Part 2 out of 2
Even as bad actors cannot sing alone, but only in chorus: so
some cannot walk alone.
Man, if thou art aught, strive to walk alone and hold
converse with thyself, instead of skulking in the chorus! at
length think; look around thee; bestir thyself, that thou mayest
know who thou art!
You would fain be victor at the Olympic games, you say. Yes,
but weigh the conditions, weigh the consequences; then and then
only, lay to your hand--if it be for your profit. You must live
by rule, submit to diet, abstain from dainty meats, exercise your
body perforce at stated hours, in heat or in cold; drink no cold
water, nor, it may be, wine. In a word, you must surrender
yourself wholly to your trainer, as though to a physician.
Then in the hour of contest, you will have to delve the
ground, it may chance dislocate an arm, sprain an ankle, gulp
down abundance of yellow sand, be scourge with the whip--and with
all this sometimes lose the victory. Count the cost--and then, if
your desire still holds, try the wrestler's life. Else let me
tell you that you will be behaving like a pack of children
playing now at wrestlers, now at gladiators; presently falling to
trumpeting and anon to stage-playing, when the fancy takes them
for what they have seen. And you are even the same: wrestler,
gladiator, philosopher, orator all by turns and none of them with
your whole soul. Like an ape, you mimic what you see, to one
thing constant never; the thing that is familiar charms no more.
This is because you never undertook aught with due consideration,
nor after strictly testing and viewing it from every side; no,
your choice was thoughtless; the glow of your desire had waxed
cold . . . .
Friend, bethink you first what it is that you would do, and then
what your own nature is able to bear. Would you be a wrestler,
consider your shoulders, your thighs, your lions--not all men are
formed to the same end. Think you to be a philosopher while
acting as you do? think you to go on thus eating, thus drinking,
giving way in like manner to wrath and to displeasure? Nay, you
must watch, you must labour; overcome certain desires; quit your
familiar friends, submit to be despised by your slave, to be held
in derision by them that meet you, to take the lower place in all
things, in office, in positions of authority, in courts of law.
Weigh these things fully, and then, if you will, lay to your
hand; if as the price of these things you would gain Freedom,
Tranquillity, and passionless Serenity.
He that hath no musical instruction is a child in Music; he
that hath no letters is a child in Learning; he that is untaught
is a child in Life.
Can any profit be derived from these men? Aye, from all.
"What, even from a reviler?"
Why, tell me what profit a wrestler gains from him who
exercises him beforehand? The very greatest: he trains me in the
practice of endurance, of controlling my temper, of gentle ways.
You deny it. What, the man who lays hold of my neck, and
disciplines loins and shoulders, does me good, . . . while he
that trains me to keep my temper does me none? This is what it
means, not knowing how to gain advantage from men! Is my
neighbour bad? Bad to himself, but good to me: he brings my good
temper, my gentleness into play. Is my father bad? Bad to
himself, but good to me. This is the rod of Hermes; touch what
you will with it, they say, and it becomes gold. Nay, but bring
what you will and I will transmute it into Good. Bring sickness,
bring death, bring poverty and reproach, bring trial for life--
all these things through the rod of Hermes shall be turned to
Till then these sound opinions have taken firm root in you,
and you have gained a measure of strength for your security, I
counsel you to be cautious in associating with the uninstructed.
Else whatever impressions you receive upon the tablets of your
mind in the School will day by day melt and disappear, like wax
in the sun. Withdraw then somewhere far from the sun, while you
have these waxen sentiments.
We must approach this matter in a different way; it is great
and mystical: it is no common thing; nor given to every man.
Wisdom alone, it may be, will not suffice for the care of youth:
a man needs also a certain measure of readiness--an aptitude for
the office; aye, and certain bodily qualities; and above all, to
be counselled of God Himself to undertake this post; even as He
counselled Socrates to fill the post of one who confutes error,
assigning to Diogenes(13) the royal office of high reproof, and
to Zeno(14) that of positive instruction. Whereas you would fain
set up for a physician provided with nothing but drugs! Where and
how they should be applied you neither know nor care.
(13) The well-known Cynic philosopher.
(14) Founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
If what charms you is nothing but abstract principles, sit
down and turn them over quietly in your mind: but never dub
yourself a Philosopher, nor suffer others to call you so. Say
rather: He is in error; for my desires, my impulses are
unaltered. I give in my adhesion to what I did before; nor has my
mode of dealing with the things of sense undergone any change.
When a friend inclined to Cynic views asked Epictetus, what
sort of person a true Cynic should be, requesting a general
sketch of the system, he answered:--"We will consider that at
leisure. At present I content myself with saying this much: If a
man put his hand to so weighty a matter without God, the wrath of
God abides upon him. That which he covets will but bring upon him
public shame. Not even on finding himself in a well-ordered house
does a man step forward and say to himself, I must be master
here! Else the lord of that house takes notice of it, and, seeing
him insolently giving orders, drags him forth and chastises him.
So it is also in this great City, the World. Here also is there a
Lord of the House, who orders all things:--
"Thou art the Sun! in thine orbit thou hast power to make the
year and the seasons; to bid the fruits of the earth grow
and increase, the winds arise and fall; thou canst in due
measure cherish with thy warmth the frames of men; go make
thy circuit, and thus minister unto all from the greatest
to the least! . . .
"Thou canst lead a host against Troy; be Agamemnon!
"Thou canst meet Hector in single combat; be Achilles!
"But had Thersites stepped forward and claimed the chief
command, he had been met with a refusal, or obtained it only to
his own shame and confusion of face, before a cloud of
Others may fence themselves with walls and houses, when they
do such deeds as these, and wrap themselves in darkness--aye,
they have many a device to hide themselves. Another may shut his
door and station one before his chamber to say, if any comes, He
has gone forth! he is not at leisure! But the true Cynic will
have none of these things; instead of them, he must wrap himself
in Modesty: else he will but bring himself to shame, naked and
under the open sky. That is his house; that is his door; that is
the slave that guards his chamber; that is his darkness!
Death? let it come when it will, whether it smite but a part
or the whole: Fly, you tell me--fly! But whither shall I fly?
Can any man cast me beyond the limits of the World? It may not
be! And whithersoever I go, there shall I still find Sun, Moon,
and Stars; there shall I find dreams, and omens, and converse
with the Gods!
Furthermore the true Cynic must know that he is sent as a
Messenger from God to men, to show unto them that as touching
good and evil they are in error; looking for these where they are
not to be found, nor ever bethinking themselves where they are.
And like Diogenes when brought before Philip after the battle of
Chaeronea, the Cynic must remember that he is a Spy. For a Spy he
really is--to bring back word what things are on Man's side, and
what against him. And when he has diligently observed all, he
must come back with a true report, not terrified into announcing
them to be foes that are no foes, nor otherwise perturbed or
confounded by the things of sense.
How can it be that one who hath nothing, neither raiment,
nor house, nor home, nor bodily tendance, nor servant, nor city,
should yet live tranquil and contented? Behold God hath sent you
a man to show you in act and deed that it may be so. Behold me! I
have neither city nor house nor possessions nor servants: the
ground is my couch; I have no wife, no children, no shelter--
nothing but earth and sky, and one poor cloak. And what lack I
yet? am I not untouched by sorrow, by fear? am I not free? . . .
when have I laid anything to the charge of God or Man? when have
I accused any? hath any of you seen me with a sorrowful
countenance? And in what wise treat I those of whom you stand in
fear and awe? Is it not as slaves? Who when he seeth me doth not
think that he beholdeth his Master and his King?
Give thyself more diligently to reflection: know thyself:
take counsel with the Godhead: without God put thine hand unto
"But to marry and to rear offspring," said the young man,
"will the Cynic hold himself bound to undertake this as a chief
Grant me a republic of wise men, answered Epictetus, and
perhaps none will lightly take the Cynic life upon him. For on
whose account should he embrace that method of life? Suppose
however that he does, there will then be nothing to hinder his
marrying and rearing offspring. For his wife will be even such
another as himself, and likewise her father; and in like manner
will his children be brought up.
But in the present condition of things, which resembles an
Army in battle array, ought not the Cynic to be free from all
distraction and given wholly to the service of God, so that he
can go in and out among men, neither fettered by the duties nor
entangled by the relations of common life? For if he transgress
them, he will forfeit the character of a good man and true;
whereas if he observe them, there is an end of him as the
Messenger, the Spy, the Herald of the Gods!
Ask me if you choose if a Cynic shall engage in the
administration of the State. O fool, seek you a nobler
administration than that in which he is engaged? Ask you if a man
shall come forward in the Athenian assembly and talk about
revenue and supplies, when his business is to converse with all
men, Athenians, Corinthians, and Romans alike, not about
supplies, not about revenue, nor yet peace and war, but about
Happiness and Misery, Prosperity and Adversity, Slavery and
Ask you whether a man shall engage in the administration of
the State who has engaged in such an Administration as this? Ask
me too if he shall govern; and again I will answer, Fool, what
greater government shall he hold than that he holds already?
Such a man needs also to have a certain habit of body. If he
appear consumptive, thin and pale, his testimony has no longer
the same authority. He must not only prove to the unlearned by
showing them what his Soul is that it is possible to be a good
man apart from all that they admire; but he must also show them,
by his body, that a plain and simple manner of life under the
open sky does no harm to the body either. "See, I am a proof of
this! and my body also." As Diogenes used to do, who went about
fresh of look and by the very appearance of his body drew men's
eyes. But if a Cynic is an object of pity, he seems a mere
beggar; all turn away, all are offended at him. Nor should he be
slovenly of look, so as not to scare men from him in this way
either; on the contrary, his very roughness should be clean and
Kings and tyrants have armed guards wherewith to chastise
certain persons, though they be themselves evil. But to the Cynic
conscience gives this power--not arms and guards. When he knows
that he has watched and laboured on behalf of mankind: that sleep
hath found him pure, and left him purer still: that his thoughts
have been the thought of a Friend of the Gods--of a servant, yet
of one that hath a part in the government of the Supreme God:
that the words are ever on his lips:--
Lead me, O God, and thou, O Destiny!
as well as these:--
If this be God's will, so let it be!
why should he not speak boldly unto his own brethren, unto his
children--in a word, unto all that are akin to him!
Does a Philosopher apply to people to come and hear him?
does he not rather, of his own nature, attract those that will be
benefited by him--like the sun that warms, the food that sustains
them? What Physician applies to men to come and be healed?
(Though indeed I hear that the Physicians at Rome do nowadays
apply for patients--in my time they were applied to.) I apply to
you to come and hear that you are in evil case; that what
deserves your attention most is the last thing to gain it; that
you know not good from evil, and are in short a hapless wretch; a
fine way to apply! though unless the words of the Philosopher
affect you thus, speaker and speech are alike dead.
A Philosopher's school is a Surgery: pain, not pleasure, you
should have felt therein. For on entering none of you is whole.
One has a shoulder out of joint, another an abscess: a third
suffers from an issue, a fourth from pains in the head. And am I
then to sit down and treat you to pretty sentiments and empty
flourishes, so that you may applaud me and depart, with neither
shoulder, nor head, nor issue, nor abscess a whit the better for
your visit? Is it then for this that young men are to quit their
homes, and leave parents, friends, kinsmen and substance to mouth
out Bravo to your empty phrases!
If any be unhappy, let him remember that he is unhappy by
reason of himself alone. For God hath made all men to enjoy
felicity and constancy of good.
Shall we never wean ourselves--shall we never heed the
teachings of Philosophy (unless perchance they have been sounding
in our ears like and enchanter's drone):--
This World is one great City, and one is the substance
whereof it is fashioned: a certain period indeed there needs must
be, while these give place to those; some must perish for others
to succeed; some move and some abide: yet all is full of friends--
first God, then Men, whom Nature hath bound by ties of kindred
each to each.
Nor did the hero(15) weep and lament at leaving his children
orphans. For he knew that no man is an orphan, but it is the
Father that careth for all continually and for evermore. Not by
mere report had he heard that the Supreme God is the Father of
men: seeing that he called Him Father believing Him so to be, and
in all that he did had ever his eyes fixed upon Him. Wherefore in
whatsoever place he was, there it was given him to live happily.
Know you not that the thing is a warfare? one man's duty is
to mount guard, another must go out to reconnoitre, a third to
battle; all cannot be in one place, nor would it even be
expedient. But you, instead of executing your Commander's orders,
complain if aught harsher than usual is enjoined; not
understanding to what condition you are bringing the army, so far
as in you lies. If all were to follow your example, none would
dig a trench, none would cast a rampart around the camp, none
would keep watch, or expose himself to danger; but all turn out
useless for the service of war. . . . Thus it is here also. Every
life is a warfare, and that long and various. You must fulfil a
soldier's duty, and obey each order at your commander's nod: aye,
if it be possible, divine what he would have done; for between
that Commander and this, there is no comparison, either in might or
Have you again forgotten? Know you not that a good man does
nothing for appearance' sake, but for the sake of having done
right? . . .
"Is there no reward then?"
Reward! do you seek any greater reward for a good man than
doing what is right and just? Yet at the Great Games you look for
nothing else; there the victor's crown you deem enough. Seems it
to you so small a thing and worthless, to be a good man, and
It befits thee not to be unhappy by reason of any, but
rather to be happy by reason of all men, and especially by reason
of God, who formed us to this end.
What, did Diogenes love no man, he that was so gentle, so
true a friend to men as cheerfully to endure such bodily
hardships for the common weal of all mankind? But how loved he
them? As behoved a minister of the Supreme God, alike caring for
men and subject unto God.
I am by Nature made for my own good; not for my own evil.
Remind thyself that he whom thou lovest is mortal--that what
thou lovest is not thine own; it is given thee for the present,
not irrevocably nor for ever, but even as a fig or a bunch of
grapes at the appointed season of the year. . . .
"But these are words of evil omen.". . .
What, callest thou aught of evil omen save that which
signifies some evil thing? Cowardice is a word of evil omen, if
thou wilt, and meanness of spirit, and lamentation and mourning
and shamelessness. . . .
But do not, I pray thee, call of evil omen a word that is
significant of any natural thing:--as well call of evil omen the
reaping of the corn; for it means the destruction of the ears,
though not of the World!--as well say that the fall of the leaf
is of evil omen; that the dried fig should take the place of the
green; that raisins should be made from grapes. All these are
changes from a former state into another; not destruction, but an
ordered economy, a fixed administration. Such is leaving home, a
change of small account; such is Death, a greater change, from
what now is, not to what is not, but to what is not now.
"Shall I then no longer be?"
Not so; thou wilt be; but something different, of which the
World now hath need. For thou too wert born not when thou
chosest, but when the World had need of thee.
Wherefore a good man and true, bearing in mind who he is and
whence he came and from whom he sprang, cares only how he may
fill his post with due discipline and obedience to God.
Wilt thou that I continue to live? Then will I live, as one
that is free and noble, as Thou wouldst have me. For Thou hast
made me free from hindrance in what appertaineth unto me. But
hast Thou no further need of me? I thank Thee! Up to this hour
have I stayed for Thy sake and none other's: and now in obedience
to Thee I depart.
"How dost thou depart?"
Again I say, as Thou wouldst have me; as one that is free,
as Thy servant, as one whose ear is open unto what Thou dost
enjoin, what Thou dost forbid.
Whatsoever place or post Thou assignest me, sooner will I
die a thousand deaths, as Socrates said, then desert it. And
where wilt Thou have me to be? At Rome or Athens? At Thebes or
on a desert island? Only remember me there! Shouldst Thou send
me where man cannot live as Nature would have him, I will depart,
not in disobedience to Thee, but as though Thou wert sounding the
signal for my retreat: I am not deserting Thee--far be that from
me! I only perceive that thou needest me no longer.
If you are in Gyaros, do not let your mind dwell upon life
at Rome, and all the pleasures it offered to you when living
there, and all that would attend your return. Rather be intent on
this--how he that lives in Gyaros may live in Gyaros like a man
of spirit. And if you are at Rome, do not let your mind dwell
upon the life at Athens, but study only how to live at Rome.
Finally, in the room of all other pleasures put this--the
pleasure which springs from conscious obedience to God.
To a good man there is no evil, either in life or death. And
if God supply not food, has He not, as a wise Commander, sounded
the signal for retreat and nothing more? I obey, I follow--
speaking good of my Commander, and praising His acts. For at His
good pleasure I came; and I depart when it pleases Him; and while
I was yet alive that was my work, to sing praises unto God!
Reflect that the chief source of all evils to Man, and of
baseness and cowardice, is not death, but the fear of death.
Against this fear then, I pray you, harden yourself; to this
let all your reasonings, your exercises, your reading tend. Then
shall you know that thus alone are men set free.
He is free who lives as he wishes to live; to whom none can
do violence, none hinder or compel; whose impulses are unimpeded,
whose desires attain their purpose, who falls not into what he
would avoid. Who then would live in error?--None. Who would live
deceived and prone to fall, unjust, intemperate, in abject
whining at his lot?--None. Then doth no wicked man live as he
would, and therefore neither is he free.
Thus do the more cautious of travellers act. The road is
said to be beset by robbers. The traveller will not venture
alone, but awaits the companionship on the road of an ambassador,
a quaestor or a proconsul. To him he attaches himself and thus
passes by in safety. So doth the wise man in the world. Many are
the companies of robbers and tyrants, many the storms, the
straits, the losses of all a man holds dearest. Whither shall he
fly for refuge--how shall he pass by unassailed? What companion
on the road shall he await for protection? Such and such a
wealthy man, of consular rank? And how shall I be profited, if he
is stripped and falls to lamentation and weeping? And how if my
fellow-traveller himself turns upon me and robs me? What am I to
do? I will become a friend of Caesar's! in his train none will do
me wrong! In the first place--O the indignities I must endure to
win distinction! O the multitude of hands there will be to rob
me! And if I succeed, Caesar too is but a mortal. While should it
come to pass that I offend him, whither shall I flee from his
presence? To the wilderness? And may not fever await me there?
What then is to be done? Cannot a fellow-traveller be found that
is honest and loyal, strong and secure against surprise? Thus
doth the wise man reason, considering that if he would pass
through in safety, he must attach himself unto God.
"How understandest thou attach himself to God?"
That what God wills, he should will also; that what God
wills not, neither should he will.
"How then may this come to pass?"
By considering the movements of God, and His administration.
And dost thou that hast received all from another's hands,
repine and blame the Giver, if He takes anything from thee? Why,
who art thou, and to what end comest thou here? was it not He
that brought thee into the world; was it not He that made the
Light manifest unto thee, that gave thee fellow-workers, and
senses, and the power to reason? And how brought He thee into
the world? Was it not as one born to die; as one bound to live
out his earthly life in some small tabernacle of flesh; to
behold His administration, and for a little while to share with
Him in the mighty march of this great Festival Procession? Now
therefore that thou hast beheld, while it was permitted thee, the
Solemn Feast and Assembly, wilt thou not cheerfully depart, when
He summons thee forth, with adoration and thanksgiving for what
thou hast seen and heard?--"Nay, but I would fain have stayed
longer at the Festival."--Ah, so would the mystics fain have the
rites prolonged; so perchance would the crowd at the Great Games
fain behold more wrestlers still. But the Solemn Assembly is
over! Come forth, depart with thanksgiving and modesty--give
place to others that must come into being even as thyself.
Why art thou thus insatiable? why thus unreasonable? why
encumber the world?--"Aye, but I fain would have my wife and
children with me too."--What, are they then thine, and not His
that gave them--His that made thee? Give up then that which is
not thine own: yield it to One who is better than thou. "Nay, but
why did He bring one into the world on these conditions?"--If it
suits thee not, depart! He hath no need of a spectator who finds
fault with his lot! Them that will take part in the Feast he
needeth--that will lift their voices with the rest, that men may
applaud the more, and exalt the Great Assembly in hymns and songs
of praise. But the wretched and the fearful He will not be
displeased to see absent from it: for when they were present,
they did not behave as at a Feast, nor fulfil their proper
office; but moaned as though in pain, and found fault with their
fate, their fortune and their companions; insensible to what had
fallen to their lot, insensible to the powers they had received
for a very different purpose--the powers of Magnanimity, Nobility
of Heart, of Fortitude, of Freedom!
Art thou then free? a man may say. So help me heaven, I long
and pray for freedom! But I cannot look my masters boldly in the
face; I still value the poor body; I still set much store on its
preservation whole and sound.
But I can point thee out a free man, that thou mayest be no
more in search of an example. Diogenes was free. How so? Not
because he was of free parentage (for that, indeed, was not the
case), but because he was himself free. He had cast away every
handle whereby slavery might lay hold upon him, nor was it
possible for any to approach and take hold of him to enslave him.
All things sat loose upon him--all things were to him attached by
but slender ties. Hadst thou seized upon his possessions, he
would rather have let them go than have followed thee for
them--aye, had it been even a limb, or mayhap his whole body; and
in like manner, relatives, friends, and country. For he knew
whence they came--from whose hands and on what terms he had
received them. His true forefathers, the Gods, his true Country,
he never would have abandoned; nor would he have yielded to any
man in obedience and submission to the one nor in cheerfully
dying for the other. For he was ever mindful that everything that
comes to pass has its source and origin there; being indeed
brought about for the weal of that his true Country, and directed
by Him in whose governance it is.
Ponder on this--on these convictions, on these words: fix
thine eyes on these examples, if thou wouldst be free, if thou
hast thine heart set upon the matter according to its worth. And
what marvel if thou purchase so great a thing at so great and
high a price? For the sake of this that men deem liberty, some
hang themselves, others cast themselves down from the rock; aye,
time has been when whole cities came utterly to an end: while for
the sake of the Freedom that is true, and sure, and unassailable,
dost thou grudge to God what He gave, when He claims it? Wilt
thou not study, as Plato saith, to endure, not death alone, but
torture, exile, stripes--in a word, to render up all that is not
thine own? Else thou wilt be a slave amid slaves, wert thou ten
thousand times a consul; aye, not a whit the less, though thou
climb the Palace steps. And thou shalt know how true is the
saying of Cleanthes, that though the words of philosophy may run
counter to the opinions of the world, yet have they reason on
Asked how a man should best grieve his enemy, Epictetus
replied, "By setting himself to live the noblest life himself."
I am free, I am a friend of God, ready to render Him willing
obedience. Of all else I may set store by nothing--neither by
mine own body, nor possessions, nor office, nor good report, nor,
in a word, aught else beside. For it is not His Will, that I
should so set store by these things. Had it been His pleasure, He
would have placed my Good therein. But now He hath not done so:
therefore I cannot transgress one jot of His commands. In
everything hold fast to that which is thy Good--but to all else
(as far as is given thee) within the measure of Reason only,
contented with this alone. Else thou wilt meet with failure, ill
success, let and hindrance. These are the Laws ordained of God--
these are His Edicts; these a man should expound and interpret;
to these submit himself, not to the laws of Masurius and
(16) Famous Roman jurists.
Remember that not the love of power and wealth sets us under
the heel of others, but even the love of tranquillity, of
leisure, of change of scene--of learning in general, it matters
not what the outward thing may be--to set store by it is to place
thyself in subjection to another. Where is the difference then
between desiring to be a Senator, and desiring not to be one:
between thirsting for office and thirsting to be quit of it?
Where is the difference between crying, Woe is me, I know not
what to do, bound hand and foot as I am to my books so that I
cannot stir! and crying, Woe is me, I have not time to read! As
though a book were not as much an outward thing and independent
of the will, as office and power and the receptions of the great.
Or what reason hast thou (tell me) for desiring to read? For
if thou aim at nothing beyond the mere delight of it, or gaining
some scrap of knowledge, thou art but a poor, spiritless knave.
But if thou desirest to study to its proper end, what else is
this than a life that flows on tranquil and serene? And if thy
reading secures thee not serenity, what profits it?--"Nay, but it
doth secure it," quoth he, "and that is why I repine at being
deprived of it."--And what serenity is this that lies at the
mercy of every passer-by? I say not at the mercy of the Emperor
or Emperor's favourite, but such as trembles at a raven's croak
and piper's din, a fever's touch or a thousand things of like
sort! Whereas the life serene has no more certain mark than this,
that it ever moves with constant unimpeded flow.
If thou hast put malice and evil speaking from thee,
altogether, or in some degree: if thou hast put away from thee
rashness, foulness of tongue, intemperance, sluggishness: if thou
art not moved by what once moved thee, or in like manner as thou
once wert moved--then thou mayest celebrate a daily festival,
to-day because thou hast done well in this manner, to-morrow in
that. How much greater cause is here for offering sacrifice, than
if a man should become Consul or Prefect?
These things hast thou from thyself and from the Gods: only
remember who it is that giveth them--to whom and for what purpose
they were given. Feeding thy soul on thoughts like these, dost
thou debate in what place happiness awaits thee? in what place
thou shalt do God's pleasure? Are not the Gods nigh unto all
places alike; see they not alike what everywhere comes to pass?
To each man God hath granted this inward freedom. These are
the principles that in a house create love, in a city concord,
among nations peace, teaching a man gratitude towards God and
cheerful confidence, wherever he may be, in dealing with outward
things that he knows are neither his nor worth striving after.
If you seek Truth, you will not seek to gain a victory by
every possible means; and when you have found Truth, you need not
fear being defeated.
What foolish talk is this? how can I any longer lay claim to
right principles, if I am not content with being what I am, but
am all aflutter about what I am supposed to be?
God hath made all things in the world, nay, the world
itself, free from hindrance and perfect, and its parts for the
use of the whole. No other creature is capable of comprehending
His administration thereof; but the reasonable being Man
possesses faculties for the consideration of all these things--
not only that he is himself a part, but what part he is, and how
it is meet that the parts should give place to the whole. Nor is
this all. Being naturally constituted noble, magnanimous, and
free, he sees that the things which surround him are of two
kinds. Some are free from hindrance and in the power of the will.
Others are subject to hindrance, and depend on the will of other
men. If then he place his own good, his own best interest, only
in that which is free from hindrance and in his power, he will be
free, tranquil, happy, unharmed, noble-hearted, and pious; giving
thanks for all things unto God, finding fault with nothing that
comes to pass, laying no charge against anything. Whereas if he
place his good in outward things, depending not on the will, he
must perforce be subject to hindrance and restraint, the slave of
those that have power over the things he desires and fears; he
must perforce be impious, as deeming himself injured at the hands
of God; he must be unjust, as ever prone to claim more than his
due; he must perforce be of a mean and abject spirit.
Whom then shall I yet fear? the lords of the Bedchamber, lest
they should shut me out? If they find me desirous of entering in,
let them shut me out, if they will.
"Then why comest thou to the door?"
Because I think it meet and right, so long as the Play
lasts, to take part therein.
"In what sense art thou then shut out?"
Because, unless I am admitted, it is not my will to enter:
on the contrary, my will is simply that which comes to pass. For
I esteem what God wills better than what I will. To Him will I
cleave as His minister and attendant; having the same movements,
the same desires, in a word the same Will as He. There is no such
thing as being shut out for me, but only for them that would
force their way in.
But what says Socrates?--"One man finds pleasure in
improving his land, another his horses. My pleasure lies in
seeing that I myself grow better day by day."
The dress is suited to the craft; the craftsman takes his
name from the craft, not from the dress. For this reason
Euphrates was right in saying, "I long endeavoured to conceal my
following the philosophic life; and this profited me much. In the
first place, I knew that what I did aright, I did not for the
sake of lookers-on, but for my own. I ate aright--unto myself; I
kept the even tenor of my walk, my glance composed and serene--
all unto myself and unto God. Then as I fought alone, I was alone
in peril. If I did anything amiss or shameful, the cause of
Philosophy was not in me endangered; nor did I wrong the
multitude by transgressing as a professed philosopher. Wherefore
those that knew not my purpose marvelled how it came about, that
whilst all my life and conversation was passed with philosophers
without exception, I was yet none myself. And what harm that the
philosopher should be known by his acts, instead of by mere
outward signs and symbols?"
First study to conceal what thou art; seek wisdom a little
while unto thyself. Thus grows the fruit; first, the seed must be
buried in the earth for a little space; there it must be hid and
slowly grow, that it may reach maturity. But if it produce the
ear before the jointed stalk, it is imperfect--a thing from the
garden of Adonis.(17) Such a sorry growth art thou; thou hast
blossomed too soon: the winter cold will wither thee away!
(17) Potted plants of forced growth carried in the processions
in honor of Adonis.
First of all, condemn the life thou art now leading: but
when thou hast condemned it, do not despair of thyself--be not
like them of mean spirit, who once they have yielded, abandon
themselves entirely and as it were allow the torrent to sweep
them away. No; learn what the wrestling masters do. Has the boy
fallen? "Rise," they say, "wrestle again, till thy strength come
to thee." Even thus should it be with thee. For know that there
is nothing more tractable than the human soul. It needs but to
will, and the thing is done; the soul is set upon the right path:
as on the contrary it needs but to nod over the task, and all is
lost. For ruin and recovery alike are from within.
It is the critical moment that shows the man. So when the
crisis is upon you, remember that God, like a trainer of
wrestlers, has matched you with a rough and stalwart antagonist.--
"To what end?" you ask. That you may prove the victor at the
Great Games. Yet without toil and sweat this may not be!
If thou wouldst make progress, be content to seem foolish
and void of understanding with respect to outward things. Care
not to be thought to know anything. If any should make account of
thee, distrust thyself.
Remember that in life thou shouldst order thy conduct as at
a banquet. Has any dish that is being served reached thee?
Stretch forth thy hand and help thyself modestly. Doth it pass
thee by? Seek not to detain it. Has it not yet come? Send not
forth thy desire to meet it, but wait until it reaches thee. Deal
thus with children, thus with wife; thus with office, thus with
wealth--and one day thou wilt be meet to share the Banquets of
the Gods. But if thou dost not so much as touch that which is
placed before thee, but despisest it, then shalt thou not only
share the Banquets of the Gods, but their Empire also.
Remember that thou art an actor in a play, and of such sort
as the Author chooses, whether long or short. If it be his good
pleasure to assign thee the part of a beggar, a ruler, or a
simple citizen, thine it is to play it fitly. For thy business is
to act the part assigned thee, well: to choose it, is another's.
Keep death and exile daily before thine eyes, with all else
that men deem terrible, but more especially Death. Then wilt thou
never think a mean thought, nor covet anything beyond measure.
As a mark is not set up in order to be missed, so neither is
such a thing as natural evil produced in the World.
Piety towards the Gods, be sure, consists chiefly in
thinking rightly concerning them--that they are, and that they
govern the Universe with goodness and justice; and that thou
thyself art appointed to obey them, and to submit under all
circumstances that arise; acquiescing cheerfully in whatever may
happen, sure that it is brought to pass and accomplished by the
most Perfect Understanding. Thus thou wilt never find fault with
the Gods, nor charge them with neglecting thee.
Lose no time in setting before you a certain stamp of
character and behaviour to observe both when by yourself and in
company with others. Let silence be your general rule; or say
only what is necessary and in few words. We shall, however,
when occasion demands, enter into discourse sparingly, avoiding
such common topics as gladiators, horse-races, athletes; and the
perpetual talk about food and drink. Above all avoid speaking of
persons, either in the way of praise or blame, or comparison.
If you can, win over the conversation of your company to
what it should be by your own. But if you should find yourself
cut off without escape among strangers and aliens, be silent.
Laughter should not be much, nor frequent, nor unrestrained.
Refuse altogether to take an oath if you can, if not, as far
as may be.
Banquets of the unlearned and of them that are without,
avoid. But if you have occasion to take part in them, let not
your attention be relaxed for a moment, lest you slip after all
into evil ways. For you may rest assured that be a man ever so
pure himself, he cannot escape defilement if his associates are
Take what relates to the body as far as the bare use
warrants--as meat, drink, raiment, house and servants. But all
that makes for show and luxury reject.
If you are told that such an one speaks ill of you, make no
defence against what was said, but answer, He surely knew not my
other faults, else he would not have mentioned these only!
When you visit any of those in power, bethink yourself that
you will not find him in: that you may not be admitted: that the
door may be shut in your face: that he may not concern himself
about you. If with all this, it is your duty to go, bear what
happens, and never say to yourself, It was not worth the trouble!
For that would smack of the foolish and unlearned who suffer
outward things to touch them.
In company avoid frequent and undue talk about your own
actions and dangers. However pleasant it may be to you to enlarge
upon the risks you have run, others may not find such pleasure in
listening to your adventures. Avoid provoking laughter also: it
is a habit from which one easily slides into the ways of the
foolish, and apt to diminish the respect which your neighbours
feel for you. To border on coarse talk is also dangerous. On such
occasions, if a convenient opportunity offer, rebuke the speaker.
If not, at least by relapsing into silence, colouring, and
looking annoyed, show that you are displeased with the subject.
When you have decided that a thing ought to be done, and are
doing it, never shun being seen doing it, even though the
multitude should be likely to judge the matter amiss. For if you
are not acting rightly, shun the act itself; if rightly, however,
why fear misplaced censure?
It stamps a man of mean capacity to spend much time on the
things of the body, as to be long over bodily exercises, long
over eating, long over drinking, long over other bodily
functions. Rather should these things take the second place,
while all your care is directed to the understanding.
Everything has two handles, one by which it may be borne,
the other by which it may not. If your brother sin against you
lay not hold of it by the handle of his injustice, for by that
it may not be borne: but rather by this, that he is your
brother, the comrade of your youth; and thus you will lay hold
on it so that it may be borne.
Never call yourself a Philosopher nor talk much among the
unlearned about Principles, but do that which follows from them.
Thus at a banquet, do not discuss how people ought to eat; but
eat as you ought. Remember that Socrates thus entirely avoided
ostentation. Men would come to him desiring to be recommended to
philosophers, and he would conduct them thither himself--so well
did he bear being overlooked. Accordingly if any talk concerning
principles should arise among the unlearned, be you for the most
part silent. For you run great risk of spewing up what you have
ill digested. And when a man tells you that you know nothing and
you are not nettled at it, then you may be sure that you have
begun the work.
When you have brought yourself to supply the needs of the
body at small cost, do not pique yourself on that, nor if you
drink only water, keep saying on each occasion, I drink water!
And if you ever want to practise endurance and toil, do so unto
yourself and not unto others--do not embrace statues!(18)
(18) As Diogenes is said to have done in winter.
When a man prides himself on being able to understand and
interpret the writings of Chrysippus,(19) say to yourself:--
If Chrysippus had not written obscurely, this fellow would
have had nothing to be proud of. But what is it that I desire? To
understand Nature, and to follow her! Accordingly I ask who is
the Interpreter. On hearing that it is Chrysippus, I go to him.
But it seems I do not understand what he wrote. So I seek one to
interpret that. So far there is nothing to pride myself upon. But
when I have found my interpreter, what remains is to put in
practice his instructions. This itself is the only thing to be
proud of. But if I admire the interpretation and that alone, what
else have I turned out but a mere commentator instead of a lover
of wisdom?--except indeed that I happen to be interpreting
Chrysippus instead of Homer. So when any one says to me, Prithee,
read me Chrysippus, I am more inclined to blush, when I cannot
show my deeds to be in harmony and accordance with his sayings.
(19) The so-called "Second Founder" of the Stoics.
At feasts, remember that you are entertaining two guests,
body and soul. What you give to the body, you presently lose;
what you give to the soul, you keep for ever.
At meals see to it that those who serve be not more in
number than those who are served. It is absurd for a crowd of
persons to be dancing attendance on half a dozen chairs.
It is best to share with your attendants what is going
forward, both in the labour of preparation and in the enjoyment
of the feast itself. If such a thing be difficult at the time,
recollect that you who are not weary are being served by those
that are; you who are eating and drinking by those who do
neither; you who are talking by those who are silent; you who are
at ease by those who are under constraint. Thus no sudden wrath
will betray you into unreasonable conduct, nor will you behave
harshly by irritating another.
When Xanthippe was chiding Socrates for making scanty
preparation for entertaining his friends, he answered:--"If they
are friends of ours, they will not care for that; if they are
not, we shall care nothing for them!"
Asked, Who is the rich man? Epictetus replied, "He who is
Favorinus(20) tells us how Epictetus would also say that there
were two faults far graver and fouler than any others--inability
to bear, and inability to forbear, when we neither patiently bear
the blows that must be borne, nor abstain from the things and the
pleasures we ought to abstain from. "So," he went on, "if a man
will only have these two words at heart, and heed them carefully
by ruling and watching over himself, he will for the most part
fall into no sin, and his life will be tranquil and serene." He
meant the words Avexou kai apexou--"Bear and Forbear."
(20) A Roman orator and sophist.
On all occasions these thoughts should be at hand:--
Lead me, O God, and Thou, O Destiny,(21)
Be what it may the goal appointed me,
Bravely I'll follow; nay, and if I would not,
I'd prove a coward, yet must follow still!
Who to Necessity doth bow aright,
Is learn'd in wisdom and the things of God.
Crito, if this be God's will, so let it be. As for me,
Anytus and Meletus can indeed put me to death, but injure me,
(21) These verses are by Cleanthes, the successor of Zeno as
leader of the Stoics, and author of the Hymn printed in
We shall then be like Socrates, when we can indite hymns of
praise to the Gods in prison.
It is hard to combine and unite these two qualities, the
carefulness of one who is affected by circumstances, and the
intrepidity of one who heeds them not. But it is not impossible:
else were happiness also impossible. We should act as we do in
"What can I do?"--Choose the master, the crew, the day, the
opportunity. Then comes a sudden storm. What matters it to me? my
part has been fully done. The matter is in the hands of another--
the Master of the ship. The ship is foundering. What then have I
to do? I do the only thing that remains to me--to be drowned
without fear, without a cry, without upbraiding God, but knowing
that what has been born must likewise perish. For I am not
Eternity, but a human being--a part of the whole, as an hour is
part of the day. I must come like the hour, and like the hour
And now we are sending you to Rome to spy out the land; but
none send a coward as such a spy, that, if he hear but a noise
and see a shadow moving anywhere, loses his wits and comes flying
to say, The enemy are upon us!
So if you go now, and come and tell us: "Everything at Rome
is terrible: Death is terrible, Exile is terrible, Slander is
terrible, Want is terrible; fly, comrades! the enemy are upon
us!" we shall reply, Get you gone, and prophesy to yourself! we
have but erred in sending such a spy as you. Diogenes, who was
sent as a spy long before you, brought us back another report
than this. He says that Death is no evil; for it need not even
bring shame with it. He says that Fame is but the empty noise of
madmen. And what report did this spy bring us of Pain, what of
Pleasure, what of Want? That to be clothed in sackcloth is better
than any purple robe; that sleeping on the bare ground is the
softest couch; and in proof of each assertion he points to his
own courage, constancy, and freedom; to his own healthy and
muscular frame. "There is no enemy near," he cries, "all is
If a man has this peace--not the peace proclaimed by Caesar
(how indeed should he have it to proclaim?), nay, but the peace
proclaimed by God through reason, will not that suffice him when
alone, when he beholds and reflects:--Now can no evil happen unto
me; for me there is no robber, for me no earthquake; all things
are full of peace, full of tranquillity; neither highway nor city
nor gathering of men, neither neighbour nor comrade can do me
hurt. Another supplies my food, whose care it is; another my
raiment; another hath given me perceptions of sense and primary
conceptions. And when He supplies my necessities no more, it is
that He is sounding the retreat, that He hath opened the door,
and is saying to thee, Come!--Whither? To nought that thou
needest fear, but to the friendly kindred elements whence thou
didst spring. Whatsoever of fire is in thee, unto fire shall
return; whatsoever of earth, unto earth; of spirit, unto spirit;
of water, unto water. There is no Hades, no fabled rivers of
Sighs, of Lamentation, or of Fire: but all things are full of
Beings spiritual and divine. With thoughts like these, beholding
the Sun, Moon, and Stars, enjoying earth and sea, a man is
neither helpless nor alone!
What wouldst thou be found doing when overtaken by Death? If
I might choose, I would be found doing some deed of true
humanity, of wide import, beneficent and noble. But if I may not
be found engaged in aught so lofty, let me hope at least for
this--what none may hinder, what is surely in my power--that I
may be found raising up in myself that which had fallen; learning
to deal more wisely with the things of sense; working out my own
tranquillity, and thus rendering that which is its due to every
relation of life. . . .
If death surprise me thus employed, it is enough if I can
stretch forth my hands to God and say, "The faculties which I
received at Thy hands for apprehending this thine Administration,
I have not neglected. As far as in me lay, I have done Thee no
dishonour. Behold how I have used the senses, the primary
conceptions which Thou gavest me. Have I ever laid anything to
Thy charge? Have I ever murmured at aught that came to pass, or
wished it otherwise? Have I in anything transgressed the
relations of life? For that Thou didst beget me, I thank Thee for
that Thou hast given: for the time during which I have used the
things that were Thine, it suffices me. Take them back and place
them wherever Thou wilt! They were all Thine, and Thou gavest
them me."--If a man depart thus minded, is it not enough? What
life is fairer or more noble, what end happier than his?
Attributed to Epictetus
A life entangled with Fortune is like a torrent. It is
turbulent and muddy; hard to pass and masterful of mood: noisy
and of brief continuance.
The soul that companies with Virtue is like an ever-flowing
source. It is a pure, clear, and wholesome draught; sweet, rich,
and generous of its store; that injures not, neither destroys.
It is a shame that one who sweetens his drink with the gifts
of the bee, should embitter God's gift Reason with vice.
Crows pick out the eyes of the dead, when the dead have no
longer need of them; but flatterers mar the soul of the living,
and her eyes they blind.
Keep neither a blunt knife nor an ill-disciplined looseness
Nature hath given men one tongue but two ears, that we may
hear from others twice as much as we speak.
Do not give sentence in another tribunal till you have been
yourself judged in the tribunal of Justice.
It is shameful for a Judge to be judged by others.
Give me by all means the shorter and nobler life, instead of
one that is longer but of less account!
Freedom is the name of virtue: Slavery, of vice. . . . None
is a slave whose acts are free.
Of pleasures, those which occur most rarely give the most
Exceed due measure, and the most delightful things become
the least delightful.
The anger of an ape--the threat of a flatterer:--these
deserve equal regard.
Chastise thy passions that they avenge not themselves upon
No man is free who is not master of himself.
A ship should not ride on a single anchor, nor life on a
Fortify thyself with contentment: that is an impregnable
No man who is a lover of money, of pleasure, of glory, is
likewise a lover of Men; but only he that is a lover of
whatsoever things are fair and good.
Think of God more often than thou breathest.
Choose the life that is noblest, for custom can make it
sweet to thee.
Let thy speech of God be renewed day by day, aye, rather
than thy meat and drink.
Even as the Sun doth not wait for prayers and incantations
to rise, but shines forth and is welcomed by all: so thou also
wait not for clapping of hands and shouts and praise to do thy
duty; nay, do good of thine own accord, and thou wilt be loved
like the Sun.
Let no man think that he is loved by any who loveth none.
If thou rememberest that God standeth by to behold and visit
all that thou doest; whether in the body or in the soul, thou
surely wilt not err in any prayer or deed; and thou shalt have
God to dwell with thee.
Note.--Schweighaeuser's great edition collects 181 fragments
attributed to Epictetus, of which but a few are certainly
genuine. Some (as xxi., xxiv., above) bear the stamp of
Pythagorean origin; others, though changed in form, may well be
based upon Epictetean sayings. Most have been preserved in the
Anthology of John of Stobi (Stobaeus), a Byzantine collector, of
whom scarcely anything is known but that he probably wrote
towards the end of the fifth century, and made his vast body of
extracts from more than five hundred authors for his son's use.
The best examination of the authenticity of the Fragments is
Quaestiones Epicteteae, by R. Asmus, 1888. The above selection
includes some of doubtful origin but intrinsic interest.--Crossley.
The Hymn of Cleanthes
Chiefest glory of deathless Gods, Almighty for ever,
Sovereign of Nature that rulest by law, what Name shall we give Thee?--
Blessed be Thou! for on Thee should call all things that are mortal.
For that we are Thine offspring; nay, all that in myriad motion
Lives for its day on the earth bears one impress--Thy likeness--upon it.
Wherefore my song is of Thee, and I hymn thy power for ever.
Lo, the vast orb of the Worlds, round the Earth evermore as it rolleth,
Feels Thee its Ruler and Guide, and owns Thy lordship rejoicing.
Aye, for Thy conquering hands have a servant of living fire--
Sharp is the bolt!--where it falls, Nature shrinks at the shock
and doth shudder.
Thus Thou directest the Word universal that pulses through all things,
Mingling its life with Lights that are great and Lights that are lesser,
E'en as beseemeth its birth, High King through ages unending.
Nought is done that is done without Thee in the earth or the waters
Or in the heights of heaven, save the deed of the fool and the sinner.
Thou canst make rough things smooth; at Thy Voice, lo, jarring disorder
Moveth to music, and Love is born where hatred abounded.
Thus hast Thou fitted alike things good and things evil together,
That over all might reign one Reason, supreme and eternal;
Though thereunto the hearts of the wicked be hardened and heedless--
Woe unto them!--for while ever their hands are grasping at good things,
Blind are their eyes, yea, stopped are their ears to God's Law universal,
Calling through wise obedience to live the life that is noble.
This they mark not, but heedless of right, turn each to his own way,
Here, a heart fired with ambition, in strife and straining unhallowed;
There, thrusting honour aside, fast set upon getting and gaining;
Others again given over to lusts and dissolute softness,
Working never God's Law, but that which warreth upon it.
Nay, but, O Giver of all things good, whose home is the dark cloud,
Thou that wieldest Heaven's bolt, save men from their ignorance grievous;
Scatter its night from their souls, and grant them to come to that Wisdom
Wherewithal, sistered with Justice, Thou rulest and governest all things;
That we, honoured by Thee, may requite Thee with worship and honour,
Evermore praising thy works, as is meet for men that shall perish;
Seeing that none, be he mortal or God, hath privilege nobler
Than without stint, without stay, to extol Thy Law universal.
INDEX FOR REFERENCE
Schweigh. = Epicteteae Philosophiae Monumenta, Schweighaeuser, Lips., 1799.
Schenkl = Epicteti Dissertationes, H. Schenkl, Ed. Minor, Lips. (Teubner), 1898.
Asmus = Quaestiones Epicteteae, R. Asmus, Friburg, 1888.
I. Arrian, Discourses i. 16, 15-19
II. ib. ii. 23, 36-39
III. ib. iv. 4, 26
IV. ib. iv. 12, 11-12
V. ib. iii. 23, 29
VI. ib. i. 7, 10
VII. ib. iv. 6, 20
VIII. ib. i. 2, 11-18
IX. ib. i. 3, 1-6
X. Fragment, quoted by M. Antoninus, iv. 41; Schweigh. clxxvi.
XI. Arrian, Disc. i. 18, 15
XII. ib. i. 29, 21
XIII. ib. i. 6, 19-22
XIV. ib. i. 6, 23-29
XV. ib. i. 9, 1
XVI. ib. i. 9, 4-7
XVII. ib. i. 9, 10-15
XVIII. ib. i. 9, 16-17
XIX. ib. i. 9, 18-22
XX. ib. i. 6, 37-43
XXI. ib. i. 9, 22
XXII. ib. i. 17, 27-28
XXIII. ib. i. 5, 3-5
XXIV. ib. i. 10, 10-10 (abbreviated)
XXV. ib. i. 9, 27-28
XXVI. ib. i. 12, 15-16
XXVII. ib. iv. 3, 1
XXVIII. ib. i. 12, 1-3
XXIX. ib. i. 12, 7-12
XXX. Fragment (from "Memoirs of Epict."); Schweigh. lxxii.; Schenkl 16
XXXI. Arrian, Disc. i. 12, 20-21
XXXII. ib. i. 12, 22-23
XXXIII. ib. i. 12, 26-27
XXXIV. ib. i. 13
XXXV. Fragment (Stobaeus); Schweigh. xv.; Schenkl, 17
XXXVI. Arrian, Disc. i. 14, 1-6
XXXVII. ib. i. 14, 12-17
XXXVIII. ib. i. 15, 5
XXXIX. ib. i. 15, 6-8
XL. ib. i. 19, 19-23
XLI. Fragment, Schweigh. xlii.; Schenkl, Gn. Epict. Stob. 36
XLII. Arrian, Disc. i. 18, 24-25
XLIII. ib. i. 19, 26-29
XLIV. ib. i. 24, 20
XLV. ib. i. 25, 18-22
XLVI. ib. i. 26, 15-16
XLVII. ib. i. 26, 17-18
XLVIII. ib. ii. 2, 8-9
XLIX. ib. i. 29, 46-49
L. Fragment (Stobaeus); Schweigh. vii.
LI. Arrian, Disc. i. 30, 1-4
LII. ib. i. 29, 16-18
LIII. ib. iii. 1, 36-38
LIV. ib. ii. 2, 17
LV. ib. ii. 1, 8 and 13
LVI. ib. ii. 5, 24-29
LVII. ib. ii. 3, 1-2
LVIII. ib. ii. 7, 10-14
LIX. ib. ii. 8, 1-3
LX. ib. ii. 8, 9-14
LXI. ib. ii. 8, 15-23 and 27-28
LXII. Fragment (Stobaeus); Schweigh. lvii.
LXIII. ib. ii. 12, 3-4
LXIV. ib. ii. 12, 14-25
LXV. Fragment; Schweigh. clxx. (v. Asmus, p. 20)
LXVI. Arrian, Disc. ii. 14, 10-13
LXVII. ib. ii. 14, 19-22
LXVIII. ib. ii. 14, 23-29
LXIX. ib. ii. 15, 13-14
LXX. ib. ii. 16, 32-34
LXXI. ib. ii. 16, 41-47
LXXII. ib. ii. 17, 1
LXXIII. ib. ii. 17, 29-33
LXXIV. Fragment (M. Antoninus); Schweigh. clxxviii.; Schenkl, 28
LXXV. Arrian, Disc. ii. 18, 5-12
LXXVI. ib. ii. 18, 19
LXVII. ib. ii. 18, 27-29
LXVIII. ib. ii. 19, 23-28
LXXIX. Manual, 37
LXXX. Arrian, Disc. ii. 21, 11-16
LXXXI. ib. ii. 24 (abbreviated)
LXXXII. ib. ii. 22, 24-27, and 29-30
LXXXIII. ib. iii. 22, 105
LXXXIV. ib. iii. 5, 7-11
LXXXV. ib. iii. 5, 16-18 (abbreviated)
LXXXVI. ib. iii. 7, 27-28
LXXXVII. ib. iii. 3, 1
LXXXVIII. Fragment (Stobaeus); Schweigh. lxvii.; Schenkl, 5
LXXXVIX. Arrian, Disc. iii. 3, 3-4
XC. ib. iii. 6, 8
XCI. ib. iii. 7, 30-36 (abbreviated)
XCII. ib. iii. 8, 5-6
XCIII. ib. iii. 9, 1-14 (abbreviated)
XCIV. ib. iii. 9, 16-18
XCV. ib. iii. 9, 21-22
XCVI. Fragment (Stobaeus); Schweigh. lxviii.
XCVII. Arrian, Disc. iii. 10, 19-20
XCVIII. ib. iii. 13, 6-8
XCIX. ib. iii. 16, 1-8
C. ib. iii. 12, 16-17
CI. ib. iii. 13, 21
CII. ib. iii. 13, 23
CIII. ib. 14, 1-3
CIV. ib. iii. 15, 2-7 and 9-12
CV. ib. iii. 19, 6
CVI. ib. iii. 20, 9-12 (abbreviated)
CVII. ib. iii. 16, 9-10
CVIII. ib. iii. 21, 17-20
CIX. ib. iii. 21, 23
CX. ib. iii. 22, 1-8
CXI. ib. iii. 22, 14-15
CXII. ib. iii. 22, 21
CXIII. ib. iii. 22, 23-25
CXIV. ib. iii. 22, 45-49
CXV. ib. iii. 22, 53
CXVI. ib. iii. 22, 67-69
CXVII. ib. iii. 22, 83-85
CXVIII. ib. iii. 22, 86-89
CXIX. ib. iii. 22, 94-96
CXX. ib. iii. 23, 27-28
CXXI. ib. iii. 23, 30-31
CXXII. ib. iii. 24, 2
CXXIII. ib. iii. 24, 9-11
CXXIV. ib. iii. 24, 15-16
CXXV. ib. iii. 24, 31-32 and 34-35
CXXVI. ib. iii. 24, 50-53 (abbreviated)
CXXVII. ib. iii. 24, 63
CXXVIII. ib. iii. 24, 64
CXXIX. ib. iii. 24, 83
CXXX. ib. iii. 24, 86 and 89-94 (abbreviated)
CXXXI. ib. iii. 24, 95-98
CXXXII. ib. iii. 24, 99-101
CXXXIII. ib. iii. 24, 109-110
CXXXIV. ib. iii. 26, 28-30
CXXXV. ib. iii. 26, 38-39
CXXXVI. ib. iv. 1, 1-3
CXXXVII. ib. iv. 1, 91-98
CXXXVIII. ib. iv. 1, 99-100
CXXXIX. ib. iv. 1, 103-106
CXL. ib. iv. 1, 106-109
CXLI. ib. iv. 1, 151-155
CXLII. ib. iv. 1, 170-173
CXLIII. Fragment (Antonius Monachus); Schweigh. cxxx.
CXLIV. Arrian, Disc. iv. 3, 9-12
CXLV. ib. iv. 4, 1-5
CXLVI. ib. iv. 4, 46-47
CXLVII. ib. iv. 4, 47-48
CXLVIII. ib. iv. 5, 34-35
CXLIX. Fragment; Schweigh. xxxix.; Schenkl, Gn. Epict. Stob. 29
CL. Arrian, Disc. iv. 6, 24
CLI. ib. iv. 7, 6-11
CLII. ib. iv. 7, 19-20
CLIII. ib. iii. 5, 14
CLIV. ib. iv. 8. 16-20
CLV. ib. iv. 8, 35-37
CLVI. ib. iv. 9, 14-16
CLVII. Arrian, Disc. i. 23, 1-2
CLVIII. Manual, xiii.
CLIX. ib. xv.
CLX. ib. xvii.
CLXI. ib. xxi.
CLXII. ib. xxvii.
CLXIII. ib. xxxi.
CLXIV. ib. xxxiii.
CLXV. ib. xxxiii.
CLXVI. ib. xxxiii.
CLXVII. ib. xxxiii.
CLXVIII. ib. xxxiii.
CLXIX. ib. xxxiii.
CLXX. ib. xxxiii.
CLXXI. ib. xxxiii.
CLXXII. ib. xxxv.
CLXXIII. ib. xli.
CLXXIV. ib. xliii.
CLXXV. ib. xlvi.
CLXXVI. ib. xlvii.
CLXXVII. ib. xlix.
CLXXVIII. Fragment; Schweigh. xxxi.; Schenkl, Gn. Epict. Stob. 20
CLXXIX. ib. xxxiii. and 23
CLXXX. ib. xxxiv. and 24
CLXXXI. ib. attributed to Epict. by Maximus; Schweigh. clxxiii.
(v. Asmus, p. 20)
CLXXXII. ib.; Schweigh. clxxii.
CLXXXIII. ib. (Aulus Gellius); Schweigh. clxxix.; Schenkl, 10
CLXXXIV. Manual, lii.
CLXXXV. Arrian, Disc. ii. 6, 26
CLXXXVI. ib. ii. 5, 9-13
CLXXXVII. ib. i. 24, 3-9
CLXXXVIII. ib. iii. 13, 12-16
CLXXXIX. ib. iv. 10, 12-17
INDEX FOR REFERENCE TO APPENDIX A
I. Schweigh. Fragment, 1; Schenkl, Gn. Epict. Stob. i.
II. ib. 2--ib. 2
III. Schweigh. 12; Schenkl, 22
IV. ib. 103
V. ib. 141
VI. ib. 142
VII. ib. 60; Schenkl, 50
VIII. ib. 65; ib. 55
IX. ib. 96
X. ib. 9; ib. 32
XI. ib. 54; Schenkl, Fragment, xxxiii.
XII. ib. 55; ib. xxxiv.
XIII. Schweigh. 104
XIV. ib. 5; Schenkl, Gn. Epict. Stob. 5
XV. ib. 114; Schenkl, Fragment, xxxv.
XVI. ib. 89; ib. xxx.
XVII. ib. 138
XVIII. ib. 13; Schenkl, Gn. Epict. Stob. 46
XIX. ib. 119
XX. ib. 144
XXI. ib. 118
XXII. ib. 88; Schenkl, ib. 67
XXIII. ib. 156
XXIV. ib. 120