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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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saying, that "one and the same sentence" _may be two different sentences_;
may, without error, be understood in two different senses; may be rightly
taken, resolved, and parsed in two different ways! Nay, it is equivalent to
a denial of the old logical position, that "It is impossible for a thing
_to be_ and _not be_ at the same time;" for it supposes "_but_," in the
instance given, to be at once both a conjunction and _not_ a conjunction,
both a preposition and _not_ a preposition, "_as the case may be_!" It is
true, that "one and the same word" may sometimes be differently parsed _by
different grammarians_, and possibly even an adept may doubt who or what is
right. But what ambiguity of construction, or what diversity of
interpretation, proceeding from the same hand, can these admissions be
supposed to warrant? The foregoing citation is a boyish attempt to justify
different modes of parsing the same expression, on the ground that the
expression itself is equivocal. "All fled _but John_," is thought to mean
equally well, "All fled _but he_," and, "All fled _but him_;" while these
latter expressions are erroneously presumed to be alike good English, and
to have a difference of meaning corresponding to their difference of
construction. Now, what is equivocal, or ambiguous, being therefore
erroneous, is to be _corrected_, rather than parsed in any way. But I deny
both the ambiguity and the difference of meaning which these critics
profess to find among the said phrases. "_John fled not, but all the rest
fled_," is virtually what is told us in each of them; but, in the form,
"All fled but _him_," it is told ungrammatically; in the other two,

OBS. 18.--In Latin, _cum_ with an ablative, sometimes has, or is supposed
to have, the force of the conjunction _et_ with a nominative; as, "Dux
_cum_ aliquot principibus capiuntur."--LIVY: _W. Allen's Gram._, p. 131. In
imitation of this construction, some English writers have substituted
_with_ for _and_, and varied the verb accordingly; as, "A long course of
time, _with_ a variety of accidents and circumstances, _are_ requisite to
produce those revolutions."--HUME: _Allen's Gram._, p. 131; _Ware's_, 12;
_Priestley's_, 186. This phraseology, though censured by Allen, was
expressly approved by Priestley, who introduced the present example, as his
proof text under the following observation: "It is not necessary that the
two _subjects of an affirmation_ should stand in the very same
construction, to require the verb to be in the plural number. If one of
them be made to depend upon the other _by a connecting particle_, it may,
_in some cases_, have the same force, as if it were independent of
it."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 186. Lindley Murray, on the contrary,
condemns this doctrine, and after citing the same example with others,
says: "It is however, proper to observe that these modes of expression do
not appear to be warranted by _the just principles_ of construction."--
_Octavo Gram._, p. 150. He then proceeds to prove his point, by alleging
that the preposition governs the objective case in English, and the
ablative in Latin, and that what is so governed, cannot be the nominative,
or any part of it. All this is true enough, but still some men who know it
perfectly well, will now and then write as if they did not believe it. And
so it was with the writers of Latin and Greek. They sometimes wrote bad
syntax; and the grammarians have not always seen and censured their errors
as they ought. Since the preposition makes its object only an adjunct of
the preceding noun, or of something else, I imagine that any construction
which thus assumes two different cases as joint nominatives or joint
antecedents, must needs be inherently faulty.

OBS. 19.--Dr. Adam simply remarks, "The plural is sometimes used after the
preposition _cum_ put for _et_; as, _Remo cum fratre Quirinus jura dabunt_.
Virg."--_Latin and English Gram._, p. 207; _Gould's Adam's Latin Gram._, p.
204; _W. Allen's English Gram._, 131. This example is not fairly cited;
though many have adopted the perversion, as if they knew no better.
Alexander has it in a worse form still: "Quirinus, cum fratre, jura
dabunt."--_Latin Gram._, p. 47. Virgil's words are, "_Cana_ FIDES, _et_
VESTA, _Remo cum fratre Quirinus, Jura dabunt_."--_AEneid_, B. i, l. 296.
Nor is _cum_ here "put for _et_," unless we suppose also an antiptosis of
_Remo fratre_ for _Remus frater_; and then what shall the literal meaning
be, and how shall the rules of syntax be accommodated to such changes? Fair
examples, that bear upon the point, may, however, be adduced from good
authors, and in various languages; but the question is, are they _correct_
in syntax? Thus Dr. Robertson: "The palace of Pizarro, _together with_ the
houses of several of his adherents, _were_ pillaged by the soldiers."--
_Hist. of Amer._, Vol. ii, p. 133. To me, this appears plainly
ungrammatical; and, certainly, there are ways enough in which it may be
corrected. First, with the present connective retained, "_were_" ought to
be _was_. Secondly, if _were_ be retained, "_together with_" ought to be
changed to _and_, or _and also_. Thirdly, we may well change both, and say,
"The palace of Pizarro, _as well as_ the houses of several of his
adherents, _was_ pillaged by the soldiers." Again, in Mark, ix, 4th, we
read: "And there appeared _unto them_ Elias, _with_ Moses; and _they_ were
talking with Jesus." If this text meant that _the three disciples_ were
talking with Jesus, it would be right as it stands; but St. Matthew has it,
"And, behold, there appeared unto them _Moses and Elias, talking_ with
him;" and our version in Luke is, "And, behold, there talked with him two
men, which were Moses and Elias."--Chap. ix, 30. By these corresponding
texts, then, we learn, that the pronoun _they_, which our translators
inserted, was meant for "_Elias with Moses_;" but the Greek verb for
"_appeared_," as used by Mark, is _singular_, and agrees only with Elias.
"[Greek: _Kai ophthae autois Aelias sun Mosei, kai haesan syllalountes to
Iaesoy_.]"--"Et _apparuit_ illis Elias cum Mose, et erant colloquentes
Jesu."--_Montanus_. "Et _visus est_ eis Elias cum Mose, qui colloquebantur
cum Jesu."--_Beza_. This is as discrepant as our version, though not so
ambiguous. The French Bible avoids the incongruity: "Et iis virent paroitre
_Moyse et Elie_, qui s'entretenoient avec Jesus." That is, "And there
appeared to them _Moses and Elias_, who were talking with Jesus." Perhaps
the closest and best version of the Greek would be, "And there appeared to
them Elias, with Moses;[397] and _these two_ were talking with Jesus."
There is, in our Bible, an other instance of the construction now in
question; but it has no support from the Septuagint, the Vulgate, or the
French: to wit, "The second [lot came forth] to Gedaliah, _who with_ his
brethren and sons _were_ twelve."--_1 Chron._, xxv, 9. Better: "_and he_,
his brethren, and _his_ sons, were twelve."

OBS. 20.--Cobbett, who, though he wrote several grammars, was but a very
superficial grammarian, seems never to have doubted the propriety of
putting _with_ for _and_; and yet he was confessedly not a little puzzled
to find out when to use a singular, and when a plural verb, after a
nominative with such "a sort of addition made to it." The 246th paragraph
of his English Grammar is a long and fruitless attempt to fix a rule for
the guidance of the learner in this matter. After dashing off a culpable
example, "Sidmouth, _with_ Oliver the _spye_, have brought Brandreth to the
block;" or, as his late editions have it, "The _Tyrant, with_ the _Spy,
have_ brought _Peter_ to the block." He adds: "We hesitate which to employ,
the singular or the plural verb; that is to say, _has_ or _have_. The
meaning must be our guide. If we mean, that the act has been done by the
Tyrant himself, and that the spy has been a mere involuntary agent, then we
ought to use the singular; but if we believe that the spy has been a
co-operator, an associate, an accomplice, then we must use the plural
verb." Ay, truly; but must we not also, in the latter case, use _and_, and
not _with_? After some further illustrations, he says: "When _with_ means
_along with, together with, in Company with_, and the like, it is nearly
the same as _and_; and then the plural verb must be used: [as,] 'He, with
his brothers, _are_ able to do much.' Not, '_is_ able to do much.' If the
pronoun be used instead of _brothers_, it will be in the objective case:
'He, _with_ them, _are_ able to do much.' But this is _no impediment_ to
the including of the noun (represented by _them_) in the nominative." I
wonder what would be an impediment to the absurdities of such a dogmatist!
The following is his last example: "'Zeal, with discretion, _do_ much;' and
not '_does_ much;' for we mean, on the contrary, that it _does nothing_. It
is the meaning that must determine which of the numbers we ought to
employ." This author's examples are all fictions of his own, and such of
them as here have a plural verb, are wrong. His rule is also wrong, and
contrary to the best authority. St. Paul says to Timothy, "Godliness _with_
contentment _is_ great gain:"--_1 Tim._, vi, 6. This text is right; but
Cobbett's principle would go to prove it erroneous. Is he the only man who
has ever had a right notion of its _meaning_? or is he not rather at fault
in his interpretations?

OBS. 21.--There is one other apparent exception to Rule 16th, (or perhaps a
real one,) in which there is either an ellipsis of the preposition _with_,
or else the verb is made singular because the first noun only is its true
subject, and the others are explanatory nominatives to which the same verb
must be understood in the plural number; as, "_A torch_, snuff and all,
_goes out_ in a moment, when dipped in the vapour."--ADDISON: _in Johnson's
Dict., w. All_. "Down _comes_ the _tree_, nest, eagles, and all."--See
_All, ibidem_. Here _goes_ and _comes_ are necessarily made singular, the
former agreeing with _torch_ and the latter with _tree_; and, if the other
nouns, which are like an explanatory parenthesis, are nominatives, as they
appear to me to be, they must be subjects of _go_ and _come_ understood.
Cobbett teaches us to say, "The bag, _with_ the guineas and dollars in it,
_were_ stolen," and not, _was_ stolen. "For," says he, "if we say _was_
stolen, it is possible for us to mean, that the _bag only_ was
stolen,"--_English Gram._, 246. And I suppose he would say, "The bag,
guineas, dollars, and all, _were_ stolen," and not, "_was_ stolen;" for
here a rule of syntax might be urged, in addition to his false argument
from the sense. But the meaning of the former sentence is, "The bag was
stolen, with the guineas and dollars in it;" and the meaning of the latter
is, "The bag was stolen, guineas, dollars, and all." Nor can there be any
doubt about the meaning, place the words which way you will; and whatever,
in either case, may be the true construction of the words in the
parenthetical or explanatory phrase, they should not, I think, prevent the
verb from agreeing with the first noun only. But if the other nouns
intervene without affecting this concord, and without a preposition to
govern them, it may be well to distinguish them in the punctuation; as,
"The bag, (guineas, dollars, and all,) was stolen."


NOTE I.--When the conjunction _and_ between two nominatives appears to
require a plural verb, but such form of the verb is not agreeable, it is
better to reject or change the connective, that the verb may stand
correctly in the singular number; as, "There _is_ a peculiar force _and_
beauty in this figure."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, ii, 224. Better: "There is
a peculiar force, _as well as a peculiar_ beauty, in this figure." "What
_means_ this restless stir and commotion of mind?"--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p.
242. Better: "What means this restless stir, _this_ commotion of mind?"

NOTE II.--When two subjects or antecedents are connected, one of which is
taken affirmatively, and the other negatively, they belong to different
propositions; and the verb or pronoun must agree with the affirmative
subject, and be understood to the other: as "Diligent _industry_, and not
mean savings, _produces_ honourable competence."--"Not a loud _voice_ but
strong _proofs bring_ conviction."--"My _poverty_, but not my will,

NOTE III.--When two subjects or antecedents are connected by _as well as,
but_, or _save_, they belong to different propositions; and, (unless one of
them is preceded by the adverb _not_,) the verb and pronoun must agree with
the former and be understood to the latter: as, "_Veracity_, as well as
justice, _is_ to be our rule of life."--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 283. "The
lowest _mechanic_, as well as the richest citizen, _may boast_ that
thousands of _his_ fellow-creatures are employed for _him_."--_Percival's
Tales_, ii, 177. "These _principles_, as well as every just rule of
criticism, _are founded_ upon the sensitive part of our nature."--_Kames,
El. of Crit._, Vol. i, p. xxvi. "_Nothing_ but wailings _was_
heard."--"_None_ but thou _can aid_ us."--"No mortal _man_, save he," &c.,
"_had e'er survived_ to say _he_ saw."--_Sir W. Scott_.

NOTE IV.--When two or more subjects or antecedents are preceded by the
adjective _each, every_, or _no_, they are taken separately; and, (except
_no_ be followed by a plural noun,) they require the verb and pronoun to be
in the singular number: as, "No rank, no honour, no fortune, no condition
in life, _makes_ the guilty mind happy."--"Every phrase and every figure
_which_ he uses, _tends_ to render the picture more lively and
complete."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 179.

"And every sense, and every heart, _is_ joy."--_Thomson_.

"Each beast, each insect, happy in _its_ own."--_Pope_.

NOTE V.--When any words or terms are to be taken conjointly as subjects or
antecedents, the conjunction _and_, (in preference to _with, or, nor_, or
any thing else,) must connect them. The following sentence is therefore
inaccurate; _with_ should be _and_; or else _were_ should be _was_: "One of
them, [the] wife of Thomas Cole, _with_ her husband, _were_ shot down, the
others escaped."--_Hutchinson's Hist._, Vol. ii, p. 86. So, in the
following couplet, _or_ should be _and_, or else _engines_ should be

"What if the head, the eye, _or_ ear repined,
To serve mere _engines_ to the ruling mind?"--_Pope_.

NOTE VI.--Improper omissions must be supplied; but when there occurs a true
ellipsis in the construction of joint nominatives or joint antecedents, the
verb or pronoun must agree with them in the plural, just as if all the
words were expressed: as, "The _second_ and the _third Epistle_ of John
_are_ each but one short chapter."--"The metaphorical and the literal
meaning _are_ improperly mixed."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 339. "The Doctrine
of Words, separately consider'd, and in a Sentence, _are_ Things distinct
enough."--_Brightland's Gram._, Pref., p. iv. Better perhaps: "The doctrine
of words separately considered, and _that of words_ in a sentence, _are_
things distinct enough."

"The _Curii's_ and the _Camilli's_ little _field_,
To vast extended territories _yield_."--_Rowe's Lucan_, B. i, l. 320.

NOTE VII.--Two or more distinct subject phrases connected by _and_, require
a plural verb, and generally a plural noun too, if a nominative follow the
verb; as, "_To be wise in our own eyes, to be wise in the opinion of the
world_, and _to be wise in the sight of our Creator_, are three things so
very different, as rarely to coincide."--_Blair_. "'_This picture of my
friend_,' and '_This picture of my friend's_,' suggest very different
ideas."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 71; _Murray's_, i, 178.

"Read of this burgess--on the stone _appear_,
How worthy he! how virtuous! and how dear!"--_Crabbe_.




"So much ability and merit is seldom found."--_Murray's Key_, 12mo, p. 18;
_Merchant's School Gram._, p. 190.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb _is_ is in the singular number, and
does not correctly agree with its two nominatives, _ability_ and _merit_,
which are connected by _and_, and taken conjointly. But, according to Rule
16th, "When a verb has two or more nominatives connected by _and_, it must
agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together."
Therefore, _is_ should be _are_; thus, "So much ability and merit _are_
seldom found." Or: "So much ability and _so much_ merit _are_ seldom

"The syntax and etymology of the language is thus spread before
the learner."--_Bullions's English Gram._, 2d Edition, Rec., p. iii. "Dr.
Johnson tells us, that in English poetry the accent and the quantity of
syllables is the same thing."--_J. Q. Adams's Rhet._, ii, 213. "Their
general scope and tendency, having never been clearly apprehended, is not
remembered at all."--_Murray's Gram._, i, p. 126. "The soil and sovereignty
was not purchased of the natives."--_Knapp's Lect. on Amer. Lit._, p. 55.
"The boldness, freedom, and variety of our blank verse, is infinitely more
favourable than rhyme, to all kinds of sublime poetry."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 40. "The vivacity and sensibility of the Greeks seems to have been much
greater than ours."--_Ib._, p. 253. "For sometimes the Mood and Tense is
signified by the Verb, sometimes they are signified of the Verb by
something else.'"--_Johnson's Gram. Com._, p. 254. "The Verb and the Noun
making a complete Sense, which the Participle and the Noun does
not."--_Ib._, p. 255. "The growth and decay of passions and emotions,
traced through all their mazes, is a subject too extensive for an
undertaking like the present."--_Kames El. of Crit._, i, 108. "The true
meaning and etymology of some of his words was lost."--_Knight, on the
Greek Alph._, p. 37. "When the force and direction of personal satire is no
longer understood."--_Junius_, p. 5. "The frame and condition of man admits
of no other principle."--_Brown's Estimate_, ii, 54. "Some considerable
time and care was necessary."--_Ib._, ii 150. "In consequence of this idea,
much ridicule and censure has been thrown upon Milton."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 428. "With rational beings, nature and reason is the same
thing."--_Collier's Antoninus_, p. 111. "And the flax and the barley was
smitten."--_Exod._, ix, 31. "The colon, and semicolon, divides a period,
this with, and that without a connective."--_J. Ware's Gram._, p. 27.
"Consequently wherever space and time is found, there God must also
be."--_Sir Isaac Newton_. "As the past tense and perfect participle of
_love_ ends in _ed_, it is regular."--_Chandler's Gram._, p. 40; New
Edition, p. 66. "But the usual arrangement and nomenclature prevents this
from being readily seen."--_Butler's Practical Gram._, p. 3. "_Do_ and
_did_ simply implies opposition or emphasis."--_Alex. Murray's Gram._, p.
41. "_I_ and _another_ make _we_, plural: _Thou_ and _another_ is as much
as _ye_: _He, she_, or _it_ and _another_ make _they_"--_Ib._, p. 124. "I
and another, is as much as (we) the first Person Plural; Thou and another,
is as much as (ye) the second Person Plural; He, she, or it, and another,
is as much as (they) the third Person Plural."--_British Gram._, p. 193;
_Buchanan's Syntax_, p. 76. "God and thou art two, and thou and thy
neighbour are two."--_The Love Conquest_, p. 25. "Just as _an_ and _a_ has
arisen out of the numeral _one_."--_Fowler's E. Gram._, 8vo. 1850, Sec.200.
"The tone and style of each of them, particularly the first and the last,
is very different."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 246. "Even as the roebuck and the
hart is eaten."--_Deut._, xiii, 22. "Then I may conclude that two and three
makes not five."--_Barclay's Works_, iii, 354. "Which at sundry times thou
and thy brethren hast received from us."--_Ib._, i, 165. "Two and two is
four, and one is five."--POPE: _Lives of the Poets_, p. 490. "Humility and
knowledge with poor apparel, excels pride and ignorance under costly
array."--_Day's Gram., Parsing Lesson_, p. 100. "A page and a half has been
added to the section on composition."--_Bullions's E. Gram._, 5th Ed.,
Pref., p. vii. "Accuracy and expertness in this exercise is an important
acquisition."--_Ib._, p. 71.

"Woods and groves are of thy dressing,
Hill and dale doth boast thy blessing."--_Milton's Poems_, p. 139.


"There is a good and a bad, a right and a wrong in taste, as in other
things."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 21. "Whence has arisen much stiffness and
affectation."--_Ib._, p. 133. "To this error is owing, in a great measure,
that intricacy and harshness, in his figurative language, which I before
remarked."--_Ib._, p. 150; _Jamieson's Rhet._, 157. "Hence, in his Night
Thoughts, there prevails an obscurity and hardness in his style."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 150. "There is, however, in that work much good sense, and
excellent criticism."--_Ib._, p. 401. "There is too much low wit and
scurrility in Plautus."--_Ib._, p. 481. "There is too much reasoning and
refinement; too much pomp and studied beauty in them."--_Ib._, p. 468.
"Hence arises the structure and characteristic expression of
exclamation."--_Rush on the Voice_, p. 229. "And such pilots is he and his
brethren, according to their own confession."--_Barclay's Works_, iii, 314.
"Of whom is Hymeneus and Philetus: who concerning the truth have
erred."--_2 Tim._, ii, 17. "Of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander; whom I have
delivered unto Satan."--_1 Tim._, i, 20. "And so was James and John, the
sons of Zebedee."--_Luke_, v, 10. "Out of the same mouth proceedeth
blessing and cursing."--_James_, iii, 10. "Out of the mouth of the Most
High proceedeth not evil and good."--_Lam._, iii, 38. "In which there is
most plainly a right and a wrong."--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 215. "In this
sentence there is both an actor and an object."--_Smith's Inductive Gram._,
p. 14. "In the breast-plate was placed the mysterious Urim and
Thummim."--_Milman's Jews_, i, 88. "What is the gender, number, and person
of those in the first?"--_Smith's Productive Gram._, p. 19. "There seems to
be a familiarity and want of dignity in it."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 150.
"It has been often asked, what is Latin and Greek?"--_Literary Convention_,
p. 209. "For where does beauty and high wit But in your constellation
meet?"--_Hudibras_, p. 134. "Thence to the land where flows Ganges and
Indus."--_Paradise Lost_, B. ix, l. 81. "On these foundations seems to rest
the midnight riot and dissipation of modern assemblies."--_Brown's
Estimate_, ii, 46. "But what has disease, deformity, and filth, upon which
the thoughts can be allured to dwell?"--_Johnson's Life of Swift_, p. 492.
"How is the gender and number of the relative known?"--_Bullions, Practical
Lessons_, p. 32.

"High rides the sun, thick rolls the dust,
And feebler speeds the blow and thrust."--_Sir W. Scott_.


"In every language there prevails a certain structure and analogy of parts,
which is understood to give foundation to the most reputable
usage."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 90. "There runs through his whole manner, a
stiffness and affectation, which renders him very unfit to be considered a
general model."--_Ib._, p. 102. "But where declamation and improvement in
speech is the sole aim"--_Ib._, p. 257. "For it is by these chiefly, that
the train of thought, the course of reasoning, and the whole progress of
the mind, in continued discourse of all kinds, is laid open."--_Lowth's
Gram._, p. 103. "In all writing and discourse, the proper composition and
structure of sentnences is of the highest importance."--_Blair's Rhet._, p.
101. "Here the wishful look and expectation of the beggar naturally leads
to a vivid conception of that which was the object of his
thoughts."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 386. "Who say, that the outward naming
of Christ, and signing of the cross, puts away devils."--_Barclay's Works_,
i, 146. "By which an oath and penalty was to be imposed upon the
members."--_Junius_, p. 6. "Light and knowledge, in what manner soever
afforded us, is equally from God."--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 264. "For
instance, sickness and untimely death is the consequence of
intemperance."--_Ib._, p. 78. "When grief, and blood ill-tempered vexeth
him."--_Beauties of Shakspeare_, p. 256. "Does continuity and connexion
create sympathy and relation in the parts of the body?"--_Collier's
Antoninus_, p. 111. "His greatest concern, and highest enjoyment, was to be
approved in the sight of his Creator."--_Murray's Key_, p. 224. "Know ye
not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?"--_2
Sam_, iii, 38. "What is vice and wickedness? No rarity, you may depend on
it."--_Collier's Antoninus_, p. 107. "There is also the fear and
apprehension of it."--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 87. "The apostrophe and _s_,
('s,) is an abbreviation for _is_, the termination of the old English
genitive."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 17. "_Ti, ce_, and _ci_, when followed
by a vowel, usually has the sound of _sh_; as in _partial, special,
ocean_."--_Weld's Gram._, p. 15.

"Bitter constraint and sad occasion dear
Compels me to disturb your season due."--_Milton's Lycidas_.

"Debauches and excess, though with less noise,
As great a portion of mankind destroys."--_Waller_, p. 55.


"Wisdom, and not wealth, procure esteem."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 156.
"Prudence, and not pomp, are the basis of his fame."--_Ib._ "Not fear, but
labour have overcome him."--_Ib._ "The decency, and not the abstinence,
make the difference."--_Ib._ "Not her beauty, but her talents attracts
attention."--_Ib._ "It is her talents, and not her beauty, that attracts
attention."--_Ib._ "It is her beauty, and not her talents that attract

"His belly, not his brains, this impulse give:
He'll grow immortal; for he cannot live."--_Young, to Pope_.


"Common sense as well as piety tell us these are proper."--_Family
Commentary_, p. 64. "For without it the critic, as well as the undertaker,
ignorant of any rule, have nothing left but to abandon themselves to
chance."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, i, 42. "And accordingly hatred as well as
love are extinguished by long absence."--_Ib._, i, 113. "But at every turn
the richest melody as well as the sublimest sentiments are
conspicuous."--_Ib._, ii, 121. "But it, as well as the lines immediately
subsequent, defy all translation."--_Coleridge's Introduction_, p. 96. "But
their religion, as well as their customs, and manners, were strangely
misrepresented."--BOLINGBROKE, ON HISTORY, p. 123; _Priestley's Gram._, p.
192; _Murray's Exercises_, p. 47. "But his jealous policy, as well as the
fatal antipathy of Fonseca, were conspicuous."--_Robertson's America_, i,
191. "When their extent as well as their value were unknown."--_Ib._, ii,
138. "The Etymology, as well as the Syntax, of the more difficult parts of
speech are reserved for his attention [at a later period]."--_Parker and
Fox's E. Gram._, Part i, p. 3. "What I myself owe to him, no one but myself
know."--See _Wright's Athens_, p. 96. "None, but thou, O mighty prince!
canst avert the blow."--_Inst._, p. 156. "Nothing, but frivolous
amusements, please the indolent."--_Ib._

"Nought, save the gurglings of the rill, were heard."--_G. B._

"All songsters, save the hooting owl, was mute."--_G. B._


"Give every word, and every member, their due weight and force."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 110. "And to one of these belong every noun, and every third
person of every verb."--_Wilson's Essay on Gram._, p. 74. "No law, no
restraint, no regulation, are required to keep him in bounds."--_Literary
Convention_, p. 260. "By that time, every window and every door in the
street were full of heads."--_N. Y. Observer_, No. 503. "Every system of
religion, and every school of philosophy, stand back from this field, and
leave Jesus Christ alone, the solitary example"--_The Corner Stone_, p. 17.
"Each day, and each hour, bring their portion of duty."--_Inst._, p. 156.
"And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and
every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him."--_1 Sam._,
xxii, 2. "Every private Christian and member of the church ought to read
and peruse the Scriptures, that they may know their faith and belief
founded upon them."--_Barclay's Works_, i, 340. "And every mountain and
island were moved out of their places."--_Rev._, vi, 14.

"No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride,
No cavern'd hermit rest self-satisfied."


"The side A, with the sides B and C, compose the triangle."--_Tobitt's
Gram._, p. 48; _Felch's_, 69; _Ware's_, 12. "The stream, the rock, or the
tree, must each of them stand forth, so as to make a figure in the
imagination."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 390. "While this, with euphony,
constitute, finally, the whole."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 293. "The bag,
with the guineas and dollars in it, were stolen."--_Cobbett's E. Gram._,
246. "Sobriety, with great industry and talent, enable a man to perform
great deeds."--_Ib._, 245. "The _it_, together with the verb _to be_,
express states of being."--_Ib._, 190. "Where Leonidas the Spartan king,
with his chosen band, fighting for their country, were cut off to the last
man."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, Vol. i, p. 203. "And Leah also, with her
children, came near and bowed themselves."--_Gen._, xxxiii, 7. "The First
or Second will, either of them, by themselves coalesce with the Third, but
not with each other."--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 74. "The whole must centre in
the query, whether Tragedy or Comedy are hurtful and dangerous
representations?"--_Formey's Belles-Lettres_, p. 215. "Grief as well as joy
are infectious: the emotions they raise in the spectator resemble them
perfectly."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, i, 157. "But in all other words the
_Qu_ are both sounded."--_Ensell's Gram._, p. 16. "_Qu_ (which are always
together) have the sound of _ku_ or _k_, as in _queen, opaque_."--
_Goodenow's Gram._, p. 45. "In this selection the _ai_ form distinct
syllables."--_Walker's Key_, p. 290. "And a considerable village, with
gardens, fields, &c., extend around on each side of the square."--
_Liberator_, Vol. ix, p. 140. "Affection, or interest, guide our notions
and behaviour in the affairs of life; imagination and passion affect the
sentiments that we entertain in matters of taste."--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p.
171. "She heard none of those intimations of her defects, which envy,
petulance, or anger, produce among children."--_Rambler_, No. 189. "The
King, with the Lords and Commons, constitute an excellent form of
government."--_Crombie's Treatise_, p. 242. "If we say, 'I am the man, who
commands you,' the relative clause, with the antecedent _man_, form the
predicate."--_Ib._, p. 266.

"The spacious firmament on high,
With all the blue ethereal sky,
And spangled heav'ns, a shining frame,
Their great Original proclaim."
--ADDISON. _Murray's Key_, p. 174; _Day's Gram._, p. 92;
_Farnum's_, 106.


"There is a reputable and a disreputable practice."--_Adams's Rhet._, Vol.
i, p. 350. "This and this man was born in her."--_Milton's Psalms_,
lxxxvii. "This and that man was born in her."--_Psal._ lxxxvii, 5. "This
and that man was born there."--_Hendrick's Gram._, p. 94. "Thus _le_ in
_l~ego_ and _l~egi_ seem to be sounded equally long."--_Adam's Gram._, p.
253; _Gould's_, 243. "A distinct and an accurate articulation forms the
groundwork of good delivery."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 25. "How is vocal
and written language understood?"--_C. W. Sanders, Spelling-Book_, p. 7.
"The good, the wise, and the learned man is an ornament to human
society."--_Bartlett's Reader_. "On some points, the expression of song and
speech is identical."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p. 425. "To every room there
was an open and secret passage."--_Johnson's Rasselas_, p. 13. "There iz
such a thing az tru and false taste, and the latter az often directs
fashion, az the former."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 401. "There is such a
thing as a prudent and imprudent institution of life, with regard to our
health and our affairs"--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 210. "The lot of the
outcasts of Israel and the dispersed of Judah, however different in one
respect, have in another corresponded with wonderful exactness."--_Hope of
Israel_, p. 301. "On these final syllables the radical and vanishing
movement is performed."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p. 64. "To be young or old,
good, just, or the contrary, are physical or moral events."--SPURZHEIM:
_Felch's Comp. Gram._, p. 29. "The eloquence of George Whitfield and of
John Wesley was of a very different character each from the other."--_Dr.
Sharp_. "The affinity of _m_ for the series _b_, and of _n_ for the series
_t_, give occasion for other Euphonic changes."--_Fowler's E. Gram._, Sec.77.

"Pylades' soul and mad Orestes', was
In these, if we believe Pythagoras"--_Cowley's Poems_, p. 3.


"To be moderate in our views, and to proceed temperately in the pursuit of
them, is the best way to ensure success."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 206. "To
be of any species, and to have a right to the name of that species, is all
one."--_Locke's Essay_, p. 300. "With whom to will and to do is the
same."--_Jamieson's Sacred History_, Vol. ii, p. 22. "To profess, and to
possess, is very different things."--_Inst._, p. 156. "To do justly, to
love mercy, and to walk humbly with God, is duties of universal
obligation."--_Ib._ "To be round or square, to be solid or fluid, to be
large or small, and to be moved swiftly or slowly, is all equally alien
from the nature of thought."--_Ib._ "The resolving of a sentence into its
elements or parts of speech and stating the Accidents which belong to
these, is called PARSING."--_Bullion's Pract. Lessons_, p. 9. "To spin and
to weave, to knit and to sew, was once a girl's employment; but now to
dress and catch a beau, is all she calls enjoyment."--_Lynn News_, Vol. 8,
No. 1.


When a Verb has two or more nominatives connected by _or_ or _nor_, it must
agree with them singly, and not as if taken together: as, "Fear _or_
jealousy _affects_ him."--_W. Allen's Gram._, p. 133. "Nor eye, _nor_
listening ear, an object _finds_: creation sleeps."--_Young_. "Neither
character _nor_ dialogue _was_ yet understood."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p.

"The wife, where danger _or_ dishonour _lurks_,
Safest and seemliest by her husband stays."--_Milton, P. L._, ix, 267.


OBS. 1.--To this rule, so far as its application is practicable, there are
properly no exceptions; for, _or_ and _nor_ being disjunctive conjunctions,
the nominatives are of course to assume the verb separately, and as
agreeing with each. Such agreement seems to be positively required by the
alternativeness of the expression. Yet the ancient grammarians seldom, if
at all, insisted on it. In Latin and Greek, a plural verb is often employed
with singular nominatives thus connected; as,

"Tunc nec mens mini, nec color
Certa sede _manent_."--HORACE. See _W. Allen's Gram._, p. 133.

[Greek: "Ean de adelphos ae adelphae lumnoi huparchosi, kai leipomenoi osi
taes ephaemerou trophaes."]--_James_, ii. 15. And the best scholars have
sometimes _improperly_ imitated this construction in English; as, "Neither
Virgil nor Homer _were_ deficient in any of the former beauties."--DRYDEN'S
PREFACE: _Brit. Poets_, Vol. iii, p. 168. "Neither Saxon nor Roman _have
availed_ to add any idea to his [Plato's] categories."--R. W. EMERSON:
_Liberator_, No. 996.

"He comes--nor want _nor_ cold his course _delay_:
Hide, blushing Glory! hide Pultowa's day."--_Dr. Johnson_.

"No monstrous height, _or_ breadth, _or_ length, _appear_;
The whole at once is bold and regular."--_Pope, on Crit._, l. 250.

OBS. 2.--When two collective nouns of the singular form are connected by
_or_ or _nor_, the verb may agree with them in the plural number, because
such agreement is adapted to each of them, according to Rule 15th; as, "Why
_mankind_, or such a _part_ of mankind, are placed in this
condition."--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 213. "But neither the _Board_ of
Control nor the _Court_ of Directors _have_ any scruples about sanctioning
the abuses of which I have spoken."--_Glory and Shame of England_, Vol. ii,
p. 70.

OBS. 3.--When a verb has nominatives of different persons or numbers,
connected by _or_ or _nor_, an explicit concord with each is impossible;
because the verb cannot be of different persons or numbers at the same
time; nor is it so, even when its form is made the same in all the persons
and numbers: thus, "I, thou, [or] he, _may affirm_; we, ye, or they, _may
affirm_."--_Beattie's Moral Science_, p. 36. Respecting the proper
management of the verb when its nominatives thus disagree, the views of our
grammarians are not exactly coincident. Few however are ignorant enough, or
rash enough, to deny that there may be an implicit or implied concord in
such cases,--a _zeugma_ of the verb in English, as well as of the verb or
of the adjective in Latin or Greek. Of this, the following is a brief
example: "But _he nor I feel_ more."--_Dr. Young_, Night iii, p. 35. And I
shall by-and-by add others--enough, I hope, to confute those false critics
who condemn all such phraseology.

OBS. 4.--W. Allen's rule is this: "If the nominatives are of different
numbers or persons, the verb agrees with _the last_; as, he _or_ his
_brothers were_ there; neither _you nor I am_ concerned."--_English Gram._,
p. 133. Lindley Murray, and others, say: (1.) "When singular pronouns, or a
noun and pronoun, of different _persons_, are disjunctively connected, the
verb must agree with that person which is placed _nearest to it_: as, 'I or
thou _art_ to blame;' 'Thou or I _am_ in fault;' 'I, or thou, or he, _is_
the author of it;' 'George or I _am_ the person.' But it would be better to
say; 'Either I am to blame, or thou art,' &c. (2.) When a disjunctive
occurs between a singular noun, _or_ pronoun, and a plural one, the verb is
made to agree with the _plural_ noun _and_ pronoun: as, 'Neither poverty
nor riches _were_ injurious to him;' 'I or they _were_ offended by it.' But
in this case, the plural noun _or_ pronoun, when _it_ can conveniently be
_done_, should be placed next to the verb."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 151;
_Smith's New Gram._, 128; _Alger's Gram._, 54; _Comly's_, 78 and 79;
_Merchant's_, 86; _Picket's_, 175; and many more. There are other
grammarians who teach, that the verb must agree with the nominative which
is placed next to it, whether this be singular or plural; as, "Neither the
servants nor the master _is_ respected;"--"Neither the master nor the
servants _are_ respected."--_Alexander Murray's Gram._, p. 65. "But if
neither the writings nor the author _is_ in existence, the Imperfect should
be used."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 107.

OBS. 5.--On this point, a new author has just given us the following
precept and criticism: "Never connect by _or_, or _nor_, two or more names
or substitutes that have the same _asserter_ [i.e. _verb_] depending on
them for sense, if when taken separately, they require different forms of
the _asserters_. Examples. 'Neither you nor I _am concerned_. Either he
_or_ thou _wast_ there. Either they _or_ he is faulty.' These examples are
as erroneous as it would be to say, 'Neither _you am_ concerned, nor am I.'
'Either he _wast_ there, or thou wast.' 'Either _they is_ faulty, or he
is.' The sentences should stand thus--'Neither of us _is_ concerned,' or,
'neither _are you_ concerned, nor _am I_.' 'Either _he was_ there, or _thou
wast_.' 'Either _they are_ faulty, or _he is_. They are, however, in all
their impropriety, writen [sic--KTH] according to the principles of Goold
Brown's _grammar!_ and the theories of most of the former
writers."--_Oliver B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 252. We shall see by-and-by who
is right.

OBS. 6.--Cobbett also--while he approves of such English as, "_He, with
them, are_ able to do much," for, "_He and they are_ able to do
much"--condemns expressly every possible example in which the verb has not
a full and explicit concord with each of its nominatives, if they are
connected by _or_ or _nor_. His doctrine is this: "If nominatives of
different _numbers_ present themselves, we must not give them a verb which
_disagrees_ with either the one or the other. We must not say: 'Neither the
halter _nor_ the bayonets _are_ sufficient to prevent us from obtaining our
rights.' We must avoid this bad grammar by using a different form of words:
as, 'We are to be prevented from obtaining our rights by neither the halter
nor the bayonets.' And, why should we _wish_ to write bad grammar, if we
can express our meaning in good grammar?"--_Cobbett's E. Gram._, 242.
This question would have more force, if the correction here offered did not
convey a meaning _widely different_ from that of the sentence corrected.
But he goes on: "We cannot say, 'They or I _am_ in fault; I, or they, or
he, _is_ the author of it; George or I _am_ the person.' Mr. Lindley Murray
says, that we _may_ use these phrases; and that we have only to take care
that the verb agree with that person which is _placed nearest_ to it; but,
he says also, that it would be _better_ to avoid such phrases by giving a
different turn to our words. I do not like to leave any thing to chance or
to discretion, when we have a _clear principle_ for our guide."--_Ib._,
243. This author's "clear principle" is merely his own confident
assumption, that every form of figurative or implied agreement, every thing
which the old grammarians denominated _zeugma_, is at once to be condemned
as a solecism. He is however supported by an other late writer of much
greater merit. See _Churchill's New Gram._, pp. 142 and 312.

OBS. 7.--If, in lieu of their fictitious examples, our grammarians would
give us actual quotations from reputable authors, their instructions would
doubtless gain something in accuracy, and still more in authority. "_I or
they were offended by it_," and, "_I, or thou, or he, is the author of
it_," are expressions that I shall not defend. They imply an _egotistical_
speaker, who either does not know, or will not tell, whether he is
_offended_ or not,--whether he _is the author_ or not! Again, there are
expressions that are unobjectionable, and yet not conformable to any of the
rules just quoted. That nominatives may be correctly connected by _or_ or
_nor_ without an express agreement of the verb with each of them, is a
point which can be proved to as full certainty as almost any other in
grammar; Churchill, Cobbett, and Peirce to the contrary notwithstanding.
But with which of the nominatives the verb shall expressly agree, or to
which of them it may most properly be understood, is a matter not easy to
be settled by any _sure_ general rule. Nor is the lack of such a rule a
very important defect, though the inculcation of a false or imperfect one
may be. So judged at least the ancient grammarians, who noticed and named
almost every possible form of the zeugma, without censuring any as being
ungrammatical. In the Institutes of English Grammar, I noted first the
usual form of this concord, and then the allowable exceptions; but a few
late writers, we see, denounce every form of it, exceptions and all: and,
standing alone in their notions of the figure, value their own authority
more than that of all other critics together.

OBS. 8.--In English, as in other languages, when a verb has discordant
nominatives connected disjunctively, it most commonly agrees expressly with
that which is nearest, and only by implication, with the more remote; as,
"When some word or words _are_ dependent on the attribute."--_Webster's
Philos. Gram._, p. 153. "To the first of these qualities, dulness or
refinements _are_ dangerous enemies."--_Brown's Estimate_, Vol. ii, p. 15.
"He hazards his own life with that of his enemy, and one or both _are_ very
_honorably_ murdered."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 235. "The consequence is,
that they frown upon everyone whose faults or negligence _interrupts_ or
_retards_ their lessons."--_W. C. Woodbridge: Lit. Conv._, p. 114. "Good
intentions, or at least sincerity of purpose, _was_ never denied
her."--_West's Letters_, p. 43. "Yet this proves not that either he or we
_judge_ them to be the rule."--_Barclay's Works_, i, 157. "First clear
yourselves of popery before you or thou _dost throw_ it upon us."--_Ib._,
i, 169. "_Is_ the gospel or glad tidings of this salvation brought nigh
unto all?"--_Ib._, i, 362. "Being persuaded, that either they, or their
cause, _is_ naught."--_Ib._, i, 504. "And the reader may judge whether he
or I _do_ most fully acknowledge man's fall."--_Ib._, iii, 332. "To do
justice to the Ministry, they have not yet pretended that any one, or any
two, of the three Estates, _have_ power to make a new law, without the
concurrence of the third."--_Junius_, Letter xvii. "The forest, or
hunting-grounds, _are_ deemed the property of the tribe."--_Robertson's
America_, i, 313. "Birth or titles _confer_ no preeminence."--_Ib._, ii,
184. "Neither tobacco nor hides _were_ imported from Caraccas into
Spain."--_Ib._, ii, 507. "The keys or seed-vessel of the maple _has_ two
large side-wings."--_The Friend_, vii, 97. "An example or two _are_
sufficient to illustrate the general observation."--_Dr. Murray's Hist. of
Lang._, i, 58.

"Not thou, nor those thy factious arts engage,
_Shall_ reap that harvest of rebellious rage."--_Dryden_, p. 60.

OBS. 9.--But when the remoter nominative is the principal word, and the
nearer one is expressed parenthetically, the verb agrees literally with the
former, and only by implication, with the latter; as, "One example, (or
ten,) _says_ nothing against it."--_Leigh Hunt_. "And we, (or future ages,)
_may_ possibly _have_ a proof of it."--_Bp. Butler_. So, when the
alternative is merely in the _words_, not in the _thought_, the former term
is sometimes considered the principal one, and is therefore allowed to
control the verb; but there is always a harshness in this mixture of
different numbers, and, to render such a construction tolerable, it is
necessary to read the latter term like a parenthesis, and make the former
emphatic: as, "A _parenthesis_, or brackets, _consists_ of two angular
strokes, or hooks, enclosing one or more words."--_Whiting's Reader_, p.
28. "To show us that our own _schemes_, or prudence, _have_ no share in our
advancements."--_Addison_. "The Mexican _figures_, or picture-writing,
_represent_ things, not words; _they_ exhibit images to the eye, not ideas
to the understanding."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 243; _English Reader_, p.
xiii. "At Travancore, _Koprah_, or dried cocoa-nut kernels, _is_
monopolized by government."--_Maunder's Gram._, p. 12. "The _Scriptures_,
or Bible, _are_ the only authentic source."--_Bp. Tomline's Evidences_.

"Nor foes nor fortune _take_ this power away;
And is my Abelard less kind than _they_?"--_Pope_, p. 334.

OBS. 10.--The English adjective being indeclinable, we have no examples of
some of the forms of zeugma which occur in Latin and Greek. But adjectives
differing in _number_, are sometimes connected without a repetition of the
noun; and, in the agreement of the verb, the noun which is understood, is
less apt to be regarded than that which is expressed, though the latter be
more remote; as, "There _are one or two_ small _irregularities_ to be
noted."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 63. "There _are one or two persons_, and but
one or two."--_Hazlitt's Lectures_. "There _are one or two_
others."--_Crombie's Treatise_, p. 206. "There _are one or two_."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 319. "There _are one or more_ seminaries in every
province."--_H. E. Dwight: Lit. Conv._, p. 133. "Whether _one or more_ of
the clauses _are_ to be considered the nominative case."--_Murray's Gram._,
Vol. i, p. 150. "So that, I believe, there _is_ not _more_ than _one_
genuine example extant."--_Knight, on the Greek Alphabet_, p. 10. "There
_is_, properly, no _more_ than _one_ pause or rest in the
sentence."--_Murray's Gram._, Vol. i, p. 329; _Blair's Rhet._, p. 125.
"Sometimes a small _letter or two is_ added to the capital."--_Adam's Lat.
Gram._, p. 223; _Gould's_, 283. Among the examples in the seventh paragraph
above, there is one like this last, but with a plural verb; and if either
is objectionable, _is_ should here be _are_. The preceding example, too, is
such as I would not imitate. To L. Murray, the following sentence seemed
false syntax, because _one_ does not agree with _persons_: "He saw _one or
more persons_ enter the garden."--_Murray's Exercises_, Rule 8th, p. 54. In
his Key, he has it thus: "He saw one _person_, or _more than one_, enter
the garden."--_Oct. Gram._, Vol. ii, p. 189. To me, this stiff
_correction_, which many later grammarians have copied, seems worse than
none. And the effect of the principle may be noticed in Murray's style
elsewhere; as, "When a _semicolon, or more than one_, have
preceded."--_Octavo Gram._, i, p. 277; _Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 288. Here a
ready writer would be very apt to prefer one of the following phrases:
"When a semicolon _or two_ have preceded,"--"When _one or two semicolons_
have preceded,"--"When _one or more semicolons_ have preceded." It is
better to write by guess, than to become systematically awkward in

OBS. 11.--In Greek and Latin, the pronoun of the first person, according to
our critics, is _generally_[398] placed first; as, "[Greek: Ego kai su ta
dikaia poiaesomen]. Xen."--_Milnes's Gr. Gram._, p. 120. That is, "_Ego et
tu justa faciemus_." Again: "_Ego et Cicero valemus_. Cic."--_Buchanan's
Pref._, p. x; _Adam's Gram._, 206; _Gould's_, 203. "I and Cicero are
well."--_Ib._ But, in English, a modest speaker usually gives to others the
precedence, and mentions himself last; as, "He, or thou, or I, must
go."--"Thou and I will do what is right."--"Cicero and I are well."--_Dr.
Adam_.[399] Yet, in speaking of himself and his _dependants_, a person most
commonly takes rank before them; as, "Your inestimable letters supported
_myself, my wife_, and _children_, in adversity."--_Lucien Bonaparte,
Charlemagne_, p. v. "And I shall be destroyed, _I_ and _my
house_."--_Gen._, xxxiv, 30. And in acknowledging a fault, misfortune, or
censure, any speaker may assume the first place; as, "Both _I and thou_ are
in the fault."--_Adam's Gram._, p. 207. "Both _I and you_ are in
fault."--_Buchanan's Syntax_, p. ix. "Trusty did not do it; _I and Robert_
did it."--_Edgeworth's Stories_.

"With critic scales, weighs out the partial wit,
What _I_, or _you_, or _he_, or _no one_ writ."
--_Lloyd's Poems_, p. 162.

OBS. 12.--According to the theory of this work, verbs themselves are not
unfrequently connected, one to an other, by _and, or_, or _nor_; so that
two or more of them, being properly in the same construction, may be parsed
as agreeing with the same nominative: as, "So that the blind and dumb
[_man_] both _spake_ and _saw_."--_Matt._, xii, 22. "That no one _might
buy_ or _sell_."--_Rev._, xiii, 17. "Which _see_ not, nor _hear_, nor
_know_."--_Dan._, v, 23. We have certainly very many examples like these,
in which it is neither convenient nor necessary to suppose an ellipsis of
the nominative before the latter verb, or before all but the first, as most
of our grammarians do, whenever they find two or more finite verbs
connected in this manner. It is true, the nominative may, in most
instances, be repeated without injury to the sense; but this fact is no
proof of such an ellipsis; because many a sentence which is not incomplete,
may possibly take additional words without change of meaning. But these
authors, (as I have already suggested under the head of conjunctions,) have
not been very careful of their own consistency. If they teach, that, "Every
finite verb has its own separate nominative, either expressed or implied,"
which idea Murray and others seem to have gathered from Lowth; or if they
say, that, "Conjunctions really unite sentences, when they appear to unite
only words," which notion they may have acquired from Harris; what room is
there for that common assertion, that, "Conjunctions connect the same moods
and tenses of verbs," which is a part of Murray's eighteenth rule, and
found in most of our grammars? For no agreement is usually required between
verbs that have separate nominatives; and if we supply a nominative
wherever we do not find one for each verb, then in fact no two verbs will
ever be connected by any conjunction.

OBS. 13.--What agreement there must be, between verbs that are in the same
construction, it is not easy to determine with certainty. Some of the Latin
grammarians tell us, that certain conjunctions connect "sometimes similar
moods and tenses, and sometimes similar moods but different tenses." See
_Prat's Grammatica Latina, Octavo_, Part ii, p. 95. Ruddiman, Adam, and
Grant, omit the concord of tenses, and enumerate certain conjunctions which
"couple like cases and moods." But all of them acknowledge some exceptions
to their rules. The instructions of Lindley Murray and others, on this
point, may be summed up in the following canon: "When verbs are connected
by a conjunction, they must either agree in mood, tense, and form, or have
separate nominatives expressed." This rule, (with a considerable exception
to it, which other authors had not noticed.) was adopted by myself in the
Institutes of English Grammar, and also retained in the Brief Abstract of
that work, entitled, The First Lines of English Grammar. It there stands as
the thirteenth in the series of principal rules; but, as there is no
occasion to refer to it in the exercise of parsing, I now think, a less
prominent place may suit it as well or better. The principle may be
considered as being less certain and less important than most of the usual
rules of syntax: I shall therefore both modify the expression of it, and
place it among the notes of the present code. See Notes 5th and 6th below.

OBS. 14.--By the agreement of verbs with each other in _form_, it is meant,
that the simple form and the compound, the familiar form and the solemn,
the affirmative form and the negative, or the active form and the passive,
are not to be connected without a repetition of the nominative. With
respect to _our_ language, this part of the rule is doubtless as important,
and as true, as any other. A thorough agreement, then, in mood, tense, and
form, is _generally_ required, when verbs are connected by _and, or_, or
_nor_; and, under each part of this concord, there may be cited certain
errors which ought to be avoided, as will by-and-by be shown. But, at the
same time, there seem to be many allowable violations of the rule, some or
other of which may perhaps form exceptions to every part of it. For
example, the _tense_ may be varied, as it often is in Latin; thus, "As the
general state of religion _has been, is_, or _shall be_, affected by
them."--_Butlers Analogy_, p. 241. "Thou art righteous, O Lord, which
_art_, and _wast_, and _shall be_, because thou hast judged thus."--_Rev._,
xvi, 5. In the former of these examples, a repetition of the nominative
would not be agreeable; in the latter, it would perhaps be an improvement:
as, "_who_ art, and _who_ wast, and _who_ shalt be." (I here change the
pronoun, because the relative _which_ is not now applied as above.) "This
dedication may serve for almost any book, that _has been_, or _shall be_
published."--_Campbell's Rhet._ p. 207; _Murray's Gram._, p. 222. "It ought
to be, '_has been, is_, or _shall be_, published.'"--_Crombie's Treatise_,
p. 383. "Truth and good sense _are_ firm, and _will establish_
themselves."--_Blair's Rhet._ p. 286. "Whereas Milton _followed_ a
different plan, and _has given_ a tragic conclusion to a poem otherwise
epic in its form."--_Ib._, p. 428. "I am certain, that such _are not_, nor
ever _were_, the tenets of the church of England."--_West's Letters_, p.
148. "They _deserve_, and _will meet with_, no regard."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 109.

"Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see,
Thinks what ne'er _was_, nor _is_, nor e'er _shall be_."
--_Pope, on Crit._

OBS. 15.--So verbs differing in _mood_ or _form_ may sometimes agree with
the same nominative, if the simplest verb be placed first--rarely, I think,
if the words stand in any other order: as, "One _may be_ free from
affectation and _not have_ merit"--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 189. "There _is_,
and _can be_, no other person."--_Murray's Key_. 8vo. p. 224. "To see what
_is_, and _is allowed_ to be, the plain natural rule."--_Butler's Analogy_,
p. 284. "This great experiment _has worked_, and _is working_, well, every
way well"--BRADBURN: _Liberator_, ix. 162. "This edition of Mr. Murray's
works on English Grammar, _deserves_ a place in Libraries, and _will not
fail_ to obtain it."--BRITISH CRITIC: _Murray's Gram._, 8vo, ii, 299.

"What nothing earthly _gives_, or _can destroy_."--_Pope_.

"Some _are_, and _must be_, greater than the rest."--_Id._

OBS. 16.--Since most of the tenses of an English verb are composed of two
or more words, to prevent a needless or disagreeable repetition of
auxiliaries, participles, and principal verbs, those parts which are common
to two or more verbs in the same sentence, are generally expressed to the
first, and understood to the rest; or reserved, and put last, as the common
supplement of each; as, "To which they _do_ or _can extend_."--_Butler's
Analogy_, p. 77. "He _may_, as any one _may_, if he _will, incur_ an
infamous execution from the hands of civil justice."--_Ib._, p. 82. "All
that has usurped the name of virtue, and [_has_] deceived us by its
semblance, must be a mockery and a delusion."--_Dr. Chalmers_. "Human
praise, and human eloquence, may acknowledge it, but the Discerner of the
heart never will" [_acknowledge it_].--_Id._ "We use thee not so hardly, as
prouder livers do" [_use thee_].--_Shak._ "Which they might have foreseen
and [_might have_] avoided."--_Butler_. "Every sincere endeavour to amend,
shall be assisted, [_shall be_] accepted, and [_shall be_]
rewarded."--_Carter_. "Behold, I thought, He will surely come out to me,
and [_will_] stand and [_will_] call on the name of the Lord his God, and
[_will_] strike his hand over the place, and [_will_] recover the
leper."--_2 Kings_, v, 11. "They mean to, and will, hear
patiently."--_Salem Register_. That is, "They mean to _hear patiently_, and
_they_ will hear patiently." "He can create, and he destroy."--_Bible_.
That is,--"and he _can_ destroy."

"Virtue _may be assail'd_, but never _hurt_,
_Surpris'd_ by unjust force, but not _inthrall'd_."--_Milton_.

"Mortals whose pleasures are their only care,
First wish to be _imposed on_, and then _are_."--_Cowper_.

OBS. 17.--From the foregoing examples, it may be seen, that the complex and
divisible structure of the English moods and tenses, produces, when verbs
are connected together, a striking peculiarity of construction in our
language, as compared with the nearest corresponding construction in Latin
or Greek. For we can connect different auxiliaries, participles, or
principal verbs, without repeating, and apparently without connecting, the
other parts of the mood or tense. And although it is commonly supposed that
these parts are necessarily understood wherever they are not repeated,
there are sentences, and those not a few, in which we cannot express them,
without inserting also an additional nominative, and producing distinct
clauses; as, "_Should_ it not _be taken_ up and _pursued_?"--_Dr.
Chalmers_. "Where thieves _do_ not _break_ through nor _steal_."--_Matt._,
vi, 20. "None present _could_ either _read_ or _explain_ the
writing-."--_Wood's Dict._, Vol. i, p. 159. Thus we sometimes make a single
auxiliary an index to the mood and tense of more than one verb.

OBS. 18.--The verb _do_, which is sometimes an auxiliary and sometimes a
principal verb, is thought by some grammarians to be also fitly made a
_substitute_ for other verbs, as a pronoun is for nouns; but this doctrine
has not been taught with accuracy, and the practice under it will in many
instances be found to involve a solecism. In this kind of substitution,
there must either be a true ellipsis of the principal verb, so that _do_ is
only an auxiliary; or else the verb _do_, with its _object_ or _adverb_, if
it need one, must exactly correspond to an action described before; so that
to speak of _doing this_ or _thus_, is merely the shortest way of repeating
the idea: as, "He _loves_ not plays, as thou _dost_. Antony."--_Shak._ That
is, "as thou _dost love plays._" "This fellow is wise enough _to play the
fool_; and, _to do that_ well, craves a kind of wit."--_Id._ Here, "_to do
that_," is, "_to play the fool_." "I will not _do it_, if I find thirty
there."--_Gen._, xviii, 30. Do what? Destroy the city, as had been
threatened. Where _do_ is an auxiliary, there is no real substitution; and,
in the other instances, it is not properly the verb _do_, that is the
substitute, but rather the word that follows it--or perhaps, both. For,
since every action consists in _doing something_ or in _doing somehow_,
this general verb _do_, with _this, that, it, thus_, or _so_, to identify
the action, may assume the import of many a longer phrase. But care must be
taken not to substitute this verb for any term to which it is not
equivalent; as, "The _a_ is certainly to be sounded as the English
_do_."--_Walker's Dict., w. A_. Say, "as the English _sound it_;" for _do_
is here absurd, and grossly solecistical. "The duke had not behaved with
that loyalty with which he ought to have _done_."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 111;
_Murray's_, i, 212; _Churchill's_, 355; _Fisk's_, 137; _Ingersoll's_, 269.
Say, "with which he ought to have _behaved_;" for, to have _done_ with
loyalty is not what was meant--far from it. Clarendon wrote the text thus:
"The Duke had not behaved with that loyalty, _as_ he ought to have done."
This should have been corrected, not by changing _"as"_ to _"with which"_,
but by saying--"with that loyalty _which_ he ought to have _observed;"_ or,
"_which would have become him"_.

OBS. 19.--It is little to the credit of our grammarians, to find so many of
them thus concurring in the same obvious error, and even making bad English
worse. The very examples which have hitherto been given to prove that _do_
may be a substitute for other verbs, are _none of them in point_, and all
of them have been constantly and shamefully _misinterpreted._ Thus: "They
[_do_ and _did_] sometimes also supply the place of _another verb_, and
make the repetition of it, in the same or a subsequent sentence,
unnecessary: as, 'You attend not to your studies as he _does_;' (i. e. as
he _attends_, &c.) 'I shall come if I can; but if I _do not_, please to
excuse me;' (i. e. if I _come_ not.)"--_L. Murray's Gram._, Vol. i, p. 88;
_R. C. Smith's_, 88; _Ingersoll's_, 135; _Fisk's_, 78; _A. Flint's_, 41;
_Hiley's_, 30. This remark, but not the examples, was taken from _Lowths
Gram._, p. 41. Churchill varies it thus, and retains Lowth's example: "It
[i. e., _do_] is used also, to supply the _place of another verb_, in order
to avoid the repetition of it: as, 'He _loves_ not plays, As thou _dost_,
Antony.' SHAKS."--_New Gram._, p. 96. Greenleaf says, "To prevent the
repetition of _one or more verbs_, in the same, or [a] following sentence,
we frequently make use of _do_ AND _did_; as, 'Jack learns the English
language as fast as Henry _does_;' that is, 'as fast as Henry _learns_.' 'I
shall come if I can; but if I _do_ not, please to excuse me;' that is, 'if
I _come_ not.'"--_Gram. Simplified_, p. 27. Sanborn says, "_Do_ is also
used _instead of another verb_, and not unfrequently instead of both _the
verb and its object_; as, 'he _loves work_ as well as you _do_;' that is,
as well as you _love work_."--_Analyt. Gram._, p. 112. Now all these
interpretations are wrong; the word _do, dost_, or _does_, being simply an
auxiliary, after which the principal verb (with its object where it has
one) is _understood_. But the first example is _bad English_, and its
explanation is still worse. For, "_As he attends_, &c.," means, "As _he_
attends _to your studies!_" And what good sense is there in this? The
sentence ought to have been, "You do not attend to your studies, as he does
_to his_." That is--"as he does _attend_ to his _studies_." This plainly
shows that there is, in the text, no real substitution of _does_ for
_attends_. So of all other examples exhibited in our grammars, under this
head: there is nothing to the purpose, in any of them; the common principle
of _ellipsis_ resolves them all. Yet, strange to say, in the latest and
most learned of this sort of text-books, we find the same sham example,
fictitious and solecistical as it is, still blindly repeated, to show that
"_does_" is not in its own place, as an auxiliary, but "supplies the place
of another verb."--_Fowler's E. Gram._, 8vo. 1850. p. 265.


NOTE I.--When a verb has nominatives of different persons or numbers,[400]
connected by _or_ or _nor_, it must agree with the nearest, (unless an
other be the principal term,) and must be understood to the rest, in the
person and number required; as, "Neither you nor I _am_ concerned."--_W.
Allen_. "That neither they nor ye also _die_."--_Numb._, xviii, 3.

"But neither god, nor shrine, nor mystic rite,
Their city, nor her walls, his soul _delight_."
--_Rowe's Lucan_, B. x, l. 26.

NOTE II.--But, since all nominatives that require different forms of the
verb, virtually produce separate clauses or propositions, it is better to
complete the concord whenever we conveniently can, by expressing the verb
or its auxiliary in connexion with each of them; as, "Either thou _art_ to
blame, or I _am_."--_Comly's Gram._, p. 78. "Neither _were_ their numbers,
nor _was_ their destination, known."--_W. Allen's Gram._, p. 134. So in
clauses connected by _and_: as, "But declamation _is_ idle, and _murmurs_
fruitless."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 82. Say,--"and murmurs _are_

NOTE III.--In English, the speaker should always mention himself last;
unless his own superior dignity, or the confessional nature of the
expression, warrant him in taking the precedence: as, "_Thou or I_ must
go."--"He then addressed his discourse to _my father and me_."--"_Ellen and
I_ will seek, apart, the refuge of some forest cell."--_Scott_. See Obs.
11th above.

NOTE IV.--Two or more distinct subject phrases connected by _or_ or _nor_,
require a singular verb; and, if a nominative come after the verb, that
must be singular also: as, "That a drunkard should be poor, _or_ that a fop
should be ignorant, _is_ not strange."--"To give an affront, or to take one
tamely, _is_ no _mark_ of a great mind." So, when the phrases are
unconnected: as, "To spread suspicion, to invent calumnies, to propagate
scandal, _requires_ neither labour nor courage."--_Rambler_, No. 183.

NOTE V.--In general, when _verbs_ are connected by _and, or_, or _nor_,
they must either agree in mood, tense, and form, or the simplest in form
must be placed first; as, "So Sennacherib king of Assyria _departed_, and
_went_ and _returned_, and _dwelt_ at Nineveh."--_Isaiah_, xxxvii, 37. "For
if I _be_ an offender, or _have committed_ any thing worthy of death, I
refuse not to die."--_Acts_, xxv, 11.

NOTE VI.--In stead of conjoining discordant verbs, it is in general better
to repeat the nominative or insert a new one; as, "He was greatly heated,
and [_he] drank_ with avidity."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 201. "A person may
be great or rich by chance; but _cannot be_ wise or good, without taking
pains for it."--_Ib._, p. 200. Say,--"but _no one can be_ wise or good,
without taking pains for it."

NOTE VII.--A mixture of the forms of the solemn style and the familiar, is
inelegant, whether the verbs refer to the same nominative or have different
ones expressed; as, "What _appears_ tottering and in hazard of tumbling,
_produceth_ in the spectator the painful emotion of fear."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, ii, 356. "And the milkmaid _singeth_ blithe, And the mower _whets_
his sithe."--_Milton's Allegro_, l. 65 and 66.

NOTE VIII.--To use different moods under precisely the same circumstances,
is improper, even if the verbs have separate nominatives; as, "Bating that
one _speak_ and an other _answers_, it is quite the same."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 368. Say,--"that one _speaks_;" for both the speaking and the
answering are assumed as facts.

NOTE IX.--When two terms are connected, which involve different forms of
the same verb, such parts of the compound tenses as are not common to both
forms, should be inserted in full: except sometimes after the auxiliary
_do_; as, "And then he _falls_, as I _do_."--_Shak_. That is, "as I _do
fall_." The following sentences are therefore faulty: "I think myself
highly obliged _to make_ his fortune, as he _has_ mine."--_Spect._, No.
474. Say,--"as he _has made_ mine." "Every attempt to remove them, _has_,
and likely _will prove_ unsuccessful."--_Gay's Prosodical Gram._, p. 4.
Say,--"_has proved_, and likely _will prove_, unsuccessful."

NOTE X.--The verb _do_ must never be substituted for any term to which its
own meaning is not adapted; nor is there any use in putting it for a
preceding verb that is equally short: as, "When we see how confidently men
rest on groundless surmises in reference to their own souls, we cannot
wonder that they _do it_ in reference to others."--_Simeon_. Better:--"that
they _so rest_ in reference to _the souls of_ others;" for this repeats the
idea with more exactness. NOTE XI.--The preterit should not be employed
to form the compound tenses of the verb; nor should the perfect participle
be used for the preterit or confounded with the present. Thus: say, "To
have _gone_," not, "To have _went_;" and, "I _did_ so," not, "I _done_ so;"
or, "He _saw_ them," not, "He _seen_ them." Again: say not, "It was _lift_
or _hoist_ up;" but, "It was _lifted_ or _hoisted_ up."

NOTE XII.--Care should be taken, to give every verb or participle its
appropriate form, and not to confound those which resemble each other; as,
_to flee_ and _to fly, to lay_ and _to lie, to sit_ and _to set, to fall_
and _to fell_, &c. Thus: say, "He _lay_ by the fire;" not, "He _laid_ by
the fire;"--"He _has become_ rich;" not, "He _is become_ rich;"--"I _would_
rather _stay_;" not, "I _had_ rather _stay_."

NOTE XIII.--In the syntax of words that express time, whether they be
verbs, adverbs, or nouns, the order and fitness of time should be observed,
that the tenses may be used according to their import. Thus: in stead of,
"I _have seen_ him _last week_;" say, "I _saw_ him _last week_;"--and, in
stead of, "I _saw_ him _this week_;" say, "I _have seen_ him _this week_."
So, in stead of, "I _told_ you _already_;" or, "I _have told_ you
_before_;" say, "I _have told_ you _already_;"--"I _told_ you _before_."

NOTE XIV.--Verbs of commanding, desiring, expecting, hoping, intending,
permitting, and some others, in all their tenses, refer to actions or
events, relatively present or future: one should therefore say, "I hoped
you _would come_;" not, "I hoped you _would have come_;"--and, "I intended
_to do_ it;" not, "I intended _to have done_ it;"--&c.

NOTE XV.--Propositions that are as true now as they ever were or will be,
should generally be expressed in the present tense: as, "He seemed hardly
to know, that two and two _make_ four;" not, "_made_."--_Blair's Gram._, p.
65. "He will tell you, that whatever _is, is_ right." Sometimes the present
tense is improper with the conjunction _that_, though it would be quite
proper without it; as, "Others said, _That_ it _is_ Elias. And others said,
_That_ it _is_ a prophet."--_Mark_, vi, 15. Here _That_ should be omitted,
or else _is_ should be _was_. The capital _T_ is also improper.




"We do not know in what either reason or instinct consist."--_Rambler_, No.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the verb _consist_ is of the plural number,
and does not correctly agree with its two nominatives, _reason_ and
_instinct_, which are connected by _or_, and taken disjunctively. But,
according to Rule 17th, "When a verb has two or more nominatives connected
by _or_ or _nor_, it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken
together." Therefore, _consist_ should be _consists_; thus, "We do not know
in what either reason or instinct _consists_."]

"A noun or a pronoun joined with a participle, constitute a nominative case
absolute."--_Bicknell's Gram._, Part ii, p. 50. "The relative will be of
that case, which the verb or noun following, or the preposition going
before, use to govern."--_Dr. Adam's Gram._, p. 203. "Which the verb or
noun following, or the preposition going before, usually govern."--_Gould's
Adam's Gram._, p. 200.[401] "In the different modes of pronunciation which
habit or caprice give rise to."--_Knight, on the Greek Alphabet_, p. 14.
"By which he, or his deputy, were authorized to cut down any trees in
Whittlebury forest."--_Junius_, p. 251. "Wherever objects were to be named,
in which sound, noise, or motion were concerned, the imitation by words was
abundantly obvious."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 55. "The pleasure or pain
resulting from a train of perceptions in different circumstances, are a
beautiful contrivance of nature for valuable purposes."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, i, 262. "Because their foolish vanity or their criminal ambition
represent the principles by which they are influenced, as absolutely
perfect."--_Life of Madame De Stael_, p. 2. "Hence naturally arise
indifference or aversion between the parties."--_Brown's Estimate_, ii, 37.
"A penitent unbeliever, or an impenitent believer, are characters no where
to be found."--_Tract_, No. 183. "Copying whatever is peculiar in the talk
of all those whose birth or fortune entitle them to imitation."--_Rambler_,
No. 194. "Where love, hatred, fear, or contempt, are often of decisive
influence."--_Duncan's Cicero_, p. 119. "A lucky anecdote, or an enlivening
tale relieve the folio page."--_D'Israeli's Curiosities_, Vol. i, p. 15.
"For outward matter or event, fashion not the character within."--_Book of
Thoughts_, p. 37. "Yet sometimes we have seen that wine, or chance, have
warmed cold brains."--_Dryden's Poems_, p. 76. "Motion is a Genus; Flight,
a Species; this Flight or that Flight are Individuals."--_Harris's Hermes_,
p. 38. "When _et, aut, vel, sine_, or _nec_, are joined to different
members of the same sentence."--_Adam's Lat. and Eng. Gram._, p. 206;
_Gould's Lat. Gram._, 203; _Grant's_, 266. "Wisdom or folly govern
us."--_Fisk's English Gram._, 84. "_A_ or _an_ are styled indefinite
articles."--_Folker's Gram._, p. 4. "A rusty nail, or a crooked pin, shoot
up into prodigies."--_Spectator_, No. 7. "Are either the subject or the
predicate in the second sentence modified?"--_Fowler's E. Gram._, 8vo,
1850, p. 578, Sec.589.

"Praise from a friend, or censure from a foe,
Are lost on hearers that our merits know."
--_Pope, Iliad_, B. x, l. 293.


"Neither he nor she have spoken to him."--_Perrin's Gram._, p. 237. "For
want of a process of events, neither knowledge nor elegance preserve the
reader from weariness."--JOHNSON: _in Crabb's Syn._, p. 511. "Neither
history nor tradition furnish such information."--_Robertson's Amer._, Vol.
i, p. 2. "Neither the form nor power of the liquids have varied
materially."--_Knight, on the Greek Alph._, p. 16. "Where neither noise nor
motion are concerned."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 55. "Neither Charles nor his
brother were qualified to support such a system."--_Junius_, p. 250. "When,
therefore, neither the liveliness of representation, nor the warmth of
passion, serve, as it were, to cover the trespass, it is not safe to leave
the beaten track."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 381. "In many countries called
Christian, neither Christianity, nor its evidence, are fairly laid before
men."--_Butler's Analogy_, p. 269. "Neither the intellect nor the heart are
capable of being driven."--_Abbott's Teacher_, p. 20. "Throughout this
hymn, neither Apollo nor Diana are in any way connected with the Sun or
Moon."--_Coleridge's Introd._, p. 199. "Of which, neither he, nor this
Grammar, take any notice."--_Johnson's Gram. Com._, p. 346. "Neither their
solicitude nor their foresight extend so far."--_Robertson's Amer._, Vol.
i, p. 287. "Neither Gomara, nor Oviedo, nor Herrera, consider Ojeda, or his
companion Vespucci, as the first discoverers of the continent of
America."--_Ib._, Vol. i, p. 471. "Neither the general situation of our
colonies, nor that particular distress which forced the inhabitants of
Boston to take up arms, have been thought worthy of a moment's
consideration."--_Junius_, p. 174.

"Nor War nor Wisdom yield our Jews delight,
They will not study, and they dare not fight."
--_Crabbe's Borough_, p. 50.

"Nor time nor chance breed such confusions yet,
Nor are the mean so rais'd, nor sunk the great."
--_Rowe's Lucan_, B. iii, l. 213.


"The definite article _the_, designates what particular thing or things is
meant."--_Merchant's School Gram._, p. 23 and p. 33. "Sometimes a word or
words necessary to complete the grammatical construction of a sentence, is
not expressed, but omitted by ellipsis."--_Burr's Gram._, p. 26. "Ellipsis,
or abbreviations, is the wheels of language."--_Maunder's Gram._, p. 12.
"The conditions or tenor of none of them appear at this
day."--_Hutchinson's Hist. of Mass._, Vol. i, p. 16. "Neither men nor money
were wanting for the service."--_Ib._, Vol. i, p. 279. "Either our own
feelings, or the representation of those of others, require frequent
emphatic distinction."--_Barber's Exercises_, p. 13. "Either Atoms and
Chance, or Nature are uppermost: now I am for the latter part of the
disjunction,"--_Collier's Antoninus_, p. 181. "Their riches or poverty are
generally proportioned to their activity or indolence."--_Ross Cox's
Narrative_. "Concerning the other part of him, neither you nor he seem to
have entertained an idea."--_Bp. Horne_. "Whose earnings or income are so
small."--_N. E. Discipline_, p. 130. "Neither riches nor fame render a man
happy."--_Day's Gram._, p. 71. "The references to the pages, always point
to the first volume, unless the Exercises or Key are mentioned."--_Murray's
Gram._, Vol. ii, p. 283.


"My lord, you wrong my father; nor he nor I are capable of harbouring a
thought against your peace."--_Walpole_. "There was no division of acts; no
pauses or interval between them; but the stage was continually full;
occupied either by the actors, or the chorus."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 463.
"Every word ending in B, P, F, as also many in V, are of this order."--_Dr.
Murray's Hist. of Lang._, i, 73. "As proud as we are of human reason,
nothing can be more absurd than the general system of human life and human
knowledge."--_Bolingbroke, on Hist._, p. 347. "By which the body of sin and
death is done away, and we cleansed."--_Barclay's Works_, i, 165. "And
those were already converted, and regeneration begun in them."--_Ib._, iii,
433. "For I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years."--_Luke_, i,
18. "Who is my mother, or my brethren?"--_Mark_, iii, 33. "Lebanon is not
sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a
burnt-offering."--_Isaiah_, xl, 16. "Information has been obtained, and
some trials made."--_Society in America_, i, 308. "It is as obvious, and
its causes more easily understood."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 84. "All
languages furnish examples of this kind, and the English as many as any
other."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 157. "The winters are long, and the cold
intense."--_Morse's Geog._, p. 39. "How have I hated instruction, and my
heart despised reproof!"--_Prov._, v, 12. "The vestals were abolished by
Theodosius the Great, and the fire of Vesta extinguished."--_Lempriere, w.
Vestales_. "Riches beget pride; pride, impatience."--_Bullions's Practical
Lessons_, p. 89. "Grammar is not reasoning, any more than organization is
thought, or letters sounds."--_Enclytica_, p. 90. "Words are implements,
and grammar a machine."--_Ib._, p. 91.


"I or thou art the person who must undertake the business
proposed."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 184. "I and he were there."--_Dr. Ash's
Gram._, p. 51. "And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he."--_Gen._,
xli, 11. "If my views remain the same as mine and his were in
1833."--GOODELL: _Liberator_, ix, 148. "I and my father were riding
out."--_Inst._, p. 158. "The premiums were given to me and George."--_Ib._
"I and Jane are invited."--_Ib._ "They ought to invite me and my
sister."--_Ib._ "I and you intend going."--_Guy's Gram._, p. 55. "I and
John are going to Town."--_British Gram._, p. 193. "I, and he are sick. I,
and thou are well."--_James Brown's American Gram._, Boston Edition of
1841, p. 123. "I, and he is. I, and thou art. I, and he writes."--_Ib._, p.
126. "I, and they are well. I, thou, and she were walking."--_Ib._, p.


"To practise tale-bearing, or even to countenance it, are great
injustice."--_Brown's Inst._, p. 159. "To reveal secrets, or to betray
one's friends, are contemptible perfidy."--_Ib._ "To write all substantives
with capital letters, or to exclude them from adjectives derived from
proper names, may perhaps be thought offences too small for animadversion;
but the evil of innovation is always something."--_Dr. Barrow's Essays_, p.
88. "To live in such families, or to have such servants, are blessings from
God."--_Family Commentary_, p. 64. "How they portioned out the country,
what revolutions they experienced, or what wars they maintained, are
utterly unknown."--_Goldsmith's Greece_, Vol. i, p. 4. "To speak or to
write perspicuously and agreeably, are attainments of the utmost
consequence to all who purpose, either by speech or writing, to address the
public."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 11.


"Doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and
seeketh that which is gone astray?"--_Matt._, xviii, 12. "Did he not fear
the Lord, and besought the Lord, and the Lord repented him of the evil
which he had pronounced?"--_Jer._, xxvi, 19. "And dost thou open thine eyes
upon such an one, and bringest me into judgement with thee?"--_Job_, xiv,
3. "If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue,
but deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is vain."--_James_, i, 26.
"If thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buyest aught of thy neighbour's
hand, ye shall not oppress one an other."--_Leviticus_, xxv, 14. "And if
thy brother that dwelleth by thee, shall have become poor, and be sold to
thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bond servant."--WEBSTER'S
BIBLE: _Lev._, xxv, 39. "If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there
rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee," &c.--_Matt._, v, 23.
"Anthea was content to call a coach, and crossed the brook."--_Rambler_,
No. 34. "It is either totally suppressed, or appears in its lowest and most
imperfect form."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 23. "But if any man be a worshiper of
God, and doeth his will, him he heareth."--_John_, ix, 31. "Whereby his
righteousness and obedience, death and sufferings without, become
profitable unto us, and is made ours."--_Barclay's Works_, i, 164. "Who
ought to have been here before thee, and object, if they had aught against
me."--_Acts_, xxiv, 19.

"Yes! thy proud lords, unpitied land, shall see
That man hath yet a soul, and dare be free."--_Campbell_.


"_H_ is only an aspiration or breathing; and sometimes at the beginning of
a word is not sounded at all."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 4. "Man was made for
society, and ought to extend his good will to all men."--_Ib._, p. 12;
_Murray's_, i, 170. "There is, and must be, a supreme being, of infinite
goodness, power, and wisdom, who created and supports them."--_Beattie's
Moral Science_, p. 201. "Were you not affrighted, and mistook a spirit for
a body?"--_Watson's Apology_, p. 122. "The latter noun or pronoun is not
governed by the conjunction _than_ or _as_, but agrees with the verb, or is
governed by the verb or the preposition, expressed or understood."--
_Murray's Gram._, p. 214; _Russell's_, 103; _Bacon's_, 51; _Alger's_, 71;
_R. C. Smith's_, 179. "He had mistaken his true interests, and found
himself forsaken."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 201. "The amputation was
exceedingly well performed, and saved the patient's life."--_Ib._, p. 191.
"The intentions of some of these philosophers, nay, of many [,] might have
been, and probably were good."--_Ib._, p. 216. "This may be true, and yet
will not justify the practice."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 33. "From the
practice of those who have had a liberal education, and are therefore
presumed to be best acquainted with men and things."--_Campbell's Rhet._,
p. 161. "For those energies and bounties which created and preserve the
universe."--_J. Q. Adams's Rhet._, i, 327. "I shall make it once for all
and hope it will be afterwards remembered."--_Blair's Lect._, p. 45. "This
consequence is drawn too abruptly, and needed more explanation."--_Ib._, p.
229. "They must be used with more caution, and require more preparation."--
_Ib._, p. 153. "The apostrophe denotes the omission of an _i_, which was
formerly inserted, and made an addition of a syllable to the word."--
_Priestley's Gram._, p. 67. "The succession may be rendered more various or
more uniform, but in one shape or an other is unavoidable."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, i. 253. "It excites neither terror nor compassion, nor is agreeable
in any respect."--_Ib._, ii, 277.

"Cheap vulgar arts, whose narrowness affords
No flight for thoughts, but poorly stick at words."--_Denham_.


"Let us read the living page, whose every character delighteth and
instructs us."--_Maunder's Gram._, p. 5. "For if it be in any degree
obscure, it puzzles, and doth not please."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, ii, 357.
"When a speaker addresseth himself to the understanding, he proposes the
instruction of his hearers."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 13. "As the wine which
strengthens and refresheth the heart."--_H. Adams's View_, p. 221. "This
truth he wrappeth in an allegory, and feigns that one of the goddesses had
taken up her abode with the other."--_Pope's Works_, iii, 46. "God
searcheth and understands the heart."--_Thomas a Kempis_. "The grace of
God, that brings salvation hath appeared to all men."--_Barclays Works_, i,
366. "Also we speak not in the words, which man's wisdom teaches; but which
the Holy Ghost teacheth."--_Ib._, i, 388. "But he hath an objection, which
he urgeth, and by which he thinks to overturn all."--_Ib._, iii, 327. "In
that it gives them not that comfort and joy which it giveth unto them who
love it."--_Ib._, i, 142. "Thou here misunderstood the place and
misappliedst it."--_Ib._, iii, 38. "Like the barren heath in the desert,
which knoweth not when good comes."--_Friends' Extracts_, p. 128; _N. E.
Discip._, p. 75. "It speaketh of the time past, but shews that something
was then doing, but not quite finished."--_E. Devis's Gram._, p. 42. "It
subsists in spite of them; it advanceth unobserved."--PASCAL: _Addison's
Evidences_, p. 17.

"But where is he, the Pilgrim of my song?--
Methinks he cometh late and tarries long."--_Byron_, Cant. iv, St. 164.


"If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them is gone astray,
&c."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 227 with 197. "As a speaker advances in his
discourse, especially if it be somewhat impassioned, and increases in
energy and earnestness, a higher and louder tone will naturally steal upon
him."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 68. "If one man esteem a day above
another, and another esteemeth every day alike; let every man be fully
persuaded in his own mind."--_Barclay's Works_, i, 439. "If there be but
one body of legislators, it is no better than a tyranny; if there are only
two, there will want a casting voice."--_Addison, Spect._, No. 287. "Should
you come up this way, and I am still here, you need not be assured how glad
I shall be to see you."--_Ld. Byron_. "If he repent and becomes holy, let
him enjoy God and heaven."--_Brownson's Elwood_, p. 248. "If thy fellow
approach thee, naked and destitute, and thou shouldst say unto him, 'Depart
in peace; be you warmed and filled;' and yet shouldst give him not those
things that are needful to him, what benevolence is there in thy
conduct?"--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 108.

"Get on your nightgown, lost occasion calls us.
And show us to be watchers."
--_Beauties of Shakspeare_, p. 278.

"But if it climb, with your assisting hands,
The Trojan walls, and in the city stands."
--_Dryden's Virgil_, ii, 145.

--------------------------"Though Heaven's king
Ride on thy wings, and thou with thy compeers,
Us'd to the yoke, draw'st his triumphant wheels."
--_Milton, P. L._, iv, l. 973.

"Us'd to the yoke, _draw'dst_ his triumphant wheels."
--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 106.


"Indeed we have seriously wondered that Murray should leave some things as
he has."--_Education Reporter_. "Which they neither have nor can
do."--_Barclay's Works_, iii, 73. "The Lord hath, and doth, and will reveal
his will to his people, and hath and doth raise up members of his body,"
&c.--_Ib._, i, 484. "We see then, that the Lord hath, and doth give
such."--_Ib._, i, 484. "Towards those that have or do declare themselves
members."--_Ib._, i, 494. "For which we can, and have given our sufficient
reasons."--_Ib._, i, 507. "When we mention the several properties of the
different words in sentences, in the same manner as we have those of
_William's_, above, what is the exercise called?"--_Smith's New Gram._, p.
12. "It is, however to be doubted whether this peculiarity of the Greek
idiom, ever has or will obtain extensively in the English."--_Nutting's
Gram._, p. 47. "Why did not the Greeks and Romans abound in auxiliary words
as much as we?"--_Murray's Gram._, Vol. i, p. 111. "Who delivers his
sentiments in earnest, as they ought to be in order to move and
persuade."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 151.


"And I would avoid it altogether, if it could be done."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, i, 36. "Such a sentiment from a man expiring of his wounds, is
truly heroic, and must elevate the mind to the greatest height that can be
done by a single expression."--_Ib._, i, 204. "Successive images making
thus deeper and deeper impressions, must elevate more than any single image
can do."--_Ib._, i, 205. "Besides making a deeper impression than can be
done by cool reasoning."--_Ib._, ii, 273. "Yet a poet, by the force of
genius alone, can rise higher than a public speaker can do."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 338. "And the very same reason that has induced several
grammarians to go so far as they have done, should have induced them to go
farther."--_Priestley's Gram., Pref._, p. vii. "The pupil should commit the
first section perfectly, before he does the second part of grammar."--
_Bradley's Gram._, p. 77. "The Greek _ch_ was pronounced hard, as we now do
in _chord_."--_Booth's Introd. to Dict._, p. 61. "They pronounce the
syllables in a different manner from what they do at other times."--
_Murray's Eng. Reader_, p. xi. "And give him the formal cool reception that
Simon had done."--_Dr. Scott, on Luke_, vii. "I do not say, as some have
done."--_Bolingbroke, on Hist._, p. 271. "If he suppose the first, he may
do the last."--_Barclay's Works_, ii, 406. "Who are now despising Christ in
his inward appearance, as the Jews of old did him in his outward."--_Ib._,
i, 506. "That text of Revelations must not be understood, as he doth it."--
_Ib._, iii, 309. "Till the mode of parsing the noun is so familiar to him,
that he can do it readily."--_Smith's New Gram._, p. 13. "Perhaps it is
running the same course which Rome had done before."--_Middleton's Life of
Cicero_. "It ought even on this ground to be avoided; which may easily be
done by a different construction."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 312. "These two
languages are now pronounced in England as no other nation in Europe does
besides."--_Creighton's Dict._, p. xi. "Germany ran the same risk that
Italy had done."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 211: see _Priestley's Gram._, p.


"The Beggars themselves will be broke in a trice."--_Swift's Poems_, p.
347. "The hoop is hoist above his nose."--_Ib._, p. 404. "My heart was lift
up in the ways of the Lord. 2 CHRON."--_Joh. Dict., w. Lift_. "Who sin so
oft have mourned, Yet to temptation ran."--_Burns_. "Who would not have let
them appeared."--_Steele_. "He would have had you sought for ease at the
hands of Mr. Legality."--_Pilgrim's Progress_, p. 31. "From me his madding
mind is start, And wooes the widow's daughter of the glen."--SPENSER: _Joh.
Dict., w. Glen_. "The man has spoke, and still speaks."--_Ash's Gram._, p.
54. "For you have but mistook me all this while."--_Beauties of Shak._, p.
114. "And will you rent our ancient love asunder."--_Ib._, p. 52. "Mr.
Birney has plead the inexpediency of passing such resolutions."--
_Liberator_, Vol. xiii, p. 194. "Who have wore out their years in such most
painful Labours."--_Littleton's Dict., Pref_. "And in the conclusion you
were chose probationer."--_Spectator_, No. 32.

"How she was lost, took captive, made a slave;
And how against him set that should her save."--_Bunyan_.


"But Moses preferred to wile away his time."--_Parker's English
Composition_, p. 15. "His face shown with the rays of the sun."--_Calvin's
Inst._, 4to, p. 76. "Whom they had sat at defiance so lately."--
_Bolingbroke, on Hist._, p. 320. "And when he was set, his disciples came
unto him."--_Matt._, v, 1. "When he was set down on the judgement-seat."--
_Ib._, xxvii, 19. "And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the
hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them."--_Luke_,
xxii, 55. "So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments,
and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to
you?"--_John_, xiii, 12. "Even as I also overcame, and am set down with my
Father in his throne."--_Rev._, iii, 21. "We have such an high priest, who
is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens."--
_Heb._, viii, 1. "And is set down at the right hand of the throne of
God."--_Ib._, xii, 2.[402] "He sat on foot a furious persecution."--
_Payne's Geog._, ii, 418. "There layeth an obligation upon the saints, to
help such."--_Barclay's Works_, i, 389. "There let him lay."--_Byron's
Pilgrimage_, C. iv, st. 180. "Nothing but moss, and shrubs, and stinted
trees, can grow upon it."--_Morse's Geog._, p. 43. "Who had lain out
considerable sums purely to distinguish themselves."--_Goldsmith's Greece_,
i, 132. "Whereunto the righteous fly and are safe."--_Barclay's Works_, i,
146. "He raiseth from supper, and laid aside his garments."--_Ib._, i, 438.
"Whither--Oh! whither shall I fly?"--_Murray's English Reader_, p. 123.
"Flying from an adopted murderer."--_Ib._, p. 122. "To you I fly for
refuge."--_Ib._, p. 124. "The sign that should warn his disciples to fly
from approaching ruin."--_Keith's Evidences_, p. 62. "In one she sets as a
prototype for exact imitation."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p. xxiii. "In which
some only bleat, bark, mew, winnow, and bray, a little better than
others."--_Ib._, p. 90. "Who represented to him the unreasonableness of
being effected with such unmanly fears."--_Rollin's Hist._, ii, 106. "Thou
sawedst every action."--_Guy's School Gram._, p. 46. "I taught, thou
taughtedst, he or she taught."--_Coar's Gram._, p. 79. "Valerian is taken
by Sapor and flead alive, A. D. 260."--_Lempriere's Chron. Table, Dict._,
p. xix. "What a fine vehicle is it now become for all conceptions of the
mind!"--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 139. "What are become of so many productions?"
--_Volney's Ruins_, p. 8. "What are become of those ages of abundance and
of life?"--_Keith's Evidences_, p. 107. "The Spartan admiral was sailed to
the Hellespont."--_Goldsmiths Greece_, i, 150. "As soon as he was landed,
the multitude thronged about him."--_Ib._, i, 160. "Cyrus was arrived at
Sardis."--_Ib._, i, 161. "Whose year was expired."--_Ib._, i, 162. "It had
better have been, 'that faction which.'"--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 97. "This
people is become a great nation."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 153; _Ingersoll's_,
249. "And here we are got into the region of ornament."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 181. "The ungraceful parenthesis which follows, had far better have been
avoided."--_Ib._, p. 215. "Who forced him under water, and there held him
until drounded."--_Indian Wars_, p. 55.

"I had much rather be myself the slave,
And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him."--_Cowper_.


"I had finished my letter before my brother arrived."--_Kirkham's Gram._,
p. 139. "I had written before I received his letter."--_Blair's Rhet._, p.
82. "From what has been formerly delivered."--_Ib._, p. 182. "Arts were of
late introduced among them."--_Ib._, p. 245. "I am not of opinion that such
rules can be of much use, unless persons saw them exemplified."--_Ib._, p.
336. "If we use the noun itself, we should say, 'This composition is
John's.' "--_Murray's Gram._, p. 174. "But if the assertion referred to
something, that is not always the same, or supposed to be so, the past
tense must be applied."--_Ib._, p. 191. "They told him, that Jesus of
Nazareth passeth by."--_Luke_, xviii, 37. "There is no particular
intimation but that I continued to work, even to the present moment."--_R.
W. Green's Gram._, p. 39. "Generally, as was observed already, it is but
hinted in a single word or phrase."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 36. "The
wittiness of the passage was already illustrated."--_Ib._, p. 36. "As was
observed already."--_Ib._, p. 56. "It was said already in general."--_Ib._,
p. 95. "As I hinted already."--_Ib._, p. 134. "What I believe was hinted
once already."--_Ib._, p. 148. "It is obvious, as hath been hinted
formerly, that this is but an artificial and arbitrary connexion."--_Ib._,
p. 282. "They have done anciently a great deal of hurt."--_Bolingbroke, on
Hist._, p. 109. "Then said Paul, I knew not, brethren, that he is the High
Priest."--_Dr. Webster's Bible_: Acts, xxiii, 5. "Most prepositions
originally denote the relation of place, and have been thence transferred
to denote by similitude other relations."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 65;
_Churchill's_, 116. "His gift was but a poor offering, when we consider his
estate."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 194. "If he should succeed, and should
obtain his end, he will not be the happier for it."--_Murray's Gram._, i,
p. 207. "These are torrents that swell to-day, and have spent themselves by
to-morrow."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 286. "Who have called that wheat to-day,
which they have called tares to-morrow."--_Barclay's Works_, iii. 168. "He
thought it had been one of his tenants."--_Ib._, i, 11. "But if one went
unto them from the dead, they will repent."--_Luke_, xvi, 30. "Neither will
they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead."--_Ib., verse_ 31. "But
it is while men slept that the archenemy has always sown his tares."--_The
Friend_, x, 351. "Crescens would not fail to have exposed him."--_Addison's
Evidences_, p. 30.

"Bent was his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound;
Fierce as he mov'd, his silver shafts resound."
--_Pope, Iliad_, B. i, l. 64.


"Had I commanded you to have done this, you would have thought hard of
it."--_G. B._ "I found him better than I expected to have found
him."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 126. "There are several smaller faults,
which I at first intended to have enumerated."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 246.
"Antithesis, therefore, may, on many occasions, be employed to advantage,
in order to strengthen the impression which we intend that any object
should make."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 168. "The girl said, if her master would
but have let her had money, she might have been well long ago."--See
_Priestley's Gram._, p. 127. "Nor is there the least ground to fear, that
we should be cramped here within too narrow limits."--_Campbell's Rhet._,
p. 163; _Murray's Gram._, i, 360. "The Romans, flushed with success,
expected to have retaken it."--_Hooke's Hist._, p. 37. "I would not have
let fallen an unseasonable pleasantry in the venerable presence of Misery,
to be entitled to all the wit that ever Rabelais scattered."--STERNE:
_Enfield's Speaker_, p. 54. "We expected that he would have arrived last
night."--_Inst._ p. 192. "Our friends intended to have met us."--_Ib._ "We
hoped to have seen you."--_Ib._ "He would not have been allowed to have


"Cicero maintained that whatsoever was useful was good."--"I observed that
love constituted the whole moral character of God."--_Dwight_. "Thinking
that one gained nothing by being a good man."--_Voltaire_. "I have already
told you that I was a gentleman."--_Fontaine_. "If I should ask, whether
ice and water were two distinct species of things."--_Locke_. "A stranger
to the poem would not easily discover that this was verse."--_Murray's
Gram._, 12mo, p. 260. "The doctor affirmed, that fever always produced
thirst."--_Inst._, p. 192. "The ancients asserted, that virtue was its own
reward."--_Ib._ "They should not have repeated the error, of insisting that
the infinitive was a mere noun."--_Diversions of Purley_, Vol. i, p. 288.
"It was observed in Chap. III. that the distinctive _or_ had a double
use."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 154. "Two young gentlemen, who have made a
discovery that there was no God."--_Swift_.


The Infinitive Mood is governed in general by the preposition TO, which
commonly connects it to a finite verb: as, "I desire TO _learn_."--_Dr.
Adam_. "Of me the Roman people have many pledges, which I must strive, with
my utmost endeavours, TO _preserve_, TO _defend_, TO _confirm_, and TO
_redeem_."--_Duncan's Cicero_, p. 41.

"What if the foot, ordain'd the dust TO _tread_,
Or hand TO _toil_, aspir'd TO _be_ the head?"--_Pope_.


OBS. 1.--No word is more variously explained by grammarians, than this word
TO, which is put before the verb in the infinitive mood. Johnson, Walker,
Scott, Todd, and some other lexicographers, call it an _adverb_; but, in
explaining its use, they say it denotes certain _relations_, which it is
not the office of an adverb to express. (See the word in _Johnson's Quarto
Dictionary_.) D. St. Quentin, in his Rudiments of General Grammar, says,
"_To_, before a verb, is an _adverb_;" and yet his "Adverbs are words that
are joined to verbs or adjectives, and express some _circumstance_ or
_quality_." See pp. 33 and 39. Lowth, Priestley, Fisher, L. Murray,
Webster, Wilson, S. W. Clark, Coar, Comly, Blair, Felch, Fisk, Greenleaf,
Hart, Weld, Webber, and others, call it a _preposition_; and some of these
ascribe to it the government of the verb, while others do not. Lowth says,
"The _preposition_ TO, placed before the verb, _makes_ the infinitive
mood."--_Short Gram._, p. 42. "Now this," says Horne Tooke, "is manifestly
not so: for TO placed before the verb _loveth_, will not make the
infinitive mood. He would have said more truly, that TO placed before some
_nouns_, makes _verbs_."--_Diversions of Purley_, Vol. i, p. 287.

OBS. 2.--Skinner, in his _Canones Etymologici_, calls this TO "an
_equivocal article_,"--_Tooke_, ib., i, 288. Nutting, a late American
grammarian, says: "The _sign_ TO is no other than the Greek article _to_;
as, _to agapan_ [, to love]; or, as some say, it is the Saxon
_do_"--_Practical Gram._, p. 66. Thus, by suggesting two false and
inconsistent derivations, though he uses not the name _equivocal article_,
he first makes the word an _article_, and then _equivocal_--equivocal in
etymology, and of course in meaning.[403] Nixon, in his English Parser,
supposes it to be, _unequivocally_, the Greek article [Greek: to], _the_.
See the work, p. 83. D. Booth says, "_To_ is, by us, applied to Verbs; but
it was the neuter Article (_the_) among the Greeks."--_Introd. to Analyt.
Dict._, p. 60. According to Horne Tooke, "Minshew also distinguishes
between the preposition TO, and the _sign_ of the infinitive TO. Of the
former he is silent, and of the latter he says: 'To, as _to_ make, _to_
walk, _to_ do, a Graeco articulo [Greek: to].' But Dr. Gregory Sharpe is
persuaded, that our language has taken it from the _Hebrew_. And Vossius
derives the correspondent Latin preposition AD from the same
source."--_Diversions of Purley_, Vol. i, p. 293.

OBS. 3.--Tooke also says, "I observe, that Junius and Skinner and Johnson,
have not chosen to give the slightest hint concerning the derivation of
TO."--_Ibid._ But, certainly, of his _adverb_ TO, Johnson gives this hint:
"TO, Saxon; _te_, Dutch." And Webster, who calls it not an adverb, but a
preposition, gives the same hint of the source from which it comes to us.
This is as much as to say, it is etymologically the old Saxon preposition
_to_--which, truly, it is--the very same word that, for a thousand years or
more, has been used before nouns and pronouns to govern the objective case.
Tooke himself does not deny this; but, conceiving that almost all
particles, whether English or any other, can be traced back to ancient
verbs or nouns, he hunts for the root of this, in a remoter region, where
he pretends to find that _to_ has the same origin as _do_; and though he
detects the former in a _Gothic noun_, he scruples not to identify it with
an _auxiliary verb_! Yet he elsewhere expressly denies, "that _any_ words
change their nature by use, so as to belong sometimes to one part of
speech, and sometimes to another."--_Div. of Pur._, Vol. i, p. 68.

OBS 4.--From this, the fair inference is, that he will have both _to_ and
_do_ to be "_nouns substantive_" still! "Do (the _auxiliary_ verb, as it
has been called) is derived from the same root, and is indeed the same word
as TO."--_Ib._, Vol. i, p. 290. "Since FROM means _commencement_ or
_beginning_, TO must mean _end_ or _termination_."--_Ib._, i, 283. "The
preposition TO (in Dutch written TOE and TOT, a little nearer to the
original) is the Gothic substantive [Gothic: taui] or [Gothic: tauhts], i.
e. _act, effect, result, consummation._ Which Gothic substantive is indeed
itself no other than the past participle of the verb [Gothic: taujan],
_agere_. And what is _done_, is _terminated, ended, finished_."--_Ib._, i,
285. No wonder that Johnson, Skinner, and Junius, gave no hint of _this_
derivation: it is not worth the ink it takes, if it cannot be made more
sure. But in showing its bearing on the verb, the author not unjustly
complains of our grammarians, that: "Of all the points which they endeavour
to _shuffle over_, there is none in which they do it more grossly than in
this of the infinitive."--_Ib._, i, 287.

OBS. 5.--Many are content to call the word TO a _prefix_, a _particle_, a
_little word_, a _sign of the infinitive_, a _part of the infinitive_, a
_part of the verb_, and the like, without telling us whence it comes, how
it differs from the preposition _to_, or to what part of speech it belongs.
It certainly is not what we usually call a _prefix_, because we never _join
it to_ the verb; yet there are three instances in which it becomes such,
before a noun: viz., _to-day, to-night, to-morrow_. If it is a
"_particle_," so is any other preposition, as well as every small and
invariable word. If it is a "_little word_," the whole bigness of a
preposition is unquestionably found in it; and no "_word_" is so small but
that it must belong to some one of the ten classes called parts of speech.
If it is a "_sign of the infinitive_," because it is used before no other
mood; so is it a _sign of the objective case_, or of what in Latin is
called the dative, because it precedes no other case. If we suppose it to
be a "_part of the infinitive_," or a "_part of the verb_," it is certainly
no _necessary_ part of either; because there is no verb which may not, in
several different ways, be properly used in the infinitive without it. But
if it be a part of the infinitive, it must be a _verb_, and ought to be
classed with the _auxiliaries_. Dr. Ash accordingly placed it among the
auxiliaries; but he says, (inaccurately, however,) "The auxiliary _sign
seems_ to have the nature of _adverbs._"--_Grammatical Institutes_, p. 33.
"The auxiliary [signs] _are, to, do, did, have, had, shall, will, may, can,
must, might_," &c.--_Ib._, p. 31.

OBS. 6.--It is clear, as I have already shown, that the word _to_ may be a
_sign_ of the infinitive, and yet not be a _part_ of it. Dr. Ash supposes,
it may even be a part of the _mood_, and yet not be a part of the _verb_.
How this can be, I see not, unless the mood consists in something else than
either the form or the parts of the verb. This grammarian says, "In
parsing, every word should be considered as a _distinct part of speech_:
for though two or more words may be united to form a mode, a tense, or a
comparison; yet it seems quite improper to unite two or more words to make
a noun, a verb, an adjective, &c."--_Gram. Inst._, p. 28. All the
auxiliaries, therefore, and the particle _to_ among them, he parses
separately; but he follows not his own advice, to make them distinct parts
of speech; for he calls them all _signs_ only, and signs are not one of his
ten parts of speech. And the participle too, which is one of the ten, and
which he declares to be "no part of the verb," he parses separately;
calling it a verb, and not a participle, as often as it accompanies any of
his auxiliary signs. This is certainly a greater impropriety than there can
be in supposing an auxiliary and a participle to constitute a verb; for the
mood and tense are the properties of the compound, and ought not to be
ascribed to the principal term only. Not so with the preposition _to_
before the infinitive, any more than with the conjunction _if_ before the
subjunctive. These may well be parsed as separate parts of speech; for
these moods are sometimes formed, and are completely distinguished in each
of their tenses, without the adding of these signs.

OBS. 7.--After a careful examination of what others have taught respecting
this disputed point in grammar, I have given, in the preceding rule, that
explanation which I consider to be the most correct and the most simple,
and also as well authorized as any. Who first parsed the infinitive in this
manner, I know not; probably those who first called the _to_ a
_preposition_; among whom were Lowth and the author of the old British
Grammar. The doctrine did not originate with me, or with Comly, or with any
American author. In Coar's English Grammar, published in London in 1796.
the phrase _to trample_ is parsed thus: "_To_--A preposition, serving for a
sign of the infinitive mood to the verb _Trample_--A verb neuter,
infinitive mood, present tense, _governed by the preposition_ TO before it.
RULE. The preposition _to_ before a verb, is the sign of the infinitive
mood." See the work, p. 263. This was written by a gentleman who speaks of
his "long habit of teaching the Latin Tongue," and who was certainly
partial enough to the principles of Latin grammar, since he adopts in
English the whole detail of Latin cases.

OBS 8.--In Fisher's English Grammar, London, 1800, (of which there had been
many earlier editions,) we find the following rule of syntax: "When two
principal _Verbs_ come together, the latter of them expresses an unlimited
Sense, with the Preposition _to_ before it; as _he loved to learn; I chose
to dance_: and is called the _infinitive Verb_, which may also follow a
Name or Quality; as, _a Time to sing; a Book delightful to read_." That
this author supposed the infinitive to be _governed_ by _to_, and not by
the preceding verb, noun, or adjective, is plain from the following note,
which he gives in his margin: "The Scholar will best understand this, by
being told that _infinite_ or _invariable Verbs_, having neither Number,
Person, nor Nominative Word belonging to them, are known or _governed by
the Preposition_ TO coming before them. The Sign _to_ is often understood;
as, Bid Robert and his company (_to_) tarry."--_Fisher's New Gram._, p. 95.

OBS. 9.--The forms of parsing, and also the rules, which are given in the
early English grammars, are so very defective, that it is often impossible
to say positively, what their authors did, or did not, intend to teach. Dr.
Lowth's specimen of "grammatical resolution" contains four infinitives. In
his explanation of the first, the preposition and the verb are parsed
separately, as above; except that he says nothing about government. In his
account of the other three, the two words are taken together, and called a
"_verb_, in the infinitive _mode_." But as he elsewhere calls the particle
_to_ a preposition, and nowhere speaks of any thing else as governing the
infinitive, it seems fair to infer, that he conceived the verb to be the
regimen of this preposition.[404] If such was his idea, we have the learned
Doctor's authority in opposition to that of his professed admirers and
copyists. Of these, Lindley Murray is doubtless the most famous. But
Murray's twelfth rule of syntax, while it expressly calls _to_ before the
infinitive a _preposition_, absurdly takes away from it this regimen, and
leaves us a preposition that _governs nothing_, and has apparently nothing
to do with the _relation_ of the terms between which it occurs.

OBS. 10.--Many later grammarians, perceiving the absurdity of calling _to_
before the infinitive a _preposition_ without supposing it to govern the
verb, have studiously avoided this name; and have either made the "_little
word_" a supernumerary part of speech, or treated it as no part of speech
at all. Among these, if I mistake not, are Allen, Lennie, Bullions, Alger,
Guy, Churchill, Hiley, Nutting, Mulligan, Spencer, and Wells. Except Comly,
the numerous modifiers of Murray's Grammar are none of them more
consistent, on this point, than was Murray himself. Such of them as do not
follow him literally, either deny, or forbear to affirm, that _to_ before a
verb is a _preposition_; and consequently either tell us not what it is, or
tell us falsely; some calling it "_a part of the verb_," while they neither
join it to the verb as a prefix, nor include it among the auxiliaries. Thus
Kirkham: "_To_ is not a preposition when _joined to_ a verb in this mood;
thus, _to_ ride, _to_ rule; but it should be parsed _with the verb_, and
_as a part_ of it."--_Gram. in Familiar Lect._, p. 137. So R. C. Smith:
"This little word _to_ when _used before_ verbs in this manner, is not a
preposition, but forms a part of the verb, and, in parsing, should be so
considered."--_Productive Gram._, p. 65. How can that be "_a part_ of the
verb," which is _a word_ used _before_ it? or how is _to_ "joined to the
verb," or made a part of it, in the phrase, "_to_ ride?" But Smith does not
abide by his own doctrine; for, in an other part of his book, he adopts the
phraseology of Murray, and makes _to_ a preposition: saying, "The
_preposition_ TO, though generally used before the latter verb, is
sometimes properly omitted; as, 'I heard him say it;' instead of '_to_ say
it.'"--_Productive Gram._, p. 156. See _Murray's Rule_ 12th.

OBS. 11.--Most English grammarians have considered the word _to_ as a part
of the infinitive, a part _of the verb_; and, like the teachers of Latin,
have referred the government of this mood to a preceding verb. But the rule
which they give, is partial, and often inapplicable; and their exceptions
to it, or the heterogeneous parts into which some of them divide it, are
both numerous and puzzling. They teach that at least half of the ten
different parts of speech "_frequently_ govern the infinitive:" if so,
there should be a distinct rule for each; for why should the government of
one part of speech be made an exception to that of an other? and, if this
be done, with respect to the infinitive, why not also with respect to the
objective case? In all instances to which their rule is applicable, the
rule which I have given, amounts to the same thing; and it obviates the
necessity for their numerous exceptions, and the embarrassment arising from
other constructions of the infinitive not noticed in them. Why then is the
simplest solution imaginable still so frequently rejected for so much
complexity and inconsistency? Or how can the more common rule in question
be suitable for a child, if its applicability depends on a relation between
the two verbs, which the preposition _to_ sometimes expresses, and
sometimes does not?

OBS. 12.--All authors admit that in some instances, the sign _to_ is
"superfluous and improper," the construction and government appearing
complete without it; and the "Rev. Peter Bullions, D. D., Professor of
Languages in the Albany Academy," has recently published a grammar, in
which he adopts the common rule, "One verb governs _another_ in the
infinitive mood; as, _I desire to learn_;" and then remarks, "The
infinitive after a verb is governed by it _only when the attribute
expressed by the infinitive is either the subject or_ [the] _object of the
other verb_. In such expressions as '_I read to learn_,' the infinitive is
_not governed_ by 'I read,' but depends on the phrase '_in order to_'
understood."--_Bullions's Prin. of E. Gram._, p. 110. But, "_I read 'in
order to' to learn_," is not English; though it might be, if either _to_
were any thing else than a preposition: as, "Now _set to to learn_ your
lesson." This broad exception, therefore, which embraces well-nigh half the
infinitives in the language, though it contains some obvious truth, is both
carelessly stated, and badly resolved. The single particle _to_ is quite
sufficient, both to govern the infinitive, and to connect it to any
antecedent term which can make sense with such an adjunct. But, in fact,
the reverend author must have meant to use the "_little word_" but once;
and also to deny that it is a preposition; for he elsewhere says expressly,
though, beyond question, erroneously, "A preposition should never be used
before the infinitive."--_Ib._, p. 92. And he also says, "The _Infinitive_
mood expresses _a thing_ in a general manner, without distinction of
number, person, _or time_, and commonly has TO _before_ it."--_Ib._, Second
Edition, p. 35. Now if TO is "_before_" the mood, it is certainly not _a
part_ of it. And again, if this mood had no distinction of "_time_," our
author's two tenses of it, and his own two special rules for their
application, would be as absurd as is his notion of its government. See his
_Obs. 6 and 7, ib._, p. 124.

OBS. 13.--Richard Hiley, too, a grammarian of perhaps more merit, is
equally faulty in his explanation of the infinitive mood. In the first
place, he absurdly says, "TO _before the infinitive mood_, is considered as
forming _part of the verb_; but in _every other_ situation it is a
preposition."--_Hiley's Gram._, Third Edition, p. 28. To teach that a
"_part of the verb_" stands "_before the mood_," is an absurdity manifestly
greater, than the very opposite notion of Dr. Ash, that what is _not a part
of the verb_, may yet be included _in the mood_. There is no need of either
of these false suppositions; or of the suggestion, doubly false, that _to_
"in _every other_ situation, is a preposition." What does _preposition_
mean? Is _to_ a preposition when it is placed _after_ a verb, and _not_ a
preposition when it is placed _before_ it? For example: "I rise _to shut
to_ the door."--See _Luke_, xiii, 25.

OBS. 14.--In his syntax, this author further says, "When two verbs come
together, the latter _must be in the infinitive mood, when it denotes the
object_ of the former; as, 'Study _to improve_.'" This is his _Rule_. Now
look at his _Notes_. "1. When the latter verb _does not express_ the
object, _but the end_, or something remote, the word _for_, or the words
_in order to_, are understood; as, 'I read _to learn_;' that is, 'I read
_for_ to learn,' or, '_in order_ [TO] _to_ learn.' The word _for_, however,
is never, in such instances, expressed in good language. 2. The infinitive
is _frequently governed_ by adjectives, substantives, and participles; but
in _this instance_ also, a preposition is understood, though _never
expressed_; as, 'Eager _to learn_;' that is, 'eager _for_ to learn;' or,
'_for_ learning;' 'A desire _to improve_;' that is, '_for to
improve_.'"--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 89. Here we see the origin of some of
Bullions's blunders. _To_ is so small a word, it slips through the fingers
of these gentlemen. Words utterly needless, and worse than needless, they
foist into our language, in instances beyond number, to explain infinitives
that occur at almost every breath. Their students must see that, "_I read
to learn_," and, "_I study to improve_," with countless other examples of
either sort, are very _different constructions_, and not to be parsed by
the same rule! And here the only government of the infinitive which Hiley
affirms, is immediately contradicted by the supposition of a needless _for_

OBS. 15.--In all such examples as, "I _read_ to _learn_,"--"I _strive_ to
_learn_"--"Some _eat_ to _live_,"--"Some _live_ to _eat_,"--"She _sings_ to
_cheer_ him,"--"I _come_ to _aid_ you,"--"I _go_ to _prepare_ a place for
you,"--_the action_ and _its purpose_ are connected by the word _to_; and
if, in the countless instances of this kind, the former verbs _do not
govern_ the latter, it is not because the phraseology is elliptical, or
ever was elliptical,[405] but because in no case is there any such
government, except in the construction of those verbs which take the
infinitive after them without the preposition _to_. Professor Bullions will
have the infinitive to be governed by a finite verb, "when the _attribute
expressed by the infinitive is the subject_ of the other verb." An
infinitive may be made _the subject_ of a finite verb; but this grammarian
has mistaken the established meaning of _subject_, as well as of
_attribute_, and therefore written nonsense. Dr. Johnson defines his
_adverb_ TO, "A particle coming between two verbs, and noting the second as
the _object_ of the first." But of all the words which, according to my
opponents and their oracles, govern the infinitive, probably not more than
a quarter are such verbs as usually _have an object_ after them. Where then
is the propriety of their notion of infinitive government? And what
advantage has it, even where it is least objectionable?

OBS. 16.--Take for an example of this contrast the terms, "Strive to enter
in--many will seek to enter in."--_Luke_, xiii, 24. Why should it be
thought more eligible to say, that the verb _strive_ or _will seek_ governs
the infinitive verb _to enter_; than to say, that _to_ is a preposition,
showing the relation between _strive_ and _enter_, or between _will seek_

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