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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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dots we owe to the Latin authors, or perhaps to the early printers of Latin
books. The semicolon was first used in Italy, and was not adopted in
England till about the year 1600. Our marks for questions and exclamations
were also derived from the same source, probably at a date somewhat
earlier. The curves of the parenthesis have likewise been in use for
several centuries. But the clash is a more recent invention: Lowth, Ash,
and Ward,--Buchanan, Bicknell, and Burn,--though they name all the rest,
make no mention of this mark; but it appears by their books, that they all
occasionally _used_ it.

OBS. 6--Of the _colon_ it may be observed, that it is now much less
frequently used than it was formerly; its place being usurped, sometimes by
the semicolon, and sometimes by the period. For this ill reason, some late
grammarians have discarded it altogether. Thus Felton: "The COLON is now so
seldom used by good writers, that rules for its use are
unnecessary."--_Concise Manual of English Gram._, p. 140. So Nutting: "It
will be noticed, that the _colon_ is omitted in this system; because it is
omitted by the majority of the writers of the present age; three points,
with the dash, being considered sufficient to mark the different lengths of
the pauses."--_Practical Grammar_, p. 120. These critics, whenever they
have occasion to copy such authors as Milton and Pope, do not scruple to
mutilate their punctuation by putting semicolons or periods for all the
colons they find. But who cannot perceive, that without the colon, the
semicolon becomes an absurdity? It can no longer be a _semicolon_, unless
the half can remain when the whole is taken away! The colon, being the
older point of the two, and once very fashionable, is doubtless on record
in more instances than the semicolon; and, if now, after both have been in
common use for some hundreds of years, it be found out that only one is
needed, perhaps it would be more reasonable to prefer the former. Should
public opinion ever be found to coincide with the suggestions of the two
authors last quoted, there will be reason to regret that Caxton, the old
English typographer of the fifteenth century, who for a while successfully
withstood, in his own country, the introduction of the semicolon, had not
the power to prevent it forever. In short, to leave no literary
extravagance unbroached, the latter point also has not lacked a modern
impugner. "One of the greatest improvements in punctuation," says Justin
Brenan, "is the rejection of the eternal semicolons of our ancestors. In
latter times, the semicolon has been gradually disappearing, not only from
the newspapers, but from books."--_Brenan's "Composition and Punctuation
familiarly Explained"_, p. 100; London, 1830. The colon and the semicolon
are both useful, and, not unfrequently, necessary; and all correct writers
will, I doubt not, continue to use both.

OBS. 7--Since Dr. Blair published his emphatic caution against too frequent
a use of _parentheses_, there has been, if not an abatement of the kind of
error which he intended to censure, at least a diminution in the use of the
_curves_, the sign of a parenthesis. These, too, some inconsiderate
grammarians now pronounce to be out of vogue. "The parenthesis is now
generally exploded as a deformity."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 362. "The
Parenthesis, () has become nearly obsolete, except in mere references, and
the like; its place, by modern writers, being usually supplied by the use
of the comma, and the dash."--_Nutting's Practical Gram._, p. 126;
_Frazee's Improved Grammar_, p. 187. More use may have been made of the
curves than was necessary, and more of the parenthesis itself than was
agreeable to good taste; but, the sign being well adapted to the
construction, and the construction being sometimes sprightly and elegant,
there are no good reasons for wishing to discard either of them; nor is it
true, that the former "has become nearly obsolete."

OBS. 8--The name _parenthesis_ is, which literally means a
_putting-in-between_, is usually applied both to the _curves_, and to the
incidental _clause_ which they enclose. This twofold application of the
term involves some inconvenience, if not impropriety. According to Dr.
Johnson, the enclosed "_sentence_" alone is the _parenthesis_; but
Worcester, agreeably to common usage, defines the word as meaning also "the
_mark_ thus ()." But, as this sign consists of two distinct parts, two
corresponding curves, it seems more natural to use a plural name: hence L.
Murray, when he would designate the sign only, adopted a plural expression;
as, "_the parenthetical characters_,"--"_the parenthetical marks_." So, in
another case, which is similar: "the _hooks_ in which words are included,"
are commonly called _crotchets_ or _brackets_; though Bucke, in his
Classical Grammar, I know not why, calls the two "[ ] a _Crotchet_;" (p.
23;) and Webster, in his octavo Dictionary, defines a "_Bracket_, in
printing," as Johnson does a "_Crotchet_" by a plural noun: "_hooks_; thus,
[ ]." Again, in his grammars, Dr. Webster rather confusedly says: "The
parenthesis () and hooks [] include a remark or clause, not essential to
the sentence in construction."--_Philosophical Gram._, p. 219; _Improved
Gram._, p. 154. But, in his Dictionary, he forgets both the hooks and the
parenthesis that are here spoken of; and, with still worse confusion or
inaccuracy, says: "The _parenthesis_ is usually included in _hooks_ or
curved lines, thus, ()." Here he either improperly calls these regular
little curves "_hooks_," or erroneously suggests that both the hooks and
the curves are usual and appropriate signs of "_the parenthesis_." In
Garner's quarto Dictionary, the French word _Crochet_, as used by printers,
is translated, "_A brace, a crotchet, a parenthesis_;" and the English word
_Crotchet_ is defined, "The _mark_ of a _parenthesis_, in printing, thus [
]." But Webster defines _Crotchet_, "In printing, a _hook_ including words,
a _sentence_ or a _passage_ distinguished from the rest, thus []." This
again is both ambiguous and otherwise inaccurate. It conveys no clear idea
of what a crotchet is. _One_ hook _includes_ nothing. Therefore Johnson
said: "_Hooks_ in which words are included [thus]." But if each of the
hooks is a crotchet, as Webster suggests, and almost every body supposes,
then both lexicographers are wrong in not making the whole expression
plural: thus, "_Crotchets_, in printing, are angular _hooks_ usually
including some explanatory words." But is this all that Webster meant? I
cannot tell. He may be understood as saying also, that a _Crotchet_ is "_a
sentence_ or _a passage_ distinguished from the rest, thus [];" and
doubtless it would be much better to call a hint thus marked, a _crotchet_,
than to call it _a parenthesis_, as some have done. In Parker and Fox's
Grammar, and also in Parker's Aids to English Composition, the term
_Brackets_ only is applied to these angular hooks; and, contrary to all
usage of other authors, so far as I know, the name of _Crotchets_ is there
given to the _Curves_. And then, as if this application of the word were
general, and its propriety indisputable, the pupil is simply told: "The
_curved lines_ between which a parenthesis is enclosed are called
_Crotchets_."--_Gram._, Part III, p. 30; _Aids_, p. 40. "Called
_Crotchets_" by whom? That not even Mr. Parker himself knows them by that
name, the following most inaccurate passage is a proof: "The _note_ of
admiration _and_ interrogation, as also the _parenthesis_, the _bracket_,
and the reference marks, [are noted in the margin] in the same manner as
the apostrophe."--_Aids_, p. 314. In some late grammars, (for example,
_Hazen's_ and _Day's_,) the parenthetic curves are called "_the
Parentheses_" From this the student must understand that it always takes
_two parentheses_ to make _one parenthesis!_ If then it is objectionable,
to call the two marks "_a parenthesis_," it is much more so, to call each
of them by that name, or both "_the parentheses_." And since Murray's
phrases are both entirely too long for common use, what better name can be
given them than this very simple one, _the Curves_?

OBS. 9.--The words _eroteme_ and _ecphoneme_, which, like _aposteme_ and
_philosopheme_, are orderly derivatives from Greek roots[460], I have
ventured to suggest as fitter names for the two marks to which they are
applied as above, than are any of the long catalogue which other
grammarians, each choosing for himself have presented. These marks have not
unfrequently been called "_the interrogation_ and the _exclamation_;" which
names are not very suitable, because they have other uses in grammar.
According to Dr. Blair, as well as L. Murray and others, interrogation and
exclamation are "passionate _figures_" of rhetoric, and oftentimes also
plain "unfigured" expressions. The former however are frequently and more
fitly called by their Greek names _erotesis_ and _ecphonesis_, terms to
which those above have a happy correspondence. By Dr. Webster and some
others, all _interjections_ are called "_exclamations_;" and, as each of
these is usually followed by the mark of emotion, it cannot but be
inconvenient to call both by the same name.

OBS. 10.--For things so common as the marks of asking and exclaiming, it is
desirable to have simple and appropriate _names_, or at least some settled
mode of denomination; but, it is remarkable, that Lindley Murray, in
mentioning these characters six times, uses six different modes of
expression, and all of them complex: (1.) "Notes of Interrogation and
Exclamation." (2.) "The point of Interrogation,?"--"The point of
Exclamation,!" (3.) "The Interrogatory Point."--"The Exclamatory Point."
(4.) "A note of interrogation,"--"The note of exclamation." (5.) "The
interrogation and exclamation points." (6.) "The points of Interrogation
and Exclamation."--_Murray, Flint, Ingersoll, Alden, Pond_. With much
better taste, some writers denote them uniformly thus: (7.) "The Note of
Interrogation,"--"The Note of Exclamation."--_Churchill, Hiley_. In
addition to these names, all of which are too long, there may be cited many
others, though none that are unobjectionable: (8.) "The Interrogative
sign,"--"The Exclamatory sign."--_Peirce, Hazen_. (9.) "The Mark of
Interrogation,"--"The Mark of Exclamation."--_Ward, Felton, Hendrick_.
(10.) "The Interrogative point,"--"The Exclamation point."--_T. Smith,
Alger_. (11.) "The interrogation point,"--"The exclamation
point."--_Webster, St. Quentin, S. Putnam_. (12.) "A Note of
Interrogation,"--"A Note of Admiration."--_Coar, Nutting_. (13.) "The
Interrogative point,"--"The Note of Admiration, or of vocation."--_Bucke_.
(14.) "Interrogation (?),"--"Admiration (!) or Exclamation."--_Lennie,
Bullions_. (15.) "A Point of Interrogation,"--"A Point of Admiration or
Exclamation."--_Buchanan_. (16.) "The Interrogation Point (?),"--"The
Admiration Point (!)."--_Perley_. (17.) "An interrogation (?),"--"An
exclamation (!)."--_Cutler_. (18.) "The interrogator?"--"The
exclaimor!"--_Day's Gram._, p. 112. [The putting of "_exclaimor_" for
_exclaimer_, like this author's changing of _quoters_ to "_quotors_," as a
name for the guillemets, is probably a mere sample of ignorance.] (19.)
"Question point,"--"Exclamation point."--_Sanborn_, p. 272.

SECTION I.--THE COMMA.

The Comma is used to separate those parts of a sentence, which are so
nearly connected in sense, as to be only one degree removed from that close
connexion which admits no point.

RULE I.--SIMPLE SENTENCES.

A simple sentence does not, in general, admit the comma; as, "The weakest
reasoners are the most positive."--_W. Allen's Gram._, p. 202. "Theology
has not hesitated to make or support a doctrine by the position of a
comma."--_Tract on Tone_, p. 4.

"Then pain compels the impatient soul to seize
On promis'd hopes of instantaneous ease."--_Crabbe_.

EXCEPTION.--LONG SIMPLE SENTENCES.

When the nominative in a long simple sentence is accompanied by
inseparable adjuncts, or when several words together are used in stead of a
nominative, a comma should be placed immediately before the verb; as,
"Confession of sin without amendment, obtains no pardon."--_Dillwyn's
Reflections_, p. 6. "To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a
real defect in character."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 268.

"O that the tenor of my just complaint,[461]
Were sculpt with steel in rocks of adamant!"--_Sandys_.

RULE II.--SIMPLE MEMBERS.

The simple members of a compound sentence, whether successive or involved,
elliptical or complete, are generally divided by the comma; as,

1. "Here stand we both, and aim we at the best."--_Shak._

2. "I, that did never weep, now melt in woe."--_Id._

3. "Tide life, tide death, I come without delay."--_Id._

4. "I am their mother, who shall bar me from them?"--_Id._

5. "How wretched, were I mortal, were my state!"--_Pope_.

6. "Go; while thou mayst, avoid the dreadful fate."--_Id._

7. "Grief aids disease, remember'd folly stings,
And his last sighs reproach the faith of kings."--_Johnson_.

EXCEPTION I.--RESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.

When a relative immediately follows its antecedent, and is taken in a
restrictive sense, the comma should not be introduced _before_ it; as, "For
the things _which_ are seen, are temporal; but the things _which_ are not
seen, are eternal."--_2 Cor._, iv, 18. "A letter is a character _that_
expresses a sound without any meaning."--_St. Quentin's General Gram._, p.
3.

EXCEPTION II.--SHORT TERMS CLOSELY CONNECTED.

When the simple members are short, and closely connected by a conjunction
or a conjunctive adverb, the comma is generally omitted; as, "Honest
poverty is better _than_ wealthy fraud."--_Dillwyn's Ref._, p. 11. "Let him
tell me _whether_ the number of the stars be even or odd."--TAYLOR: _Joh.
Dict., w. Even_. "It is impossible _that_ our knowledge of words should
outstrip our knowledge of things."--CAMPBELL: _Murray's Gram._, p 359.

EXCEPTION III.--ELLIPTICAL MEMBERS UNITED.

When two simple members are immediately united, through ellipsis of the
relative, the antecedent, or the conjunction _that_, the comma is not
inserted; as, "Make an experiment on the first man you meet."--_Berkley's
Alciphron_, p. 125. "Our philosophers do infinitely despise and pity
whoever shall propose or accept any other motive to virtue."--_Ib._, p.
126. "It is certain we imagine before we reflect."--_Ib._, p. 359.

"The same good sense that makes a man excel,
Still makes him doubt he ne'er has written well."--_Young_.

RULE III.--MORE THAN TWO WORDS.

When more than two words or terms are connected in the same construction,
or in a joint dependence on some other term, by conjunctions expressed or
understood, the comma should be inserted after every one of them but the
last; and, if they are nominatives before a verb, the comma should follow
the last also:[462] as,

1. "Who, to the enraptur'd heart, and ear, and eye,
Teach beauty, virtue, truth, and love, and melody."--_Beattie_.

2. "Ah! what avails * * * * * * * * *
All that art, fortune, enterprise, can bring,
If envy, scorn, remorse, or pride, the bosom wring?"--_Id._.

3. "Women are soft, mild, pitiful, and flexible;
Thou, stern, obdurate, flinty, rough, remorseless."--_Shak_.

4. "She plans, provides, expatiates, triumphs there."--_Young_.

5. ----"So eagerly the Fiend
O'er bog, or steep, through strait, rough, dense, or rare,
With head, hands, wings, or feet, pursues his way,
And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies."--_Milton_.

RULE IV.--ONLY TWO WORDS.

When only two words or terms are connected by a conjunction, they should
not be separated by the comma; as, "It is a _stupid and barbarous_ way to
extend dominion by arms; for true power is to be got by _arts and
industry_"--_Spectator_, No. 2.

"_Despair and anguish_ fled the struggling soul."--_Goldsmith._

EXCEPTION I.--TWO WORDS WITH ADJUNCTS.

When the two words connected have several adjuncts, or when one of them has
an adjunct that relates not to both, the comma is inserted; as, "I shall
spare no pains to make their instruction agreeable, and their diversion
useful."--_Spectator_, No. 10. "_Who_ is applied to persons, or things
personified."--_Bullions._

"With listless eyes the dotard views the store,
He views, and wonders that they please no more."--_Johnson_.

EXCEPTION II.--TWO TERMS CONTRASTED.

When two connected words or phrases are contrasted, or emphatically
distinguished, the comma is inserted; as, "The vain are easily obliged, and
easily disobliged."--_Kames_.

"Liberal, not lavish, is kind Nature's hand."--_Beattie_.

"'Tis certain he could write, and cipher too."--_Goldsmith_.

EXCEPTION III.--ALTERNATIVE OF WORDS.

When there is merely an alternative of names, or an explanatory change of
terms, the comma is usually inserted; as, "We saw a large opening, or
inlet."--_W. Allen_. "Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as
well as other apostles?"--_Cor._, ix, 5.

EXCEPTION IV.--CONJUNCTION UNDERSTOOD.

When the conjunction is understood, the comma is inserted; and, if two
separated words or terms refer alike to a third term, the second requires a
second comma: as, "Reason, virtue, answer one great aim."--_L. Murray,
Gram._, p. 269.

"To him the church, the realm, their pow'rs consign."--_Johnson_.

"She thought the isle that gave her birth.
The sweetest, wildest land on earth."--_Hogg_.

RULE V.--WORDS IN PAIRS.

When successive words are joined in pairs by conjunctions, they should be
separated in pairs by the comma; as, "Interest and ambition, honour and
shame, friendship and enmity, gratitude and revenge, are the prime movers
in public transactions."--_W. Allen_. "But, whether ingenious or dull,
learned or ignorant, clownish or polite, every innocent man, without
exception, has as good a right to liberty as to life."--_Beattie's Moral
Science_, p. 313.

"Then say how hope and fear, desire and hate,
O'erspread with snares the crowded maze of fate."--_Dr. Johnson_.

RULE VI.--WORDS PUT ABSOLUTE.

Nouns or pronouns put absolute, should, with their adjuncts, be set off by
the comma; as, "The prince, _his father being dead_, succeeded."--"_This
done_, we parted."--"_Zaccheus_, make haste and come down."--"_His
proctorship in Sicily_, what did it produce?"--_Cicero_.

"Wing'd with his fears, on foot he strove to fly,
_His steeds too distant_, and _the foe too nigh_"
--_Pope, Iliad_, xi, 440.

RULE VII.--WORDS IN APPOSITION.

Words in apposition, (especially if they have adjuncts,) are generally set
off by the comma; as, "He that now calls upon thee, is Theodore, _the
hermit of Teneriffe_."--_Johnson_. "LOWTH, _Dr. Robert, bishop of London_,
born in 1710, died in 1787."--_Biog. Dict._ "HOME, _Henry, lord
Kames_."--_Ib._

"What next I bring shall please thee, be assur'd,
Thy _likeness_, thy fit _help_, thy other _self_,
Thy _wish_ exactly to thy heart's desire."--_Milton, P. L._, viii, 450.

"And he, their prince, shall rank among my peers."--_Byron_.

EXCEPTION I.--COMPLEX NAMES.

When several words, in their common order, are used as one compound name,
the comma is not inserted; as, "Dr. Samuel Johnson,"--"Publius Gavius
Cosanus."

EXCEPTION II.--CLOSE APPOSITION.

When a common and a proper name are closely united, the comma is not
inserted; as, "The brook Kidron,"--"The river Don,"--"The empress
Catharine,"--"Paul the Apostle."

EXCEPTION III.--PRONOUN WITHOUT PAUSE.

When a pronoun is added to an other word merely for emphasis and
distinction, the comma is not inserted; as, "Ye men of Athens,"--"I
myself,"--"Thou flaming minister,"--"You princes."

EXCEPTION IV.--NAMES ACQUIRED.

When a name acquired by some action or relation, is put in apposition with
a preceding noun or pronoun, the comma is not inserted; as, "I made the
_ground_ my _bed_;"--"To make _him king_;"--"_Whom_ they revered as
_God_;"--"With _modesty_ thy _guide_."--_Pope._

RULE VIII.--ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives, when something depends on them, or when they have the import of
a dependent clause, should, with their adjuncts, be set off by the comma;
as,

1. ----------------------------"Among the roots
Of hazel, _pendent o'er the plaintive stream_,
They frame the first foundation of their domes."--_Thomson_.

2. -------------------------"Up springs the lark,
_Shrill-voic'd_ and _loud_, the messenger of morn."--_Id._

EXCEPTION.--ADJECTIVES RESTRICTIVE.

When an adjective immediately follows its noun, and is taken in a
restrictive sense, the comma should not be used before it; as,

----"And on the coast _averse_
From entrance or cherubic watch."--_Milton, P. L._, B. ix, l. 68.

RULE IX.--FINITE VERBS.

Where a finite verb is understood, a comma is generally required; as, "From
law arises security; from security, curiosity; from curiosity,
knowledge."--_Murray_.

"Else all my prose and verse were much the same;
This, prose on stilts; that, poetry fallen lame."--_Pope_.

EXCEPTION.--VERY SLIGHT PAUSE.

As the semicolon must separate the clauses when the comma is inserted by
this rule, if the pause for the omitted verb be very slight, it may be left
unmarked, and the comma be used for the clauses; as, "When the profligate
speaks of piety, the miser of generosity, the coward of valour, and the
corrupt of integrity, they are only the more despised by those who know
them."--_Comstock's Elocution_, p. 132.

RULE X.--INFINITIVES.

The infinitive mood, when it follows a verb from which it must be
separated, or when it depends on something remote or understood, is
generally, with its adjuncts, set off by the comma; as, "One of the
greatest secrets in composition is, _to know_ when to be
simple."--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 151. "To confess the truth, I was much in
fault."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 271.

"The Governor of all--has interposed,
Not seldom, his avenging arm, _to smite_
The injurious trampler upon nature's law."--_Cowper_.

RULE XI.--PARTICIPLES.

Participles, when something depends on them, when they have the import of a
dependent clause, or when they relate to something understood, should, with
their adjuncts, he set off by the comma; as, 1. "Law is a rule of civil
conduct, _prescribed_ by the supreme power in a state, _commanding_ what is
right, and _prohibiting_ what is wrong."--BLACKSTONE: _Beattie's Moral
Science_, p. 346.

2. "Young Edwin, _lighted by the evening star,
Lingering and list'ning_ wander'd down the vale."--_Beattie_.

3. "_United_, we stand; _divided_, we fall."--_Motto_.

4. "_Properly speaking_, there is no such thing as chance."

EXCEPTION.--PARTICIPLES RESTRICTIVE.

When a participle immediately follows its noun, and is taken in a
restrictive sense, the comma should not be used before it; as,

"A man _renown'd for repartee_,
Will seldom scruple to make free
With friendship's finest feeling."--_Cowper_.

RULE XII.--ADVERBS. Adverbs, when they break the connexion of a simple
sentence, or when they have not a close dependence on some particular word
in the context, should, with their adjuncts, be set off by the comma; as,
"We must not, _however_, confound this gentleness with the artificial
courtesy of the world."--"_Besides_, the mind must be employed."--_Gilpin_.
"_Most unquestionably_, no fraud was equal to all this."--_Lyttelton_.
"But, _unfortunately for us_, the tide was ebbing already."

"When buttress and buttress, _alternately_,
Seem framed of ebon and ivory."--_Scott's Lay_, p. 33.

RULE XIII.--CONJUNCTIONS.

Conjunctions, when they are separated from the principal clauses that
depend on them, or when they introduce examples, are generally set off by
the comma; _as_, "_But_, by a timely call upon Religion, the force of Habit
was eluded."--_Johnson_.

"They know the neck that joins the shore and sea,
_Or_, ah! how chang'd that fearless laugh would be."--_Crabbe_.

RULE XIV.--PREPOSITIONS.

Prepositions and their objects, when they break the connexion of a simple
sentence, or when they do not closely follow the words on which they
depend, are generally set off by the comma; as, "Fashion is, _for the most
part_, nothing but the ostentation of riches."--"_By reading_, we add the
experience of others to our own."

"In vain the sage, _with retrospective eye_,
Would from th' apparent What conclude the Why."--_Pope_.

RULE XV.--INTERJECTIONS.

Interjections that require a pause, though more commonly emphatic and
followed by the ecphoneme, are sometimes set off by the comma; as, "For,
_lo_, I will call all the families of the kingdoms of the
north."--_Jeremiah_, i, 15. "_O_, 'twas about something you would not
understand."--_Columbian Orator_, p. 221. "_Ha, ha!_ you were finely taken
in, then!"--_Aikin_. "_Ha, ha, ha!_ A facetious gentleman, truly!"--_Id._

"_Oh_, when shall Britain, conscious of her claim,
Stand emulous of Greek and Roman fame?"--_Pope_.

RULE XVI.--WORDS REPEATED.

A word emphatically repeated, is generally set off by the comma; as,
"Happy, happy, happy pair!"--_Dryden_. "Ay, ay, there is some comfort in
that."--_Shak_. "Ah! no, no, no."--_Dryden_.

"The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket,
The moss-covered bucket, which hung in the well!"--_Woodworth_.

RULE XVII.--DEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.

A quotation, observation, or description, when it is introduced in close
dependence on a verb, (as, _say, reply, cry_, or the like,) is generally
separated from the rest of the sentence by the comma; as, "'The book of
nature,' said he, 'is before thee.'"--_Hawkesworth_. "I say unto all,
Watch."--_Mark_. "'The boy has become a man,' means, 'he has _grown to be_
a man.' 'Such conduct becomes a man,' means, 'such conduct _befits_
him.'"--_Hart's Gram._, p. 116.

"While man exclaims, 'See all things for my use!'
'See man for mine!' replies a pamper'd goose."--_Pope_.

IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE PUNCTUATION.--ERRORS CONCERNING THE COMMA.

UNDER RULE I.--OF SIMPLE SENTENCES.

"Short, simple sentences should not be separated by a comma."--_Felton's
Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 135; 3d Ed., Stereotyped, p. 137.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because a needless comma is put after _short_, the
sentence being simple. But, according to Rule 1st for the Comma, "A simple
sentence does not, in general, admit the comma." Therefore, this comma
should be omitted; thus, "Short simple sentences should not be separated by
a comma." Or, much better: "_A_ short simple _sentence_ should _rarely be
divided_ by _the_ comma." For such sentences, combined to form a period,
_should generally be separated_; and even a single one may have some phrase
that must be set off.]

"A regular and virtuous education, is an inestimable blessing."--_Murray's
Key_, 8vo, p. 174. "Such equivocal expressions, mark an intention to
deceive."--_Ib._, p. 256. "They are, _This_ and _that_, with their plurals
_these_ and _those_."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 26; _Practical Lessons_, p.
3. "A nominative case and a verb, sometimes make a complete sentence; as,
He sleeps."--_Felton's Gram._, p. 78. "_Tense_, expresses the action
connected with certain relations of time; _mood_, represents it as farther
modified by circumstances of contingency, conditionally, &c."--_Bullions,
E. Gram._, p. 37. "The word Noun, means name."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 14.
"The present, or active participle, I explained then."--_Ib._, p. 97. "Are
some verbs used, both transitively and intransitively?"--_Cooper's Pt. and
Pract. Gram._, p. 54. "Blank verse, is verse without rhyme."--_Hallock's
Gram._, p. 242. "A distributive adjective, denotes each one of a number
considered separately."--_Ib._, p. 51.

"And may at last my weary age,
Find out the peaceful hermitage."
--_Murray's Gr._, 12mo, p. 205; 8vo, 255.

UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING SIMPLE SENTENCES.

"A noun without an Article to limit it is taken in its widest
sense."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 8; _Practical Lessons_, p. 10.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma is here set before the verb _is
taken_. But, according to the Exception to Rule 1st for the Comma, "When
the nominative in a long simple sentence is accompanied by inseparable
adjuncts, or when several words together are used in stead of a nominative,
a comma should be placed immediately before the verb." Therefore, a comma
should be here inserted; thus, "A noun without an article to limit it, is
taken in its widest sense."--_Lennie's Gram._, p. 6.]

"To maintain a steady course amid all the adversities of life marks a great
mind."--_Day's District School Gram._, p. 84. "To love our Maker supremely
and our neighbor as ourselves comprehends the whole moral law."--_Ibid._
"To be afraid to do wrong is true courage."--_Ib._, p. 85. "A great fortune
in the hands of a fool is a great misfortune."--_Bullions, Practical
Lessons_, p. 89. "That he should make such a remark is indeed
strange."--_Farnum, Practical Gram._, p. 30. "To walk in the fields and
groves is delightful."--_Id., ib._ "That he committed the fault is most
certain."--_Id., ib._ "Names common to all things of the same sort or class
are called _Common nouns_; as, _man, woman, day_."--_Bullions, Pract.
Les._, p. 12. "That it is our duty to be pious _admits_ not of any
doubt."--_Id., E. Gram._, p. 118. "To endure misfortune with resignation is
the characteristic of a great mind,"--_Id., ib._, p. 81. "The assisting of
a friend in such circumstances was certainly a duty."--_Id., ib._, 81.
"That a life of virtue is the safest is certain."--_Hallock's Gram._, p.
169. "A collective noun denoting the idea of unity should be represented by
a pronoun of the singular number."--_Ib._, p. 167.

UNDER RULE II.--OF SIMPLE MEMBERS.

"When the sun had arisen the enemy retreated."--_Day's District School
Gram._, p. 85.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma here separates the two simple
members which compose the sentence. But, according to Rule 2d, "The simple
members of a compound sentence, whether successive or involved, elliptical
or complete, are generally divided by the comma." Therefore, a comma should
be inserted after _arisen_; thus, "When the sun had arisen, the enemy
retreated."]

"If he _become_ rich he may be less industrious."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p.
118. "The more I study grammar the better I like it."--_Id., ib._, p. 127.
"There is much truth in the old adage that fire is a better servant than
master."--_Id., ib._, p. 128. "The verb _do_, when used as an auxiliary
gives force or emphasis to the expression."--_Day's Gram._, p. 39.
"Whatsoever it is incumbent upon a man to do it is surely expedient to do
well."--_J. Q. Adams's Rhetoric_, Vol. i, p. 46. "The soul which our
philosophy divides into various capacities, is still one
essence."--_Channing, on Self-Culture_, p. 15. "Put the following words in
the plural and give the rule for forming it."--_Bullions, Practical
Lessons_, p. 19. "We will do it if you wish."--_Id., ib._, p. 29. "He who
does well will be rewarded."--_Id., ib._, 29. "That which is always true is
expressed in the present tense."--_Id., ib._, p. 119. "An observation which
is always true must be expressed in the present tense."--_Id., Prin. of E.
Gram._, p. 123. "That part of orthography which treats of combining letters
to form syllables and words is called SPELLING."--_Day's Gram._, p. 8. "A
noun can never be of the first person except it is in apposition with a
pronoun of that person."--_Ib._, p. 14. "When two or more singular nouns or
pronouns refer to the same object they require a singular verb and
pronoun."--_Ib._, p. 80. "James has gone but he will return in a few
days."--_Ib._, 89. "A pronoun should have the same person, number, and
gender as the noun for which it stands."--_Ib._, 89 and 80. "Though he is
out of danger he is still afraid."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 80. "She is
his inferior in sense but his equal in prudence."--_Ib._, p. 81. "The man
who has no sense of religion is little to be trusted."--_Ib._, 81. "He who
does the most good has the most pleasure."--_Ib._, 81. "They were not in
the most prosperous circumstances when we last saw them."--_Ib._, 81. "If
the day continue pleasant I shall return."--_Felton's Gram._, 1st Ed., p.
22; Ster. Ed., 24. "The days that are past are gone for ever."--_Ib._, pp.
89 and 92. "As many as are friendly to the cause will sustain it."--_Ib._,
89 and 92. "Such as desire aid will receive it."--_Ib._, 89 and 92. "Who
gave you that book which you prize so much?"--_Bullions, Pract. Lessons_,
p. 32. "He who made it now preserves and governs it."--_Bullions, E.
Gram._, p. 83.

"Shall he alone, whom rational we call,
Be pleased with nothing if not blessed with all?"
--_Felton's Gram._, p. 126.

UNDER THE EXCEPTIONS CONCERNING SIMPLE MEMBERS.

"Newcastle is the town, in which Akenside was born."--_Bucke's Classical
Gram._, p. 54.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because a needless comma here separates the
restrictive relative _which_ from its antecedent _town_. But, according to
Exception 1st to Rule 2d, "When a relative immediately follows its
antecedent, and is taken in a restrictive sense, the comma should not be
introduced before it." Therefore, this comma Should be omitted; thus,
"Newcastle is the town in which Akenside was born."]

"The remorse, which issues in reformation, is true
repentance."--_Campbell's Philos. of Rhet._, p. 255. "Men, who are
intemperate, are destructive members of community."--_Alexander's Gram._,
p. 93. "An active-transitive verb expresses an action, which extends to an
object."--_Felton's Gram._, pp. 16 and 22. "They, to whom much is given,
will have much to answer for."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 188. "The prospect,
which we have, is charming."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._, p. 143. "He is
the person, who informed me of the matter."--_Ib._, p. 134; _Cooper's
Murray_, 120. "These are the trees, that produce no fruit."--_Ib._, 134;
and 120. "This is the book, which treats of the subject."--_Ib._, 134; and
120. "The proposal was such, as pleased me."--_Cooper, Pl. and Pr. Gram._,
p. 134. "Those, that sow in tears, shall reap in joy."--_Id., ib._, pp. 118
and 124; and _Cooper's Murray_, p. 141. "The pen, with which I write, makes
too large a mark."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 71. "Modesty makes large amends
for the pain, it gives the persons, who labour under it, by the prejudice,
it affords every worthy person in their favour."--_Ib._, p. 80. "Irony is a
figure, whereby we plainly intend something very different from what our
words express."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 108. "Catachresis is a figure, whereby
an improper word is used instead of a proper one."--_Ib._, p. 109. "The
man, whom you met at the party, is a Frenchman."--_Frost's Practical
Gram._, p. 155.

UNDER RULE III.--OF MORE THAN TWO WORDS.

"John, James and Thomas are here:
that is, John _and_ James, &c."--_Cooper's Plain and Practical Grammar_, p.
153.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma is here used after _James_, or
after _Thomas_, or again after _John_, in the latter clause; the three
nouns being supposed to be in the same construction, and all of them
nominatives to the verb _are_. But, according to Rule 3d for the Comma,
"When more than two words or terms are connected in the same construction,
or in a joint dependence on some other term, by conjunctions expressed or
understood, the comma should be inserted after every one of them but the
last; and, if they are nominatives before a verb, the comma should follow
the last also." Therefore, the comma should be inserted after each; thus,
"John, James, and Thomas, are here: that is, John, _and_ James, and Thomas,
are here."][463]

"Adverbs modify verbs adjectives and other adverbs."--_Bullions, E. Gram._,
p. 97. "To Nouns belong Person, Gender, Number and Case."--_Id., Practical
Lessons_, p. 12. "Wheat, corn, rye, and oats are extensively
cultivated."--_Id., ib._, p. 13. "In many, the definitions, rules and
leading facts are prolix, inaccurate and confused."--_Finch's Report on
Gram._, p. 3. "Most people consider it mysterious, difficult and
useless."--_Ib._, p. 3. "His father and mother, and uncle reside at
Rome."--_Farnum's Gram._, p. 11. "The relative pronouns are _who, which_
and _that_."--_Bullions, Practical Lessons_, p. 29. "_That_ is sometimes a
demonstrative, sometimes a relative and sometimes a conjunction."--_Id.,
ib._, p. 33. "Our reputation, virtue, and happiness greatly depend on the
choice of our companions."--_Day's Gram._, p. 92. "The spirit of true
religion is social, kind and cheerful."--_Felton's Gram._, p. 81. "_Do, be,
have_ and _will_ are sometimes principal verbs."--_Ib._, p. 26. "John and
Thomas and Peter reside at Oxford."--_Webster, Philos. Gram._, p. 142;
_Improved Gram._, p. 96. "The most innocent pleasures are the most
rational, the most delightful and the most durable."--_Id., ib._, pp. 215
and 151. "Love, joy, peace and blessedness are reserved for the
good."--_Id., ib._, 215 and 151. "The husband, wife and children, suffered
extremely."--_Murray's Gram._, 4th Am. Ed., 8vo, p. 269. "The husband,
wife, and children suffer extremely."--_Sanborn's Analytical Gram._, p.
268. "He, you, and I have our parts assigned us."--_Ibid._

"He moaned, lamented, tugged and tried,
Repented, promised, wept and sighed."--_Felton's Gr._, p. 108.

UNDER RULE IV.--OF ONLY TWO WORDS.

"Disappointments derange, and overcome, vulgar minds."--_Murray's
Exercises_, p. 15.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the two verbs here connected by _and_, are
needlessly separated from each other, and from their object following. But,
according to Rule 4th, "When only two words or terms are connected by a
conjunction, they should not be separated by the comma." Therefore, these
two commas should be omitted; thus, "Disappointments derange and overcome
vulgar minds."]

"The hive of a city, or kingdom, is in the best condition, when there is
the least noise or buzz in it."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 171. "When a
direct address is made, the noun, or pronoun, is in the nominative case
independent."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 88. "The verbs _love_ and _teach_,
make _loved_, and _taught_, in the imperfect and participle."--_Ib._, p.
97. "Neither poverty, nor riches were injurious to him."--_Cooper's Pl. and
Pr. Gram._, p. 133. "Thou, or I am in fault."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 136. "A
verb is a word that expresses action, or being."--_Day's District School
Gram._, pp. 11 and 61. "The Objective Case denotes the object of a verb, or
a preposition."--_Ib._, pp. 17 and 19. "Verbs of the second conjugation may
be either transitive, or intransitive."--_Ib._, p. 41. "Verbs of the fourth
conjugation may be either transitive, or intransitive."--_Ib._, 41. "If a
verb does not form its past indicative by adding _d_, or _ed_ to the
indicative present, it is said to be _irregular_."--_Ib._, 41. "The young
lady is studying rhetoric, and logic."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._, p.
143. "He writes, and speaks the language very correctly."--_Ib._, p. 148.
"Man's happiness, or misery, is, in a great measure, put into his own
hands."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 183. "This accident, or characteristic of
nouns, is called their _Gender_."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, 1843, p. 195.

"Grant that the powerful still the weak controul;
Be Man the Wit, and Tyrant of the whole."
--POPE: _Brit. Poets_, vi, 375.

UNDER EXCEPTION I.--TWO WORDS WITH ADJUNCTS.

"Franklin is justly considered the ornament of the new world and the pride
of modern philosophy."--_Day's District School Gram._, p. 88.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the words _ornament_ and _pride_, each of
which has adjuncts, are here connected by _and_ without a comma before it.
But, according to Exception 1st to Rule 4th, "When the two words connected
have several adjuncts, or when one of them has an adjunct that relates not
to both, the comma is inserted." Therefore, a comma should be set before
_and_; thus, "Franklin is justly considered the ornament of the New World,
and the pride of modern philosophy."]

"Levity and attachment to worldly
pleasures, destroy the sense of gratitude to him."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p.
183. "In the following Exercise, point out the adjectives and the
substantives which they qualify."--_Bullions, Practical Lessons_, p. 100.
"When a noun or pronoun is used to explain or give emphasis to a preceding
noun or pronoun."--_Day's Gram._, p. 87. "Superior talents and _briliancy_
of intellect do not always constitute a great man."--_Ib._, p. 92. "A word
that makes sense after an _article_ or the phrase _speak of_, is a
noun."--_Bullions, Practical Lessons_, p. 12. "All feet used in poetry, are
reducible to eight kinds; four of two syllables and four of
three."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 123. "He would not do it himself nor let me do
it."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 113.[464] "The old writers give examples of
the subjunctive mode and give other modes to explain what is meant by the
words in the subjunctive."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 352.

UNDER EXCEPTION II.--TWO TERMS CONTRASTED.

"We often commend as well as censure imprudently."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p.
214. "It is as truly a violation of the right of property, to take little
as to take much; to purloin a book, or a penknife, as to steal money; to
steal fruit as to steal a horse; to defraud the revenue as to rob my
neighbour; to overcharge the public as to overcharge my brother; to cheat
the postoffice as to cheat my friend."--_Wayland's Moral Science_, 1st
Edition, p. 254. "The classification of verbs has been and still is a vexed
question."--_Bullions, E. Grammar_, Revised Edition, p. 200. "Names applied
only to individuals of a sort or class and not common to all, are called
_Proper Nouns_."--_Id., Practical Lessons_, p. 12. "A hero would desire to
be loved as well as to be reverenced."--_Day's Gram._, p. 108. "Death or
some worse misfortune now divides them."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._, p.
133. "Alexander replied, 'The world will not permit two suns nor two
sovereigns.'"--_Goldsmith's Greece_, Vol. ii, p. 113.

"From nature's chain, whatever link you strike,
Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike."
--_Felton's Gram._, p. 131.

UNDER EXCEPTION III.--ALTERNATIVE OF WORDS.

"_Metre_ or _Measure_ is the number of poetical feet which a verse
contains."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 123. "The _Caesura_ or _division_, is the
pause which takes place in a verse, and which divides it into two
parts."--_Ib._, 123. "It is six feet or one fathom deep."--_Bullions, E.
Gram._, p. 113. "A BRACE is used in poetry at the end of a triplet or three
lines which rhyme together."--_Felton's Gram._, p. 142. "There are four
principal kinds of English verse or poetical feet."--_Ib._, p. 143. "The
period or full stop denotes the end of a complete sentence."--_Sanborn's
Analytical Gram._, p. 271. "The scholar is to receive as many _jetons_ or
counters as there are words in the sentence."--_St. Quentin's Gram._, p.
16. "_That_ [thing] or _the thing which_ purifies, fortifies also the
heart."--_Peirce's Gram._, p. 74. "_That thing_ or _the thing which_ would
induce a laxity in public or private morals, or indifference to guilt and
wretchedness, should be regarded as the deadly Sirocco."--_Ib._, 74. "What
is elliptically _what thing_ or _that thing which_."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p.
99. "_Demonstrate_ means _show_ or _point out precisely_."--_Ib._, p. 139.
"_The_ man or _that_ man, who endures to the end, shall be
saved."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 73. UNDER EXCEPTION IV.--A SECOND COMMA.

"Reason, passion answer one great end."--_Bullions's E. Gram._, p. 152;
_Hiley's_, p. 112. "Reason, virtue answer one great aim."--_Cooper's Pl.
and Pract. Gram._, p. 194; _Butler's_, 204. "Every good gift, and every
perfect gift is from above."--_Felton's Gram._, p. 90. "Every plant, and
every tree produces others after its kind."--_Day's Gram._, p. 91. "James,
and not John was paid for his services."--_Ib._, 91. "The single dagger, or
obelisk [Dagger] is the second."--_Ib._, p. 113. "It was I, not he that did
it."--_St. Quentin's Gram._, p. 152. "Each aunt, (and) each cousin hath her
speculation."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 139. "'I shall see you _when_ you
come,' is equivalent to 'I shall see you _then_, or _at that time_ when you
come.'"--_Butler's Pract. Gram._, p. 121.

"Let wealth, let honour wait the wedded dame,
August her deed, and sacred be her fame."--_Pope_, p. 334.

UNDER RULE V.--OF WORDS IN PAIRS.

"My hopes and fears, joys and sorrows centre in you."--B. GREENLEAF:
_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 268.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma here separates the second pair of
nominatives from the verb. But, according to Rule 5th, "When successive
words are joined in pairs by conjunctions, they should be separated in
pairs by the comma." Therefore, an other comma should be inserted after
_sorrows_; thus, "My hopes and fears, joys and sorrows, centre in you."]

"This mood implies possibility, or liberty, will, or
obligation."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 113. "Substance is divided into Body,
and Spirit into Extended and Thinking."--_Brightland's Gram._, p. 253.
"These consonants, [_d_ and _t_,] like _p_, and _b, f_, and _v, k_, and
hard _g_, and _s_, and _z_, are letters of the same organ."--_Walkers
Dict._, p. 41: _Principles_, No. 358. "Neither fig nor twist pigtail nor
cavendish have passed my lips since, nor ever shall they again."--_Boston
Cultivator_, Vol. vii, p. 36. "The words WHOEVER, or WHOSOEVER, WHICHEVER,
or WHICHSOEVER, and WHATEVER, or WHATSOEVER are called COMPOUND RELATIVE
PRONOUNS."--_Day's Gram._, p. 23. "Adjectives signifying profit or
disprofit, likeness or unlikeness govern the dative."--_Bullions, Lat.
Gram._, 12th Ed., 215.

UNDER RULE VI.--OF WORDS ABSOLUTE.

"Thy rod and thy staff they comfort me."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 135.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma is here set after _staff_, which,
with the noun _rod_, is put absolute by pleonasm. But, according to Rule
6th, "Nouns or pronouns put absolute, should, with their adjuncts, be set
off by the comma." Therefore, a comma should be here inserted; thus, "Thy
rod and thy staff, they comfort me."--_Psalm_ xxiii, 4.]

"Depart ye wicked."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 70. "He saith to his mother,
Woman behold thy son."--_Gurney's Portable Evidences_, p. 44. "Thou God
seest me."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 9; _Practical Lessons_, p. 13. "Thou,
God seest me."--_Id., E. Gram._, Revised Ed., p. 195. "John write me a
letter. Henry go home."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 356. "John; write a
letter. Henry; go home."--_Ib._, p. 317. "Now, G. Brown; let us reason
together."--_Ib._, p. 326. "Smith: You say on page 11, the objective case
denotes the object."--_Ib._, p. 344. "Gentlemen: will you always speak as
you mean?"--_Ib._, p. 352. "John: I sold my books to William for his
brothers."--_Ib._, p. 47. "Walter and Seth: I will take my things, and
leave yours."--_Ib._, p. 69. "Henry: Julia and Jane left their umbrella,
and took yours."--_Ib._, p. 73. "John; harness the horses and go to the
mine for some coal. William; run to the store for a few pounds of
tea."--_Ib._, p. 160. "The king being dead the parliament was
dissolved."--_Chandler's Gram._, p. 119.

"Cease fond nature, cease thy strife,
And let me languish into life."--_Bullions's E. Gram._, p. 173.

"Forbear great man, in arms renown'd, forbear."--_Ib._, p. 174.

"Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind,
Each prayer accepted and each wish resign'd."--_Hiley's Gr._, p. 123.

UNDER RULE VII.--WORDS IN APPOSITION.

"We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union,
establish justice," &c.--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 200.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma is here set after the pronoun _We_,
with which the word _people_, which has adjuncts, is in apposition. But,
according to Rule 7th, "Words in apposition, (especially if they have
adjuncts,) are generally set off by the comma." Therefore, an other comma
should be here inserted; thus, "We, the people of the United States," &c.]

"The Lord, the covenant God of his people requires it."--_Anti-Slavery
Magazine_, Vol. i, p. 73. "He as a patriot deserves praise."--_Hallock's
Gram._, p. 124. "Thomson the watchmaker and jeweller from London, was of
the party."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 128. "Every body knows that the
person here spoken of by the name of _the conqueror_, is William duke of
Normandy."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 33. "The words _myself, thyself,
himself, herself_, and their plurals _ourselves, yourselves_, and
_themselves_ are called Compound Personal Pronouns."--_Day's Gram._, p. 22.

"For who to dumb forgetfulness a prey,
This pleasing anxious being e'er resign'd,
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day,
Nor cast one longing, ling'ring look behind?"--_U. Poems_, p. 68.

UNDER EXCEPTIONS CONCERNING APPOSITION.

"Smith and Williams' store; Nicholas, the emperor's army."--_Day's Gram._,
p. 17. "He was named William, the conqueror."--_Ib._, p. 80. "John, the
Baptist, was beheaded."--_Ib._, p. 87. "Alexander, the coppersmith, did me
great harm."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 126. "A nominative in immediate
apposition; as, 'The boy, _Henry_, speaks.'"--_Smart's Accidence_, p. 29.
"A noun objective can be in apposition with some other; as, 'I teach the
boy, _Henry_.'"--_Ib._, p. 30.

UNDER RULE VIII.--OF ADJECTIVES.

"But he found me, not singing at my work ruddy with health vivid with
cheerfulness; but pale and dejected, sitting on the ground, and chewing
opium."

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the phrases, "_ruddy with health_," and
"_vivid with cheerfulness_," which begin with adjectives, are not here
_commaed_. But, according to Rule 8th, "Adjectives, when something depends
on them, or when they have the import of a dependent clause, should, with
their adjuncts, be set off by the comma." Therefore, two other commas
should be here inserted; thus, "But he found me, not singing at my work,
ruddy with health, vivid with cheerfulness; but pale," &c.--_Dr. Johnson_.]

"I looked up, and beheld an inclosure beautiful as the gardens of paradise,
but of a small extent."--See _Key._ "_A_ is an article, indefinite and
belongs to '_book_.'"--_Bullions, Practical Lessons_, p. 10. "The first
expresses the rapid movement of a troop of horse over the plain eager for
the combat."--_Id., Lat. Gram._, p. 296. "He [, the Indian chieftain, King
Philip,] was a patriot, attached to his native soil; a prince true to his
subjects and indignant of their wrongs; a soldier daring in battle firm in
adversity patient of fatigue, of hunger, of every variety of bodily
suffering and ready to perish in the cause he had espoused."--See _Key_.

"For thee, who mindful of th' unhonour'd dead
Dost in these lines their artless tale relate."
--_Union Poems_, p. 68.

"Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest:
Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood."
--_Day's Gram._, p. 117.

"Idle after dinner in his chair
Sat a farmer ruddy, fat, and fair."
--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 125.

UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING ADJECTIVES.

"When an attribute becomes a title, or is emphatically applied to a name,
it follows it; as Charles, the Great; Henry, the First; Lewis, the
Gross."--_Webster's Philos. Gram._, p. 153; _Improved Gram._, p. 107. "Feed
me with food, convenient for me."--_Cooper's Practical Gram._, p. 118. "The
words and phrases, necessary to exemplify every principle progressively
laid down, will be found strictly and exclusively adapted to the
illustration of the principles to which they are referred."--_Ingersoll's
Gram., Pref._, p. x. "The _Infinitive Mode_ is that form of the verb which
expresses action or being, unlimited by person, or number."--_Day's Gram._,
p. 35. "A man, diligent in his business, prospers."--_Frost's Practical
Gram._, p. 113.

"O wretched state! oh bosom, black as death!"
--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 118.

"O, wretched state! O, bosom, black as death!"
--_Singer's Shak._, Vol. ii, p. 494.

UNDER RULE IX.--OF FINITE VERBS.

"The Singular denotes _one_; the Plural _more_ than one."--_Bullions, E.
Gram._, p. 12; _Pract. Lessons_, p. 16; _Lennie's Gram._, p. 7.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma is here set after _Plural_, where
the verb _denotes_ is understood. But, according to Rule 9th, "Where a
finite verb is understood, a comma is generally required." Therefore, a
comma should be inserted at the place mentioned; thus, "The Singular
denotes _one_; the Plural, _more_ than one."]

"The _comma_ represents the shortest pause; the _semicolon_ a pause longer
than the comma; the _colon_ longer than the semicolon; and the _period_
longer than the colon."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 111. "The comma represents the
shortest pause; the semicolon a pause double that of the comma; the colon,
double that of the semicolon; and the period, double that of the
colon."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 151; _Pract. Lessons_, p. 127. "Who is
applied only to persons; which to animals and things; what to things only;
and that to persons, animals, and things."--_Day's Gram._, p. 23. "_A_ or
_an_ is used before the singular number only; _the_ before either singular
or plural."--_Bullions, Practical Lessons_, p. 10. "Homer was the greater
genius; Virgil the better artist."--_Day's Gram._, p. 96. "Homer was the
greater genius, Virgil the better artist."--POPE'S PREFACE: _British
Poets_, Vol. vi, p. viii. "Words are formed of syllables; syllables of
letters."--_St. Quentin's General Gram._, p. 2. "The Conjugation of an
active verb is styled the ACTIVE VOICE; and that of a passive verb the
PASSIVE VOICE."--_Frost's El. of E. Gram._, p. 19. "The CONJUGATION of an
active verb is styled the ACTIVE VOICE, and that of a passive verb the
PASSIVE VOICE."--_Smith's New. Gram._, p. 171. "The possessive is sometimes
called the genitive case; and the objective the accusative."--_L. Murray's
Gram._, 12mo, p. 44. "Benevolence is allied to few vices; selfishness to
fewer virtues."--_Kames, Art of Thinking_, p. 40. "Orthography treats of
Letters, Etymology of Words, Syntax of Sentences, and Prosody of
Versification."--_Hart's English Gram._, p. 21.

"Earth praises conquerors for shedding blood;
Heaven those that love their foes, and do them good."--See _Key_.

UNDER RULE X.--OF INFINITIVES.

"His business is to observe the agreement or disagreement of
words."--_Bullions, E. Grammar_, Revised Edition, p. 189.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma here divides _to observe_ from the
preceding verb. But, according to Rule 10th, "The infinitive mood, when it
follows a verb from which it must be separated, or when it depends on
something remote or understood, is generally, with its adjuncts, set off by
the comma." Therefore, a comma should be inserted after _is_; thus, "His
business is, to observe the agreement or disagreement of words."]

"It is a mark of distinction to be made a member of this society."--
_Farnum's Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 25; 2d Ed., p. 23. "To distinguish the
conjugations let the pupil observe the following rules."--_Day's D. S.
Gram._, p. 40. "He was now sent for to preach before the Parliament."--
_Life of Dr. J. Owen_, p. 18. "It is incumbent on the young to love and
honour their parents."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 83. "It is the business of
every man to prepare for death."--_Id., ib._, 83. "It argued the sincerest
candor to make such an acknowledgement."--_Id., ib._, p. 115. "The proper
way is to complete the construction of the first member, and leave that of
the second understood."--_Ib., ib._, p. 125. "ENEMY is a name. It is a term
of distinction given to a certain person to show the character in which he
is represented."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 23. "The object of this is to
preserve the soft sound of _c_ and _g_."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 29. "The
design of grammar is to facilitate the _reading, writing_, and _speaking_
of a language."--_Barrett's Gram._, 10th Ed., Pref., p. iii. "Four kinds of
type are used in the following pages to indicate the portions that are
considered more or less elementary."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 3.

UNDER RULE XI.--OF PARTICIPLES.

"The chancellor being attached to the king secured his crown."--_Wright's
Gram._, p. 114.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the phrase, "being attached to the king," is
not _commaed_. But, according to Rule 11th, "Participles, when something
depends on them, when they have the import of a dependent clause, or when
they relate to something understood, should, with their adjuncts, be set
off by the comma." Therefore, two commas should be here inserted; thus,
"The chancellor, being attached to the king, secured his crown."--_Murray's
Gram._, p. 66.]

"The officer having received his orders, proceeded to execute them."--
_Day's Gram._, p. 108. "Thus used it is in the present tense."--_Bullions,
E. Gram._, Revised Ed., p. 33. "The _Imperfect_ tense has three distinct
forms corresponding to those of the present tense."--_Id., ib._, p. 40.
"Every possessive case is governed by some noun denoting the thing
possessed."--_Id., ib._, p. 87. "The word _that_ used as a conjunction is
preceded by a comma."--_Id., ib._, p. 154. "His narrative being composed
upon such good authority, deserves credit."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._,
p. 97. "The hen being in her nest, was killed and eaten there by the
eagle."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo. p. 252. "Pronouns being used instead of nouns
are subject to the same modifications."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 92. "When
placed at the beginning of words they are consonants."--_Hallock's Gram._,
p. 14. "Man starting from his couch, shall sleep no more."--_Ib._, p. 222.
"_His_ and _her_ followed by a noun are possessive pronouns: not followed
by a noun they are personal pronouns."--_Bullions, Practical Lessons_, p.
33.

"He with viny crown advancing,
First to the lively pipe his hand addressed."--_Id., E. Gram._, p. 83.

UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING PARTICIPLES.

"But when they convey the idea of many, acting individually, or separately,
they are of the plural number."--_Day's Gram._, p. 15. "Two or more
singular antecedents, connected by _and_ require verbs and pronouns of the
plural number."--_Ib._, pp. 80 and 91. "Words ending in _y_, preceded by a
consonant, change _y_ into _i_ when a termination is added."--_Butlers
Gram._, p. 11. "A noun, used without an article to limit it, is generally
taken in its widest sense."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 30. "Two nouns,
meaning the same person or thing, frequently come together."--_Bucke's
Gram._, p. 89. "Each one must give an account to God for the use, or the
abuse of the talents, committed to him."--_Coopers Pl. and Pract. Gram._,
p. 133. "Two vowels, united in one sound, form a diphthong."--_Frost's El.
of Gram._, p. 6. "Three vowels, united in one sound, form a
triphthong."--_Ib._ "Any word, joined to an adverb, is a secondary
adverb."--_Barrett's Revised Gram._, p. 68. "The person, spoken to, is put
in the Second person. The person, spoken of, in the Third
person."--_Cutler's Gram._, p. 14. "A man, devoted to his business,
prospers."--_Frost's Pr. Gram._, p. 113.

UNDER RULE XII.--OF ADVERBS.

"So in indirect questions; as, 'Tell me _when_ he will come.'"--_Butler's
Gram._, p. 121.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the adverb _So_ is not set off by the comma.
But according to Rule 12th, "Adverbs, when they break the connexion of a
simple sentence, or when they have not a close dependence on some
particular word in the context, should, with their adjuncts, be set off by
the comma." Therefore, a comma should be inserted after _So_; thus, "So, in
indirect questions; as," &c.]

"Now when the verb tells what one person or thing does to another, the verb
is transitive."--_Bullions, Pract. Les._, p 37. "Agreeably to your request
I send this letter."--_Id., E. Gram._, p. 141. "There seems therefore, to
be no good reason for giving them a different classification."--_Id., E.
Gram._, p. 199. "Again the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchantman,
seeking goodly pearls."--ALGER'S BIBLE: _Matt._, xiii, 45. "Again the
kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea."--_Ib,
ib._, verse 47. "_Cease_ however, is used as a transitive verb by our best
writers."--_Webster's Philos. Gram._, p. 171. "Time admits of three natural
divisions, namely: Present, Past, and Future."--_Day's Gram._, p. 37.
"There are three kinds of comparison, namely: regular, irregular, and
adverbial."--_Ib._, p. 31. "There are five Personal Pronouns namely: _I,
thou, he, she_, and _it_."--_Ib._, p. 22. "Nouns have three cases, viz. the
Nominative, Possessive, and Objective."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 16; _P.
Lessons_, p. 19. "Hence in studying Grammar, we have to study
words."--_Frazee's Gram._, p. 18. "Participles like Verbs relate to Nouns
and Pronouns."--_Miller's Ready Grammarian_, p. 23. "The time of the
participle like that of the infinitive is estimated from the time of the
leading verb."--_Bullions, Lat. Gram._, p. 97.

"The dumb shall sing the lame his crutch forego,
And leap exulting like the bounding roe."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 123.

UNDER RULE XIII.--OF CONJUNCTIONS.

"But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the
wheat with them."--FRIENDS' BIBLE, and SMITH'S: _Matt._, xiii, 29.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma is inserted after _lest_. But,
according to Rule 13th, "Conjunctions, when they are separated from the
principal clauses that depend on them, or when they introduce examples, are
generally set off by the comma." Therefore, a comma should be put after the
word _lest_; thus, "But he said, Nay; lest, while ye gather up the tares,
ye root up also the wheat with them."--SCOTT'S BIBLE, ALGER'S, BRUCE'S.]

"Their intentions were good; but wanting prudence, they missed the mark at
which they aimed."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, Vol. ii, p. 221. "The verb _be_
often separates the name from its attribute; as war is expensive."--
_Webster's Philos. Gram._, p. 153. "_Either_ and _or_ denote an
alternative; as 'I will take _either_ road at your pleasure.'"--_Ib._, p.
63; _Imp. Gram._, 45. "_Either_ is also a substitute for a name; as
'_Either_ of the roads is good.'"--_Webster, both Grams._, 63 and 45. "But
alas! I fear the consequence."--_Day's Gram._, p. 74. "Or if he ask a fish,
will he for a fish give him a serpent?"--_Scott's Bible, and Smith's_. "Or
if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?"--_Smiths Bible_.
"The infinitive sometimes performs the office of a nominative case, as 'To
enjoy is to obey.'--POPE."--_Cutler's Gram._, p. 62. "The plural is
commonly formed by adding _s_ to the singular, as _book,
books_."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 12. "As 'I _were_ to blame, if I did
it.'"--_Smart's Accidence_, p. 16.

"Or if it be thy will and pleasure
Direct my plough to find a treasure."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 124.

"Or if it be thy will and pleasure,
Direct my plough to find a treasure."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 185.

UNDER RULE XIV.--OF PREPOSITIONS.

"Pronouns agree with the nouns for which they stand in gender, number, and
person."--_Butler's Practical Gram._, pp. 141 and 148; _Bullions's Analyt.
and Pract. Gram._, p. 150.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the preposition _in_ has not the comma
before it, as the text requires. But, according to Rule 14th, "Prepositions
and their objects, when they break the connexion of a simple sentence, or
when they do not closely follow the words on which they depend, are
generally set off by the comma." Therefore, a comma should be here
inserted; thus, "Pronouns agree with the nouns for which they stand, in
gender, number, and person." Or the words may be transposed, and the comma
set before _with_; thus, "Pronouns agree _in_ gender, number, and person,
_with_ the nouns for which they stand."]

"In the first two examples the antecedent is _person_, or something
equivalent; in the last it is _thing_."--_Butler_, ib., p. 53. "In what
character he was admitted is unknown."--_Ib._, p. 55. "To what place he was
going is not known."--_Ib._, p. 55. "In the preceding examples _John,
Caesar_, and _James_ are the subjects."--_Ib._, p. 59. "_Yes_ is generally
used to denote assent in _the_ answer to a question."--_Ib._, p. 120.
"_That_ in its origin is the passive participle of the Anglo-Saxon verb
_thean, to take_"--_Ib._, p. 127. "But in all these sentences _as_ and _so_
are _adverbs_."--_Ib._, p. 127. "After an interjection or exclamatory
sentence is placed the mark of exclamation."--_Blair's Gram._, p. 116.
"Intransitive verbs from their nature can have no distinction of
voice."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 30. "To the inflection of verbs belong
Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons."--_Id._, ib., p. 33; _Pract.
Lessons_, p. 41. "_As_ and _so_ in the antecedent member of a comparison
are properly adverbs."--_Id., E. Gram._, p. 113. "In the following Exercise
point out the words in apposition."--_Id., P. Lessons_, p. 103. "In the
following Exercise point out the noun or pronoun denoting the possessor."--
_Id., ib._, p. 105. "_Its_ is not found in the Bible except by
misprint."--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 68. "No one's interest is concerned
except mine."--_Ib._, p. 70. "In most of the modern languages there are
four concords."--_St. Quentin's Gen. Gram._, p. 143. "In illustration of
these remarks let us suppose a case."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 104. "On the
right management of the emphasis depends the life of pronunciation."--
_Ib._, p. 172; _Murray's_, 8vo, p. 242.

UNDER RULE XV.--OF INTERJECTIONS.

"Behold he is in the desert."--SCOTT'S BIBLE: _Matt._, xxiv, 26.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the interjection _Behold_, which has usually
a comma after it in Scripture, has here no point. But, according to Rule
15th, "Interjections that require a pause, though more commonly emphatic
and followed by the ecphoneme, are sometimes set off by the comma." In this
instance, a comma should be used; thus, "Behold, he is in the
desert."--_Common Bible_.]

"And Lot said unto them, Oh not so my Lord."--SCOTT'S BIBLE: _Gen._, xix,
18. "Oh let me escape thither, (is it not a little one?) and my soul shall
live."--SCOTT: _Gen._, xix, 20. "Behold! I come quickly.--BIBLE."--_Day's
Gram._, p. 74. "Lo! I am with you always."--_Day's Gram._, pp. 10 and 73.
"And lo! I am with you always."--_Ib._, pp. 78 and 110. "And lo, I am with
you alway."--SCOTT'S BIBLE, and BRUCE'S: _Matt._, xxviii, 20. "Ha! ha! ha!
how laughable that is."--_Bullions, Pract. Les._, p. 83. "Interjections of
_Laughter_,--Ha! he! hi! ho!"--_Wright's Gram._, p. 121.

UNDER RULE XVI.--OF WORDS REPEATED.

"Lend lend your wings! I mount! I fly!"--_Example varied_.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the repeated word _lend_ has here no comma.
But, according to Rule 16th, "A word emphatically repeated, is generally
set off by the comma." In this instance, a comma is required after the
former _lend_, but not after the latter; thus,

"Lend, lend your wings! I mount! I fly!"--_Pope's Poems_, p. 317.

]

"To bed to bed to bed. There is a knocking at the gate. Come come come.
What is done cannot be undone. To bed to bed to bed."--See _Burgh's
Speaker_, p. 130. "I will roar, that the duke shall cry, Encore encore let
him roar let him roar once more once more."--See ib., p. 136.

"Vital spark of heav'nly flame,
Quit oh quit this mortal frame."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 126.

"Vital spark of heav'nly flame,
Quit, oh quit, this mortal frame!"--_Bullions, E. Gr._, p. 172.

"O the pleasing pleasing Anguish,
When we love, and when we languish."--_Ward's Gram._, p. 161.

"Praise to God immortal praise
For the love that crowns our days!"--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 124.

UNDER RULE XVII.--OF DEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.

"Thus, of an infant, we say '_It_ is a lovely creature.'"--_Bullions, Prin.
of E. Gram._, p. 12.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because no comma is here inserted between _say_ and
the citation which follows. But, according to Rule 17th, "A quotation,
observation, or description, when it is introduced in close dependence on a
verb, (as, _say, reply, cry_, or the like.) is generally separated from the
rest of the sentence by the comma." Therefore, a comma should be put after
_say_; as, "Thus, of an infant, we say, '_It_ is a lovely creature.'"]

"No being can state a falsehood in saying _I am_; for no one can utter it,
if it is not true."--_Cardell's Gram._, 18mo, p. 118. "I know they will cry
out against this and say 'should he pay, means if he should pay.'"--_O. B.
Peirce's Gram._, p. 352. "For instance, when we say '_the house is
building_,' the advocates of the new theory ask, 'building _what_?' We
might ask in turn, when you say 'the field ploughs well,' ploughs _what_?
'Wheat sells well,' sells _what_? If _usage_ allows us to say 'wheat
_sells_ at a dollar' in a sense that is not active, why may it not also
allow us to say 'wheat _is selling_ at a dollar' in a sense that is not
active?"--_Hart's English Gram._, p. 76. "_Man_ is accountable, equals
_mankind_ are accountable."--_S. Barrett's Revised Gram._, p. 37. "Thus,
when we say 'He may be reading,' _may_ is the real verb; the other parts
are verbs by name only."--_Smart's English Accidence_, p. 8. "Thus we say
_an apple, an hour_, that two vowel sounds may not come together."--_Ib._,
p. 27. "It would be as improper to say _an unit_, as to say _an youth_; to
say _an one_, as to say _an wonder_."--_Ib._, p. 27. "When we say 'He died
for the truth,' _for_ is a preposition."--_Ib._, p. 28. "We do not say 'I
might go yesterday,' but 'I might have gone yesterday.'"--_Ib._, p. 11. "By
student, we understand one who has by matriculation acquired the rights of
academical citizenship; but, by bursche, we understand one who has already
spent a certain time at the university."--_Howitt's Student-Life in
Germany_, p. 27.

SECTION II.--THE SEMICOLON.

The Semicolon is used to separate those parts of a compound sentence, which
are neither so closely connected as those which are distinguished by the
comma, nor so little dependent as those which require the colon.

RULE I.--COMPLEX MEMBERS.

When two or more complex members, or such clauses as require the comma in
themselves, are constructed into a period, they are generally separated by
the semicolon: as, "In the regions inhabited by angelic natures, unmingled
felicity forever blooms; joy flows there with a perpetual and abundant
stream, nor needs any mound to check its course."--_Carter_. "When the
voice rises, the gesture naturally ascends; and when the voice makes the
falling inflection, or lowers its pitch, the gesture follows it by a
corresponding descent; and, in the level and monotonous pronunciation of
the voice, the gesture seems to observe a similar limitation, by moving
rather in the horizontal direction, without much varying its
elevation."--_Comstock's Elocution_, p. 107.

"The wide, the unbounded prospect lies before me;
But shadows, clouds, and darkness, rest upon it."--_Addison_.

RULE II.--SIMPLE MEMBERS.

When two or more simple members, or such clauses as complete their sense
without subdivision, are constructed into a period; if they require a pause
greater than that of the comma, they are usually separated by the
semicolon: as, "Straws swim upon the surface; but pearls lie at the
bottom."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 276. "Every thing grows old; every thing
passes away; every thing disappears."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 115. "Alexander
asked them the distance of the Persian capital; what forces the king of
Persia could bring into the field; what the Persian government was; what
was the character of the king; how he treated his enemies; what were the
most direct ways into Persia."--_Whelpley's Lectures_, p. 175.

"A longer care man's helpless kind demands;
That longer care contracts more lasting bands."--_Pope_.

RULE III.--OF APPOSITION, &C.

Words in apposition, in disjunct pairs, or in any other construction, if
they require a pause greater than that of the comma, and less than that of
the colon, may be separated by the semicolon: as, "Pronouns have three
cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--_Murray's
Gram._, p. 51. "Judge, judgement; lodge, lodgement; acknowledge,
acknowledgement."--_Butler's Gram._, p. 11. "Do not the eyes discover
humility, pride; cruelty, compassion; reflection, dissipation; kindness,
resentment?"--_Sheridan's Elocution_, p. 159. "This rule forbids parents to
lie to children, and children to parents; instructors to pupils, and pupils
to instructors; the old to the young, and the young to the old; attorneys
to jurors, and jurors to attorneys; buyers to sellers, and sellers to
buyers."--_Wayland's Moral Science_, p. 304.

"_Make, made; have, had; pay, paid; say, said; leave, left;
Dream, dreamt; mean, meant; reave_ and _bereave_ have _reft_."
--_Ward's Gr._, p. 66.

IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE PUNCTUATION.--ERRORS CONCERNING THE SEMICOLON.

UNDER RULE I.--OF COMPLEX MEMBERS.

"The buds spread into leaves, and the blossoms swell to fruit, but they
know not how they grow, nor who causes them to spring up from the bosom of
the earth."--_Day's E. Gr._, p. 72.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the two chief members which compose this
period, are separated only by the comma after "_fruit_." But, according to
Rule 1st for the Semicolon, "When two or more complex members, or such
clauses as require the comma in themselves, are constructed into a period,
they are generally separated by the semicolon." Therefore, the pause after
"_fruit_" should be marked by a semicolon.]

"But he used his eloquence chiefly against Philip, king of Macedon, and, in
several orations, he stirred up the Athenians to make war against
him."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 84. "For the sake of euphony, the _n_ is
dropped before a consonant, and because most words begin with a consonant,
this of course is its more common form.'"--_Ib._, p. 192. "But if I say
'Will _a_ man be able to carry this burden?' it is manifest the idea is
entirely changed, the reference is not to number, but to the species, and
the answer might be 'No; but a horse will.'"--_Ib._, p. 193. "In direct
discourse, a noun used by a speaker or writer to designate himself, is said
to be of the _first_ person--used to designate the person addressed, it is
said to be of the _second_ person, and when used to designate a person or
thing spoken of, it is said to be of the _third_ person."--_Ib._, p. 195.
"Vice stings us, even in our pleasures, but virtue consoles us, even in our
pains."--_Day's Gram._, p. 84. "Vice is infamous though in a prince, and
virtue honorable though in a peasant."--_Ib._, p. 72. "Every word that is
the name of a person or thing, is a _Noun_, because 'A noun is the name of
any person, place, or thing.'"--_Bullions, Pract. Les._, p. 83.

"This is the sword, with which he did the deed,
And that the shield by which he was defended."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 56.

UNDER RULE II.--OF SIMPLE MEMBERS.

"A deathlike paleness was diffused over his countenancee [sic--KTH], a
chilling terror convulsed his frame; his voice burst out at intervals into
broken accents."--_Principles of Eloquence_, p. 73.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the first pause in this sentence is not
marked by a suitable point. But, according to Rule 2d for the Semicolon,
"When two or more simple members, or such clauses as complete their sense
without subdivision, are constructed into a period; if they require a pause
greater than that of the comma, they are usually separated by the
semicolon." Therefore, the comma after "_countenance_" should be changed to
a semicolon.]

"The Lacedemonians never traded--they knew no luxury--they lived in houses
built of rough materials--they lived at public tables--fed on black broth,
and despised every thing effeminate or luxurious."--_Whelpley's Lectures_,
p. 167. "Government is the agent. Society is the principal."--_Wayland's
Moral Science_, 1st Ed., p. 377. "The essentials of speech were anciently
supposed to be sufficiently designated by the _Noun_ and the _Verb_, to
which was subsequently added, the _Conjunction_"--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p.
191. "The first faint gleamings of thought in its mind are but the
reflections from the parents' own intellect,--the first manifestations of
temperament are from the contagious parental fountain,--the first
aspirations of soul are but the warmings and promptings of the parental
spirit."--_Jocelyn's Prize Essay_, p. 4. "_Older_ and _oldest_ refer to
maturity of age, _elder_ and _eldest_ to priority of right by birth.
_Farther_ and _farthest_ denote place or distance: _Further_ and
_furthest_, quantity or addition."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 148. "Let the
divisions be _natural_, such as obviously suggest themselves to the mind,
and as may aid your main design, and be easily remembered."--_Goldsbury's
Manual of Gram._, p. 91.

"Gently make haste, of labour not afraid:
A hundred times consider what you've said."--_Dryden's Art of Poetry_.

UNDER RULE III.--OF APPOSITION, &c.

(1.) "Adjectives are divided into two classes: _Adjectives denoting
quality_, and _Adjectives denoting number_."--_Frost's Practical Gram._, p.
31.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the colon after the word "_classes_," is not
the most suitable sign of the pause required. But according to Rule 3d for
the Semicolon, "Words in apposition, in disjunct pairs, or in any other
construction if they require a pause greater than that of the comma, and
less than that of the colon, maybe separated by the semicolon." In this
case, the semicolon should have been preferred to the colon.]

(2.) "There are two classes of adjectives--_qualifying_ adjectives, and
_limiting_ adjectives."--_Butler's Practical Gram._, p. 33. (3.) "There are
three Genders, the _Masculine_, the _Feminine_, and the _Neuter_."--
_Frost's Pract. Gram._, p. 51; _Hiley's Gram._, p. 12; _Alger's_, 16; _S.
Putnam's_, 14: _Murray's_, 8vo, 37; _and others_. (4.) "There are three
genders: the MASCULINE, the FEMININE, and the NEUTER."--_Murray's Gram._,
12mo. p. 39; _Jaudon's_, 25. (5.) "There are three genders: The
_Masculine_, the _Feminine_, and the _Neuter_."--_Hendrick's Gram._, p. 15.
(6.) "The Singular denotes ONE, and the Plural MORE THAN ONE."--_Hart's
Gram._, p. 40. (7.) "There are three Cases viz., the _Nominative_, the
_Possessive_, and the _Objective_"--_Hendrick's Gram._, p. 7. (8.) "Nouns
have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--
_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 41. (9.) "In English, nouns have three cases--the
nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--_R. C. Smith's New Gram._,
p. 47. (10.) "Grammar is divided into four parts, namely, ORTHOGRAPHY,
ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX, PROSODY."--_Ib._, p. 41. (11) "It is divided into four
parts, viz. ORTHOGRAPHY, ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX, and PROSODY."--_L. Murray's
Grammars all; T. Smith's Gram._, p. 5. (12.) "It is divided into four
parts: viz. Orthography--Etymology--Syntax--Prosody."--_Bucke's Gram._, p.
3. (13.) "It is divided into four parts, namely, Orthography. Etymology,
Syntax and Prosody."--_Day's Gram._, p. 5. (14.) "It is divided into four
parts: viz. _Orthography, Etymology, Syntax_ and _Prosody_."--_Hendrick's
Gram._, p. 11. (15.) "Grammar is divided into four parts: viz. Orthography,
Etymology. Syntax and Prosody."--_Chandler's Gram._, p, 13. (16.) "It is
divided into four parts: Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and
Prosody."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pract. Gram._, p. 1; _Frost's Pract. Gram._,
19. (17.) "English grammar has been usually divided into four parts, viz:
Orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody."--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 13.
(18.) "Temperance leads to happiness, intemperance to misery."--_Hiley's
Gram._, p. 137 _Hart's_, 180. (19.) "A friend exaggerates a man's virtues,
an enemy his crimes."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 137 (20.) "A friend exaggerates
a man's virtues: an enemy his crimes."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo., p. 325
(21.) "Many writers use a _plural noun_ after the second of two numeral
adjectives, thus, 'The first and second pages are torn.'"--_Bullions, E.
Gram._, 5th Ed., p. 145 (22.) "Of these, the Latin has six, the Greek,
five, the German, four, the Saxon, six, the French, three, &c."--_Id.,
ib._, p. 196.

"In (_ing_) it ends, when _doing_ is express'd,
In _d, t, n_, when _suffering's_ confess'd."
--_Brightland's Gram._, p. 93.

MIXED EXAMPLES OF ERROR.

"In old books _i_ is often used for _j, v_ for _u, vv_ for _w_, and _ii_ or
_ij_ for _y_."--_Hart's E. Gram._, p. 22. "The forming of letters into
words and syllables is also called _Spelling_."--_Ib._, p. 21. "Labials are
formed chiefly by the _lips_, dentals by the _teeth_, palatals by the
_palate_, gutturals by the _throat_, nasals by the _nose_, and linguals by
the _tongue_."--_Ib._, p. 25. "The labials are _p, b, f, v_; the dentals
_t, d, s, z_; the palatals _g_ soft and _j_; the gutturals _k, q_, and _c_
and _g_ hard; the nasals _m_ and _n_; and the linguals _l_ and
_r_."--_Ib._, p. 25. "Thus, 'the man _having finished_ his letter, will
carry it to the post office.'"--_Ib._, p. 75. "Thus, in the sentence 'he
had a dagger _concealed_ under his cloak,' _concealed_ is passive,
signifying _being_ concealed; but in the former combination, it goes to
make up a form, the force of which is active."--_Ib._, p. 75. "Thus, in
Latin, 'he had concealed the dagger' would be '_pugionem abdiderat_;' but
'he had the dagger concealed' would be '_pugionem abditum habebat_.'"--
_Ib._, p. 75. "_Here_, for instance, means 'in this place,' _now_, 'at this
time,' &c."--_Ib._, p. 90. "Here _when_ both declares the _time_ of the
action, and so is an adverb, and also _connects_ the two verbs, and so is a
conjunction."--_Ib._, p. 91. "These words were all no doubt originally
other parts of speech, viz.: verbs, nouns, and adjectives."--_Ib._, p. 92.
"The principal parts of a sentence are the subject, the attribute, and the
object, in other words the nominative, the verb, and the objective."--
_Ib._, p. 104. "Thus, the adjective is connected with the noun, the adverb
with the verb or adjective, pronouns with their antecedents, &c."--_Ib._,
p. 104. "_Between_ refers to two, _among_ to more than two."--_Ib._, p.
120. "_At_ is used after a verb of _rest, to_ after a verb of
motion."--_Ib._, p. 120. "Verbs are of three kinds, Active, Passive, and
Neuter."--_Lennie's Gram._, p. 19; _Bullions, Prin._, 2d Ed., p. 29 "Verbs
are divided into two classes: Transitive and Intransitive."--_Hendrick's
Gram._, p. 28 "The Parts of Speech in the English language are nine, viz.
The Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition.
Interjection and Conjunction."--_Bullions, Prin. of E. Gram._, p. 7 "Of
these the Noun, Pronoun, and Verb are declined, the rest are
indeclinable."--_Id., ib._, p. 7; _Practical Lessons_, p. 9. "The first
expression is called the 'Active form.' The second the 'Passive
form.'"--_Welds Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 83; Abridged, p. 66.

"O 'tis a godlike privilege to save,
And he that scorns it is himself a slave."--_Cowper_, Vol. i., p. 123

SECTION III.--THE COLON.

The Colon is used to separate those parts of a compound sentence, which are
neither so closely connected as those which are distinguished by the
semicolon, nor so little dependent as those which require the period.

RULE I.--ADDITIONAL REMARKS.

When the preceding clause is complete in itself, but is followed by some
additional remark or illustration, especially if no conjunction is used,
the colon is generally and properly inserted: as, "Avoid evil doers: in
such society, an honest man may become ashamed of himself."--"See that moth
fluttering incessantly round the candle: man of pleasure, behold thy
image!"--_Art of Thinking_, p. 94. "Some things we can, and others we
cannot do: we can walk, but we cannot fly."--_Beanie's Moral Science_, p.
112.

"Remember Heav'n has an avenging rod:
To smite the poor, is treason against God."--_Cowper_.

RULE II.--GREATER PAUSES.

When the semicolon has been introduced, or when it must be used in a
subsequent member, and a still greater pause is required within the period,
the colon should be employed: as, "Princes have courtiers, and merchants
have partners; the voluptuous have companions, and the wicked have
accomplices: none but the virtuous can have friends."--"Unless the truth of
our religion be granted, a Christian must be the greatest monster in
nature: he must at the same time be eminently wise, and notoriously
foolish; a wise man in his practice, and a fool in his belief: his
reasoning powers must be deranged by a constant delirium, while his conduct
never swerves from the path of propriety."--_Principles of Eloquence_, p.
80.

"A decent competence we fully taste;
It strikes our sense, and gives a constant feast:
More we perceive by dint of thought alone;
The rich must labour to possess their own."--_Young_.

RULE III.--INDEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.

A quotation introduced without a close dependence on a verb or a
conjunction, is generally preceded by the colon; as, "In his last moments,
he uttered these words: 'I fall a sacrifice to sloth and luxury.'"--"At
this the king hastily retorted: 'No put-offs, my lord; answer me
presently.'"--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 367. "The father addressed himself to
them to this effect: 'O my sons, behold the power of unity!'"--
_Rippingham's Art of Speaking_, p. 85.

IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

FALSE PUNCTUATION.--ERRORS CONCERNING THE COLON.

UNDER RULE I.--ADDITIONAL REMARKS.

"_Of_ is a preposition, it expresses the relation between _fear_ and
_Lord_."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 133.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because
the additional remark in this sentence is not sufficiently separated from
the main clause, by the comma after the word _preposition_. But, according
to Rule 1st for the Colon, "When the preceding clause is complete in
itself, but is followed by some additional remark or illustration,
especially if no conjunction is used, the colon is generally and properly
inserted." Therefore, the colon should here be substituted for the comma.]

"Wealth and poverty are both temptations to man; _that_ tends to excite
pride, _this_ discontentment."--_Id., ib._, p. 93; see also _Lennie's
Gram._, p. 81; _Murray's_, 56; _Ingersoll's_ 61; _Alger's_, 25;
_Merchant's_, 44; _Hart's_, 137; _et al_. "Religion raises men above
themselves, irreligion sinks them beneath the brutes; _this_ binds them
down to a poor pitiable speck of perishable earth, _that_ opens for them a
prospect in the skies."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 98; _Lennie's Gram._, p.
81. "Love not idleness, it destroys many."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 71.
"Children, obey your parents; honour thy father and mother, is the first
commandment with promise."--_Bullions, Pract. Lessons_, p. 88. "Thou art my
hiding place, and my shield, I hope in thy promises."--_O. B. Peirce's
Gram._, p. 56. "The sun shall not smite me by day nor the moon by night.
The Lord will preserve from evil. He will save my soul.--BIBLE."--_Ib._, p.
57. "Here Greece is assigned the highest place in the class of objects
among which she is numbered--the nations of antiquity--she is one of
them."--_Lennie's Gram._, p. 79.

"From short (as usual) and disturb'd repose
I wake; how happy they who wake no more!"--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 216.

UNDER RULE II.--GREATER PAUSES.

"A taste _of_ a thing, implies actual enjoyment of it; but a taste for it,
implies only capacity for enjoyment; as, 'When we have had a true taste of
the pleasures of virtue, we can have no relish _for_ those of
vice.'"--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 147.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the pause after _enjoyment_ is marked only
by a semicolon. But, according to Rule 2d for the Colon, "When the
semicolon has been introduced, or when it must be used in a subsequent
member, and a still greater pause is required within the period, the colon
should be employed." Therefore, the second semicolon here should be changed
to a colon.]

"The Indicative mood simply declares a thing; as, He _loves_;
He is _loved_; Or, it asks a question; as, _Lovest_ thou me?"--_Id., ib._,
p. 35; _Pract. Lessons_, p. 43; _Lennie's Gr._, p. 20. "The Indicative Mood
simply indicates or declares a thing: as, 'He _loves_, he is _loved_:' or
it asks a question: as, 'Does he love?' 'Is he loved?'"--_L. Murray's
Gram._, 8vo, p. 63; 12mo, p. 63. "The Imperfect (or Past) tense represents
an action or event indefinitely as past; as, Caesar _came_, and _saw_, and
_conquered_; or it represents the action definitely as unfinished and
continuing at a certain time, now entirely past; as, My father _was coming_
home when I met him."--_Bullions, P. L._, p. 45; _E. Gr._, 39. "Some nouns
have no plural; as, _gold, silver, wisdom, health_; others have no
singular; as, _ashes, shears, tongs_; others are alike in both numbers; as,
_sheep, deer, means, news_"--_Day's School Gram._, p. 15. "The same verb
may be transitive in one sense, and intransitive in another; thus, in the
sentence, 'He believes my story,' _believes_ is transitive; but in this
phrase, 'He believes in God,' it is intransitive."--_Butler's Gram._, p.
61. "Let the divisions be _distinct_; one part should not include another,
but each should have its proper place, and be of importance in that place,
and all the parts well fitted together and united, should present a
whole."--_Goldsbury's C. S. Gram._, p. 91. "In the use of the transitive
verb there are always _three_ things implied,--the _actor_, the _act_, and
the _object_ acted upon. In the use of the intransitive there are only
_two_--the _subject_ or thing spoken of, and the _state_, or _action_
attributed to it."--_Bullions, E. Gram._

"Why labours reason? instinct were as well;
Instinct far better; what can choose, can err."
--_Brit. Poets_, Vol. viii.

UNDER RULE III.--INDEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.

"The sentence may run thus; 'He is related to the same person, and is
governed by him.'"--_Hart's Gram._

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the semicolon is here inserted, in an
unusual manner, before a quotation not closely dependent. But, according to
Rule 3d for the Colon, "A quotation introduced without a close dependence
on a verb or a conjunction, is generally preceded by the colon." Therefore,
the colon should be here preferred.]

"Always remember this ancient proverb, 'Know thyself.'"--_Hallock's Gram._
"Consider this sentence. The boy runs swiftly."--_Frazee's Gram._,
Stereotype Ed. 1st Ed. "The comparative is used thus; 'Greece was more
polished than any _other_ nation of antiquity.' The same idea is expressed
by the superlative when the word _other_ is left out. Thus, 'Greece was the
most polished nation of antiquity'"--_Bullions, E. Gram._ see _Lennie's
Gram._ "Burke, in his speech on the Carnatic war, makes the following
allusion to the well known fable of Cadmus's sowing dragon's teeth;--'Every
day you are fatigued and disgusted with this cant, the Carnatic is a
country that will soon recover, and become instantly as prosperous as
ever. They think they are talking to innocents, who believe that by the
sowing of dragon's teeth, men may come up ready grown and ready
made.'"--_Hiley's Gram._, see also _Hart's_.

"For sects he car'd not, 'they are not of us,
Nor need we, brethren, their concerns discuss.'"--_Crabbe_.

"Habit with him was all the test of truth,
'It must be right: I've done it from my youth.'
Questions he answered in as brief a way,
'It must be wrong--it was of yesterday.'"--_Id., Borough_.

MIXED EXAMPLES OF ERROR.

"This would seem to say, 'I doubt nothing save one thing, namely, that he
will fulfil his promise;' whereas, that is the very thing not
doubted."--_Bullions, E. Gram._. "The common use of language requires that
a distinction be made between _morals_ and _manners_, the former depend
upon internal dispositions, the latter on outward and visible
accomplishments."--_Beattie's Moral Science_. "Though I detest war in each
particular fibre of my heart yet I honor the Heroes among our fathers who
fought with bloody hand: Peacemakers in a savage way they were faithful to
their light; the most inspired can be no more, and we, with greater light,
do, it may be, far less."--_Parker's Idea of a Church_. "The Article _the_,
like _a_, must have a substantive joined with it, whereas _that_, like
_one_, may have it understood; thus, speaking of books, I may select one,
and say, 'give me that;' but not, 'give me _the_;' 'give me _one_;' but not
'give me _a_.'"--_Bullions's E. Gram._. "The Present tense has three
distinct forms--the _simple_; as, I read; the _emphatic_; as, I do read;
and the _progressive_; as, I am reading'."--_Ib._. "The tenses in English
are usually reckoned six. The _Present_, the _Imperfect_, the _Perfect_,
the _Pluperfect_, the _Future_, and the _Future Perfect_."--_Ib._. "There
are three participles, the Present or Active, the Perfect or Passive, and
the Compound Perfect; as, _loving, loved, having loved._"--_L. Murray's
Gram._, 2d Edition; _Alger's_; _Fisk's_; _Bacon's_. "The Participles are
three, the Present, the Perfect, and the Compound Perfect; as, _loving,
loved, having loved_."--_Hart's Gram._. "_Will_ is conjugated regularly,
when it is a principal verb, as, present, I will, past, I willed,
&c."--_Frazee's Gram._, Ster. Ed.; Old Ed. "And both sounds of _x_ are
compound, one is that of _gz_, and the other, that of _ks_"--_Ib._, Ster.
Ed. "The man is happy: he is benevolent: he is useful."--_Cooper's Murray_;
_Pl. and Pract. Gr._ "The Pronoun stands instead of the noun; as, The man
is happy; _he_ is benevolent; _he_ is useful.'"--_L. Murray's Gram._, 2d
Ed. "A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid the too frequent
repetition of the same word: as, 'The man is happy,' '_he_ is benevolent,'
'_he_ is useful.'"--_Ib._. "A pronoun is a word, used in the room of a
noun, or as a substitute for one or more words, as: the man is happy; _he_
is benevolent; _he_ is useful."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram., his Abridg.
of Mur._ "A common noun is the name of a sort, kind, or class of beings, or
things, as: animal; tree; insect; fish; fowl"--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._
"Nouns have three persons: the first; the second; and the third."--_Ib._

"(Eve) so saying, her rash hand in evil hour
Forth reaching to the fruit; she pluck'd, she ate
Earth felt the wound: and nature from her seat,
Sighing through all her works, gave signs of wo,
That all was lost."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._

SECTION IV.--THE PERIOD.

The Period, or Full Stop, is used to mark an entire and independent
sentence, whether simple or compound.

RULE I.--DISTINCT SENTENCES.

When a sentence, whether long or short, is complete in respect to sense,
and independent in respect to construction, it should be marked with the
period: as, "Every deviation from truth is criminal. Abhor a falsehood. Let
your words be ingenuous. Sincerity possesses the most powerful
charm."--"The force of a true individual is felt through every clause and
part of a right book; the commas and dashes are alive with it."--_R. W.
Emerson_.

"By frequent trying, TROY was won.
All things, by trying, may be done."--_Lloyd_, p. 184.

RULE II.--ALLIED SENTENCES.

The period is often employed between two sentences which have a general
connexion, expressed by a personal pronoun, a conjunction, or a conjunctive
adverb: as, "The selfish man languishes in his narrow circle of pleasures.
_They_ are confined to what affects his own interests. _He_ is obliged to
repeat the same gratifications, till they become insipid. _But_ the man of
virtuous sensibility moves in a wider sphere of felicity."--_Blair_.

"And whether we shall meet again, I know not.
_Therefore_ our everlasting farewell take."--_Shak._, J. C.

RULE III.--ABBREVIATIONS.

The period is generally used after abbreviations, and very often to the
exclusion of other points; but, as in this case it is not a constant sign
of pause, other points may properly follow it, if the words written in full
would demand them: as, A. D. for _Anno Domini_;--Pro tem. for _pro
tempore_;--Ult. for _ultimo_;--i.e. for _id est_, that is;--Add., Spect,
No. 285; i.e., _Addison, in the Spectator, Number 285th_.

"Consult the statute; 'quart.' I think, it is,
'Edwardi sext.,' or 'prim. et quint. Eliz.'"--_Pope_, p. 399.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.--It seems to be commonly supposed, whether correctly or not, that
short sentences which are in themselves distinct, and which in their stated
use must be separated by the period, may sometimes be rehearsed as
examples, in so close succession as not to require this point: as, "But if
thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. He saith unto him, Which?
Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou
shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Honour thy father and
thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."--SCOTT, ALGER,
AND OTHERS: _Matt._, xix, 17, 18, 19. "The following sentences exemplify
the possessive pronouns:--'_My_ lesson is finished; _Thy_ books are
defaced; He loves _his_ studies; She performs _her_ duty; We own _our_
faults; _Your_ situation is distressing; I admire _their_ virtues.'"--_L.
Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 55. What mode of pointing is best adapted to
examples like these, is made a very difficult question by the great
diversity of practice in such cases. The semicolon, with guillemets, or the
semicolon and a dash, with the quotation marks, may sometimes be
sufficient; but I see no good reason why the _period_ should not in general
be preferred to the comma, the semicolon, or the colon, where full and
distinct sentences are thus recited. The foregoing passage of Scripture I
have examined in five different languages, ten different translations, and
seventeen different editions which happened to be at hand. In these it is
found pointed in twelve different ways. In Leusden's, Griesbach's, and
Aitton's Greek, it has nine colons; in Leusden's Latin from Montanus,
eight; in the common French version, six; in the old Dutch, five; in our
Bibles, usually one, but not always. In some books, these commandments are
mostly or wholly divided by periods; in others, by colons; in others, by
semicolons; in others, as above, by commas. The first four are negative, or
prohibitory; the other two, positive, or mandatory. Hence some make a
greater pause after the fourth, than elsewhere between any two. This
greater pause is variously marked by the semicolon, the colon, or the
period; and the others, at the same time, as variously, by the comma, the
semicolon, or the colon. Dr. Campbell, in his Four Gospels, renders and
points the latter part of this passage thus: "Jesus answered, 'Thou shalt
not commit murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal.
Thou shalt not give false testimony. Honour thy father and mother; and love
thy neighbour as thyself." But the corresponding passage in Luke, xviii 20,
he exhibits thus: "Thou knowest the commandments. Do not commit adultery;
do not commit murder; do not steal; do not give false testimony; honour thy
father and thy mother." This is here given as present advice, _referring
to_ the commandments, but not actually _quoting_ them; and, in this view of
the matter, semicolons, not followed by capitals may be right. See the
common reading under Rule XIV for Capitals, on page 166.

OBS. 2.--Letters written for _numbers_, after the manner of the Romans,
though read as words, are never words in themselves; nor are they, except
perhaps in one or two instances, abbreviations of words. C, a hundred,
comes probably from _Centum_; and M, a thousand, is the first letter of
_Mille_; but the others, I, V, X, L, D, and the various combinations of
them all, are direct numerical signs, as are the Arabic figures. Hence it
is not really necessary that the period should be set after them, except at
the end of a sentence, or where it is suitable as a sign of pause. It is,
however, and always has been, a prevalent custom, to mark numbers of this
kind with a period, as if they were abbreviations; as, "While pope Sixtus
V. who succeeded Gregory XIII. fulminated the thunder of the church against
the king of Navarre."--_Smollet's Eng._, iii, 82. The period is here
inserted where the reading requires only the comma; and, in my opinion, the
latter point should have been preferred. Sometimes, of late, we find other
points set after this period; as, "Otho II., surnamed the Bloody, was son
and successor of Otho I.; he died in 983."--_Univ. Biog. Dict._ This may be
an improvement on the former practice, but double points are not
_generally_ used, even where they are proper; and, if the period is not
indispensable, a simple change of the point would perhaps sooner gain the
sanction of general usage.

OBS. 3.--Some writers, judging the period to be wrong or needless in such
cases, omit it, and insert only such points as the reading requires; as,
"For want of doing this, Judge Blackstone has, in Book IV, Chap. 17,
committed some most ludicrous errors."--_Cobbett's Gram._, Let. XIX, 251.
To insert points needlessly, is as bad a fault as to omit them when they
are requisite. In Wm. Day's "Punctuation Reduced to a System," (London,
1847,) we have the following obscure and questionable RULE: "_Besides
denoting a grammatical pause_, the _full point_ is used to mark
_contractions_, and is requisite after _every abbreviated word_, as well as
after _numeral letters._"--Page 102. This seems to suggest that both a
pause and a contraction may be denoted by the same point. But what are
properly called "_contractions_," are marked not by the period, but by the
apostrophe, which is no sign of pause; and the confounding of these with
words "_abbreviated_," makes this rule utterly absurd. As for the period
"after _numeral letters_," if they really needed it at all, they would need
it _severally_, as do the abbreviations; but there are none of them, which
do not uniformly dispense with it, when not final to the number; and they
may as well dispense with it, in like manner, whenever they are not final
to the sentence.

OBS. 4.--Of these letters, Day gives this account: "_M._ denotes _mille_,
1,000; _D., dimidium mille_, half a thousand, or 500; _C. centum_, 100;
_L._ represents the lower half of _C._, and expresses 50; _X._ resembles
_V._ _V._, the one upright, the other inverted, and signifies 10; _V._
stands for 5, because its sister letter U is the fifth vowel; and _I._
signifies 1, probably because it is the plainest and simplest letter in the
alphabet."--_Day's Punctuation_, p. 103. There is some fancy in this. Dr.
Adam says, "The letters employed for this purpose [i.e., to express
_numbers_.] were C. I. L. V. X."--_Latin and Eng. Gram._, p. 288. And
again: "A thousand is marked thus CI[C-reverserd], which in later times was
_contracted_ into M. _Five hundred_ is marked thus, I[C-reversed], or by
_contraction_, D."--_Ib._ Day inserts periods thus: "IV. means 4; IX., 9;
XL., 40; XC., 90; CD., 400; CM., 900."--Page 703. And again: "4to.,
_quarto_, the fourth of a sheet of paper; 8vo., _octavo_, the eighth part
of a sheet of paper; 12mo., _duodecimo_, the twelfth of a sheet of paper;
N. L., 8 deg.., 9'., 10''., North latitude, eight degrees, nine minutes, ten
seconds."--Page 104. But IV may mean 4, without the period; 4to or 8vo has
no more need of it than 4th or 8th; and N. L. 8 deg. 9' 10'' is an expression
little to be mended by commas, and not at all by additional periods.

OBS. 5.--To allow the period of abbreviation to supersede all other points
wherever it occurs, as authors generally have done, is sometimes plainly
objectionable; but, on the other hand, to suppose double points to be
always necessary wherever abbreviations or Roman numbers have pauses less
than final, would sometimes seem more nice than wise, as in the case of
Biblical and other references. A concordance or a reference Bible pointed
on this principle, would differ greatly from any now extant. In such
references, _numbers_ are very frequently pointed with the period, with
scarcely any regard to the pauses required in the reading; as, "DIADEM, Job
29. 14. Isa. 28. 5. and 62. 3. Ezek. 21. 26."--_Brown's Concordance_.
"Where no vision is, the people perish, Prov. xxix. 18. Acts iv. 12. Rom.
x. 14."--_Brown's Catechism_, p. 104. "What I urge from 1. Pet. 3. 21. in
my Apology."--_Barclay's Works_, iii, 498. "I. Kings--II. Kings."--_Alger's
Bible_, p. iv. "Compare iii. 45. with 1. Cor. iv. 13."--_Scott's Bible,
Pref. to Lam. Jer._ "Hen. v. A. 4. Sc. 5."--_Butler's Gram._, p. 41. "See
Rule iii. Rem. 10."--_Ib._, p. 162. Some set a _colon_ between the number
of the chapter and that of the verse; which mark serves well for
distinction, where both numbers are in Arabic figures: as, "'He that formed
the eye, shall he not see?'--Ps. 94: 9."--_Wells's Gram._, p. 126. "He had
only a lease-hold title to his service. Lev. 25: 39, Exod. 21: 2."--_True
Amer._, i. 29. Others adopt the following method which seems preferable to
any of the foregoing: "Isa. Iv, 3; Ezek. xviii, 20; Mic. vi, 7."--_Gurney's
Essays_, p. 133. Churchill, who is uncommonly nice about his punctuation,
writes as follows: "_Luke_. vi, 41, 42. See also Chap. xv, 8; and _Phil._,
iii. 12."--_New Gram._, p. 353.

OBS. 6.--Arabic figures used as ordinals, or used for the numeral adverbs,
_first_, or _firstly, secondly, thirdly, &c._, are very commonly pointed
with the period, even where the pause required after them is less than a
full stop; as, "We shall consider these words, 1. as expressing
_resolution_; and 2. as expressing _futurity_."--_Butler's Gram._, p. 106.
But the period thus followed by a small letter, has not an agreeable
appearance, and some would here prefer the comma, which is, undoubtedly,
better suited to the pause, A fitter practice, however, would be, to change
the expression thus: "We shall consider these words, 1st, as expressing
_resolution_; and, 2dly, as expressing _futurity_."

OBS. 7.--Names vulgarly shortened, then written as they are spoken, are not
commonly marked with a period; as, _Ben_ for _Benjamin_. "O RARE BEN
JOHNSON!"--_Biog. Dict._

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