; _Enfield's Sp._, p. 380.


"The term pronoun (Lat _pronomen_) strictly means a word used for, or
instead of a noun."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 198.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the syllable here put for the word _Latin_,
is not marked with a period. But, according to Rule 3d, "The period is
generally used after abbreviations, and very often to the exclusion of
other points; but, as in this case it is not a constant sign of pause,
other points may properly follow it, if the words written in full would
demand them." In this instance, a period should mark the abbreviation, and
a comma be set after _of_. By analogy, _in stead_ is also more properly two
words than one.]

"The period is also used after abbreviations; as, A. D. P. S. G. W.
Johnson."--_Butler's Pract. Gram._, p. 211. "On this principle of
classification, the later Greek grammarians divided words into eight
classes or parts of speech, viz: the Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb,
Participle, Adverb, Preposition, and Conjunction."--_Bullions, E. Gram._,
p. 191.

"'_Metre_ is not confined to verse: there is a tune in all good prose; and
Shakspeare's was a sweet one.'--_Epea Pter_, II, 61. Mr. H. Tooke's idea
was probably just, agreeing with Aristotle's, but not accurately
expressed."--_Churchill's New Gram._, p. 385.

"Mr. J. H. Tooke was educated at Eton and at Cambridge, in which latter
college he took the degree of A. M; being intended for the established
church of England, he entered into holy orders when young, and obtained the
living of Brentford, near London, which he held ten or twelve
years."--_Div. of Purley_, 1st Amer. Edition, Vol. i, p. 60.

"I, nor your plan, nor book condemn,
But why your name, and why A. M!"--_Lloyd_.


"If thou _turn_ away thy foot from the sabbath, &c. _Isaiah_. lviii.
7."--_Butler's Gram._, p. 67. "'He that hath eeris of herynge, _here he_.
_Wiclif_. Matt xi."--_Butler's Gram._, p. 76. "See General Rules for
Spelling, iii., v., and vii."--_Butler's Gram._, p. 81. "'False witnesses
_did_ rise up.' _Ps_. xxxv. ii."--_Butlers Gram._, p. 105.

"An _explicative_ sentence is used for explaining. An _interrogative_
sentence for enquiring. An _imperative_ sentence for commanding."--_S.
Barrett's Prin. of Language_, p. 87. "In October, corn is gathered in the
field by men, who go from hill to hill with baskets, into which they put
the ears; Susan labors with her needle for a livelihood; notwithstanding
his poverty, he is a man of integrity."--_Goldsbury's Parsing, Manual of E.
Gram._, p. 62.

"A word of one syllable, is called a monosyllable. A word of two syllables;
a dissyllable. A word of three syllables; a trissyllable. A word of four or
more syllables; a polysyllable."--_Frazee's Improved Gram._, 1st Ed., p.
15. "A word of one syllable, is called a monosyllable. A word of two
syllables, a dissyllable. A word of three syllables, a trissyllable. A word
of four or more syllables, a polysyllable."--_Frazee's Improved Gram._,
Ster. Ed., p. 17.

"If I say, '_if it did not rain_, I would take a walk;' I convey the idea
that it _does rain_, at the time of speaking, _If it rained_, or _did it
rain_, in the present time, implies, it does not rain; _If it did not
rain_, or _did it not rain_, in present time, implies that _it does rain_;
thus in this peculiarity, an _affirmative_ sentence always implies a
_negation_, and a _negative sentence_ an _affirmation_."--_Frazee's Gram._,
1st Ed., p. 61; Ster. Ed., 62. "_If I were loved_, and, _were I loved_,
imply, I am _not_ loved; _if I were not loved_, and, _were I not loved_,
imply, I am loved; a negative sentence implies an affirmation; and an
affirmative sentence implies a negation, in these forms of the
subjunctive."--_Ib._, Old Ed., p. 73; Ster. Ed., 72.

"What is Rule III.?"--_Hart's Gram._, p. 114. "How is Rule III.
violated?"--_Ib._, p. 115. "How do you parse 'letter' in the sentence,
'James writes a _letter'? Ans._--'Letter is a noun com., of the MASC.
gend., in the 3d p., sing. num., and _objective case_, and is governed by
the verb 'writes,' according to Rule III., which says. 'A transitive verb,'
&c."--_Ib._, p. 114.[465]

"Creation sleeps. 'T is as the general pulse
Of life stood still, and nature made a pause;
An awful pause! prophetic of her end,
And let her prophecy be soon fulfilled;
Fate drop the curtain; I can lose no more."--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 216.


The Dash is mostly used to denote an unexpected or emphatic pause, of
variable length; but sometimes it is a sign of faltering, or of the
irregular stops of one who hesitates in speaking: as, "Then, after many
pauses, and inarticulate sounds, he said: 'He was very sorry for it, was
extremely concerned it should happen so--but--a--it was necessary--a--'
Here lord E------ stopped him short, and bluntly demanded, if his post were
destined for an other."--See _Churchill's Gram._, p. 170.


A sudden interruption, break, or transition, should be marked with the
dash; as, 1. "'I must inquire into the affair; and if'--'And _if_!'
interrupted the farmer." 2. "Whom I--But first 't is fit the billows to
restrain."--_Dryd. Virg._ 3. "HERE LIES THE GREAT--False marble! where?
Nothing but sordid dust lies here."--_Young_.


To mark a considerable pause, greater than the structure or the sentence or
the points inserted would seem to require, the dash may be employed; as, 1.
"I pause for a reply.--None?--Then none have I offended.--I have done no
more to Caesar, than you should do to Brutus."--SHAKSPEARE: _Enfields
Speaker_, p. 182.

2. "Tarry a little. There is something else.--
This bond--doth give thee here--no jot of blood."
--ID.: _Burgh's Sp._, p. 167.

3. "It thunders;--but it thunders to preserve."--_Young_.

4. "Behold the picture!--Is it like?--Like whom?"--_Cowper_.


Dashes needlessly inserted, or substituted for other stops more definite,
are in general to be treated as errors in punctuation; as, "Here Greece
stands by _itself_ as opposed to the _other_ nations of antiquity--She was
none of the _other nations_--She was more polished than they."--_Lennie's
Gram._, p. 78. "Here Greece stands by _herself_, as opposed to the _other_
nations of antiquity. She was none of the _other nations_: She was more
polished than they."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 114. If this colon is
sufficient, the capital after it is needless: a period would, perhaps, be


OBS. 1.--The dash does not appear to be always a rhetorical stop, or always
intended to lengthen the pause signified by an other mark before it. As one
instance of a different design, we may notice, that it is now very often
employed between a text and a reference;--i.e., between a quotation and the
name of the author of the book quoted;--in which case, as Wm. Day suggests,
"it serves as a _connecting mark_ for the two."--_Day's Punctuation_, p.
131. But this usage, being comparatively recent, is, perhaps, not so
general or so necessary, that a neglect of it may properly be censured as
false punctuation.

OBS. 2.--An other peculiar use of the dash, is its application to
_side-titles_, to set them off from other words in the same line, as is
seen often in this Grammar as well as in other works. Day says of this,
"When the _substance_ of a paragraph is given as a side-head, a dash is
_necessary_ to _connect_ it with its relative matter."--_Ibid._ Wilson also
approves of this usage, as well as of the others here named; saying, "The
dash should be inserted between a title and the subject-matter, and also
between the subject-matter, and the authority from which it is taken, when
they occur in the same paragraph."--_Wilson's Punctuation_, Ed. of 1850, p.

OBS. 3.--The dash is often used to signify the omission of something; and,
when set between the two extremes of a series of numbers, it may represent
all the intermediate ones; as, "Page 10-15;" i. e., "Page 10, 11, 12, &c.
to 15."--"Matt, vi, 9-14."




"And there is something in your very strange story, that resembles ... Does
Mr. Bevil know your history particularly?"--See _Key_.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the abrupt pause after _resembles_ is here
marked by three periods. But, according to Rule 1st for the Dash. "A sudden
interruption, break, or transition, should be marked with the dash."
Therefore, the dash should be preferred to these points.]

"Sir, Mr. Myrtle, Gentlemen! You are friends; I am but a servant.
But."--See _Key_.

"Another man now would have given plump into this foolish story; but I? No,
no, your humble servant for that."--See _Key_.

"Do not plunge thyself too far in anger lest thou hasten thy trial; which
if Lord have mercy on thee for a hen!"--See _Key_.

"But ere they came, O, let me say no more!
Gather the sequel by that went before."--See _Key_.


"_M_, Malvolio; _M_, why, that begins my name."

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pauses after _M_ and _Malvolio_ seem not
to be sufficiently indicated here. But, according to Rule 2d for the Dash,
"To mark a considerable pause, greater than the structure of the sentence
or the points inserted would seem to require, the dash may be employed."
Therefore, a dash may be set after the commas and the semicolon, in this

"Thus, by the creative influence of the Eternal Spirit, were the heavens
and the earth finished in the space of six days, so admirably finished, an
unformed chaos changed into a system of perfect order and beauty, that the
adorable Architect himself pronounced it very good, and all the sons of God
shouted for joy."--See _Key_.

"If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop
remained in my country, I NEVER would lay down my arms; NEVER, NEVER,
NEVER."--_Columbian Orator_, p. 265.

"Madam, yourself are not exempt in this,
Nor your son Dorset, Buckingham, nor you."--See _Key_.


"--You shall go home directly, Le Fevre, said my uncle Toby, to my
house,--and we'll send for a doctor to see what's the matter,--and we'll
have an apothecary,--and the corporal shall be your nurse;--and I'll be
your servant, Le Fevre."--STERNE: _Enfield's Speaker_, p. 306.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because all the dashes here quoted, except perhaps
the last, are useless, or obviously substituted for more definite marks.
But, according to Rule 3d, "Dashes needlessly inserted, or substituted for
other stops more definite, are in general to be treated as errors in
punctuation." Therefore, the first of these should be simply expunged; the
second, third, and fourth, with their commas, should be changed to
semicolons; and the last, with its semicolon, may well be made a colon.]

"He continued--Inferior artists may be at a stand, because they want
materials."--HARRIS: _Enfield's Speaker_, p. 191. "Thus, then, continued
he--The end in other arts is ever distant and removed."--_Id., ib._

"The nouns must be coupled with _and_, and when a pronoun is used it must
be plural, as in the example--When the nouns are _disjoined_ the pronoun
must be singular."--_Lennie's Gram._, 5th Ed., p. 57.

"_Opinion_ is a noun or substantive common,--of the singular
number,--neuter gender,--nominative case,--and third person."--_Wright's
Philos. Gram._, p. 228.

"The mountain--thy pall and thy prison--may keep thee;
I shall see thee no more; but till death I will weep thee."
--_Felton's Gram._, p. 146.


"If to accommodate man and beast, heaven and earth; if this be beyond me,
'tis not possible.--What consequence then follows? or can there be any
other than this--if I seek an interest of my own, detached from that of
others; I seek an interest which is chimerical, and can never have
existence."--HARRIS: _Enfield's Speaker_, p. 139.

"Again--I must have food and clothing--Without a proper genial warmth, I
instantly perish--Am I not related, in this view, to the very earth itself?
To the distant sun, from whose beams I derive vigour?"--_Id., ib._, p. 140.

"Nature instantly ebb'd again--the film returned to its place--the pulse
flutter'd--stopp'd--went on--throbb'd--stopp'd again--mov'd--stopp'd--shall
I go on?--No."--STERNE: _ib._, p. 307.

"Write ten nouns of the masculine gender. Ten of the feminine. Ten of the
neuter. Ten indefinite in gender."--_Pardon Davis's Gram._, p. 9.

"The Infinitive Mode has two tenses--the Indicative, six--the Potential,
two--the Subjunctive, six, and the Imperative, one."--_Frazee's Gram._,
Ster. Ed., p. 39; 1st Ed., 37. "Now notice the following sentences. John
runs,--boys run--thou runnest."--_Ib._, Ster. Ed., p. 50; 1st Ed., p. 48.

"The Pronoun sometimes stands for a name--sometimes for an adjective--a
sentence--a part of a sentence--and, sometimes for a whole series of
propositions."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, 1st Ed., 12mo, p. 321.

"The self-applauding bird, the peacock, see--
Mark what a sumptuous pharisee is he!"--_Cowper_, i, 49.


The Eroteme, or Note of Interrogation, is used to designate a question.


Questions expressed directly as such, if finished, should always be
followed by the note of interrogation; as, "Was it possible that virtue so
exalted should be erected upon injustice? that the proudest and the most
ambitious of mankind should be the great master and accomplished pattern of
humility? that a doctrine so pure as the Gospel should be the work of an
uncommissioned pretender? that so perfect a system of morals should be
established on blasphemy?"--_Jerningham's Essay_, p. 81.

"In life, can love be bought with gold?
Are friendship's pleasures to be sold?"--_Johnson_.


When two or more questions are united in one compound sentence, the comma,
semicolon, or dash, is sometimes used to separate them, and the eroteme
occurs after the last only; as, 1. "When--under what administration--under
what exigencies of war or peace--did the Senate ever before deal with such
a measure in such a manner? Never, sir, never."--_D. Webster, in Congress_,

2. "Canst thou, and honour'd with a Christian name,
Buy what is woman-born, and feel no shame;
Trade in the blood of innocence, and plead
Expedience as a warrant for the deed?"--_Cowper_.

3. "Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land?
All fear, none aid you, and few understand."--_Pope_.


When a question is mentioned, but not put directly as a question, it loses
both the quality and the sign of interrogation; as, "The Cyprians asked me
_why I wept_."--_Murray_.


OBS. 1.--The value of the eroteme as a sign of pause, is stated very
differently by different grammarians; while many of the vast multitude, by
a strange oversight, say nothing about it. It is unquestionably _variable_,
like that of the dash, or of the ecphoneme. W. H. Wells says, "The comma
requires a momentary pause; the semicolon, a pause somewhat longer than the
comma; the colon, a pause somewhat longer than the semicolon; and the
period, a full stop. The note of interrogation, or the note of exclamation,
_may take the place of_ EITHER _of these_, and accordingly requires a pause
of the same length as the point for which it is substituted."--_Wells's
School Gram._, p. 175. This appears to be accurate in idea, though perhaps
hardly so in language. Lindley Murray has stated it thus: "The
interrogation and exclamation points are _intermediate_ as to their
quantity or time, and may be equivalent in that respect to a semicolon, a
colon, or a period, as the sense may require."--_Octavo Gram._, p. 280. But
Sanborn, in regard to his "_Question Point_," awkwardly says: "_This pause_
is generally _some longer_ than that of a period."--_Analytical Gram._, p.
271. Buchanan, as long ago as 1767, taught as follows: "The Pause after the
two Points of Interrogation and Admiration ought to be equal to that of the
Period, or a Colon at least."--_English Syntax_, p. 160. And J. S. Hart
avers, that, "A question is reckoned as equal to a complete sentence, and
the mark of interrogation as equal to a period."--_Hart's English Gram._,
p. 166. He says also, that, "the first word after a note of interrogation
should begin with a capital."--_Ib._, p. 162. In some instances, however,
he, like others, has not adhered to these exceptionable principles, as may
be seen by the false grammar cited below.

OBS. 2.--Sometimes a series of questions may be severally complete in
sense, so that each may require the interrogative sign, though some or all
of them may be so united in construction, as not to admit either a long
intermediate pause or an initial capital; as, "Is there no honor in
generosity? nor in preferring the lessons of conscience to the impulses of
passion? nor in maintaining the supremacy of moral principle, and in paying
reverence to Christian truth?"--_Gannett_. "True honour is manifested in a
steady, uniform train of actions, attended by justice, and directed by
prudence. Is this the conduct of the duellist? will justice support him in
robbing the community of an able and useful member? and in depriving the
poor of a benefactor? will it support him in preparing affliction for the
widow's heart? in filling the orphan's eyes with tears?"--_Jerningham's
Essay_, p. 113. But, in this latter example, perhaps, commas might be
substituted for the second and fourth erotemes; and the word _will_ might,
in both instances, begin with a capital.

OBS. 3.--When a question is mentioned in its due form, it commonly retains
the sign of interrogation, though not actually asked by the writer; and,
except perhaps when it consists of some little interrogative word or
phrase, requires the initial capital: as, "To know when this point ought to
be used, do not say:[,] 'Is a question asked?' but, 'Does the sentence ask
a question?'"--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 368. "They put their huge
inarticulate question, 'What do you mean to do with us?' in a manner
audible to every reflective soul in the kingdom."--_Carlyle's Past and
Present_, p. 16. "An adverb may be generally known, by its answering to the
question, How? how much? when? or where? as, in the phrase, 'He reads
_correctly_,' the answer to the question, How does he read? is
_correctly_."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 28. This passage, which, without
ever arriving at great accuracy, has been altered by Murray and others in
ways innumerable, is everywhere exhibited with five interrogation points.
But, as to capitals and commas, as well as the construction of words, it
would seem no easy matter to determine what impression of it is nearest
right. In Flint's Murray it stands thus: "An adverb may generally be known
by its answering the question, How? How much? When? or Where? As in the
phrase, 'He reads _correctly_. The answer to the question, 'How does he
read?' is, '_correctly_.'" Such questions, when the pause is slight, do
not, however, in all cases, require capitals: as,

"_Rosal_. Which of the visors was it, that you wore?
_Biron_. Where? when? what visor? why demand you this?"
_Shakspeare, Love's Labour Lost_, Act V, Sc. 2.

OBS. 4.--A question is sometimes put in the form of a mere declaration; its
interrogative character depending solely on the eroteme, and the tone, or
inflection of voice, adopted in the utterance: as, "I suppose, Sir, you are
his apothecary?"--SWIFT: _Burgh's Speaker_, p. 85. "I hope, you have, upon
no account, promoted sternutation by hellebore?"--_Id., ib._ "This priest
has no pride in him?"--SINGER'S SHAK., _Henry_ VIII, ii, 2.




"When will his ear delight in the sound of arms."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._,
12mo, p. 59.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because here is a finished question with a period
set after it. But, according to Rule 1st for the Eroteme, "Questions
expressed directly as such, if finished, should always be followed by the
note of interrogation." Therefore, the eroteme, or note of interrogation,
should here be substituted for the period.]

"When shall I, like Oscar, travel in the light of my steel."--_Ib._, p. 59.
"Will Henry call on me while he shall be journeying South."--_Peirce, ib._,
p. 133.

"An Interrogative Pronoun is one that is used in asking a question; as,
'_who_ is he, and _what_ does he want?'"--_Day's School Gram._, p. 21.
"_Who_ is generally used when we would inquire for some unknown person or
persons; as, _who_ is that man."--_Ib._, p. 24. "Our fathers, where are
they, and the prophets, do they live forever?"--_Ib._, p. 109.

"It is true, that some of our best writers have used _than whom_; but it is
also true, that they have used _other_ phrases which we have rejected as
ungrammatical: then why not reject this too.--The sentences in the
Exercises [with _than who_] are correct as they stand."--_Lennie's Gram._,
5th Ed., 1819, p. 79.

"When the perfect participle of an active-intransitive verb is annexed to
the neuter verb _to be_? What does the combination form?"--_Hallock's
Gram._, p. 88. "Those adverbs which answer to the question _where, whither_
or _whence_, are called adverbs of _place_."--_Ib._, p. 116.

"Canst thou, by searching, find out God; Canst thou find out the Almighty
to perfection; It is high as heaven, what canst thou do? deeper than hell,
what canst thou know?"--_Blair's Rhet._ p. 132.

"Where, where, for shelter shall the guilty fly,
When consternation turns the good man pale."--_Ib._, p. 222.


"Who knows what resources are in store? and what the power of God may do
for thee?"

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because an eroteme is set after _store_, where a
comma would be sufficient. But, according to Rule 2d for the Eroteme, "When
two or more questions are united in one compound sentence, the comma,
semicolon, or dash, is sometimes used to separate them, and the eroteme
occurs after the last only." Therefore, the comma should here be preferred,
as the author probably wrote the text. See _Key_.]

"The Lord is not a man that he should lie, neither the son of man that he
should repent. Hath he said it? and shall he not do it? Hath he spoken it?
and shall he not make it good?"--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 353; 12mo, 277;
_Hiley's_, 139; _Hart's_, 181. "_Hath the Lord said it? and shall he not do
it? Hath he spoken it? and shall he not make it good_?"--_Lennie's Gram._,
p. 113; _Bullions's_, 176.

"Who calls the council, states the certain day?
Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way."
--_Brit. Poets_, vi, 376.


"To be, or not to be?--that is the question."--_Enfield's Sp._, p. 367;
_Kirkham's Eloc._, 123.[466]

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the note of interrogation is here set after
an expression which has neither the form nor the nature of a direct
question. But, according to Rule 3d for the Eroteme, "When a question is
mentioned, but not put directly as a question, it loses both the quality
and the sign of interrogation." Therefore, the semicolon, which seems
adapted to the pause, should here be preferred.]

"If it be asked, why a pause should any more be necessary to emphasis than
to an accent? or why an emphasis alone, will not sufficiently distinguish
the members of sentences from each other, without pauses, as accent does
words? the answer is obvious; that we are pre-acquainted with the sound of
words, and cannot mistake them when distinctly pronounced, however rapidly;
but we are not pre-acquainted with the meaning of sentences, which must be
pointed out to us by the reader or speaker."--_Sheridan's Rhet. Gram._, p.

"Cry, By your Priesthood tell me what you are?"
--POPE: _British Poets_, London, 1800, Vol. vi, p. 411.


"Who else can he be. Where else can he go."--_S. Barrett's Gram._, 1845, p.
71. "In familiar language _here, there_ and _where_ are used for _hither,
thither_ and _whither_."--_N. Butler's Gram._, p. 183. "Take, for instance,
this sentence, 'Indolence undermines the foundation of virtue.'"--_Hart's
Gram._, p. 106. "Take, for instance, the sentence before quoted.
'_Indolence_ undermines the foundation of virtue.'"--_Ib._, p. 110. "Under
the same head are considered such sentences as these, '_he_ that heareth,
let him hear,' 'Gad, a troop shall overcome him,' &c."--_Ib._, p. 108.

"TENSES are certain modifications of the verb which point out the
distinctions of time."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 38; _Pract. Les._, p. 44.
"Calm was the day and the scene delightful."--_Id. E. Gr._, p. 80. "The
capital letters used by the Romans to denote numbers, were C. I. L. V. X.
which are therefore called Numeral Letters. I, denotes _one_; V, _five_: X,
_ten_; L, _fifty_; and C, a hundred."--_Id., Lat. Gram._, p. 56. "'I shall
have written;' viz, at or before some future time or event."--_Id., ib._,
p. 89. "In Latin words the liquids are _l_ and _r_ only. In Greek words _l,
r, m, n_."--_Id., ib._, p. 277. "Each legion was divided into ten cohorts,
each cohort into three maniples, and each maniple into two
centuries."--_Id., ib._, p. 300. "Of the Roman literature previous to A. U.
514 scarcely a vestige remains."--_Id., ib._, p. 312.

"And that, which He delights in must be happy.
But when!--or where!--This world was made for Caesar."
--_Burgh's Sp._, p. 122.

"And that which he delights in must be happy.
But when, or where? This world was made for Caesar."
--_Enfield's Sp._, p. 321.

"Look next on greatness. Say, where greatness lies?
Where but among the heroes and the wise."
--_Burgh's Sp._, p. 91.

"Look next on greatness! say where greatness lies.
Where, but among the heroes and the wise?"
--_Essay on Man_, p. 51.

"Look next on Greatness; say where Greatness lies:
Where, but among the Heroes and the Wise?"
--_Brit. Poets_, vi, 380.


The Ecphoneme, or Note of Exclamation, is used to denote a pause with some
strong emotion of admiration, joy, grief, or other feeling; and, as a sign
of great wonder, it is sometimes, though not very elegantly, repeated: as,
"Grammatical consistency!!! What a gem!"--_Peirce's Gram._, p. 352.


Emphatic interjections, and other expressions of great emotion, are
generally followed by the note of exclamation; as, "Hold! hold! Is the
devil in you? Oh! I am bruised all over."--MOLIERE: _Burgh's Speaker_, p.

"And O! till earth, and seas, and heav'n decay,
Ne'er may that fair creation fade away!"--_Dr. Lowth_.


After an earnest address or solemn invocation, the note of exclamation is
now generally preferred to any other point; as, "Whereupon, O king Agrippa!
I was not disobedient unto the heavenly vision."--_Acts_, xxvi, 19.

"Be witness thou, immortal Lord of all!
Whose thunder shakes the dark aerial hall."--_Pope_.


Words uttered with vehemence in the form of a question, but without
reference to an answer, should be followed by the note of exclamation; as,
"How madly have I talked!"--_Young_.

"An Author! 'Tis a venerable name!
How few deserve it, and what numbers claim!"
--_Id., Br. Po._, viii, 401.




(1.) "O that he were wise."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 111.

[FORMULE. Not proper, because this strong wish, introduced by "O," is
merely marked with a period. But, according to Rule 1st for the Ecphoneme,
"Emphatic interjections, and other expressions of great emotion, are
generally followed by the note of exclamation." Therefore, the pause after
this sentence, should be marked with the latter sign; and, if the "O" be
read with a pause, the same sign may be there also.]

(2.) "O that his heart was tender."--_Exercises, ib._, p. 111. (3.) "_Oh_,
what a sight is here!"--_Lennie's Gram._, p. 48. (4.) "Oh! what a sight is
here."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 71; (Obs. 2;) _Pract. Les._, p. 83. (5.)
"O virtue! How amiable thou art."--_Id._,, p. 71; _Pract. Les._, p. 82.
(6.) "O _virtue_! how amiable thou art."--_Day's Gram._, p. 109. (7.) "O,
virtue! how amiable thou art."--_S. Putnam's Gram._, p. 53. (8.) "_Oh!_
virtue, how amiable thou art!"--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 191; _O. B.
Peirce's_, 375. (9.) "_O_ virtue! how amiable thou art!"--_Hallock's
Gram._, p. 126. (10.) "Oh! that I had been more diligent."--_Hart's Gram._,
p. 167; see _Hiley's_, 117. (11.) "O! the humiliation to which vice reduces
us."--_Farnum's Gram._, p. 12; _Murray's Ex._, p. 5. (12.) "O! that he were
more prudent."--_Farnum's Gram._, p. 81. (13.) "Ah! me."--_P. Davis's
Gram._, p. 79. (14.) "Ah me!"--_Ib._, p. 122. (15.) "Lately alas I knew a
gentle boy," _&c.--The Dial_, Vol. i, p. 71.

(16.) "Wo is me Alhama."--_Wells's School Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 190.

(17.) "Wo is me, Alhama."--_Ibid._, "113th Thousand," p. 206.


"Weep on the rocks of roaring winds, O _maid_ of Inistore."--_Kirkham's
Gram._, p. 131; _Cooper's Plain and Practical Gram._, p. 158.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because the emphatic address in this sentence, is
marked with a period after it. But, according to Rule 2d for the Ecphoneme,
"After an earnest address or solemn invocation, the note of exclamation is
now generally preferred to any other point." Therefore, this period should
be changed to the latter sign.]

"Cease a little while, O wind; stream, be thou silent a while; let my voice
be heard around. Let my wanderer hear me. Salgar, it is Colma who calls.
Here is the tree, and the rock. Salgar, my love, I am here. Why delayest
thou thy coming? Lo, the calm moon comes forth. The flood is bright in the
vale."--See _Key_.

"Ah, stay not, stay not, guardless and alone;
Hector, my lov'd, my dearest, bravest son."--See _Key_.


"How much better is wisdom than gold."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 153;
_Hiley_, p. 113.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because this exclamatory sentence is pointed with a
period at the end. But, according to Rule 3d for the Ecphoneme, "Words
uttered with vehemence in the form of a question, but without reference to
an answer, should be followed by the note of exclamation." Therefore, this
period should be changed to the latter sign.]

"O virtue! how amiable art thou."--_Flint's Murray_, p. 51. "At that hour,
O how vain was all sublunary happiness."--_Day's Gram._, p. 74. "Alas! how
few and transitory are the joys which this world affords to man."--_Ib._,
p. 12. "Oh! how vain and transitory are all things here below."--_Ib._, p.

"And oh! what change of state, what change of rank,
In that assembly everywhere was seen."--_Day's Gram._, p. 12.

"And O! what change of state! what change of rank!
In that assembly every where was seen!"--_Pollok_, B. ix, l. 781.


"O shame! where is thy blush."--_S. Barren's Principles of Language_, p.
86. "O _shame_, where is thy blush; _John_, give me my hat."--_Ib._, p. 98.
"What! is Moscow in flames."--_Ib._, p. 86. "Ah! what happiness awaits the
virtuous."--_Ib._, 86.

"Ah, welladay,--do what we can for him, said Trim, maintaining his
point,--the poor soul will die."--STERNE: _Enfield's Speaker_, p. 306. "A
well o'day! do what we _can_ for him, said Trim, maintaining his point: the
poor soul will _die_"--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 340.

"Will John _return_ to-morrow."--_S. Barrett's Gram._, Tenth Ed., p. 55.
"_Will not_ John _return_ to-morrow."--_Ib._, 55. "John! _return_
to-morrow; Soldiers! _stand_ firm."--_Ib._, 55. "If _mea_ which means _my_
is an adjective in _Latin_, why may not _my_ be so called _in_ English, and
if _my_ is an adjective, why not _Barrett's_"--_Ib._, p. 50.

"Oh? Absalom, my son."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 375. "Oh! STAR-EYED
SCIENCE!! whither hast thou fled?"--_Ib._, p. 366. "Why do you tolerate
your own inconsistency, by calling it the present tense!"--_Ib._, p. 360.
"Thus the declarative mode may be used in asking a question; as, _what_ man
_is_ frail."--_Ib._, p. 358. "What connexion has motive wish, or
supposition, with the term subjunctive!"--_Ib._, p. 348. "A grand reason,
truly! for calling it a golden key."--_Ib._, p. 347. "What '_suffering_'!
the man who can say this, must be '_enduring._'"--_Ib._, p. 345. "What is
Brown's Rule! in relation to this matter?"--_Ib._, p. 334.

"_Alas!_ how short is life." "_Thomas_, study your book."--_Day's District
School Gram._, p. 109. "As, '_alas!_' how short is life; _Thomas_, study
your book.'"--_Ib._, p. 82. "Who can tell us who they are."--_Sanborn's
Gram._, p. 178. "Lord have mercy on my son; for he is a lunatic,
etc."--_Felton's Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 138; Ster. Ed., 140. "O, ye wild
groves, O, where is now your bloom!"--_Ib._, p. 88; Ster. Ed., 91.

"O who of man the story will unfold!"
--_Farnum's Gr._, 2d Ed., p. 104.

"Methought I heard Horatio say to-morrow.
Go to I will not hear of it--to-morrow."
--_Hallock's Gr._, 1st Ed., p. 221.

"How his eyes languish? how his thoughts adore
That painted coat which Joseph never wore?"
--_Love of Fame_, p. 66.


The Curves, or Marks of Parenthesis, are used to distinguish a clause or
hint that is hastily thrown in between the parts of a sentence to which it
does not properly belong; as, "Their enemies (and enemies they will always
have) would have a handle for exposing their measures."--_Walpole_.

"To others do (the law is not severe)
What to thyself thou wishest to be done."--_Beattie_.

OBS.--The incidental clause should be uttered in a lower tone, and faster
than the principal sentence. It always requires a pause as great as that of
a comma, or greater.


A clause that breaks the unity of a sentence or passage too much to be
incorporated with it, and only such, should be inclosed within curves, as a
parenthesis; as, "For I know that in me, (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth
no good thing."--_Rom._, vii, 18.

"Know then this truth, (enough for man to know,)
Virtue alone is happiness below."--_Pope_.


The curves do not supersede other stops; and, as the parenthesis terminates
with a pause equal to that which precedes it, the same point should be
included, except when the sentences differ in form: as, 1. "Now for a
recompense in the same, (I speak as unto my children,) be ye also
enlarged."--_2 Cor._, vi, 13.

2. "Man's thirst of happiness declares it is:
(For nature never gravitates to nought:)
That thirst unquench'd, declares it is not here."--_Young_.

3. "Night visions may befriend: (as sung above:)
Our waking dreams are fatal. How I dreamt
Of things impossible! (could sleep do more?)
Of joys perpetual in perpetual change!"--_Young_.




"Another is composed of the indefinite article _an_, which, etymologically
means _one_ and _other_, and denotes _one other_."--_Hallock's Gram._, p.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the parenthetic expression, "which
etymologically means _one_," is not sufficiently separated from the rest of
the passage. But, according to Rule 1st for the Curves, "A clause that
breaks the unity of a sentence or passage too much to be incorporated with
it, and only such, should be enclosed within curves, as a parenthesis."
Therefore, the curves should be here inserted; and also, by Rule 2d, a
comma at the word _one_.]

"Each mood has its peculiar Tense, Tenses (or Times)."--_Bucke's Gram._, p.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the expression, "or Times," which has not
the nature of a parenthesis, is here marked with curves. But, according to
Rule 1st for the Curves, "A clause that breaks the unity of a sentence or
passage too much to be incorporated with it, _and only such_, should be
enclosed within curves, as a parenthesis." Therefore, these marks should be
omitted; and a comma should be set after the word "_Tenses_," by Rule 3d.]

"In some very ancient languages, as the Hebrew, which have been employed
chiefly for expressing plain sentiments in the plainest manner, without
aiming at any elaborate length or harmony of periods, this pronoun [the
relative] occurs not so often."--_L. Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 127.

"Before I shall say those Things, (O conscript Fathers) about the Public
Affairs, which are to be spoken at this Time; I shall lay before you, in
few Words, the Motives of the Journey, and the Return."--_Brightland's
Gram._, p. 149.

"Of well-chose Words some take not care enough.
And think they should be (like the Subject) rough."
--_Ib._, p. 173.

"Then having shewed his wounds, _he'd_ sit (him) down."
--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 32.


"Then Jael smote the Nail into his Temples, and fastened it to the Ground:
(for he was fast asleep and weary) so he died. OLD TEST."--_Ward's Gram._,
p. 17.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because this parenthesis is not marked as
terminating with a pause equal to that which precedes it. But, according to
Rule 2d above, "The curves do not supersede other stops; and, as the
parenthesis terminates with a pause equal to that which precedes it, the
same point should be included, except when the sentences differ in form."
Therefore, a colon should be inserted within the curve after _weary_.]

"Every thing in the Iliad has manners (as Aristotle expresses it) that is,
every thing is acted or spoken."--_Pope, Pref. to Homer_, p. vi.

"Those nouns, that end in _f._ or _fe_ (except some few I shall mention
presently), form plurals by changing those letters into _ves_: as, thief,
_thieves_; wife, _wives_."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 35.

"_As_, requires _as_; (expressing equality) Mine is as good as yours.
_As_,--so; (expressing equality) As the stars, so shall thy seed be.
_So,--as_; (with a negative expressing inequality) He is not so wise as his
brother. _So.--that_; (expressing consequence) I am so weak that I cannot
walk."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 113; _Pract. Les._, p. 112.

"A captious question, sir (and yours is one,)
Deserves an answer similar, or none."--_Cowper_, ii. 228.


"Whatever words the verb TO BE serves to unite referring to the same thing,
must be of the same case; Sec.61, as, _Alexander_ is a _student_."--_Bullions,
E. Gram._, p. 75. "When the objective is a relative or interrogative, it
comes before the verb that governs it. Sec.40, R. 9. (Murray's 6th rule is
unnecessary.)"--_Id., ib._, p. 90. "It is generally improper (except in
poetry,) to omit the antecedent to a relative; and always to omit a
relative when of the nominative case."--_Id., ib._, p. 130. "In every
sentence there must be a _verb_ and a _nominative_ (or subject) expressed
or understood."--_Id., ib._, p. 87; _Pract. Lessons_, p. 91. "Nouns and
pronouns, and especially words denoting time, are often governed by
prepositions understood; or are used to restrict verbs or adjectives
without a governing word, Sec.50. Rem. 6 and Rule; as, He gave (to) me a full
account of the whole affair."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 80. "When _should_
is used instead of _ought_, to express _present_ duty, Sec.20, 4, it may be
followed by the present; as, 'You _should_ study that you _may_ become
learned.'"--_Id., ib._, p. 123. "The indicative present is frequently used
after the words, _when, till, before, as soon as, after_, to express the
relative time of a future action; (Sec.24, I, 4,) as, 'When he _comes_, he
will be welcome.'"--_Id., ib._, p. 124. "The relative is parsed by stating
its gender, number, case, and antecedent, (the gender and number being
always the same as those of the antecedent) thus, 'The boy who.' '_Who_' is
a relative pronoun, masculine, singular, the nominative, and refers to
'_boy_' as its antecedent."--_Bullions, Pract. Les._, p. 31.

"Now, now, I seize, I clasp _thy_ charms,
And now _you_ burst; ah! cruel from my arms."

Here is an unnecessary change from the second person singular to the second
plural. It would have been better thus,

"Now, now I seize, I clasp _your_ charms,
And now _you_ burst; ah! cruel from my arms."
--_J. Burn's Gram._, p. 193.


There are also several other marks, which are occasionally used for various
purposes, as follow:--

I. ['] The APOSTROPHE usually denotes either the possessive case of a noun,
or the elision of one or more letters of a word: as, "The _girl's_ regard
to her _parents'_ advice;"--_'gan, lov'd, e'en, thro'_; for _began, loved,
even, through_. It is sometimes used in pluralizing a mere letter or sign;
as, Two _a's_--three _6's_.[467]

II. [-] The HYPHEN connects the parts of many compound words, especially
such as have two accents; as, _ever-living_. It is also frequently inserted
where a word is divided into syllables; as, _con-tem-plate_. Placed at the
end of a line, it shows that one or more syllables of a word are can led
forward to the next line.

III. ["] The DIAERESIS, or DIALYSIS, placed over either of two contiguous
vowels, shows that they are not a diphthong; as, _Danaee, aerial_.

IV. ['] The ACUTE ACCENT marks the syllable which requires the principal
stress in pronunciation; as, _e'qual, equal'ity_. It is sometimes used in
opposition to the grave accent, to distinguish a close or short vowel; as,
"_Fancy_:" (_Murray_:) or to denote the rising inflection of the voice; as,
"Is it _he?_"

V. [`] The GRAVE ACCENT is used in opposition to the acute, to distinguish
an open or long vowel; as, "_Favour_:" (_Murray_:) or to denote the falling
inflection of the voice; as, "_Yes_; it is _he_" It is sometimes placed
over a vowel to show that it is not to be suppressed in pronunciation; as,

"Let me, though in humble speech,
Thy refined maxims teach."--_Amer. Review_, May, 1848.

VI. [^] The CIRCUMFLEX generally denotes either the broad sound of _a_ or
an unusual sound given to some other vowel; as in _all, heir, machine_.
Some use it to mark a peculiar _wave_ of the voice, and when occasion
requires, reverse it; as, "If you said _s=o_, then I said _so_."

VII. [[~]] The BREVE, or STENOTONE, is used to denote either the close,
short, _shut_ sound of a vowel, or a syllable of short quantity; as,
_l~ive_, to have life,--_r~av'en_, to devour,[468]--_c~al~am~us_, a reed.

VIII. [=] The MACRON, or MACROTONE,[469] is used to denote either the open,
long, _primal_ sound of a vowel, or a syllable of long quantity; as,
_l=ive_, having life,--_r=a'ven_, a bird,--_=e'qu=ine_, of a horse.

IX. [----] or [* * * *] or [....] The ELLIPSIS, or SUPPRESSION, denotes the
omission of some letters or words: as, _K--g_, for _King; c****d_, for
_coward; d....d_, for _damned_.

X. [^] The CARET, used only in writing, shows where to insert words or
letters that have been accidentally omitted. XI [{}] The BRACE serves to
unite a triplet; or, more frequently, to connect several terms with
something to which they are all related. XII. [Sec.] The SECTION marks the
smaller divisions of a book or chapter; and, with the help of numbers,
serves to abridge references.

XIII. [] The PARAGRAPH (chiefly used in the Bible) denotes the
commencement of a new subject. The parts of discourse which are called
paragraphs, are, in general, sufficiently distinguished by beginning a new
line, and carrying the first word a little forwards or backwards. The
paragraphs of books being in some instances numbered, this character may
occasionally be used, in lieu of the word _paragraph_, to shorten

XIV. [""] The GUILLEMETS, or QUOTATION POINTS, distinguish words that are
exhibited as those of an other author or speaker. A quotation within a
quotation, is usually marked with single points; which, when both are
employed, are placed within the others: as, "And again he saith, 'Rejoice,
ye Gentiles, with his people.'"--_Rom._, xv, 10.

XV. [[]] The CROTCHETS, or BRACKETS, generally inclose some correction or
explanation, but sometimes the sign or subject to be explained; as, "He
[Mr. Maurice] was of a different opinion."--_Allen's Gram._, p. 213.

XVI. [Fist] The INDEX, or HAND, points out something remarkable, or what
the reader should particularly observe.

XVII. [*] The ASTERISK, or STAR, [Dagger] the OBELISK, or DAGGER, [Double
dagger] the DIESIS, or DOUBLE DAGGER, and [||] the PARALLELS, refer to
marginal notes. The SECTION also [Sec.], and the PARAGRAPH [], are often used
for marks of reference, the former being usually applied to the fourth, and
the latter to the sixth note on a page; for, by the usage of printers,
these signs are commonly introduced in the following order: 1, *; 2,
[Dagger]; 3, [Double dagger]; 4, Sec.; 5, ||; 6, ; 7, **; 8,
[Dagger][Dagger]; &c. Where many references are to be made, the _small
letters_ of the alphabet, or the _numerical figures_, in their order, may
be conveniently used for the same purpose.

XVIII. [[Asterism]] The ASTERISM, or THREE STARS, a sign not very often
used, is placed before a long or general note, to mark it as a note,
without giving it a particular reference.

XIX. [,] The CEDILLA is a mark borrowed from the French, by whom it is
placed under the letter _c_, to give it the sound of _s_, before _a_ or
_o_; as in the words, "facade," "Alencon." In Worcester's Dictionary, it is
attached to three other letters, to denote their soft sounds: viz., "[,G]
as J; [,S] as Z; [,x] as gz."

[Fist][Oral exercises in punctuation should not be confined to the
correction of errors. An application of its principles to points rightly
inserted, is as easy a process as that of ordinary syntactical parsing, and
perhaps as useful. For this purpose, the teacher may select a portion of
this grammar, or of any well-pointed book, to which the foregoing rules
and explanations may be applied by the pupil, as reasons for the points
that occur.]



"The principal stops are the following:--

The Comma (,) the semicolon (;) the colon (:) the period, or fall stop (.)
the note of interrogation (?) the note of exclamation (!) the parenthesis
() and the dash (--) [.]"--_Bullions, E. Gram., p. 151; Pract. Les._, p.
127. "The modern punctuation in Latin is the same as in English. The marks
employed, are the _Comma_ (,); _Semicolon_ (;); _Colon_ (:); _Period_ (.);
_Interrogation_ (?); _Exclamation_ (!)."--_Bullions, Lat. Gram._, p. 3.

"Plato reproving a young man for playing at some childish game; you chide
me, says the youth, for a trifling fault. Custom, replied the philosopher,
is no trifle. And, adds Montagnie, he was in the right; for our vices begin
in infancy."--_Home's Art of Thinking_, (N. Y. 1818,) p. 54.

"A merchant at sea asked the skipper what death his father died? 'My
father,' says the skipper, my grandfather, and my great-grandfather, were
all drowned. 'Well,' replies the merchant, and are not you afraid of being
drowned too?'"--_Ib._, p. 135.

"The use of inverted comma's derives from France, where one Guillemet was
the author of them; [and] as an acknowledgement for the improvement his
countrymen call them after his name GUILLEMETS."--_History of Printing_,
(London, 1770,) p. 266.

"This, however, is seldem [sic--KTH] if ever done unless the word following
the possessive begins with _s_; thus we do not say, 'the prince' feather,'
but, 'the prince's feather.'"--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 17. "And this
phrase must mean _the feather of the prince_ but _princesfeather_ written
as one word is the name of a plant: a species of amaranth."--See _Key_.

"Boeethius soon had the satisfaction of obtaining the highest honour his
country could bestow."--_Ingersoll's Gram._ 12mo., p. 279. "Boethius soon
had," &c.--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, Vol. ii., p. 83.

"When an example, a quotation, or a speech is introduced, it is separated
from the rest of the sentence either by a semicolon or a colon; as, 'The
scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity, in these words;
_God is love._'"--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 116. "Either the colon or semicolon
may be used when an example, a quotation, or a speech is introduced; as,
'Always remember this ancient maxim; _Know thyself._' 'The scriptures give
us an amiable representation of the Deity, in these words: _God is
love._'"--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 155.

"The first word of a quotation, introduced after a colon [, must begin with
a capital]; as, always remember this ancient maxim: '_Know_ thyself.'"--
_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 159; _Lennie's Gram._, p. 106. [Lennie has
_"Always"_ with a capital.] "The first word of a quotation, introduced
after a colon, or _when it is_ in a direct form: as, 'Always remember this
ancient maxim: _Know thyself_.' 'Our great lawgiver says, Take up thy cross
daily, and follow me.'"--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 284. "8. The first word
of a quotation, _introduced after a colon_, or _when it is_ in a direct
form. EXAMPLES.--'Always remember this ancient maxim, 'Know thyself.' 'Our
great Lawgiver says, Take up thy cross daily, and follow me.'"--_Weld's
Gram., Abridged._, p. 17

"Tell me in whose house do you live."--_N. Butler's Gram._, p. 55. "He,
that acts wisely, deserves praise."--_Ib._, p. 50 "He, who steals my purse,
steals trash."--_Ib._, p. 51. "The antecedent is sometimes omitted, as,
'Who steals my purse, steals trash;' that is, _he_ who, or _person_
who."--_Ib._, p. 51. "Thus, 'Whoever steals my purse steals trash;'
'Whoever does no good does harm.'"--_Ib._, p. 53 "Thus, 'Whoever sins will
suffer.' This means that any one without exception who sins will
suffer."--_Ib._, p. 53.

"Letters form syllables, syllables words, words sentences, and sentences,
combined and connected form discourse."--_Cooper's Plain and Practical
Gram._, p. 1. "A letter which forms a perfect sound, when uttered by
itself, is called a vowel, as: _a, e, i_."--_Ib._, p. 1. "A proper noun is
the name of an individual, as: John; Boston: Hudson; America."--_Ib._, p.

"Many men have been capable of doing a wise thing, more a cunning thing,
but very few a generous thing."--_P. Davis's Gram._, p. 96. "In the place
of an ellipsis of the verb a comma must be inserted."--_Ib._, p. 121. "A
common noun unlimited by an article is sometimes understood in its broadest
acceptation: thus, '_Fishes_ swim' is understood to mean _all_ fishes.
'_Man_ is mortal,' _all_ men."--_Ib._, p. 13.

"Thus those sounds formed principally by the throat are called _gutturals_.
Those formed principally by the palate are called _palatals_. Those formed
by the teeth, _dentals_--those by the lips, _labials_--those by the nose,
_nasals_, &c."--_P. Davis's Gram._, p. 113.

"Some adjectives are compared irregularly; as, _Good, better, best. Bad,
worse, worst. Little, less, least._"--_Felton's Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 63;
Ster. Ed., p. 66.

"Under the fourth head of grammar, therefore, four topics will be
_Hart's Gram._, p. 161.

"Direct her onward to that peaceful shore,
Where peril, pain and death are felt no more!"
_Falconer's Poems_, p. 136; _Barrett's New Gram._, p. 94



"Discoveries of such a character are sometimes made in grammar also, and
such, too, is often their origin and their end."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p.

"_Traverse_, (to cross.) To deny what the opposite party has alleged. To
traverse an indictment, &c. is to deny it."--_Id., ib._, p. 216.

"The _Ordinal_ [numerals] denote the _order_ or _succession_ in which any
number of persons or things is mentioned, as _first, second, third,
fourth_, &c."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 22.

"Nouns have three persons, FIRST, SECOND, and THIRD. The First person is
the speaker, the Second is the one spoken to, the Third is the one spoken
of."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 44.

"Nouns have three cases, NOMINATIVE, POSSESSIVE, and OBJECTIVE. The
relation indicated by the case of a noun includes three ideas, viz: those
of _subject, object_, and _ownership_."--_Ib._, p. 45.

"In speaking of animals that are of inferior size, or whose sex is not
known or not regarded, they are often considered as without sex: thus, we
say of a _cat 'it_ is treacherous,' of an infant '_it_ is beautiful,' of a
_deer 'it_ was killed.'"--_Ib._, p. 39.

"When _this_ or _these, that_ or _those_, refers to a preceding sentence;
_this_, or _these_, refers to the latter member or term; _that_, or
_those_, to the former."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 136; see _Lowth's Gram._,
p. 102.

"The rearing of them [i. e. of plants] became his first care, their fruit
his first food, and marking their kinds his first knowledge."--_N. Butler's
Gram._, p. 44.

"After the period used with abbreviations we should employ other points, if
the construction demands it; thus, after Esq. in the last example, there
should be, besides a period, a comma."--_Ib._, p. 212.

"In the plural, the verb is the same in all the persons; and hence the
principle in _Rem._ 5, under Rule iii. [that the first or second person
takes precedence,] is not applicable to verbs."--_Ib._, p. 158.

"Rex and Tyrannus are of very different characters. The one rules his
people by laws to which they consent; the other, by his absolute will and
power: _that_ is called freedom, this, _tyranny_."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p.

"A noun is the name of any person, place, or thing, which can be known, or
mentioned, as: George; London; America; goodness; charity."--_Cooper's
Plain and Pract. Gram._, p. 17.

"Etymology treats of the classification of words; their various
modifications and derivations."--_Day's School Gram._, p. 9. "To punctuate
correctly implies a thorough acquaintance with the meaning of words and
phrases, as well as of all their corresponding connexions"--_W. Day's
Punctuation_, p. 31.

"All objects which belong to neither the male nor female kind are called
neuter."--_Weld's Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 57. "All objects, which belong to
neither the male nor female kind, are said to be of the neuter
gender."--_Weld's Gram., Abridged_, p. 51.

"The Analysis of the Sounds in the English language presented in the
preceding statements are sufficiently exact for the purpose in hand. Those
who wish to pursue it further can consult Dr. Rush's admirable work, 'The
Philosophy of the Human Voice.'"--_Fowlers E. Gram._, 1850, Sec.65. "Nobody
confounds the name of _w_ or _y_ with their sound or phonetic
import."--_Ib._, Sec.74.

"Order is Heaven's first law; and this confest,
Some are and must be, greater than the rest."--_Ib._, p. 96.


"In adjectives of one syllable, the Comparative is formed by adding _-er_
to the positive; and the Superlative by adding _-est_; as, _sweet, sweeter,
sweetest_."--_Bullions, Prin. of E. Gram._, p. 19.

"In monosyllables the comparative is formed by adding _er_ or _r_ to the
positive, and the superlative by adding _est_ or _st_; as, _tall, taller,
tallest; wise, wiser, wisest_."--_Id., Pract. Les._, p. 24.

"By this method the confusion and unnecessary labor occasioned by studying
grammars in these languages, constructed on different principles is
avoided, the study of one is rendered a profitable introduction to the
study of another, and an opportunity is furnished to the enquiring student
of comparing the languages in their grammatical structure, and seeing at
once wherein they agree, and wherein they differ."--_Bullions, Prin. of E.
Gram._, Pref. to 5th Ed., p. vii.

"No larger portion should be assigned for each recitation than the class
can easily master, and till this is done, a new portion should not be given
out."--_Id., ib._, p. viii. "The acquisitions made in every new lesson
should be rivetted and secured by repeated _revisals_."--_Id., ib._, p.

"The personal pronouns may be parsed briefly thus; _I_, the first personal
pronoun, masculine (or feminine), singular, the nominative. _His_, the
third personal pronoun, masculine, singular, the possessive,
&c."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 23: _Pract. Les._, p. 28.

"When the male and female are expressed by distinct terms; as, _shepherd,
shepherdess_, the masculine term has also a general meaning, expressing
both male and female, and is always to be used when the office, occupation,
profession, &c., and not the sex of the individual, is chiefly to be
expressed. The feminine term is used only when the discrimination, of sex
is indispensably necessary. Thus, when it is said 'the Poets of this
country are distinguished by correctness of taste,' the term 'Poet' clearly
includes both male and female writers of poetry."--_Id., E. Gram._, p. 12;
_his Analyt. and Pract. Gram._, 24.

"Nouns and pronouns, connected by conjunctions, must be in the same
cases."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 78. "Verbs, connected by conjunctions,
must be in the same moods and tenses, and, when in the subjunctive present,
they must be in the same form."--_Ib._, p. 112.

"This will habituate him to reflection--exercise his judgment on the
meaning of the author, and without any great effort on his part, impress
indelibly on his memory, the rules which he is required to give. After the
exercises under the rule have been gone through as directed in the note
page 96, they may be read over again in a corrected state the pupil making
an emphasis on the correction made, or they may be presented in writing at
the next recitation."--_Bullions, Prin. of E. Gram._, 2d Ed. Revised and
Cor., p. viii.

"Man, but for _that_, no action _could_ attend
And but for _this_, be _thoughtful_ to no end."
--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, Pref. p. 5.


"'Johnson the bookseller and stationer,' indicates that the bookseller and
the stationer are epithets belonging to the same person; 'the bookseller
and the stationer' would indicate that they belong to different
persons."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 127.

"_Past_ is an adjective; _passed_, the past tense or perfect participle of
the verb, and they ought not, as is frequently done, to be confounded with
each other."--_Id., ib._, p. 148.

"Not only the nature of the thoughts and sentiments, but the very selection
and arrangement of the words, gives English poetry a character, which
separates it widely from common prose."--_Id., ib._, p. 178.

"Men of sound, discriminating, and philosophical minds--men prepared for
the work by long study, patient investigation, and extensive acquirements,
have labored for ages to improve and perfect it, and nothing is hazarded in
asserting, that should it be unwisely abandoned, it will be long before
another equal in beauty, stability and usefulness, be produced in its
stead."--_Id., ib._, p. 191.

"The Article _The_, on the other hand, is used to restrict, and is
therefore termed _Definite_. Its proper office is to call the attention to
a particular individual or class, or to any number of such, and is used
with nouns in either the singular or plural number."--_Id., ib._, p. 193.

"Hence also the infinitive mood, a participle, a member of a sentence, or a
proposition, forming together the subject of discourse, or the object of a
verb or preposition, and being the name of an act or circumstance, are in
construction, regarded as nouns, and are usually called 'substantive
phrases;' as '_To play_ is pleasant,' '_His being an expert dancer_ is no
recommendation,' 'Let your motto be _Honesty is the best policy_.'"--_Id.,
ib._, p. 194.

"In accordance with his definition, Murray has divided verbs into three
classes, _Active, Passive_, and _Neuter_, and includes in the first class
_transitive_ verbs only, and in the last all verbs used
intransitively"--_Id., ib._, p. 200.

"Moreover, as the name of the speaker or the person spoken to is seldom
expressed, (the pronouns _I_ and _thou_ being used in its stead,) a noun is
very seldom in the first person, not often in the second, and almost never
in either, unless it be a proper noun, or a common noun
personified."--_Bullions, Pract. Les._, p. 13.

"In using the above exercises it will save much time, which is all
important, if the pupil be taught to say every thing belonging to the nouns
in the fewest words possible, and to say them always in the same order as
above."--_Id., ib._, p. 21.

"In any phrase or sentence the adjectives qualifying a noun may generally
be found by prefixing the phrase 'What kind of,' to the noun in the form of
a question; as, What kind of a horse? What kind of a stone? What kind of a
way? The word containing the answer to the question is an
adjective."--_Id., ib._, p. 22.

"In the following exercise let the pupil first point out the nouns, and
then the adjectives; and tell how he knows them to be so."--_Id., ib._, p.

"In the following sentences point out the improper ellipsis. Show why it is
improper, and correct it."--_Id., ib._, p. 124.


1. I--am being smitten. 1. We--are being smitten.
2. Thou--art being smitten. 2. Ye _or_ you--are being smitten.
3. He--is being smitten. 3. They--are being smitten."

_Wright's Philos. Gram._, p. 98.


Utterance Is the art or act of vocal expression. It includes the principles
of articulation, of pronunciation, and of elocution.


Articulation is the forming of words; by the voice, with reference to their
component letters and sounds.


Articulation differs from pronunciation, in having more particular regard
to the elements of words, and in not embracing accent[470]. A recent author
defines it thus: "ARTICULATION is the act of forming, with the organs of
speech, the elements of vocal language."--_Comstock's Elocution_, p. 16.
And again: "A good articulation is the _perfect_ utterance of the elements
of vocal language."--_Ibid._

An other describes it more elaborately thus: "ARTICULATION, in language, is
the forming of the human voice, accompanied by the breath, in some few
consonants, into the simple and compound sounds, called vowels, consonants,
and diphthongs, by the assistance of the organs of speech; and the uniting
of those vowels, consonants, and diphthongs, together, so as to form
syllables and words, and constitute spoken language."--_Bolles's Dict.,
Introd._, p. 7.


Correctness in articulation is of such importance, that without it speech
or reading becomes not only inelegant, but often absolutely unintelligible.
The opposite faults are mumbling, muttering, mincing, lisping, slurring,
mouthing, drawling, hesitating, stammering, misreading, and the like. "A
good articulation consists in giving every letter in a syllable its due
proportion of sound, according to the most approved custom of pronouncing
it; and in making such a distinction between the syllables of which words
are composed, that the ear shall without difficulty acknowledge their
number; and perceive, at once, to which syllable each letter belongs. Where
these points are not observed, the articulation is proportionably
defective."--_Sheridan's Rhetorical Grammar_, p. 50.

Distinctness of articulation depends, primarily, upon the ability to form
the simple elements, or sounds of letters, by the organs of speech, in the
manner which the custom of the language demands; and, in the next place,
upon the avoidance of that precipitancy of utterance, which is greater than
the full and accurate play of the organs will allow. If time be not given
for the full enunciation of any word which we attempt to speak, some of the
syllables will of course be either lost by elision or sounded confusedly.

Just articulation gives even to a feeble voice greater power and reach than
the loudest vociferation can attain without it. It delivers words from the
lips, not mutilated, distorted, or corrupted, but as the acknowledged
sterling currency of thought;--"as beautiful coins newly issued from the
mint, deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly struck by
the proper organs, distinct, sharp, in due succession, and of due
weight."--_Austin's Chironomia_, p. 38.

OBS.--The principles of articulation constitute the chief exercise of all
those who are learning either to speak or to read. So far as they are
specifically taught in this work, they will be found in those sections
which treat of the powers of the letters.


Pronunciation, as distinguished from elocution, or delivery, is the
utterance of words taken separately. The correct pronunciation of words, or
that part of grammar which teaches it, is frequently called _Orthoepy_.

Pronunciation, or orthoepy, requires a knowledge of the just powers of the
letters in all their combinations; of the distinction of quantity in vowels
and syllables; and of the force and seat of the accent.


The JUST POWERS of the letters, are those sounds which are given to them by
the best readers. These are to be learned, as reading is learned, partly
from example, and partly from such books as show or aid the pronunciation
of words.

It is to be observed, however, that considerable variety, even in the
powers of the letters, is produced by the character and occasion of what is
uttered. It is noticed by Walker, that, "Some of the vowels, when neither
under the accent, nor closed by a consonant, have a longer or a shorter, an
opener or a closer sound, according to the solemnity or familiarity, the
deliberation or rapidity of our delivery."--_Pronouncing Dict., Preface_,
p. 4. In cursory speech, or in such reading as imitates it, even the best
scholars utter many letters with quicker and obscurer sounds than ought
ever to be given them in solemn discourse. "In public speaking," says
Rippingham, "every word should be uttered, as though it were spoken singly.
The solemnity of an oration justifies and demands such scrupulous
distinctness. That careful pronunciation which would be ridiculously
pedantic in colloquial intercourse, is an essential requisite of good
elocution."--_Art of Public Speaking_, p. xxxvii.


QUANTITY, or TIME in pronunciation, is the measure of sounds or syllables
in regard to their duration; and, by way of distinction, is supposed ever
to determine them to be either _long_ or _short_.[471]

The absolute time in which syllables are uttered, is very variable, and
must be different to suit different subjects, passions, and occasions; but
their relative length or shortness may nevertheless be preserved, and
generally must be, especially in reciting poetry.

Our long syllables are chiefly those which, having sounds naturally capable
of being lengthened at pleasure, are made long by falling under some stress
either of accent or of emphasis. Our short syllables are the weaker sounds,
which, being the less significant words, or parts of words, are uttered
without peculiar stress.

OBS.--As quantity is chiefly to be regarded in the utterance of poetical
compositions, this subject will be farther considered under the head of


ACCENT, as commonly understood, is the peculiar stress which we lay upon
some particular syllable of a word, whereby that syllable is distinguished
from and above the rest; as, _gram'-mar, gram-ma'-ri-an_.

Every word of more than one syllable, has one of its syllables accented;
and sometimes a compound word has two accents, nearly equal in force; as,
_e'ven-hand'ed, home'-depart'ment_.[472]

Besides the _chief_ or _primary_ accent, when the word is long, for the
sake of harmony or distinctness, we often give a _secondary_ or less
forcible accent to an other syllable; as, to the last of
_tem'-per-a-ture'_, and to the second of _in dem'-ni-fi-ca'-tion_.

"Accent seems to be regulated, in a great measure, by etymology. In words
from the Saxon, the accent is generally on the root; in words from the
learned languages, it is generally on the termination; and if to these we
add the different accent we lay on some words, to distinguish them from
others, we seem to have the three great principles of accentuation; namely,
the radical, the terminational, and the distinctive."--_Walker's
Principles_, No. 491; _L. Murray's Grammar_, 8vo, p. 236.

A full and open pronunciation of the long vowel sounds, a clear
articulation of the consonants, a forcible and well-placed accent, and a
distinct utterance of the unaccented syllables, distinguish the elegant


OBS. 1.--The pronunciation of the English language is confessedly very
difficult to be mastered. Its rules and their exceptions are so numerous,
that few become thoroughly acquainted with any general system of them. Nor,
among the different systems which have been published, is there any which
is worthy in all respects to be accounted a STANDARD. And, if we appeal to
custom, the custom even of the best speakers is far from an entire
uniformity. Perhaps the most popular directory on this subject is Walker's
Critical Pronouncing Dictionary. The "Principles of English Pronunciation,"
which this author has furnished, occupy fifty-six closely-printed octavo
pages, and are still insufficient for the purpose of teaching our orthoepy
by rule. They are, however, highly valuable, and ought to be consulted by
every one who wishes to be master of this subject. In its vocabulary, or
stock of words, this Dictionary is likewise deficient. Other lexicographers
have produced several later works, of high value to the student; and,
though no one has treated the subject of pronunciation so elaborately as
did Walker, some may have given the results of their diligence in a form
more useful to the generality of their consulters. Among the good ones, is
the Universal and Critical Dictionary of Joseph E. Worcester.

OBS. 2.--Our modern accentuation of Greek or Latin words is regulated
almost wholly by the noted rule of Sanctius, which Walker has copied and
Englished in the Introduction to his Key, and of which the following is a
new version or paraphrase, never before printed:


_One_ syllable has stress of course,
And words of _two_ the _first_ enforce;
In _longer_ words the _penult_ guides,
Its _quantity_ the point decides;
If _long_, 'tis _there_ the accent's due,
If _short_, accent the _last but two_;
For accent, in a Latin word,
Should ne'er go higher than the third.

This rule, or the substance of it, has become very important by long and
extensive use; but it should be observed, that stress on monosyllables is
more properly _emphasis_ than _accent_; and that, in English, the accent
governs quantity, rather than quantity the accent.


Elocution is the graceful utterance of words that are arranged into
sentences, and that form discourse.

Elocution requires a knowledge, and right application, of emphasis, pauses,
inflections, and tones.


EMPHASIS is the peculiar stress of voice which we lay upon some particular
word or words in a sentence, which are thereby distinguished from the rest
as being more especially significant.[473]

As accent enforces a syllable, and gives character to a word; so emphasis
distinguishes a word, and often determines the import of a sentence. The
right placing of accent, in the utterance of words, is therefore not more
important, than the right placing of emphasis, in the utterance of
sentences. If no emphasis be used, discourse becomes vapid and inane; if no
accent, words can hardly be recognized as English.

"Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator of quantity.
Though the quantity of our syllable is fixed, in words separately
pronounced, yet it is mutable, when [the] words are [ar]ranged in[to]
sentences; the long being changed into short, the short into long,
according to the importance of the words with regard to meaning: and, as it
is by emphasis only, that the meaning can be pointed out, emphasis must be
the regulator of the quantity."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 246.[474]
"Emphasis changes, not only the quantity of words and syllables, but also,
in particular cases, the sent of the accent. This is demonstrable from the
following examples: 'He shall _in_crease, but I shall _de_crease.' 'There
is a difference between giving and _for_giving.' 'In this species of
composition, _plaus_ibility is much more essential than _prob_ability.' In
these examples, the emphasis requires the accent to be placed on syllables
to which it does not commonly belong."--_Ib._, p. 247.

In order to know what words are to be made emphatic, the speaker or reader
must give constant heed to _the sense_ of what he utters; his only sure
guide, in this matter, being a just conception of the force and spirit of
the sentiment which he is about to pronounce. He must also guard against
the error of multiplying emphatic words too much; for, to overdo in this
way, defeats the very purpose for which emphasis is used. To manage this
stress with exact propriety, is therefore one of the surest evidences both
of a quick understanding, and of a delicate and just taste.


Pauses are cessations in utterance, which serve equally to relieve the
speaker, and to render language intelligible and pleasing.

Pauses are of three kinds: first, _distinctive_ or _sentential_
pauses,--such as form the divisions required by the sense; secondly,
_emphatic_ or _rhetorical_ pauses,--such as particularly call the hearer's
attention to something which has been, or is about to be, uttered; and
lastly, _poetical_ or _harmonic_ pauses,--such as are peculiar to the
utterance of metrical compositions.

The duration of the distinctive pauses should be proportionate to the
degree of connexion between the parts of the discourse. The shortest are
long enough for the taking of some breath; and it is proper, thus to
relieve the voice at every stop, if needful. This we may do, slightly at a
comma, more leisurely at a semicolon, still more so at a colon, and
completely at a period.

Pauses, whether in reading or in public discourse, ought always to be
formed after the manner in which we naturally form them in ordinary,
sensible conversation; and not after the stiff, artificial manner which
many acquire at school, by a mere mechanical attention to the common

Forced, unintentional pauses, which accidentally divide words that ought to
be spoken in close connexion, are always disagreeable; and, whether they
arise from exhaustion of breath, from a habit of faltering, or from
unacquaintance with the text, they are errors of a kind utterly
incompatible with graceful elocution.

Emphatic or rhetorical pauses, the kind least frequently used, may be made
immediately before, or immediately after, something which the speaker
thinks particularly important, and on which he would fix the attention of
his audience. Their effect is similar to that of a strong emphasis; and,
like this, they must not be employed too often.

The harmonic pauses, or those which are peculiar to poetry, are of three
kinds: the _final pause_, which marks the end of each line; the _caesural_
or _divisional pause_, which commonly divides the line near the middle; and
the _minor rests_, or _demi-caesuras_, which often divide it still further.

In the reading of poetry, these pauses ought to be observed, as well as
those which have reference to the sense; for, to read verse exactly as if
it were prose, will often rob it of what chiefly distinguishes it from
prose. Yet, at the same time, all appearance of singsong, or affected tone,
ought to be carefully guarded against.


INFLECTIONS are those peculiar variations of the human voice, by which a
continuous sound is made to pass from one note, key, or pitch, into an
other. The passage of the voice from a lower to a higher or shriller note,
is called the _rising_ or _upward_ inflection. The passage of the voice
from a higher to a lower or graver note, is called tbe _falling_ or
_downward_ inflection. These two opposite inflections may be heard in the
following examples: 1. The rising, "Do you mean to _go_?" 2. The falling,
"_When_ will you _go_?"

In general, questions that may be answered by _yes_ or _no_, require the
rising inflection; while those which demand any other answer, must be
uttered with the falling inflection. These slides of the voice are not
commonly marked in writing, or in our printed books; but, when there is
occasion to note them, we apply the acute accent to the former, and the
grave accent to the latter.[475]

A union of these two inflections upon the same syllable, is called a
_circumflex_, a _wave_, or a "_circumflex inflection_." When the slide is
first downward and then upward, it is called the _rising circumflex_, or
"the _gravo-acute circumflex_;" when first upward and then downward, it is
denominated the _falling circumflex_, or "the _acuto-grave circumflex_." Of
these complex inflections of the voice, the emphatic words in the following
sentences may be uttered as examples: "And it shall go _h~ard_ but I will
_use_ the information."--"_O_! but he _pa~used_ upon the brink."

When a passage is read without any inflection, the words are uttered in
what is called a _monotone_; the voice being commonly pitched at a grum
note, and made to move for the time, slowly and gravely, on a perfect

"Rising inflections are far more numerous than falling inflections; the
former constitute the main body of oral language, while the latter are
employed for the purposes of emphasis, and in the formation of cadences.
Rising inflections are often emphatic; but their emphasis is weaker than
that of falling inflections."--_Comstock's Elocution_, p. 50.

"Writers on Elocution have given numerous rules for the regulation of
inflections; but most of these rules are better calculated to make _bad_
readers than good ones. Those founded on the construction of sentences
might, perhaps, do credit to a _mechanic_, but they certainly do none to an
_elocutionist_."--_Ib._, p. 51.

"The reader should bear in mind that a falling inflection gives more
importance to a word than a rising inflection. Hence it should never be
employed merely for the sake of _variety_; but for _emphasis_ and
_cadences_. Neither should a rising inflection be used for the sake of mere
'_harmony_,' where a falling inflection would better express the meaning of
the author. The _sense_ should, in _all_ cases, determine the direction of

_Cadence_ is a fall of the voice, which has reference not so much to pitch
as to force, though it may depress both; for it seems to be generally
contrasted with emphasis,[476] and by some is reprehended as a fault.
"Support your voice steadily and firmly," says Rippingham, "and pronounce
the concluding words of the sentence with force and vivacity, rather than
with a languid cadence."--_Art of Speaking_, p. 17. The pauses which L.
Murray denominates the suspending and the closing pause, he seems to have
discriminated chiefly by the inflections preceding them, if he can be said
to have distinguished them at all. For he not only teaches that the former
may sometimes be used at the close of a sentence, and the latter sometimes
where "the sense is not completed;" but, treating cadence merely as a
defect, adds the following caution: "The closing pause must not be
confounded with that fall of the voice, or _cadence_, with which many
readers uniformly finish a sentence. Nothing is more destructive of
propriety and energy than this habit. The tones and inflections of the
voice at the close of a sentence, ought to be diversified, according to the
general nature of the discourse, and the particular construction and
meaning of the sentence."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 250; 12mo, p. 200.


Tones are those modulations of the voice which depend upon the feelings of
the speaker. They are what Sheridan denominates "the language of emotions."
And it is of the utmost importance, that they be natural, unaffected, and
rightly adapted to the subject and to the occasion; for upon them, in a
great measure, depends all that is pleasing or interesting in elocution.

"How much of the propriety, the force, and [the] grace of discourse, must
depend on these, will appear from this single consideration; that to almost
every sentiment we utter, more especially to every strong emotion, nature
has adapted some peculiar tone of voice; insomuch, that he who should tell
another that he was angry, or much grieved, in a tone that did not suit
such emotions, instead of being believed, would be laughed at."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 333.

"The different passions of the mind must be expressed by different tones of
the voice. _Love_, by a soft, smooth, languishing voice; _anger_, by a
strong, vehement, and elevated voice; _joy_, by a quick, sweet, and clear
voice; _sorrow_, by a low, flexible, interrupted voice; _fear_, by a
dejected, tremulous, hesitating voice; _courage_, by a full, bold, and loud
voice; and _perplexity_, by a grave and earnest voice. In _exordiums_, the
voice should be low, yet clear; in _narrations_, distinct; in _reasoning_,
slow; in _persuasions_, strong: it should thunder in _anger_, soften in
_sorrow_, tremble in _fear_, and melt in _love_."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 121.

OBS.--Walker observes, in his remarks on the nature of Accent and Quantity,
"As to the tones of the passions, which are so many and various, these, in
the opinion of one of the best judges in the kingdom, are _qualities_ of
sound, occasioned by certain vibrations of the organs of speech,
independent _on_ [say _of_] high, low, loud, soft, quick, slow, forcible,
or feeble: which last may not improperly be called different _quantities_
of sound."--_Walker's Key_, p. 305.


A Figure, in grammar, is an intentional deviation from the ordinary
spelling, formation, construction, or application, of words. There are,
accordingly, figures of Orthography, figures of Etymology, figures of
Syntax, and figures of Rhetoric. When figures are judiciously employed,
they both strengthen and adorn expression. They occur more frequently in
poetry than in prose; and several of them are merely poetic licenses.


A Figure of Orthography is an intentional deviation from the ordinary or
true spelling of a word. The principal figures of Orthography are two;
namely, _Mi-me'-sis_ and _Ar'-cha-ism_.


I. _Mimesis_ is a ludicrous imitation of some mistake or mispronunciation
of a word, in which the error is mimicked by a false spelling, or the
taking of one word for another; as, "_Maister_, says he, have you any
_wery_ good _weal_ in you _vallet?_"--_Columbian Orator_, p. 292. "Ay, he
was _porn_ at Monmouth, captain Gower."--_Shak._ "I will _description_ the
matter to you, if you be _capacity_ of it."--_Id._

"_Perdigious!_ I can hardly stand."
--LLOYD: _Brit. Poets_, Vol. viii, p. 184.

II. An _Archaism_ is a word or phrase expressed according to ancient usage,
and not according to our modern orthography; as, "_Newe grene chese of
smalle clammynes comfortethe a hotte stomake._"--T. PAYNEL: _Tooke's
Diversions_, ii, 132. "He _hath holpen_ his servant Israel."--_Luke_, i,

"With him was rev'rend Contemplation _pight_,
Bow-bent with _eld_, his beard of snowy hue."--_Beattie_.

OBS.--Among the figures of this section, perhaps we might include the
foreign words or phrases which individual authors now and then adopt in
writing English; namely, the _Scotticisms_, the _Gallicisms_, the
_Latinisms_, the _Grecisms_, and the like, with which they too often
garnish their English style. But these, except they stand as foreign
quotations, in which case they are exempt from our rules, are in general
offences against the _purity_ of our language; and it may therefore be
sufficient, just to mention them here, without expressly putting any of
them into the category of grammatical figures.


A Figure of Etymology is an intentional deviation from the ordinary
formation of a word. The principal figures of Etymology are eight; namely,
_A-phoer'-e-sis, Pros'-the-sis, Syn'-co-pe, A-poc'-o-pe, Par-a-go'-ge,
Di-oer'-e-sis, Syn-oer'-e-sis_, and _Tme'-sis_.


I. _Aphaeresis_ is the elision of some of the initial letters of a word: as,
_'gainst_, for _against_; _'gan_, for _began_; _'neath_, for _beneath_;
_'thout_, for _without_.

II. _Prosthesis_ is the prefixing of an expletive syllable to a word: as,
_a_down, for _down_; _ap_paid, for _paid_; _be_strown, for _strown_;
_ev_anished, for _vanished_; _y_clad, for _clad_.

III. _Syn'cope_ is the elision of some of the middle letters of a word:
as, _med'cine_, for _medicine_; _e'en_, for _even_; _o'er_, for _over_;
_conq'ring_, for _conquering_; _se'nnight_, for _sevennight_.

IV. _Apoc'ope_ is the elision of some of the final letters of a word: as,
_tho'_ for _though_; _th'_, for _the_; _t'other_, for _the other_; _thro'_,
for _through_.

V. _Parago'ge_ is the annexing of an expletive syllable to a word: as,
_Johnny_, for _John_; _deary_, for _dear_; _withouten_, for _without_.

VI. _Diaeresis_ is the separating of two vowels that might be supposed to
form a diphthong: as, _cooeperate_, not _cooperate_; _aeronaut_, not
_aeronaut_; _or'thoepy_, not _orthoepy_.

VII. _Synaeresis_ is the sinking of two syllables into one: as, _seest_, for
_seest_; _tacked_, for _tack-ed_; _drowned_, for _drown-ed_; _spoks't_, for
_spok-est_; _show'dst_, for _show-edst_; _'tis_, for _it is_; _I'll_, for
_I will_.

VIII. _Tmesis_ is the inserting of a word between the parts of a compound,
or between two words which should be united if they stood together: as, "On
_which_ side _soever_."--_Rolla_. "_To_ us _ward_;" "_To_ God
_ward_."--_Bible_. "The _assembling_ of ourselves _together_."--_Id._ "With
_what_ charms _soe'er_ she will."--_Cowper_. "So _new_ a _fashion'd_
robe."--_Shak._ "Lament the _live_ day _long_."--_Burns_.

OBS.--In all our pronunciation, except that of the solemn style, such
verbal or participial terminations as can be so uttered, are usually sunk
by _synaeresis_ into mere modifications of preceding syllables. The
terminational consonants, if not uttered with one vowel, must be uttered
with an other. When, therefore, a vowel is entirely suppressed in
pronunciation, (whether retained in writing or not,) the consonants
connected with it, necessarily fall into an other syllable: thus, _tried,
triest, sued, suest, loved, lovest, mov'd, mov'st_, are monosyllables; and
_studied, studiest, studi'dst, argued, arguest, argu'dst_, are
dissyllables; except in solemn discourse, in which the _e_ is generally
retained and made vocal.


A Figure of Syntax is an intentional deviation from the ordinary
construction of words. The principal figures of Syntax are five; namely,
_El-lip'-sis, Ple'-o-nasm, Syl-lep'-sis, En-al'-la-ge_, and
_Hy-per'-ba-ton._ EXPLANATIONS.

I. _Ellipsis_ is the omission of some word or words which are necessary to
complete the construction, but not necessary to convey the meaning. Such
words are said, in technical phrase, to be _understood_;[477] because they
are received as belonging to the sentence, though they are not uttered.

Of compound sentences, a vast many are more or less elliptical; and
sometimes, for brevity's sake, even the most essential parts of a simple
sentence, are suppressed;[478] as, "But more of this hereafter."--_Harris's
Hermes_, p. 77. This means, "But _I shall say_ more of this hereafter."
"Prythee, peace."--_Shak._ That is, "_I pray_ thee, _hold thou thy_ peace."

There may be an omission of any of the parts of speech, or even of a whole
clause, when this repeats what precedes; but the omission of mere articles
or interjections can scarcely constitute a proper ellipsis, because these
parts of speech, wherever they are really necessary to be recognized, ought
to be expressed.


1. Of the ARTICLE:--"A man and [_a_] woman."--"The day, [_the_] month, and
[_the_] year."--"She gave me an apple and [_a_] pear, for a fig and [_an_]
orange."--_Jaudon's Gram._, p. 170.

2. Of the NOUN:--"The common [_law_] and the statute law."--"The twelve
[_apostles_]."--"The same [_man_] is he."--"One [_book_] of my books."--"A
dozen [_bottles_] of wine."--"Conscience, I say; not thine own
[_conscience_], but [_the conscience_] of the other."--_1 Cor._, x, 29.
"Every moment subtracts _from_ [_our lives_] what it adds _to_ our
lives."--_Dillwyn's Ref._, p. 8. "Bad actions mostly lead to worse"
[_actions_].--_Ib._, p. 5.

3. Of the ADJECTIVE:--"There are subjects proper for the one, and not
[_proper_] for the other."--_Kames._ "A just weight and [_a just_] balance
are the Lord's."--_Prov._, xvi, 11. True ellipses of the adjective alone,
are but seldom met with.

4. Of the PRONOUN:--"Leave [_thou_] there thy gift before the altar, and go
[_thou_] thy way; first be [_thou_] reconciled to thy brother, and then
come [_thou_] and offer [_thou_] thy gift,"--_Matt._, v, 24. "Love [_ye_]
your enemies, bless [_ye_] them that curse you, do [_ye_] good to them that
hate you."--_Ib._, v. 44. "Chastisement does not always immediately follow
error, but [_it_] sometimes comes when [_it is_] least expected."--
_Dillwyn, Ref._, p. 31. "Men generally put a greater value upon the favours
[_which_] they bestow, than upon those [_which_] they receive."--_Art of
Thinking_, p. 48. "Wisdom and worth were all [_that_] he had."--_Allen's
Gram._, p. 294.

5. Of the VERB:--"The world is crucified unto me, and I [_am crucified_]
unto the world."--_Gal._, vi, 14. "Hearts should not [_differ_], though
heads may, differ."--_Dillwyn_, p. 11. "Are ye not much better than they"
[_are_]?--_Matt._, vi, 26. "Tribulation worketh patience; and patience
[_worketh_] experience; and experience [_worketh_] hope."--_Romans_, v, 4.
"Wrongs are engraved on marble; benefits [_are engraved_] on sand."--_Art
of Thinking_, p. 41. "To whom thus Eve, yet sinless" [_spoke_].--_Milton_.

6. Of the PARTICIPLE:--"That [_being_] o'er, they part."--"Animals of
various natures, some adapted to the wood, and some [_adapted_] to the
wave."--_Melmoth, on Scripture_, p. 13.

"His knowledge [_being_] measured to his state and place,
His time [_being_] a moment, and a point [_being_] his space."--_Pope_.

7. Of the ADVERB:--"He can do this independently of me, if not
[_independently_] of you."

"She shows a body rather than a life;
A statue, [_rather_] than a breather."
--_Shak., Ant. and Cleo._, iii, 3.

8. Of the CONJUNCTION:--"But the fruit of the Spirit is love, [_and_] joy,
[_and_] peace, [_and_] long suffering, [_and_] gentleness, [_and_]
goodness, [_and_] faith, [_and_] meekness, [_and_] temperance."--_Gal._, v,
22. The repetition of the conjunction is called _Polysyndeton_; and the
omission of it, _Asyndeton_.

9. Of the PREPOSITION:--"It shall be done [_on_] this very day."--"We shall
set off [_at_] some time [_in_] next month."--"He departed [_from_] this
life."--"He gave [_to_] me a book."--"We walked [_through_] a mile."--"He
was banished [_from_] the kingdom."--_W. Allen_. "He lived like [_to_] a

10. Of the INTERJECTION:--"Oh! the frailty, [_oh!_] the wickedness of
men."--"Alas for Mexico! and [_alas_] for many of her invaders!"

11. Of PHRASES or CLAUSES:--"The active commonly do more than they are
bound to do; the indolent [_commonly do_] less" [_than they are bound to
do_].--"Young men, angry, mean less than they say; old men, [_angry, mean_]
more" [_than they say_].--"It is the duty of justice, not to injure men;
[_it is the duty_] of modesty, not to offend them."--_W. Allen_.


OBS. 1.--Grammarians in general treat of ellipsis without _defining_ it;
and exhibit such rules and examples as suppose our language to be a
hundred-fold more elliptical than it really is.[479] This is a great error,
and only paralleled by that of a certain writer elsewhere noticed, who
denies the existence of all ellipsis whatever. (See Syntax, Obs. 24th on
Rule 22d.) Some have defined this figure in a way that betrays a very
inaccurate notion of what it is: as, "ELLIPSIS is _when_ one or more words
are wanting _to complete the sense_."--_Adam's Lat. and Eng. Gram._, p.
235; _Gould's_, 229. "ELLIPSIS is the omission of one or more words
necessary _to complete the sense_."--_Bullions, Lat. Gram._, p. 265. These
definitions are decidedly worse than none; because, if they have any
effect, they can only mislead. They absurdly suggest that every elliptical
sentence lacks a part of its own meaning! Ellipsis is, in fact, the mere
omission or absence of certain _suggested words_; or of words that may be
spared from utterance, _without defect in the sense_. There never can be an
ellipsis of any thing which is either unnecessary to the construction or
necessary to the sense; for to say what we mean and nothing more, never can
constitute a deviation from the ordinary grammatical construction of words.
As a figure of Syntax, therefore, the _ellipsis_ can only be of such words
as are so evidently suggested to the reader, that the writer is as fully
answerable for them as if he had written them.

OBS. 2.--To suppose an ellipsis where there is none, or to overlook one
where it really occurs, is to pervert or mutilate the text, in order to

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