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The Forme of Cury by Samuel Pegge

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THE FORME OF CURY,

A ROLL OF ANCIENT ENGLISH COOKERY.

Compiled, about A.D. 1390, by the Master-Cooks of King RICHARD II,

Presented afterwards to Queen ELIZABETH, by EDWARD Lord STAFFORD,

And now in the Possession of GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq.

Illustrated with NOTES, And a copious INDEX, or GLOSSARY.

A MANUSCRIPT of the EDITOR, of the same Age and Subject, with other
congruous Matters, are subjoined.

"--ingeniosa gula est." MARTIAL.

TO GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. and Cur. Brit. Mus.

SIR,

I return your very curious Roll of Cookery, and I trust with some
Interest, not full I confess nor legal, but the utmost which your
Debtor, from the scantiness of his ability, can at present afford.
Indeed, considering your respectable situation in life, and that
diffusive sphere of knowledge and science in which you are acting, it
must be exceedingly difficult for any one, how well furnished soever,
completely to answer your just, or even most moderate demands. I
intreat the favour of you, however, to accept for once this short
payment in lieu of better,

or at least as a public testimony of that profound regard wherewith I
am,

SIR,

Your affectionate friend,
and most obliged servant,
St. George's day, 1780.

S. PEGGE.

PREFACE

TO THE

CURIOUS ANTIQUARIAN READER.

Without beginning _ab ovo_ on a subject so light (a matter of
importance, however, to many a modern Catius or Amasinius), by
investigating the origin of the Art of Cookery, and the nature of it
as practised by the Antediluvians [1]; without dilating on the
several particulars concerning it afterwards amongst the Patriarchs,
as found in the Bible [2], I shall turn myself immediately, and
without further preamble, to a few cursory observations respecting
the Greeks, Romans, Britons, and those other nations, Saxons, Danes,
and Normans, with whom the people of this nation are more closely
connected.

The Greeks probably derived something of their skill from the East,
(from the Lydians principally, whose cooks are much celebrated, [3])
and something from Egypt. A few hints concerning Cookery may be
collected from Homer, Aristophanes, Aristotle, &c. but afterwards
they possessed many authors on the subject, as may be seen in
Athenaus [4]. And as Diatetics were esteemed a branch of the study of
medicine, as also they were afterwards [5], so many of those authors
were Physicians; and _the Cook_ was undoubtedly a character of high
reputation at Athens [6].

As to the Romans; they would of course borrow much of their culinary
arts from the Greeks, though the Cook with them, we are told, was one
of the lowest of their slaves [7]. In the latter times, however, they
had many authors on the subject as well as the Greeks, and the
practitioners were men of some Science [8], but, unhappily for us,
their compositions are all lost except that which goes under the name
of Apicius; concerning which work and its author, the prevailing
opinion now seems to be, that it was written about the time of
_Heliogabalus_ [9], by one _Calius_, (whether _Aurelianus_ is not so
certain) and that _Apicius_ is only the title of it [10]. However,
the compilation, though not in any great repute, has been several
times published by learned men.

The Aborigines of Britain, to come nearer home, could have no great
expertness in Cookery, as they had no oil, and we hear nothing of
their butter, they used only sheep and oxen, eating neither hares,
though so greatly esteemed at Rome, nor hens, nor geese, from a
notion of superstition. Nor did they eat fish. There was little corn
in the interior part of the island, but they lived on milk and flesh
[11]; though it is expressly asserted by Strabo that they had no
cheese [12]. The later Britons, however, well knew how to make the
best use of the cow, since, as appears from the laws of _Hoel Dda_,
A.D. 943, this animal was a creature so essential, so common and
useful in Wales, as to be the standard in rating fines, &c. [13].

Hengist, leader of the Saxons, made grand entertainments for king
Vortigern [14], but no particulars have come down to us; and
certainly little exquisite can be expected from a people then so
extremely barbarous as not to be able either to read or write.
'Barbari homines a septentrione, (they are the words of Dr. Lister)
caseo et ferina subcruda victitantes, omnia condimenta adjectiva
respuerunt' [15].

Some have fancied, that as the Danes imported the custom of hard and
deep drinking, so they likewise introduced the practice of
gormandizing, and that this word itself is derived from _Gormund_,
the name of that Danish king whom Alfred the Great persuaded to be
christened, and called Athelstane [16], Now 'tis certain that
Hardicnut stands on record as an egregious glutton [17], but he is
not particularly famous for being a _curious Viander_; 'tis true
again, that the Danes in general indulged excessively in feasts and
entertainments [18], but we have no reason to imagine any elegance
of Cookery to have flourished amongst them. And though Guthrum, the
Danish prince, is in some authors named _Gormundus_ [19]; yet this is
not the right etymology of our English word _Gormandize_, since it is
rather the French _Gourmand_, or the British _Gormod_ [20]. So that

we have little to say as to the Danes.

I shall take the later English and the Normans together, on account
of the intermixture of the two nations after the Conquest, since, as
lord Lyttelton observes, the English accommodated them elves to the
Norman manners, except in point of temperance in eating and drinking,
and communicated to them their own habits of drunkenness and
immoderate feasting [21]. Erasmus also remarks, that the English in
his time were attached to _plentiful and splendid tables_; and the
same is observed by Harrison [22]. As to the Normans, both William I.
and Rufus made grand entertainments [23]; the former was remarkable
for an immense paunch, and withal was so exact, so nice and curious
in his repasts [24], that when his prime favourite William Fitz-
Osberne, who as steward of the household had the charge of the Cury,
served him with the flesh of a crane scarcely half-roasted, he was so
highly exasperated, that he lifted up his fist, and would have
strucken him, had not Eudo, appointed _Dapiser_ immediately after,
warded off the blow [25].

_Dapiser_, by which is usually understood _steward of the king's
household_ [26], was a high officer amongst the Normans; and
_Larderarius_ was another, clergymen then often occupying this post,
and sometimes made bishops from it [27]. He was under the _Dapiser_,
as was likewise the _Cocus Dominica Coquina_, concerning whom, his
assistants and allowances, the _Liber Niger_ may be consulted [28].
It appears further from _Fleta_, that the chief cooks were often
providers, as well as dressers, of victuals [29]. But _Magister
Coquina_, who was an esquire by office, seems to have had the care of
pourveyance, A.D. 1340 [30], and to have nearly corresponded with
our _clerk of the kitchen_, having authority over the cooks [31].
However, the _Magnus Coquus_, _Coquorum Prapositus_, _Coquus Regius_,
and _Grans Queux_, were officers of considerable dignity in the
palaces of princes; and the officers under them, according to Du
Fresne, were in the French court A.D. 1385, much about the time that
our Roll was made, 'Queus, Aideurs, Asteurs, Paiges, Souffleurs,
Enfans, Saussiers de Commun, Saussiers devers le Roy, Sommiers,
Poulliers, Huissiers' [32].

In regard to religious houses, the Cooks of the greater foundations
were officers of consequence, though under the Cellarer [33], and if
he were not a monk, he nevertheless was to enjoy the portion of a
monk [34]. But it appears from Somner, that at Christ Church,
Canterbury, the _Lardyrer_ was the first or chief cook [35]; and this
officer, as we have seen, was often an ecclesiastic. However, the
great Houses had Cooks of different ranks [36]; and manors and
churches [37] were often given _ad cibum_ and _ad victum monachorum_

[38]. A fishing at Lambeth was allotted to that purpose [39].

But whether the Cooks were Monks or not, the _Magistri Coquina_,
Kitcheners, of the monasteries, we may depend upon it, were always
monks; and I think they were mostly ecclesiastics elsewhere: thus
when Cardinal Otto, the Pope's legate, was at Oxford, A. 1238, and
that memorable fray happened between his retinue and the students,
the _Magister Coquorum_ was the Legate's brother, and was there
killed [40]. The reason given in the author, why a person so nearly
allied to the Great Man was assigned to the office, is this, 'Ne
procuraretur aliquid venenorum, quod nimis [i.e. valde] timebat
legatus;' and it is certain that poisoning was but too much in vogue
in these times, both amongst the Italians and the good people of this
island [41]; so that this was a post of signal trust and confidence.
And indeed afterwards, a person was employed to _taste_, or _take
the assaie_, as it was called [42], both of the messes and the water
in the ewer [43], at great tables; but it may be doubted whether a
particular person was appointed to this service, or it was a branch
of the _Sewer's_ and cup-bearer's duty, for I observe, the _Sewer_ is
sometimes called _Pragustator_ [44], and the cup-bearer tastes the
water elsewhere [45]. The religious houses, and their presidents, the
abbots and priors, had their days of _Gala_, as likewise their halls
for strangers, whom, when persons of rank, they often entertained
with splendour and magnificence. And as for the secular clergy,
archbishops and bishops, their feasts, of which we have some upon
record [46], were so superb, that they might vie either with the
regal entertainments, or the pontifical suppers of ancient Rome
(which became even proverbial [47]), and certainly could not be
dressed and set out without a large number of Cooks [48]. In short,
the satirists of the times before, and about the time of, the
Reformation, are continually inveighing against the high-living of
the bishops and clergy; indeed luxury was then carried to such an
extravagant pitch amongst them, that archbishop Cranmer, A. 1541,
found it necessary to bring the secular clergy under some reasonable
regulation in regard to the furnishing of their tables, not excepting
even his own [49].

After this historical deduction of the _Ars coquinaria_, which I
have endeavoured to make as short as possible, it is time to say
something of the Roll which is here given to the public, and the
methods which the Editor has pursued in bringing it to light.

This vellum Roll contains 196 _formula_, or recipes, and belonged
once to the earl of Oxford [50]. The late James West esquire bought
it at the Earl's sale, when a part of his MSS were disposed of; and
on the death of the gentleman last mentioned it came into the hands
of my highly-esteemed friend, the present liberal and most
communicative possessor. It is presumed to be one of the most ancient
remains of the kind now in being, rising as high as the reign of king

Richard II. [51]. However, it is far the largest and most copious
collection of any we have; I speak as to those times. To establish
its authenticity, and even to stamp an additional value upon it, it
is the identical Roll which was presented to queen Elizabeth, in the
28th year of her reign, by lord Stafford's heir, as appears from the
following address, or inscription, at the end of it, in his own
hand writing:

'Antiquum hoc monumentum oblatum et missum
est majestati vestra vicesimo septimo die mensis
Julij, anno regni vestri falicissimi vicesimo viij ab
humilimo vestro subdito, vestraq majestati fidelissimo
E. Stafford,
Hares domus subversa Buckinghamiens.' [52]

The general observations I have to make upon it are these: many
articles, it seems, were in vogue in the fourteenth century, which
are now in a manner obsolete, as cranes, curlews, herons, seals [53],
porpoises, &c. and, on the contrary, we feed on sundry fowls which
are not named either in the Roll, or the Editor's MS. [54] as quails,
rails, teal, woodcocks, snipes, &c. which can scarcely be numbered
among the _small birds_ mentioned 19. 62. 154. [55]. So as to fish,
many species appear at our tables which are not found in the Roll,
trouts, flounders, herrings, &c. [56]. It were easy and obvious to
dilate here on the variations of taste at different periods of time,
and the reader would probably not dislike it; but so many other
particulars demand our attention, that I shall content myself with
observing in general, that whereas a very able _Italian_ critic,
_Latinus Latinius_, passed a sinister and unfavourable censure on
certain seemingly strange medlies, disgusting and preposterous messes,
which we meet with in _Apicius_; Dr. _Lister_ very sensibly replies
to his strictures on that head, 'That these messes are not
immediately to be rejected, because they may be displeasing to some.
_Plutarch_ testifies, that the ancients disliked _pepper_ and the
sour juice of lemons, insomuch that for a long time they only used
these in their wardrobes for the sake of their agreeable scent, and
yet they are the most wholesome of all fruits. The natives of the
_West Indies_ were no less averse to _salt_; and who would believe
that _hops_ should ever have a place in our common beverage [57], and
that we should ever think of qualifying the sweetness of malt,
through good housewifry, by mixing with it a substance so egregiously
bitter? Most of the _American_ fruits are exceedingly odoriferous,
and therefore are very disgusting at first to us _Europeans_: on the
contrary, our fruits appear insipid to them, for want of odour. There
are a thousand instances of things, would we recollect them all,
which though disagreeable to taste are commonly assumed into our
viands; indeed, _custom_ alone reconciles and adopts sauces which are
even nauseous to the palate. _Latinus Latinius_ therefore very
rashly and absurdly blames _Apicius_, on account of certain
preparations which to him, forsooth, were disrelishing.' [58] In
short it is a known maxim, that _de gustibus non est disputandum_;

And so Horace to the same purpose:

'Tres mihi conviva prope dissentire videntur,
Poscentes vario multum diversa palato.
Quid dem? quid non dem? renuis tu quod jubet alter.
Quod petis, id sane est invisum acidumque duobus.'
Hor. II. Epist. ii.

And our Roll sufficiently verifies the old observation of
Martial--_ingeniosa gula est_.

[Addenda: after _ingeniosa gula est_, add, 'The _Italians_ now eat
many things which we think perfect carrion. _Ray_, Trav. p. 362. 406.
The _French_ eat frogs and snails. The _Tartars_ feast on horse-flesh,
the _Chinese_ on dogs, and meer _Savages_ eat every thing.
_Goldsmith_, Hist. of the Earth, &c. II. p. 347, 348. 395. III. p.
297. IV. p. 112. 121, &c.']

Our Cooks again had great regard to the eye, as well as the taste,
in their compositions; _flourishing_ and _strewing_ are not only
common, but even leaves of trees gilded, or silvered, are used for
ornamenting messes, see No. 175 [59]. As to colours, which perhaps
would chiefly take place in suttleties, blood boiled and fried (which
seems to be something singular) was used for dying black, 13. 141.
saffron for yellow, and sanders for red [60]. Alkenet is also used
for colouring [61], and mulberries [62]; amydon makes white, 68; and
turnesole [63] _pownas_ there, but what this colour is the Editor
professes not to know, unless it be intended for another kind of
yellow, and we should read _jownas_, for _jaulnas_, orange-tawney. It
was for the purpose of gratifying the sight that _sotiltees_ were
introduced at the more solemn feasts. Rabelais has comfits of an
hundred colours.

Cury, as was remarked above, was ever reckoned a branch of the Art
Medical; and here I add, that the verb _curare_ signifies equally to
dress victuals [64], as to cure a distemper; that every body has
heard of _Doctor Diet, kitchen physick_, &c. while a numerous band of
medical authors have written _de cibis et alimentis_, and have always
classed diet among the _non-naturals_; so they call them, but with
what propriety they best know. Hence Junius '[Greek: Diaita] Gracis
est victus, ac speciatim certa victus ratio, qualis a _Medicis_ ad
tuendam valetudinem prascribitur [65].' Our Cooks expressly tell us,
in their proem, that their work was compiled 'by assent and avysement
of maisters of phisik and of philosophie that dwelliid in his [the
King's] court' where _physik_ is used in the sense of medecine,

_physicus_ being applied to persons prosessing the Art of Healing
long before the 14th century [66], as implying _such_ knowledge and
skill in all kinds of natural substances, constituting the _materia
medica_, as was necessiary for them in practice. At the end of the
Editor's MS. is written this rhyme,

Explicit coquina que est optima medicina [67].

There is much relative to eatables in the _Schola Salernitana_; and
we find it ordered, that a physcian should over-see the young
prince's wet-nurse at every meal, to inspect her meat and drink [68].

But after all the avysement of physicians and philosophers, our
processes do not appear by any means to be well calculated for the
benefit of recipients, but rather inimical to them. Many of them are
so highly seasoned, are such strange and heterogeneous compositions,
meer olios and gallimawfreys, that they seem removed as far as
possible from the intention of contributing to health; indeed the
messes are so redundant and complex, that in regard to herbs, in No.
6, no less than ten are used, where we should now be content with two
or three: and so the sallad, No. 76, consists of no less than 14
ingredients. The physicians appear only to have taken care that
nothing directly noxious was suffered to enter the forms. However, in
the Editor's MS. No. 11, there is a prescription for making a _colys_,
I presume a _cullis_, or Invigorating broth; for which see Dodsley's
Old Plays, vol. II. 124. vol. V. 148. vol. VI. 355. and the several
plays mentioned in a note to the first mentioned passage in the Edit.
1780 [69].

I observe further, in regard to this point, that the quantities of
things are seldom specified [70], but are too much left to the taste
and judgement of the cook, if he should happen to be rash and
inconsiderate, or of a bad and undistinguishing taste, was capable of
doing much harm to the guests, to invalids especially.

Though the cooks at Rome, as has been already noted, were amongst the
lowest slaves, yet it was not so more anciently; Sarah and Rebecca
cook, and so do Patroclus and Automedon in the ninth Iliad. It were
to be wished indeed, that the Reader could be made acquainted with
the names of our _master-cooks_, but it is not in the power of the
Editor to gratify him in that; this, however, he may be assured of,
that as the Art was of consequence in the reign of Richard, a prince
renowned and celebrated in the Roll [71], for the splendor and
elegance of his table, they must have been persons of no
inconsiderable rank: the king's first and second cooks are now
esquires by their office, and there is all the reason in the world to
believe they were of equal dignity heretofore [72]. To say a word of
king _Richard_: he is said in the proeme to have been 'acounted the
best and ryallest vyaund [curioso in eating] of all esten kynges.'
This, however, must rest upon the testimony of our cooks, since it
does not appear otherwise by the suffrage of history, that he was
particularly remarkable for his niceness and delicacy in eating, like
Heliogabalus, whose favourite dishes are said to have been the
tongues of peacocks and nightingales, and the brains of parrots and
pheasants [73]; or like Sept. Geta, who, according to Jul.
Capitolinus [74], was so curious, so whimsical, as to order the
dishes at his dinners to consist of things which all began with the
same letters. Sardanapalus again as we have it in Athenaus [75], gave
a _pramium_ to any one that invented and served him with some novel
cate; and Sergius Orata built a house at the entrance of the Lucrine
lake, purposely for the pleasure and convenience of eating the
oysters perfectly fresh. Richard II is certainly not represented in
story as resembling any such epicures, or capriccioso's, as these
[76]. It may, however, be fairly presumed, that good living was not
wanting among the luxuries of that effeminate and dissipated reign.

[Addenda: after _ninth Iliad_, add, 'And Dr. _Shaw_ writes, p. 301,
that even now in the East, the greatest prince is not ashamed to
fetch a lamb from his herd and kill it, whilst the princess is
impatient till she hath prepared her fire and her kettle to dress
it.']

[Addenda: after _heretofore_ add, 'we have some good families in
England of the name of _Cook_ or _Coke_. I know not what they may
think; but we may depend upon it, they all originally sprang from
real and professional cooks; and they need not be ashamed of their
extraction, any more than the _Butlers_, _Parkers_, _Spencers_, &c.']

My next observation is, that the messes both in the roll and the
Editor's MS, are chiefly soups, potages, ragouts, hashes, and the
like hotche-potches; entire joints of meat being never _served_, and
animals, whether fish or fowl, seldom brought to table whole, but
hacked and hewed, and cut in pieces or gobbets [77]; the mortar also
was in great request, some messes being actually denominated from it,
as _mortrews_, or _morterelys_ as in the Editor's MS. Now in this
state of things, the general mode of eating must either have been
with the spoon or the fingers; and this perhaps may have been the
reason that spoons became an usual present from gossips to their
god-children at christenings [78]; nnd that the bason and ewer, for
washing before and after dinner, was introduced, whence the _ewerer_
was a great officer [79], and the _ewery_ is retained at Court to
this day [80]; we meet with _damaske water_ after dinner [81], I
presume, perfumed; and the words _ewer_ &c. plainly come from the
Saxon ee or French eau, _water_.

Thus, to return, in that little anecdote relative to the Conqueror
and William Fitz-Osbern, mentioned above, not the crane, but _the
flesh of the crane_ is said to have been under-roasted. Table, or
case-knives, would be of little use at this time [82], and the art of
carving so perfectly useless, as to be almost unknown. In about a
century afterwards, however, as appears from archbishop Neville's
entertainment, many articles were served whole, and lord Wylloughby
was the carver [83]. So that carving began now to be practised, and
the proper terms devised. Wynken de Worde printed a _Book of
Kervinge_, A. 1508, wherein the said terms are registered [84]. 'The
use of _forks_ at table, says Dr. Percy, did not prevail in England
land till the reign of James I. as we learn from a remarkable passage
in _Coryat_ [85]'; the passage is indeed curious, but too long to be
here transcribed, where brevity is so much in view; wherefore I shall
only add, that forks are not now used in some parts of Spain [86].
But then it may be said, what becomes of the old English hospitaliiy
in this case, the _roast-beef of Old England_, so much talked of? I
answer, these bulky and magnificent dishes must have been the product
of later reigns, perhaps of queen Elizabeth's time, since it is plain
that in the days of Rich. II. our ancestors lived much after the
French fashion. As to hospitality, the households of our Nobles were
immense, officers, retainers, and servants, being entertained almost
without number; but then, as appears from the Northumberland Book,
and afterwards from the household establisliment of the prince of
Wales, A. 1610, the individuals, or at least small parties, had their
_quantum_, or ordinary, served out, where any good oeconomy was kept,
apart to themselves [87]. Again, we find in our Roll, that great
quantities of the respective viands of the hashes, were often made at
once, as No. 17, _Take hennes or conynges_. 24, _Take hares_. 29,
_Take pygges_. And 31, _Take gees_, &c. So that hospitality and
plentiful housekeeping could just as well be maintained this way, as
by the other of cumbrous unwieldy messes, as much as a man could
carry.

As the messes and sauces are so complex, and the ingredients
consequently so various, it seems necessary that a word should be
spoken concerning the principal of them, and such as are more
frequently employed, before we pass to our method of proceeding in
the publication.

Butter is little used. 'Tis first mentioned No. 81, and occurs but
rarely after [88]; 'tis found but once in the Editor's MS, where it
is written _boter_. The usual substitutes for it are oil-olive and
lard; the latter is frequently called _grees_, or _grece_, or
_whitegrece_, as No. 18. 193. _Capons in Grease_ occur in Birch's
Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 459, 460. and see Lye in Jun. Etym.
v. _Greasie_. Bishop Patrick has a remarkable passage concerning
this article: 'Though we read of cheese in _Homer_, _Euripides_,
_Theocritus_, and others, yet they never mention _butter_: nor hath
Aristotle a word of it, though he hath sundry observations about
cheese; for butter was not a thing then known among the _Greeks_;
though we see by this and many other places, it was an ancient food
among the eastern people [89].' The Greeks, I presume, used oil
instead of it, and butter in some places of scripture is thought to
mean only cream. [90]

Cheese. See the last article, and what is said of the old Britons
above; as likewise our Glossary.

Ale is applied, No. 113, et alibi; and often in the Ediitor's MS. as
6, 7, &c. It is used instead of wine, No. 22, and sometimes along
with bread in the Editor's MS. [91] Indeed it is a current opinion
that brewing with hops was not introduced here till the reign of king
Henry VIII. [92] _Bere_, however, is mentioned A. 1504. [93]

Wine is common, both red, and white, No. 21. 53. 37. This article
they partly had of their own growth, [94] and partly by importation
from France [95] and Greece [96]. They had also Rhenish [97], and
probably several other sorts. The _vynegreke_ is among the sweet
wines in a MS of Mr. Astle.

Rice. As this grain was but little, if at all, cultivated in England,
it must have been brought from abroad. Whole or ground-rice enters
into a large number of our compositions, and _resmolle_, No. 96, is a
direct preparation of it.

Alkenet. _Anchusa_ is not only used for colouring, but also fried and
yfoundred, 62. yfondyt, 162. i. e. dissolved, or ground. 'Tis thought
to be a species of the _buglos_.

Saffron. Saffrwm, Brit. whence it appears, that this name ran through
most languages. Mr. Weever informs us, that this excellent drug was
brought hither in the time of Edward III. [98] and it may be true;
but still no such quantity could be produced here in the next reign
as to supply that very large consumption which we see made of it in
our Roll, where it occurs not only as an ingredient in the processes,
but also is used for colouring, for flourishing, or garnishing. It
makes a yellow, No. 68, and was imported from Egypt, or Cilicia, or
other parts of the Levant, where the Turks call it Safran, from the
Arabic Zapheran, whence the English, Italians, French, and Germans,
have apparently borrowed their respective names of it. The Romans
were well acquainted with the drug, but did not use it much in the
kitchen [99]. Pere Calmet says, the Hebrews were acquainted with
anise, ginger, saffron, but no other spices [100].

Pynes. There is some difficulty in enucleating the meaning of this
word, though it occurs so often. It is joined with dates, No. 20. 52.
with honey clarified, 63. with powder-fort, saffron, and salt, 161.
with ground dates, raisins, good powder, and salt, 186. and lastly
they are fried, 38. Now the dish here is _morree_, which in the
Editor's MS. 37, is made of mulberries (and no doubt has its name
from them), and yet there are no mulberries in our dish, but pynes,
and therefore I suspect, that mulberries and pynes are the same, and
indeed this fruit has some resemblance to a pynecone. I conceive
_pynnonade_, the dish, No. 51, to be so named from the pynes therein
employed; and quare whether _pyner_ mentioned along with powder-fort,
saffron, and salt, No. 155, as above in No. 161, should not be read
_pynes_. But, after all, we have cones brought hither from Italy full
of nuts, or kernels, which upon roasting come out of their _capsula_,
and are much eaten by the common people, and these perhaps may be the
thing intended.

[Addenda: after _intended_. add, 'See _Ray_, Trav. p. 283. 407. and
_Wright's_ Trav. p. 112.']

Honey was the great and universal sweetner in remote antiquity, and
particularly in this island, where it was the chief constituent of
_mead_ and _metheglin_. It is said, that at this day in _Palestine_
they use honey in the greatest part of their ragouts [101]. Our cooks
had a method of clarifying it, No. 18. 41. which was done by putting
it in a pot with whites of eggs and water, beating them well together;
then setting it over the fire, and boiling it; and when it was ready
to boil over to take it and cool it, No. 59. This I presume is called
_clere honey_, No. 151. And, when honey was so much in use, it
appears from Barnes that _refining_ it was a trade of itself [102].

Sugar, or Sugur [103], was now beginning here to take place of honey;
however, they are used together, No. 67. Sugar came from the Indies,
by way of Damascus and Aleppo, to Venice, Genoa, and Pisa, and from
these last places to us [104]. It is here not only frequently used,
but was of various sorts, as _cypre_, No. 41. 99. 120. named probably
from the isle of Cyprus, whence it might either come directly to us,
or where it had received some improvement by way of refining. There
is mention of _blanch-powder or white sugar_, 132. They, however,
were not the same, for see No. 193. Sugar was clarified sometimes
with wine [105].

Spices. _Species_. They are mentioned in general No. 133, and _whole
spices_, 167, 168. but they are more commonly specified, and are
indeed greatly used, though being imported from abroad, and from so
far as Italy or the Levant (and even there must be dear), some may
wonder at this: but it shouid be considered, that our Roll was
chiefly compiled for the use of noble and princely tables; and the
same may be said of the Editor's MS. The spices came from the same
part of the world, and by the same route, as sugar did. The _spicery_
was an ancient department at court, and had its proper officers.

As to the particular sorts, these are,

Cinamon. _Canell_. 14. 191. _Canel_, Editor's MS. 10. _Kanell_, ibid.
32. is the Italian _Canella_. See Chaucer. We have the flour or
powder, No. 20. 62. See Wiclif. It is not once mentioned in Apicius.

Macys, 14. 121. Editor's MS. 10. _Maces_, 134. Editor's MS. 27. They
are used whole, No. 158. and are always expressed plurally, though we
now use the singular, _mace_. See Junii Etym.

Cloves. No. 20. Dishes are flourished with them, 22. 158. Editor's MS.
10. 27. where we have _clowys gylofres_, as in our Roll, No. 104.
_Powdour gylofre_ occurs 65. 191. Chaucer has _clowe_ in the singular,
and see him v. Clove-gelofer.

Galyngal, 30. and elsewhere. Galangal, the long rooted cyperus [106],
is a warm cardiac and cephalic. It is used in powder, 30. 47. and was
the chief ingredient in _galentine_, which, I think, took its name
from it.

Pepper. It appears from Pliny that this pungent, warm seasoning, so
much in esteem at Rome [107], came from the East Indies [108], and,
as we may suppose, by way of Alexandria. We obtained it no doubt, in
the 14th century, from the same quarter, though not exactly by the
same route, but by Venice or Genoa. It is used both whole, No. 35,
and in powder, No. 83. And long-pepper occurs, if we read the place
rightly, in No. 191.

Ginger, gyngyn. 64. 136. alibi. Powder is used, 17. 20. alibi. and
Rabelais IV. c. 59. the white powder, 131. and it is the name of a
mess, 139. quare whether _gyngyn_ is not misread for _gyngyr_, for
see Junii Etym. The Romans had their ginger from Troglodytica [109].

Cubebs, 64. 121. are a warm spicy grain from the east.

Grains of Paradice, or _de parys_, 137. [110] are the greater
cardamoms.

Noix muscadez, 191. nutmegs.

The caraway is once mentioned, No. 53. and was an exotic from _Caria_,
whence, according to Mr. Lye, it took its name: 'sunt semina, inquit,
_carri_ vel _carrei_, sic dicti a Caria, ubi copiosissime nascitur
[111].'

Powder-douce, which occurs so often, has been thought by some, who
have just peeped into our Roll, to be the same as sugar, and only a
different name for it; but they are plainly mistaken, as is evident
from 47. 51. 164. 165. where they are mentioned together as different
things. In short, I take powder-douce to be either powder of
galyngal, for see Editor's MS II. 20. 24, or a compound made of
sundry aromatic spices ground or beaten small, and kept always ready
at hand in some proper receptacle. It is otherwise termed _good
powders_, 83. 130. and in Editor's MS 17. 37. 38 [112]. or _powder_
simply, No. 169, 170. _White powder-douce_ occurs No. 51, which seems
to be the same as blanch-powder, 132. 193. called _blaynshe powder_,
and bought ready prepared, in Northumb. Book, p. 19. It is sometimes
used with powder-fort, 38. 156. for which see the next and last
article.

Powder-fort, 10. 11. seems to be a mixture likewise of the warmer
spices, pepper, ginger, &c. pulverized: hence we have _powder-fort of
gynger, other of canel_, 14. It is called _strong powder_, 22. and
perhaps may sometimes be intended by _good powders_. If you will
suppose it to be kept ready prepared by the vender, it may be the
_powder-marchant_, 113. 118. found joined in two places with powder-
douce. This Speght says is what gingerbread is made of; but Skinner
disapproves this explanation, yet, says Mr. Urry, gives none of his
own.

After thus travelling through the most material and most used
ingredients, the _spykenard de spayn_ occurring only once, I shall
beg leave to offer a few words on the nature, and in favour of the
present publication, and the method employed in the prosecution of it.

[Illustration: Take e chese and of flessh of capouns, or of hennes
& hakke smal and grynde hem smale inn a morter, take mylke of
almandes with e broth of freysh beef. oer freysh flessh, & put the
flessh in e mylke oer in the broth and set hem to e fyre, & alye
hem with flour of ryse, or gastbon, or amydoun as chargeaunt as e
blank desire, & with zolks of ayren and safroun for to make hit zelow,
and when it is dressit in dysshes with blank desires; styk aboue
clowes de gilofre, & strawe powdour of galyugale above, and serue it
forth.]

The common language of the _formula_, though old and obsolete, as
naturally may be expected from the age of the MS, has no other
difficulty in it but what may easily be overcome by a small degree of
practice and application [113]: however, for the further illustration
of this matter, and the satisfaction of the curious, a _fac simile_
of one of the recipes is represented in the annexed plate. If here
and there a hard and uncouth term or expression may occur, so as to
stop or embarrass the less expert, pains have been taken to explain
them, either in the annotations under the text, or in the Index and
Glossary, for we have given it both titles, as intending it should
answer the purpose of both [114]. Now in forming this alphabet, as
it would have been an endless thing to have recourse to all our
glossaries, now so numerous, we have confined ourselves, except
perhaps in some few instances, in which the authorities are always
mentioned, to certain contemporary writers, such as the Editor's MS,
of which we shall speak more particularly hereafter, Chaucer, and
Wiclif; with whom we have associated Junius' Etymologicon Anglicanum.

As the abbreviations of the Roll are here retained, in order to
establish and confirm the age of it, it has been thought proper to
adopt the types which our printer had projected for Domesday-Book,
with which we find that our characters very nearly coincide.

The names of the dishes and sauces have occasioned the greatest
perplexity. These are not only many in number, but are often so
horrid and barbarous, to our ears at least, as to be inveloped in
several instances in almost impenetrable obscurity. Bishop Godwin
complains of this so long ago as 1616 [115]. The _Contents_ prefixed
will exhibit at once a most formidable list of these hideous names
and titles, so that there is no need to report them here. A few of
these terms the Editor humbly hopes he has happily enucleated, but
still, notwithstanding all his labour and pains, the argument is in
itself so abstruse at this distance of time, the helps so few, and
his abilities in this line of knowledge and science so slender and
confined, that he fears he has left the far greater part of the task
for the more sagacious reader to supply: indeed, he has not the least
doubt, but other gentlemen of curiosity in such matters (and this
publication is intended for them alone) will be so happy as to clear
up several difficulties, which appear now to him insuperable. It must
be confessed again, thatthe Editor may probably have often failed in
those very points, which he fancies and flatters himself to have
elucidated, but this he is willing to leave to the candour of the
public.

Now in regard to the helps I mentioned; there is not much to be
learnt from the Great Inthronization-feast of archbishop Robert
Winchelsea, A. 1295, even if it were his; but I rather think it
belongs to archbishop William Warham, A. 1504 [116]. Some use,
however, has been made of it.

Ralph Bourne was installed abbot of St. Augustine's, near Canterbury,
A. 1309; and William Thorne has inserted a list of provisions bought
for the feast, with their prices, in his Chronicle [117].

The Great Feast at the Inthronization of George Nevile archbishop of
York, 6 Edward IV. is printed by Mr. Hearne [118], and has been of
good service.

Elizabeth, queen of king Henry VII. was crowned A. 1487, and the
messes at the dinner, in two courses, are registered in the late
edition of Leland's Collectenea, A. 1770 [119], and we have profited
thereby.

The Lenten Inthronization-feast of archbishop William Warham, A. 1504
[120], given us at large by Mr. Hearne [121], has been also consulted.

There is a large catalogue of viands in Rabelais, lib. iv. cap. 59.
60. And the English translation of Mr. Ozell affording little
information, I had recourse to the French original, but not to much
more advantage.

There is also a Royal Feast at the wedding of the earl of Devonshire,
in the Harleian Misc. No. 279, and it has not been neglected.

Randle Holme, in his multifarious _Academy of Armory_, has an
alphabet of terms and dishes [122]; but though I have pressed him
into the service, he has not contributed much as to the more
difficult points.

The Antiquarian Repertory, vol. II. p. 211, exhibits an
entertainment of the mayor of Rochester, A. 1460; but there is little
to be learned from thence. The present work was printed before No. 31
of the Antiquarian Repertory, wherein some ancient recipes in Cookery
are published, came to the Editor's hand.

I must not omit my acknowledgments to my learned friend the present
dean of Carlisle, to whom I stand indebted for his useful notes on
the Northumberland-Household Book, as also for the book itself.

Our chief assistance, however, has been drawn from a MS belonging to
the Editor, denoted, when cited, by the signature _MS. Ed._ It is a
vellum miscellany in small quarto, and the part respecting this
subject consists of ninety-one English recipes (or _nyms_) in cookery.
These are disposed into two parts, and are intituled, 'Hic incipiunt
universa servicia tam de carnibus quam de pissibus.' [123] The second
part, relates to the dressing of fish, and other lenten fare, though
forms are also there intermixed which properly belong to flesh-days.
This leads me to observe, that both here, and in the Roll, messes are
sometimes accommodated, by making the necessary alterations, both to
flesh and fish-days. [124] Now, though the subjects of the MS are
various, yet the hand-writing is uniform; and at the end of one of
the tracts is added, 'Explicit massa Compoti, Anno Dni M'lo CCC'mo
octogesimo primo ipso die Felicis et Audacti.' [125], i.e. 30 Aug.
1381, in the reign of Rich. II. The language and orthography accord
perfectly well with this date, and the collection is consequently
contemporary with our Roll, and was made chiefly, though not
altogether, for the use of great tables, as appears from the
_sturgeon_, and the great quantity of venison therein prescribed for.

As this MS is so often referred to in the annotations, glossary, and

even
in this preface, and is a compilation of the same date, on the
same subject, and in the same language, it has been thought
adviseable to print it, and subjoin it to the Roll; and the rather,
because it really furnishes a considerable enlargement on the
subject, and exhibits many forms unnoticed in the Roll.

To conclude this tedious preliminary detail, though unquestionably a
most necessary part of his duty, the Editor can scarcely forbear
laughing at himself, when he reflects on his past labours, and recollects
those lines of the poet Martial;

Turpe est difficiles habere nugas,
Et stultus labor est ineptiarum. II. 86.

and that possibly mesdames _Carter_ and _Raffald_, with twenty others,
might have far better acquitted themselves in the administration of
this province, than he has done. He has this comfort and satisfaction,
however, that he has done his best; and that some considerable
names amongst the learned, Humelbergius, Torinus, Barthius, our
countryman Dr. Lister, Almeloveen, and others, have bestowed no less
pains in illustrating an author on the same subject, and scarcely of
more importance, the _Pseudo-Apicius_.

[1] If, according to Petavius and Le Clerc, the world was created in
autumn, when the fruits of the earth were both plentiful and in the
highest perfection, the first man had little occasion for much
culinary knowledge; roasting or boiling the cruder productions, with
modes of preserving those which were better ripened, seem to be all
that was necessary for him in the way of _Cury_, And even after he
was displaced from Paradise, I conceive, as many others do, he was
not permitted the use of animal food [Gen. i. 29.]; but that this was
indulged to us, by an enlargement of our charter, after the Flood,
Gen. ix, 3. But, without wading any further in the argument here, the
reader is referred to Gen. ii. 8. seq. iii. 17, seq. 23.

[Addenda: add 'vi. 22. where _Noah_ and the beasts are to live on the
same food.']
[2] Genesis xviii. xxvii. Though their best repasts, from the
politeness of the times, were called by the simple names of _Bread_,
or a _Morsel of bread_, yet they were not unacquainted with modes of
dressing flesh, boiling, roasting, baking; nor with sauce, or
seasoning, as salt and oil, and perhaps some aromatic herbs. Calmet v.
Meats and Eating, and qu. of honey and cream, ibid.
[3] Athenaus, lib. xii. cap. 3.
[4] Athenaus, lib. xii. cap. 3. et Cafaubon. See also Lister ad
Apicium, praf. p. ix. Jungerm. ad Jul. Polluccm, lib. vi. c. 10.
[5] See below. 'Tamen uterque [Torinus et Humelbergius] hac scripta
[i, e. Apicii] ad medicinam vendicarunt.' Lister, praf. p. iv. viii.
ix.
[6] Athenaaus, p. 519. 660.
[7] Priv. Life of the Romans, p. 171. Lister's Pras, p. iii, but Ter.
An, i. 1. Casaub. ad Jul. Capitolin. cap. 5.
[8] Casaub. ad Capitolin. l. c.
[9] Lister's Pras. p. ii. vi. xii.
[10] Fabric. Bibl. Lat. tom. II. p. 794. Hence Dr. Bentley ad Hor. ii.
ferm. 8. 29. stiles it _Pseudapicius_. Vide Listerum, p. iv.
[11] Casar de B. G. v. S 10.
[12] Strabo, lib. iv. p. 200. Pegge's Essay on Coins of Cunob, p. 95.
[13] Archaologia, iv. p. 61. Godwin, de Prasul. p. 596, seq.
[14] Malmsb. p. 9. Galfr. Mon. vi. 12.
[15] Lister. ad Apic. p. xi. where see more to the same purpose.
[16] Spelm. Life of Alfred, p. 66. Drake, Eboracum. Append, p. civ.
[17] Speed's History.
[18] Mons. Mallet, cap. 12.
[19] Wilkins, Concil. I. p. 204. Drake, Ebor. p. 316. Append, p. civ.
cv.
[20] Menage, Orig. v. Gourmand.
[21] Lord Lyttelton, Hist. of H. II. vol. iii. p. 49.
[22] Harrison, Descript. of Britain, p. 165, 166.
[23] Stow, p. 102. 128.
[24] Lord Lyttelton observes, that the Normans were delicate in their
food, but without excess. Life of Hen. II. vol. III. p. 47.
[25] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 109. Henry II. served to his son. Lord
Lyttelton, IV. p. 298.
[26] Godwin de Prasul. p. 695, renders _Carver_ by _Dapiser_, but
this I cannot approve. See Thoroton. p. 23. 28. Dugd. Bar. I. p. 441.
620. 109. Lib. Nig. p. 342. Kennet, Par. Ant. p. 119. And, to name no
more, Spelm. in voce. The _Carver_ was an officer inferior to the
_Dapiser_, or _Steward_, and even under his control. Vide Lel.
Collect. VI. p. 2. And yet I find Sir Walter Manny when young was
carver to Philippa queen of king Edward III. Barnes Hist. of E. III.
p. 111. The _Steward_ had the name of _Dapiser_, I apprehend, from
serving up the first dish. V. supra.
[27] Sim. Dunelm. col. 227. Hoveden, p. 469. Malms. de Pont. p. 286.
[28] Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, p. 347.
[29] Fleta, II. cap. 75.
[30] Du Fresne, v. Magister.
[31] Du Fresne, ibid.
[32] Du Fresne, v. Coquus. The curious may compare this List with Lib.
Nig. p. 347.
[33] In Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36. they are under the
_Magister Coquina_, whose office it was to purvey; and there again
the chief cooks are proveditors; different usages might prevail at
different times and places. But what is remarkable, the
_Coquinarius_, or Kitchener, which seems to answer to _Magister
Coquina_, is placed before the Cellarer in Tanner's Notitia, p. xxx.
but this may be accidental.
[34] Du Fresne, v. Coquus.
[35] Somner, Append. p. 36.
[36] Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36.
[37] Somner, p. 41.
[38] Somner, p. 36, 37, 39, sapius.
[39] Somner, l. c.
[40] M. Paris, p4. 69.
[41] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 45. Stow, p. 184. M. Paris, p. 377. 517. M.

Westm. p. 364.
[42] Lel. Collectan. VI. p. 7. seq.
[43] Ibid. p. 9. 13.
[44] Compare Leland, p. 3. with Godwin de Prasul. p. 695. and so
Junius in Etymol. v. Sewer.
[45] Leland, p. 8, 9. There are now _two yeomen of the mouth_ in the
king's household.
[46] That of George Neville, archbishop of York, 6 Edw. IV. and that
of William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 1504. These were
both of them inthronization feasts. Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2 and
16 of Appendix. They were wont _minuere sanguinem_ after these superb
entertainments, p. 32.
[47] Hor. II. Od. xiv. 28. where see Mons. Dacier.
[48] Sixty-two were employed by archbishop Neville. And the hire of
cooks at archbishop Warham's feast came to 23 l. 6 s. 8 d.
[49] Strype, Life of Cranmer, p. 451, or Lel. Coll. ut supra, p. 38.
Sumptuary laws in regard to eating were not unknown in ancient Rome.
Erasm. Colloq. p. 81. ed. Schrev. nor here formerly, see Lel. Coll.
VI. p. 36. for 5 Ed. II.
[50] I presume it may be the same Roll which Mr. Hearne mentions in
his Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, I. p. 346. See also three different letters
of his to the earl of Oxford, in the Brit. Mus. in the second of
which he stiles the Roll _a piece of antiquity, and a very great
rarity indeed_. Harl. MSS. No. 7523.
[51] See the Proem.
[52] This lord was grandson of Edward duke of Bucks, beheaded A. 1521,
whose son Henry was restored in blood; and this Edward, the grandson,
born about 1571, might be 14 or 15 years old when he presented the
Roll to the Queen.
[53] Mr. Topham's MS. has _socas_ among the fish; and see archbishop
Nevil's Feast, 6 E. IV. to be mentioned below.
[54] Of which see an account below.
[55] See Northumb. Book, p. 107, and Notes.
[56] As to carps, they were unknown in England t. R. II. Fulier,
Worth. in Sussex, p. 98. 113. Stow, Hist. 1038.
[57] The Italians still call the hop _cattiva erba_. There was a
petition against them t. H. VI. Fuller, Worth. p. 317, &c. Evelyn,
Sylva, p. 201. 469. ed. Hunter.
[58] Lister, Praf. ad Apicium, p. xi.
[59] So we have _lozengs of golde_. Lel. Collect. IV. p. 227. and a
wild boar's head _gylt_, p. 294. A peacock with _gylt neb_. VI. p. 6.
_Leche Lambart gylt_, ibid.
[60] No. 68. 20. 58. See my friend Dr. Percy on the Northumberland-
Book, p. 415. and MS Ed. 34.
[61] No. 47. 51. 84.

[62] No. 93. 132. MS Ed. 37.
[63] Perhaps Turmerick. See ad loc.
[64] Ter. Andr. I. 1. where Donatus and Mad. Dacier explain it of
Cooking. Mr. Hearne, in describing our Roll, see above, p. xi, by an
unaccountable mistake, read _Fary_ instead of _Cury_, the plain
reading of the MS.
[65] Junii Etym. v. Diet.
[66] Reginaldus Phisicus. M. Paris, p. 410. 412. 573. 764. Et in Vit.
p. 94. 103. Chaucer's _Medicus_ is a doctor of phisick, p.4. V. Junii
Etym. voce Physician. For later times, v. J. Rossus, p. 93.
[67] That of Donatus is modest 'Culina medicina famulacrix est.'
[68] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 183. 'Diod. Siculus refert primos Agypti
Reges victum quotidianum omnino sumpsisse ex medicorum prascripto.'
Lister ad Apic. p. ix.
[69] See also Lylie's Euphues, p. 282. Cavendish, Life of Wolsey,
p. 151, where we have _callis_, male; Cole's and Lyttleton's Dict. and
Junii Etymolog. v. Collice.
[70] See however, No. 191, and Editor's MS II. 7.
[71] Vide the proeme.
[72] See above.
[73] Univ. Hist. XV. p. 352. 'Asopus pater linguas avium humana
vocales lingua canavit; filius margaritas.' Lister ad Apicium, p. vii.
[74] Jul. Capitolinus, c. 5.
[75] Athenaus, lib. xii. c. 7. Something of the same kind is related
of Heliogabalus, Lister Praf. ad Apic. p. vii.
[76] To omit the paps of a pregnant sow, Hor. I. Ep. xv. 40. where
see Mons. Dacier; Dr. Fuller relates, that the tongue of carps were
accounted by the ancient Roman palate-men most delicious meat. Worth.
in Sussex. See other instances of extravagant Roman luxury in
Lister's Praf. to Apicius, p. vii.
[77] See, however, No. 33, 34, 35, 146.

[Addenda: add 'reflect on the Spanish _Olio_ or _Olla podrida_, and
the French fricassee.']
[78] The king, in Shakespeare, Hen. VIII. act iv. sc. 2. and 3. calls
the gifts of the sponsors, _spoons_. These were usually gilt, and,
the figures of the apostles being in general carved on them, were
called _apostle spoons_. See Mr. Steevens's note in Ed. 1778, vol.
VII. p. 312, also Gent. Mag. 1768, p. 426.
[79] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 328. VI. p. 2.
[80] See Dr. Percy's curious notes on the Northumb. Book, p. 417.
[81] Ibid. VI. p. 5. 18.
[82] They were not very common at table among the Greeks. Casaub. ad
Athenaum, col. 278. but see Lel. Coll. VI. p. 7.
[83] Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2. Archbishop Warham also had his
carver, ibid. p. 18. See also, IV. p. 236. 240. He was a great
officer. Northumb. Book, p. 445.
[84] Ames, Typ. Ant. p. 90. The terms may also be seen in Rand. Holme
III. p. 78.
[85] Dr. Percy, 1. c.
[86] Thicknesse, Travels, p., 260.
[87] Dr. Birch, Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 457. seq.
[88] No. 91, 92. 160.
[89] Bishop Patrick on Genesis xviii. 8.
[90] Calmer, v. Butter. So Judges iv, 19. compared with v. 25.
[91] Ib. No. 13, 14, 15.
[92] Stow, Hist. p. 1038.
[93] Lel. Coll. VI. p. 30. and see Dr. Percy on Northumb. Book, p.
414.
[94] Archaologia, I. p. 319. Ill, p. 53.
[95] Barrington's Observ. on Statutes, p. 209. 252. Edit. 3d.
Archaolog. I. p. 330. Fitz-Stephen, p. 33. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 14.
Northumb. Book, p. 6. and notes.
[96] No. 20. 64. 99.
[97] No. 99.
[98] Fun. Mon. p. 624
[99] Dr. Lister, Praf. ad Apicium, p. xii.
[100] Calmet. Dict. v. Eating.
[101] Calmet. Dict. v. Meats.
[102] Barnes, Hist. of E. III. p. 111.
[103] No. 70, Editor's MS. 17. alibi.
[104] Moll, Geogr. II. p. 130. Harris, Coll. of Voyages, I. p. 874.
Ed. Campbell.
[105] No. 20. 148.
[106] Glossary to Chaucer. See the Northumb. Book, p. 415 and 19.
also Quincy's Dispens. and Brookes's Nat. Hist. of Vegetables.
[107] Lister, Praf. ad Apicium, p. xii.
[108] Plinius, Nat. Hist. XII. cap. 7.
[109] Bochart. III. col. 332.
[110] See our Gloss. voce Greynes.
[111] Lye, in Junii Etymolog.
[112] But see the next article.
[113] Doing, hewing, hacking, grinding, kerving, &c. are easily
understood.
[114] By combining the Index and Glossary together, we have had an
opportunity of elucidating some terms more at large than could
conveniently be done in the notes. We have also cast the Index to the
Roll, and that to the Editor's MS, into one alphabet; distinguishing,
however, the latter from the former.
[115] Godwin de Prasul. p. 684.
[116] In Dr. Drake's edition of archbishop Parker, p. lxiii. it is
given to archbishop Winchelsea: but see Mr. Battely's Append. to
_Cantuaria Sacra_, p. 27. or the Archaologia, I. p. 330. and Leland's
Collectanea, VI. p. 30. where it is again printed, and more at large,
and ascribed to Warham.
[117] Thorne, Chron. inter X Script. Col. 2010. or Lel. Collect. VI.
p. 34. Ed. 1770.
[118] Leland, Collect. VI. p. 2. See also Randle Holme, III. p. 77.
Bishop Godwin de Prasul. p. 695. Ed. Richardson; where there are some
considerable variations in the messes or services, and he and the
Roll in Leland will correct one another.
[119] Vol. IV. p. 226.
[120] See first paragraph before.
[121] Leland's Collect. VI. p. 16.
[122] Holme, Acad. of Armory, III. p. 81.
[123] It is _pissibus_ again in the title to the Second Part.
[124] No. 7. 84. here No. 17. 35. 97.
[125] In the common calendars of our missals and breviaries, the
latter saint is called _Adauctus_, but in the Kalend. Roman. of Joh.
Fronto, Paris. 1652, p. 126, he is written _Audactus_, as here; and
see Martyrolog. Beda, p. 414.

THE

FORME OF CURY.

... fome [1] of cury [2] was compiled of the chef Maister Cokes of
kyng Richard the Secunde kyng of .nglond [3] aftir the Conquest. the
which was acounted e [4] best and ryallest vyand [5] of alle
csten .ynges [6] and it was compiled by assent and avysement of
Maisters and [7] phisik [8] and of philosophie at dwellid in his
court. First it techi a man for to make commune potages and commune
meetis for howshold as ey shold be made craftly and holsomly.
Aftirward it techi for to make curious potages & meetes and
sotiltees [9] for alle maner of States bothe hye and lowe. And the
techyng of the forme of making of potages & of meetes bothe of flessh
and of fissh. buth [10] y sette here by noumbre and by ordre. sso is
little table here sewyng [11] wole teche a man with oute taryyng: to
fynde what meete at hym lust for to have.

or [12] to make gronnden benes . . . . . I.
For to make drawen benes. . . . . . . . . II.
for to make grewel forced.. . . . . . . . III.
Caboches in potage. . . . . . . . . . . . IIII.
rapes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.
Eowtes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.
hebolas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.
Gowrdes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.
ryse of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX.
Funges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X.
Bursen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI.
Corat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII.
noumbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII.
Roobroth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIIII.
Tredure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV.
Mounchelet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVI.
Bukkenade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII.
Connat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVIII.
drepee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX.
Mawmenee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.
Egurdouce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI.
Capouns in Conney . . . . . . . . . . . . XXII.
haares in talbotes. . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII.
Haares in papdele . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIIII.
connynges in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXV.
Connynges in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . XXVI.
Chykens in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVII.
filetes in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . . XXVIII.
Pigges in sawse sawge . . . . . . . . . . XXIX.
sawse madame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXX.
Gees in hoggepot. . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXI.
carnel of pork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXII.
Chikens in Caudell. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII.
chikens in hocchee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII.
For to boyle Fesauntes, Partyches
Capons and Curlewes . . . . . . . . . . . XXX. V.
blank manng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVI.
Blank Dessorre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVII.
morree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVIII.
Charlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIX.
charlot y forced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II.
Cawdel ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. I.
iusshell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. III.[13]
Iusshell enforced . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IIII.
mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. V.
Blank mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VI.
brewet of almony. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VII.
Peions y stewed . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VIII.
loseyns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IX.
Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. X.
pynnonade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XI.
Rosee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XII.
cormarye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIII.
New noumbles of Deer. . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIIII.
nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XV.
Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVI.
ipynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVII.
Chyryse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVIII.
payn Foundewe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIX.
Crotoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III.
vyne grace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. I.
Fonnell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. II.
douce ame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. III.
Connynges in Cirypp . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IIII.
leche lumbard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. V.
Connynges in clere broth. . . . . . . . . XX.III. VI.
payn Ragoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VII.
Lete lardes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VIII.
furmente with porpeys . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IX.
Perrey of Pesoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. X.
pesoun of Almayn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XI.
Chiches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XII.
frenche owtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIII.
Makke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIIII.
Aquapates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XV.
Salat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVI.
fenkel in soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVII.
Clat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVIII.
appulmoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIX.
Slete soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII.
Letelorye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. I.
Sowpes Dorry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. II.
Rapey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. III.
Sause Sarzyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IIII.
creme of almanndes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. V.
Grewel of almandes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VI.
cawdel of almandes mylk . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VII.
Iowtes of almannd mylk. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VIII.
Fygey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX.
Pochee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. X.
brewet of ayrenn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XI.
Macrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XII.
Tostee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIII.
Gyndawdry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIIII.
Erbowle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XV.
Resmolle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVI.
vyannde Cipre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVII.
Vyannde Cipre of Samon. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVIII.
vyannde Ryal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX.
Compost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.
gelee of Fyssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. I.
Gelee of flessh . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. II.
Chysanne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. III.
congur in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IIII.
Rygh in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. V.
makerel in sawce. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VI.
Pykes in brasey . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VII.
porpeys in broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VIII.
Ballok broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX.
eles in brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. X
Cawdel of Samoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XI.
plays in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XII.
For to make Flaumpeyns. . . . . . . . . . C. XIII.
for to make noumbles in lent. . . . . . . C. XIIII.
For to make Chawdoun for lent . . . . . . C. XV.
furmente with porpays . . . . . . . . . . C. XVI.
Fylettes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . C. XVII.
veel in buknade . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XVIII.
Sooles in Cyney . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX.
tenches in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI.
Oysters in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. I
muskels in brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. II
Oysters in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. III.
cawdel of muskels . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IIII.
Mortrews of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. V
laumpreys in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VI.
Laumprouns in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VII.
losyns in Fysshe day. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VIII.
Sowpes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IX.
sobre sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. X.
Colde Brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XI.
peeres in confyt. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XII.
Egur douce of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIII.
Cold Brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIIII.
Pevorat for Veel and Venysoun . . . . . . XX.VI. XV.
sawce blaunche for Capouns y sode . . . . XX.VI. XVI.
Sawce Noyre for Capons y rosted . . . . . XX.VI. XVII.
Galentyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XVIII.
Gyngeuer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIX.
verde sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII.
Sawce Noyre for mallard . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. I.
cawdel for Gees . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. II.
Chawdon for Swannes . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. III.
sawce Camelyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IIII.
Lumbard Mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. V.
Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VI.
Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VII.
frytour blaunched . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VIII.
Frytour of pasturnakes. . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IX.

frytour of mylke. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. X.
frytour of Erbes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XI.
Raisiowls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XII.
Whyte milates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIII.
crustardes of flessh. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIIII.
Mylates of Pork . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XV.
crustardes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVI.
Crustardes of erbis on fyssh day. . . . . XX.VII. XVII.
lesshes fryed in lentoun. . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVIII.
Wastels y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIX.
sawge y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII.
Sawgeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. I.
cryspes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. II.
Cryspels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. III.
Tartee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IIII.
Tart in Ymbre day . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. V.
tart de Bry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VI.
Tart de Brymlent. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VII.
tartes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VIII.
Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IX.
tartes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. X.
Sambocade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XI.
Erbolat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XII.
Nysebek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIII.
for to make Pom Dorryes. & oer ynges. . XX.VIII. XIIII.
Cotagres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XV.
hart rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVI.
Potews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVII.
Sachus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVIII.
Bursews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIX.
spynoches y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX.
Benes y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. I.
russhewses of Fruyt . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. II.
Daryols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. III.
Flaumpens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IIII.
Chewetes on flessh day. . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. V.
chewetes on fyssh day . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VI.
Hastletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.XI. VII.
comadore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VIII.
Chastletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IX.
for to make twey pecys of Flesshe
to fasten to gydre. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. X.
pur fait y pocras . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XI.
For to make blank maunnger. . . . . . . . XX.IX. XII.
for to make Blank Desire. . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIII.
For to make mawmoune. . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIIII.
the pety peruaunt . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XV.
And the pete puant. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XVI.

XPLICIT TABULA.

[1] This is a kind of Preamble to the Roll. A space is left for the
initial word, intended to be afterwards written in red ink, and
presumed to be Eis. _Fome_, the _lineola_ over it being either
casually omitted, or since obliterated, means _form_, written Foume
below, and in No. 195.
[2] Cury. Cookery. We have adopted it in the Title. V. Preface.
[3] ynglond. _E_ was intended to be prefixed in red ink. Vide Note [1]
and [6].
[4] . This Saxon letter with the power of _th_, is used almost
perpetually in our Roll and the Editor's Ms. Every one may not have
adverted to it; but this character is the ground of our present
abbreviations y'e the, y't that, y's this, &c. the y in these cases
being evidently only an altered and more modern way of writing .
[5] vyaund. This word is to be understood in the concrete, _quasi_
vyander, a curious epicure, an _Apicius_. V. Preface.
[6] csten ynges. Christian kings. _K_ being to be inserted afterwards
(v. note [1] and [3]) in red ink. Chaucer, v. christen.
[7] and. Read _of_.
[8] Phisik. V. Preface.
[9] Sotiltees. Devices in paste, wax, and confectionary ware;
reviving now, in some measure, in our grander deserts. V. Index.
[10] buth. _Be_, or _are_. V. Index.
[11] sewing. Following; from the French. Hence our _ensue_ written
formerly _ensew_. Skelton, p. 144; and _ensiew_, Ames Typ. Ant. p. 9.
[12] F is omitted for the reason given in note 1.
[13] No. XX.II. II. is omitted.

FOR TO MAKE GRONDEN BENES [1]. I.

Take benes and dry hem in a nost [2] or in an Ovene and hulle hem
wele and wyndewe [3] out e hulk and wayshe hem clene an do hem to
see in gode broth [4] an ete hem with Bacon.

[1] Gronden Benes. Beans ground (y ground, as No. 27. 53. 105.)
stript of their hulls. This was a dish of the poorer householder, as
also is 4 and 5, and some others.
[2] a nost. An ost, or kiln. Vide Gloss. _voce_ Ost.
[3] wyndewe. Winnow.
[4] gode broth. Prepared beforehand.

FOR TO MAKE DRAWEN BENES. II.

Take benes and see hem and grynde hem in a morter [1] and drawe hem
up [2] with gode broth an do Oynouns in the broth grete mynced [3] an
do erto and colour it with Safroun and serve it forth.

[1] morter. Mortar.
[2] Footnote f: drawen hem up. Mix them.
[3] Footnote g: grete mynced. Grossly, not too small.

FOR TO MAKE GREWEL FORCED [1]. III.

Take grewel and do to the fyre with gode flessh and see it wel. take
the lire [2] of Pork and grynd it smal [3] and drawe the grewel
thurgh a Straynour [4] and colour it wi Safroun and serue [5] forth.

[1] forced, farced, enriched with flesh. Vide Gloss.
[2] lire. Flesh.
[3] grynd it smal. Bruise or beat in a mortar.
[4] stryno'. Strainer.
[5] serue. Serve. Vide Gloss.

CABOCHES [1] IN POTAGE. IIII.

Take Caboches and quarter hem and seeth hem in gode broth with
Oynouns y mynced and the whyte of Lekes y slyt and corue smale [2]
and do er to safroun an salt and force it with powdour douce [3].

[1] Caboches. Probably cabbages.
[2] corue smale. Cut small. V. _i corue_ in Gloss.
[3] powdour douce. Sweet aromatic powder. V. Pref.

RAPES [1] IN POTAGE. V.

Take rapus and make hem clene and waissh hem clene. quare hem [2].
parboile hem. take hem up. cast hem in a gode broth and see hem.
mynce Oynouns and cast erto Safroun and salt and messe it forth
with powdour douce. the wise [3] make of Pasturnakes [4] and
skyrwates. [5]

[1] Rapes, or rapus. Turneps.
[2] quare hem. Cut them in _squares_, or small pieces. V. Gloss.
[3] in the wise, _i.e._ in the same manner. _Self_ or _same_, seems
to be casually omitted. Vide No. 11 and 122.
[4] Pasturnakes, for parsnips or carrots. V. Gloss.
[5] skyrwates, for skirrits or skirwicks.

EOWTES [1] OF FLESSH. VI.

Take Borage, cool [2]. langdebef [3]. persel [4]. betes. orage [5].
auance [6]. violet [7]. saueray [8]. and fenkel [9]. and whane ey
buth sode; presse hem wel smale. cast hem in gode broth an see hem.
and serue hem forth.

[1] Eowtes. _Lowtes_, No. 88, where, in the process, it is _Rowtes_.
Quare the meaning, as Roots does not apply to the matter of the
Recipe. In No. 73 it is written _owtes_.
[2] Cole, or colewort.
[3] Langdebef. Bugloss, buglossum sylvestre. These names all arise
from a similitude to an ox's tongue. V. Ms. Ed. No. 43.
[4] Persel. Parsley.
[5] orage. Orach, _Atriplex_. Miller, Gard. Dict.
[6] auance. Forte Avens. V. Avens, in Gloss.
[7] The leaves probably, and not the flower.
[8] Savory.
[9] Fenkel. Fennil.

HEBOLACE [1]. VII.

Take Oynouns and erbes and hewe hem small and do es to gode broth.
and aray [2] it as ou didest caboches. If ey be in fyssh day. make
[3] on the same maner [4] with water and oyle. and if it be not in
Lent alye [5] it with zolkes of Eyren [6]. and dresse it forth and
cast er to powdour douce.

[1] Hebolace. Contents, Hebolas; for _Herbolas_, from the herbs used;
or, if the first letter be omitted (see the Contents), _Chebolas_,
from the Chibols employed.
[2] aray. Dress, set it out.
[3] make. Dress. Vide Gloss.
[4] maner. manner.
[5] alye. Mix. V. Gloss.
[6] Eyren. Eggs. V. Gloss.

GOURDES IN POTAGE. VIII.

Take young Gowrdes pare hem and kerue [1] hem on pecys. cast hem in
gode broth, and do er to a gode pertye [2] of Oynouns mynced. take
Pork soden. grynd it and alye it er with and wi zolkes of ayrenn.
do er to safroun and salt, and messe it forth with powdour douce.

[1] kerve. Cut.
[2] partye. Party, i.e. quantity.

RYSE [1] OF FLESH. IX.

Take Ryse and waishe hem clene. and do hem in erthen pot with gode

broth and lat hem see wel. afterward take Almaund mylke [2] and do
er to. and colour it wi safroun an salt, an messe forth.

[1] Ryse. Rice. V. Gloss.
[2] Almand mylke. V. Gloss.

FUNGES [1]. X.

Take Funges and pare hem clere and dyce hem [2]. take leke and shred
hym small and do hym to see in gode broth. colour it with safron and
do er inne powdour fort [3].

[1] Funges. Mushrooms.
[2] dyce hem. Cut them in squares. Vide _quare_ in Gloss.
[3] Powdour fort. Vide Preface.

BURSEN [1]. XI.

Take the whyte of Lekes. slype hem and shrede hem small. take
Noumbles [2] of swyne and boyle hem in broth and wyne. take hym up
and dresse hem and do the Leke in the broth. see and do the Noumbles
er to make a Lyour [3] of brode blode and vynegre and do er to
Powdour fort see Oynouns mynce hem and do er to. the self wise make
of Pigges.

[1] Bursen. Qu. the etymon.
[2] Noumbles. Entrails. V. Gloss.
[3] Lyo', Lyour. A mixture. Vide _alye_ in Gloss.

CORAT [1]. XII.

Take the Noumbles of Calf. Swyne. or of Shepe. parboile hem and
skerne hem to dyce [2] cast hem in gode broth and do er to erbes.
grynde chyballes [3]. smale y hewe. see it tendre and lye it with
zolkes of eyrenn. do er to verious [4] safroun powdour douce and
salt, and serue it forth.

[1] Corat. Qu.
[2] kerve hem to dyce. V. _quare_ in Gloss.
[3] Chyballes. Chibols, young onions. V. Gloss.
[4] verious. Verjuice.

NOUMBLES. XIII.

Take noumbles of Deer oer [1] of oer beest parboile hem kerf hem to
dyce. take the self broth or better. take brede and grynde with the
broth. and temper it [2] up with a gode quantite of vyneger and wyne.
take the oynouns and parboyle hem. and mynce hem smale and do er to.
colour it with blode and do er to powdour fort and salt and boyle it
wele and serue it fort [3].

[1] oer. Other, i.e. or.
[2] temper it. Temper it, i. e. mix it.
[3] fort. Miswritten for _forth_. So again No. 31. 127.

ROO [1] BROTH. XIIII.

Take the lire of the Deer oer of the Roo parboile it on smale peces.
see it wel half in water and half in wyne. take brede and bray it
wi the self broth and drawe blode er to and lat it seeth to gedre
with powdour fort of gynger oer of canell [2]. and macys [3]. with a
grete porcioun of vineger with Raysouns of Coraunte [4].

[1] Roo. Roe. The Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 53. is very different.
[2] Canell. Cinnamon.
[3] macys. Mace. V. Preface and Gloss.
[4] Raysouns of Coraunte. Currants. V. Gloss.

TREDURE [1]. XV.

Take Brede and grate it. make a lyre [2] of rawe ayrenn and do erto
Safroun and powdour douce. and lye it up [3] with gode broth. and
make it as a Cawdel. and do erto a lytel verious.

[1] Tredure. A Cawdle; but quare the etymon. The French _tres dure_
does not seem to answer.
[2] lyre. Mixture.
[3] lye it up. Mix it.

MONCHELET [1]. XVI.

Take Veel oer Moton and smite it to gobettes see it in gode broth.
cast erto erbes yhewe [2] gode wyne. and a quantite of Oynouns
mynced. Powdour fort and Safroun. and alye it with ayren and verious.
but lat not see after.

[1] Monchelet. _Mounchelet_, Contents.
[2] y hewe. Shred.

BUKKENADE [1]. XVII.

Take Hennes [2] oer Conynges [3] oer Veel oer oer Flessh an hewe
hem to gobettes waische it and hit well [4]. grynde Almandes
unblaunched. and drawe hem up with e broth cast er inne raysons of
Corance. sugur. Powdour gyngur erbes ystewed in grees [5]. Oynouns
and Salt. If it is to to [6] thynne. alye it up with flour of ryse
oer with oer thyng and colour it with Safroun.

[1] Bukkenade. Vide No. 118. qu.
[2] Hennes; including, I suppose, chicken and pullets.
[3] Conynges. Coneys, Rabbits.
[4] hit well. This makes no sense, unless _hit_ signifies smite or
beat.
[5] Grees. Fat, lard, _grece_. No. 19.
[6] to to. So again, No. 124. To is _too_, v. Gloss. And _too_ is
found doubled in this manner in _Mirrour for Magistrates_, p. 277.
371, and other authors.

CONNATES [1]. XVIII.

Take Connes and pare hem. pyke out the best and do hem in a pot of
erthe. do erto whyte grece at he stewe er inne. and lye hem up
with hony clarified and with rawe zolkes [2] and with a lytell
almaund mylke and do erinne powdour fort and Safron. and loke at it
be yleesshed [3],

[1] Connat seems to be a kind of marmalade of connes, or quinces,
from Fr. _Coing_. Chaucer, v. Coines. Written quinces No. 30.
[2] Yolkes, i. e. of Eggs.
[3] yleesshed. V. Gloss.

DREPEE [1]. XIX.

Take blanched Almandes grynde hem and temper hem up with gode broth
take Oynouns a grete quantite parboyle hem and frye hem and do erto.
take smale bryddes [2] parboyle hem and do erto Pellydore [3] and
salt. and a lytel grece.

[1] Drepee. Qu.
[2] bryddes. Birds. _Per metathesin; v. R. in Indice_.
[3] Pellydore. Perhaps _pellitory_. _Peletour_, 104.

Mawmenee [1]. XX.

Take a pottel of wyne greke. and ii. pounde of sugur take and
clarifye the sugur with a qantite of wyne an drawe it thurgh a
straynour in to a pot of erthe take flour of Canell [2]. and medle [3]
with sum of the wyne an cast to gydre. take pynes [4] with Dates and
frye hem a litell in grece oer in oyle and cast hem to gydre. take
clowes [5] an flour of canel hool [6] and cast erto. take powdour
gyngur. canel. clower, colour it with saundres a lytel yf hit be nede
cast salt erto. and lat it see; warly [7] with a slowe fyre and not
to thyk [8], take brawn [9] of Capouns yteysed [10]. oer of
Fesauntes teysed small and cast erto.

[1] Vide No. 194, where it is called _Mawmenny_.
[2] Flour of Canell. Powder of Cinamon.
[3] medle. Mix.
[4] pynes. A nut, or fruit. Vide Gloss.
[5] clowes. Cloves.
[6] hool. Whole. How can it be the flour, or powder, if whole? Quare,
_flower_ of cand for _mace_.
[7] warly. Warily, gently.
[8] not to thyk. So as to be too thick; or perhaps, _not to thicken_.
[9] brawn. Fleshy part. Few Capons are cut now except about Darking
in Surry; they have been excluded by the turkey, a more magnificent,
but perhaps not a better fowl.

[10] yteysed, or _teysed_, as afterwards. Pulled in pieces by the
fingers, called _teezing_ No. 36. This is done now with flesh of
turkeys, and thought better than mincing. Vide Junius, voce _Tease_.

EGURDOUCE [1]. XXI.

Take Conynges or Kydde and smyte hem on pecys rawe. and frye hem in
white grece. take raysouns of Coraunce and fry hem take oynouns
parboile hem and hewe hem small and fry hem. take rede wyne suger
with powdour of peper. of gynger of canel. salt. and cast erto. and
lat it see with a gode quantite of white grece an serue it forth.

[1] Egurdouce. The term expresses _piccante dolce_, a mixture of sour
and sweet; but there is nothing of the former in the composition.
Vide Gloss.

CAPOUNS IN COUNCYS [1]. XXII.

Take Capons and rost hem right hoot at ey be not half y nouhz and
hewe hem to gobettes and cast hem in a pot, do erto clene broth,
see hem at ey be tendre. take brede and e self broth and drawe it
up yferer [2], take strong Powdour and Safroun and Salt and cast er
to. take ayrenn and see hem harde. take out the zolkes and hewe the
whyte erinne, take the Pot fro e fyre and cast the whyte erinne.
messe the disshes erwith and lay the zolkes hool and flour it with
clowes.

[1] Concys seems to be a kind of known sauce. V. Gloss.
[2] yfere. Together.

HARES [1] IN TALBOTES [2]. XXIII.

Take Hares and hewe hem to gobettes and see hem with e blode
unwaisshed in broth. and whan ey buth y nowh: cast hem in colde
water. pyke and waisshe hem clene. cole [3] the broth and drawe it
thurgh a straynour. take oer blode and cast in boylyng water see it
and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take Almaundes unblaunched. waisshe
hem and grynde hem and temper it up with the self broth. cast al in a
pot. tak oynouns and parboile hem smyte hem small and cast hem in to
is Pot. cast erinne Powdour fort. vynegur an salt.

[1] Haares, Contents. So again, No. 24.
[2] Talbotes. Ms. Ed. No. 9, _Talbotays_.
[3] Cole. Cool.

HARES IN PAPDELE [1]. XXIIII.

Take Hares parboile hem in gode broth. cole the broth and waisshe the
fleyssh. cast azeyn [2] to gydre. take obleys [3] oer wafrouns [4]
in stede of lozeyns [5]. and cowche [6] in dysshes. take powdour
douce and lay on salt the broth and lay onoward [7] an messe forth.

[1] Papdele. Qu.
[2] azeyn. Again.
[3] obleys, called _oblata_; for which see Hearne ad Lib. Nig. I. p.
344. A kind of Wafer, otherwise called _Nebula_; and is the French
_oublie, oble_. Leland, Collect. IV. p. 190. 327.
[4] wafrouns. Wafers.
[5] loseyns. Vide Gloss.
[6] cowche. Lay.
[7] onoward. Upon it.

CONNYNGES IN CYNEE [1]. XXV.

Take Connynges and smyte hem on peces. and see hem in gode broth,
mynce Oynouns and see hem in grece and in gode broth do erto. drawe
a lyre of brede. blode. vynegur and broth do erto with powdour fort.

[1] Cynee. Vide Gloss.

CONNYNGES IN GRAUEY. XXVI.

Take Connynges smyte hem to pecys. parboile hem and drawe hem with a
gode broth with almandes blanched and brayed. do erinne sugur and
powdour gynger and boyle it and the flessh erwith. flour it with
sugur and with powdour gynger an serue forth.

CHYKENS IN GRAVEY. XXVII.

Take Chykens and serue hem the same manere and serue forth.

FYLETTES [1] OF GALYNTYNE [2]. XXVIII.

Take fylettes of Pork and rost hem half ynowh smyte hem on pecys.
drawe a lyour of brede and blode. and broth and Vineger. and do
erinne. see it wele. and do erinne powdour an salt an messe it
forth.

[1] Fylettes. Fillets.
[2] of Galyntyne. In Galyntyne. Contents, _rectlus_. As for
_Galentine_, see the Gloss.

PYGGES IN SAWSE SAWGE [1]. XXIX.

Take Pigges yskaldid and quarter hem and see hem in water and salt,
take hem and lat hem kele [2]. take persel sawge. and grynde it with
brede and zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode. temper it up with vyneger sum
what thyk. and, lay the Pygges in a vessell. and the sewe onoward and
serue it forth.

[1] Sawge. Sage. As several of them are to be used, these pigs must
have been small.
[2] kele. Cool.

SAWSE MADAME. XXX.

Take sawge. persel. ysope. and saueray. quinces. and peeres [1],
garlek and Grapes. and fylle the gees erwith. and sowe the hole at
no grece come out. and roost hem wel. and kepe the grece at fallith
erof. take galytyne and grece and do in a possynet, whan the gees
buth rosted ynowh; take an smyte hem on pecys. and at tat [2] is
withinne and do it in a possynet and put erinne wyne if it be to
thyk. do erto powdour of galyngale. powdour douce and salt and boyle
the sawse and dresse e Gees in disshes and lay e sowe onoward.

[1] Peares. Pears.
[2] that tat, i.e. that that. Vide Gloss.

GEES IN HOGGEPOT [1]. XXXI.

Take Gees and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem in a Pot do erto half
wyne and half water. and do erto a gode quantite of Oynouns and
erbest. Set it ouere the fyre and couere [2] it fast. make a layour
of brede and blode an lay it erwith. do erto powdour fort and serue
it fort.

[1] Hoggepot. Hodge-podge. _Ochepot_. Ms. Ed. No. 22. French,
_Hochepot_. Cotgrave. See Junii Enym. v. _Hotch-potch_.
[2] couere. Cover.

CARNEL [1] OF PORK. XXXII.

Take the brawnn of Swyne. parboile it and grynde it smale and alay it
up with zolkes of ayren. set it ouere [2] the fyre with white Grece
and lat it not see to fast. do erinne Safroun an powdour fort and
messe it forth. and cast erinne powdour douce, and serue it forth.

[1] Carnel, perhaps _Charnel_, from Fr. _Chaire_.
[2] ouere. Over. So again, No. 33.

CHYKENNS [1] IN CAWDEL. XXXIII.

Take Chikenns and boile hem in gode broth and ramme [2] hem up. enne
take zolkes of ayrenn an e broth and alye it togedre. do erto
powdour of gynger and sugur ynowh safroun and salt. and set it ouere
the fyre withoute boyllyng. and serue the Chykenns hole [3] oer
ybroke and lay e sowe onoward.

[1] Chikens. Contents. So again in the next Recipe.
[2] ramme. Qu. press them close together.
[3] hole. Whole.

CHYKENS IN HOCCHEE [1]. XXXIIII.

Take Chykenns and scald hem. take parsel and sawge withoute eny oere
erbes. take garlec an grapes and stoppe the Chikenns ful and see hem
in gode broth. so at ey may esely be boyled erinne. messe hem an
cast erto powdour dowce.

[1] Hochee. This does not at all answer to the French _Hachis_, or
our _Hash_; therefore qu.

FOR TO BOILE FESAUNTES. PARTRUCHES. CAPONS AND CURLEWES. XXXV.

Take gode broth and do erto the Fowle. and do erto hool peper and
flour of canel a gode quantite and lat hem see with. and messe it
forth. and er cast eron Podour dowce.

BLANK MAUNGER [1]. XXXVI.

Take Capouns and see hem, enne take hem up. take Almandes blaunched.
grynd hem and alay hem up with the same broth. cast the mylk in a pot.
waisshe rys and do erto and lat it see. anne take brawn of Capouns
teere it small and do erto. take white grece sugur and salt and cast
erinne. lat it see. enne messe it forth and florissh it with aneys
in confyt rede oer whyt. and with Almaundes fryed in oyle. and serue
it forth.

[1] Blank Maunger. Very different from ours. Vide Gloss.

BLANK DESSORRE [1]. XXXVII.

Take Almandes blaunched, grynde hem and temper hem up with whyte wyne,
on fleissh day with broth. and cast erinne flour of Rys. oer
amydoun [2], and lye it erwith. take brawn of Capouns yground. take
sugur and salt and cast erto and florissh it with aneys whyte. take
a vessel yholes [3] and put in safroun. and serue it forth.

[1] Blank Dessorre. V. Gloss.
[2] Amydoun. "Fine wheat flour steeped in water, strained and let
stand to settle, then drained and dried in the sun; used for bread or
in broths." Cotgrave. Used in No. 68 for colouring white.
[3] yholes. Quare.

MORREE [1]. XXXVIII.

Take Almandes blaunched, waisshe hem. grynde hem. and temper hem up
with rede wyne, and alye hem with flour of Rys. do erto Pynes yfryed.
and colour it with saundres. do erto powdour fort and powdour douce

and salt, messe it forth and flour it [2] with aneys confyt whyte.

[1] Morree. Ms. Ed. 37. _murrey_. Ibid. II. 26. _morrey_; probably
from the mulberries used therein.
[2] flour it. Flourish it.

CHARLET [1]. XXXIX.

Take Pork and see it wel. hewe it smale. cast it in a panne. breke
ayrenn and do erto and swyng [2] it wel togyder. do erto Cowe mylke
and Safroun and boile it togyder. salt it & messe it forth.

[1] Charlet; probably from the French, _chair_. Qu. Minced Meat, and
the next article, Forced Meat.
[2] swyng. Shake, mix.

CHARLET YFORCED. XX.II.

Take mylke and see it, and swyng erwith zolkes of Ayrenn and do
erto. and powdour of gynger suger. and Safroun and cast erto. take
the Charlet out of the broth and messe it in dysshes, lay the sewe
onoward. flour it with powdour douce. and serue it forth.

CAWDEL FERRY [1]. XX.II. I.

Take flour of Payndemayn [2] and gode wyne. and drawe it togydre. do
erto a grete quantite of Sugur cypre. or hony clarified, and do
erto safroun. boile it. and whan it is boiled, alye it up with
zolkes of ayrenn. and do erto salt and messe it forth. and lay eron
sugur and powdour gyngur.

[1] ferry. Quare. We have _Carpe in Ferry_, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21.
[2] Payndemayn. White bread. Chaucer.

JUSSHELL [1]. XX.II. III.

Take brede ygrated and ayrenn and swyng it togydre. do erto safroun,
sawge. and salt. & cast broth. erto. boile it & messe it forth.

[1] Jusshell. See also next number. _Jussell_, Ms. Ed. 21, where the
Recipe is much the same. Lat. _Juscellam_, which occurs in the old
scholiast on Juvenal iv. 23; and in Apicius, v. 3. Vide Du Fresne, v.
_Jusselium_ and _Juscellum_, where the composition consists of
_vinum_, _ova_, and _sagmea_, very different from this. Faber in
Thesauro cites _Juscellum Gallina_ from Theod. Priscianus.

N.B. No. XX.II. II. is omitted both here and in the Contents.

JUSSHELL ENFORCED [1]. XX.II. IIII.

Take and do erto as to charlet yforced. and serue it forth.

[1] Jusshell enforced. As the _Charlet yforced_ here referred to was
made of pork, compare No. 40 with No. 39. So in Theod. Priscian we
have _Jussetlum Gallina_.

MORTREWS [1]. XX.II. V.

Take hennes and Pork and see hem togyder. take the lyre of Hennes
and of the Pork, and hewe it small and grinde it all to doust [2].
take brede ygrated and do erto, and temper it with the self broth
and alye it with zolkes of ayrenn, and cast eron powdour fort, boile
it and do erin powdour of gyngur sugur. safroun and salt. and loke
er it be stondyng [3], and flour it with powdour gynger.

[1] Mortrews. Vide Gloss.
[2] doust. Dust, powder.
[3] stondyng. Stiff, thick.

MORTREWS BLANK. XX.II. VI.

Take Pork and Hennes and see hem as to fore. bray almandes blaunched,
and temper hem up with the self broth. and alye the fleissh with the
mylke and white flour of Rys. and boile it. & do erin powdour of
gyngur sugar and look at it be stondyng.

BREWET OF ALMONY [1]. XX.II. VII.

Take Conynges or kiddes and hewe hem small on moscels [2] oer on
pecys. parboile hem with the same broth, drawe an almaunde mylke and
do the fleissh erwith, cast erto powdour galyngale & of gynger with
flour of Rys. and colour it wi alkenet. boile it, salt it. & messe
it forth with sugur and powdour douce.

[1] Almony. Almaine, or Germany. _Almany_. Fox, part I. p. 239.
_Alamanie_. Chron. Sax. p. 242. V. ad No. 71.
[2] moscels. Morsels.

PEIOUNS [1] YSTEWED. XX.II. VIII.

Take peions and stop hem with garlec ypylled and with gode erbes
ihewe. and do hem in an erthen pot. cast erto gode broth and whyte
grece. Powdour fort. safroun verious & salt.

[1] Peiouns, Pejons, i. e. Pigeons, _j_ is never written here in the
middle of a word.

LOSEYNS [1]. XX.II. IX.

Take gode broth and do in an erthen pot, take flour of payndemayn and
make erof past with water. and make erof thynne foyles as paper [2]
with a roller, drye it harde and see it in broth take Chese ruayn [3]
grated and lay it in disshes with powdour douce. and lay eron
loseyns isode as hoole as ou mizt [4]. and above powdour and chese,
and so twyse or thryse, & serue it forth.

[1] Loseyns. Vide in Gloss.
[2] foyles as paper. _Leaves_ of paste as thin as _paper_.
[3] Chese ruyan. 166. Vide Gloss.
[4] mizt. Might, i.e. can.

TARTLETTES [1]. XX.II. X.

Take pork ysode and grynde it small with safroun, medle it with
ayrenn and raisons of coraunce and powdour fort and salt, and make a
foile of dowhz [2] and close the fars [3] erinne. cast e Tartletes
in a Panne with faire water boillyng and salt, take of the clene
Flessh withoute ayren & bolle it in gode broth. cast erto powdour
douce and salt, and messe the tartletes in disshes & helde [4] the
sewe eronne.

[1] Tarlettes. _Tartletes_ in the process.
[2] foile of dowhz, or dowght. A leaf of paste.
[3] fars. Forced-meat.
[4] helde. Cast.

PYNNONADE [1]. XX.II. XI.

Take Almandes iblaunched and drawe hem sumdell thicke [2] with gode
broth oer with water and set on the fire and see it, cast erto
zolkes of ayrenn ydrawe. take Pynes yfryed in oyle oer in grece and
erto white Powdour douce, sugur and salt. & colour it wi alkenet a
lytel.

[1] Pynnonade. So named from the _Pynes_ therein used.
[2] sumdell thicke. Somewhat thick, thickish.

ROSEE [1]. XX.II. XII.

Take thyk mylke as to fore welled [2]. cast erto sugur a gode
porcioun pynes. Dates ymynced. canel. & powdour gynger and see it,
and alye it with flores of white Rosis, and flour of rys, cole it,
salt it & messe it forth. If ou wilt in stede of Almaunde mylke,
take swete cremes of kyne.

[1] Rosee. From the white roles therein mentioned. See No. 41. in Mi.
Ed. but No. 47 there is totally different.
[2] welled, f. _willed_; directed.

CORMARYE [1]. XX.II. XIII.

Take Colyandre [2], Caraway smale grounden, Powdour of Peper and
garlec ygrounde in rede wyne, medle alle ise [3] togyder and salt it,
take loynes of Pork rawe and fle of the skyn, and pryk it wel with a
knyf and lay it in the sawse, roost erof what ou wilt, & kepe at
at fallith erfro in the rosting and see it in a possynet with
faire broth, & serue it forth wit e roost anoon [4].

[1] Cormarye. Quare.
[2] Golyandre. Coriander.
[3] ise. These.
[4] anoon. Immediately.

NEWE NOUMBLES OF DEER. XX.II. XIIII.

Take noumbles and waisshe hem clene with water and salt and perboile
hem in water. take hem up an dyce hem. do with hem as with ooer
noumbles.

NOTA. XX.II. XV.

The Loyne of the Pork, is fro the hippe boon to the hede.

NOTA. XX.II. XVI.

The fyletes buth two, that buth take oute of the Pestels [1].

[1] Pestels. Legs.

SPYNEE [1]. XX.II.XVII.

Take and make gode thik Almaund mylke as tofore. and do erin of
flour of hawthorn [2]. and make it as a rose. & serue it forth.

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