Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The Fathers of the Constitution by Max Farrand

Part 3 out of 3

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.3 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to
the records, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and
magistrates of every other State.

ARTICLE V. For the more convenient management of the general
interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually
appointed in such manner as the legislature of each State shall
direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in
every year, with a power reserved to each State, to recall its
delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to
send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor
by more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of
being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six
years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of
holding any office under the United States, for which he, or
another for his benefit receives any salary, fees or emolument of
any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the
States, and while they act as members of the committee of the

In determining questions in the United States, in Congress
assembled, each State shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached
or questioned in any court, or place out of Congress, and the
members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from
arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and
from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or
breach of the peace.

ARTICLE VI. No State without the consent of the United States in
Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any
embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance
or treaty with any king prince or state; nor shall any person
holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or
any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of
any kind whatever from any king, prince or foreign state; nor
shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them,
grant any title of nobility.

No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation
or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the
United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the
purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long
it shall continue.

No state shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere
with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United
States in Congress assembled, with any king, prince or state, in
pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the
courts of France and Spain.

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State,
except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the
United States in Congress assembled, for the defence of such
State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by
any State, in time of peace, except such number only, as in the
judgment of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall be
deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence
of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well
regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and
accoutered, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use,
in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a
proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.

No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the
United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be
actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain
advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to
invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit
of a delay, till the United States in Congress assembled can be
consulted: nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or
vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be
after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress
assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state and the
subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and
under such regulations as shall be established by the United
States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by
pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that
occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until
the United States in Congress assembled shall determine

ARTICLE VII. When land-forces are raised by any State for the
common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel,
shall be appointed by the Legislature of each State respectively
by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such
State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the
State which first made the appointment.

ARTICLE VIII. All charges of war, and all other expenses that
shall be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and
allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be
defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the
several States, in proportion to the value of all land within
each State, granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land
and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated
according to such mode as the United States in Congress
assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.

The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by
the authority and direction of the Legislatures of the several
States within the time agreed upon by the United States in
Congress assembled.

ARTICLE IX. The United States in Congress assembled, shall have
the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace
and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article--of
sending and receiving ambassadors--entering into treaties and
alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made
whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be
restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners,
as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the
exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities
whatsoever--of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what
captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner
prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United
States shall be divided or appropriated--of granting letters of
marque and reprisal in times of peace--appointing courts for the
trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and
establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals
in all cases of captures, provided that no member of Congress
shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last
resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting
or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning
boundary, jurisdiction or any other cause whatever; which
authority shall always be exercised in the manner following.
Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent
of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition
to Congress, stating the matter in question and praying for a
hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to
the legislative or executive authority of the other State in
controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties
by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by
joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for
hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they
cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of
the United States, and from the list of such persons each party
shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning,
until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that
number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as Congress
shall direct, shall in the presence of Congress be drawn out by
lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five
of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally
determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the
judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination:
and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed,
without showing reasons, which Congress shall judge sufficient,
or being present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall
proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the
Secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent
or refusing; and the judgment and sentence of the court to be
appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and
conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to
the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim
or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce
sentence, or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and
decisive, the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in
either case transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of
Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that
every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an
oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or
superior court of the State where the cause shall be tried, "well
and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according
to the best of his judgment, without favour, affection or hope of
reward:" provided also that no State shall be deprived of
territory for the benefit of the United States.

All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed
under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdiction
as they may respect such lands, and the States which passed such
grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at
the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such
settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party
to the Congress of the United States, be finally determined as
near as may be in the same manner as is before prescribed for
deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between
different States.

The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole
and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value
of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the
respective States.--fixing the standard of weights and measures
throughout the United States.--regulating the trade and managing
all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States,
provided that the legislative right of any State within its own
limits be not infringed or violated--establishing and regulating
post-offices from one State to another, throughout all the United
States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing thro' the
same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said
office--appointing all officers of the land forces, in the
service of the United States, excepting regimental
officers--appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and
commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United
States--making rules for the government and regulation of the
said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to
appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be
denominated "a Committee of the States," and to consist of one
delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees
and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general
affairs of the United States under their direction--to appoint
one of their number to preside, provided that no person be
allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in
any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money
to be raised for the service of the United States, and to
appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public
expenses--to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the
United States, transmitting every half year to the respective
States an account of the sums of money so borrowed or
emitted,--to build and equip a navy--to agree upon the number of
land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its
quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such
State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the
Legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers,
raise the men and cloath, arm and equip them in a soldier like
manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and
men so cloathed, armed and equipped shall march to the place
appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in
Congress assembled: but if the United States in Congress
assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper
that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller
number than its quota, and that any other State should raise a
greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number
shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the
same manner as the quota of such State, unless the legislature of
such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely
spared out of the same, in which case they shall raise officer,
cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge
can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, armed
and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the
time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.

The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a
war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace,
nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor
regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses
necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States, or
any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of
the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the
number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number
of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in
chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same:
nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning
from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of a majority
of the United States in Congress assembled.

The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to
any time within the year, and to any place within the United
States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration
than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of
their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to
treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgment
require secresy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each
State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is
desired by any delegate; and the delegates of a State, or any of
them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a
transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above
excepted, to lay before the Legislatures of the several States.

ARTICLE X. The committee of the States, or any nine of them,
shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such
of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress
assembled, by the consent of nine States, shall from time to time
think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be
delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by
the articles of confederation, the voice of nine States in the
Congress of the United States assembled is requisite.

ARTICLE XI. Canada acceding to this confederation, and joining in
the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and
entitled to all the advantages of this Union: but no other colony
shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed
to by nine States.

ARTICLE XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed and
debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before
the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present
confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against
the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said
United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.

ARTICLE XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of
the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which
by this confederation are submitted to them. And the articles of
this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State,
and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any
time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be
agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards
confirmed by the Legislatures of every State.

And whereas it has pleased the Great Governor of the world to
incline the hearts of the Legislatures we respectively represent
in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the
said articles of confederation and perpetual union. Know ye that
we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and
authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in
the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and
entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles
of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the
matters and things therein contained: and we do further solemnly
plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that
they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in
Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said
confederation are submitted to them. And that the articles
thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we
re[s]pectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress.
Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day
of July in the year of our Lord one thousand s even hundred and
seventy-eight, and in the third year of the independence of

* From the circumstances of delegates from the same State having
signed the Articles of Confederation at different times, as
appears by the dates, it is probable they affixed their names as
they happened to be present in Congress, after they had been
authorized by their constituents.

On the part & behalf of the State of New Hampshire.

On the part and behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay.

On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations.

On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut.

On the part and behalf of the State of New York.

On the part and in behalf of the State of New Jersey, Novr. 26,

On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania.
CLINGAN, JOSEPH REED, 22d July, 1778.

On the part & behalf of the State of Delaware.
THO. M'KEAN, Feby. 12, 1779. JOHN DICKINSON, May 5, 1779.

On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland.
JOHN HANSON, March 1, 1781. DANIEL CARROLL, Mar. 1, 1781.

On the part and behalf of the State of Virginia.

On the part and behalf of the State of No. Carolina.

On the part & behalf of the State of South Carolina.

On the part & behalf of the State of Georgia.



An Ordinance for the government of the territory of the United
States northwest of the river Ohio.

SECTION 1. Be it ordained by the United States in Congress
assembled, That the said territory, for the purpose of temporary
government, be one district, subject, however, to be divided into
two districts, as future circumstances may, in the opinion of
Congress, make it expedient.

SEC. 2. Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the
estates both of resident and non-resident proprietors in the said
territory, dying intestate, shall descend to, and be distributed
among, their children and the descendants of a deceased child in
equal parts, the descendants of a deceased child or grandchild to
take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among
them; and where there shall be no children or descendants, then
in equal parts to the next of kin, in equal degree; and among
collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the
intestate shall have, in equal parts among them, their deceased
parent's share; and there shall, in no case, be a distinction
between kindred of the whole and half blood; saving in all cases
to the widow of the intestate, her third part of the real estate
for life, and one-third part of the personal estate; and this law
relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until
altered by the legislature of the district. And until the
governor and judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter mentioned,
estates in the said territory may be devised or bequeathed by
wills in writing, signed and sealed by him or her in whom the
estate may be, (being of full age,) and attested by three
witnesses; and real estates may be conveyed by lease and release,
or bargain and sale, signed, sealed, and delivered by the person,
being of full age, in whom the estate may be, and attested by two
witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such
conveyances be acknowledged, or the execution thereof duly
proved, and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates,
courts, and registers, shall be appointed for that purpose; and
personal property may be transferred by delivery, saving,
however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other
settlers of the Kaskaskias, Saint Vincents, and the neighboring
villages, who have heretofore professed themselves citizens of
Virginia, their laws and customs now being in force among them,
relative to the descent and conveyance of property.

SEC. 3. Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there
shall be appointed, from time to time, by Congress, a governor,
whose commission shall continue in force for the term of three
years, unless sooner revoked by Congress; he shall reside in the
district, and have a freehold estate therein, in one thousand
acres of land, while in the exercise of his office.

SEC. 4. There shall be appointed from time to time, by Congress,
a secretary, whose commission shall continue in force for four
years, unless sooner revoked; he shall reside in the district,
and have a freehold estate therein, in five hundred acres of
land, while in the exercise of his office. It shall be his duty
to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the legislature,
and the public records of the district, and the proceedings of
the governor in his executive department, and transmit authentic
copies of such acts and proceedings every six months to the
Secretary of Congress. There shall also be appointed a court, to
consist of three judges, any two of whom to form a court, who
shall have a common-law jurisdiction, and reside in the district,
and have each therein a freehold estate, in five hundred acres of
land, while in the exercise of their offices; and their
commissions shall continue in force during good behavior.

SEC. 5. The governor and judges, or a majority of them, shall
adopt and publish in the distric[t] such laws of the original
States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary, and best suited
to the circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress
from time to time, which laws shall be in force in the district
until the organization of the general assembly therein, unless
disapproved of by Congress; but afterwards the legislature shall
have authority to alter them as they shall think fit.

SEC. 6. The governor, for the time being, shall be
commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and commission all
officers in the same below the rank of general officers; all
general officers shall be appointed and commissioned by Congress.

SEC. 7. Previous to the organization of the general assembly the
governor shall appoint such magistrates, and other civil
officers, in each county or township, as he shall find necessary
for the preservation of the peace and good order in the same.
After the general assembly shall be organized the powers and
duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated
and defined by the said assembly; but all magistrates and other
civil officers, not herein otherwise directed, shall, during the
continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the

SEC. 8. For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be
adopted or made shall have force in all parts of the district,
and for the execution of process, criminal and civil, the
governor shall make proper divisions thereof; and he shall
proceed, from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lay
out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall
have been extinguished, into counties and townships, subject,
however, to such alterations as may thereafter be made by the

SEC. 9. So soon as there shall be five thousand free male
inhabitants, of full age, in the district, upon giving proof
thereof to the governor, they shall receive authority, with time
and place, to elect representatives from their counties or
townships, to represent them in the general assembly: Provided,
That for every five hundred free male inhabitants there shall be
one representative, and so on, progressively, with the number of
free male inhabitants, shall the right of representation
increase, until the number of representatives shall amount to
twenty-five; after which the number and proportion of
representatives shall be regulated by the legislature: Provided,
That no person be eligible or qualified to act as a
representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the
United States three years, and be a resident in the district, or
unless he shall have resided in the district three years; and, in
either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee-simple,
two hundred acres of land within the same: Provided also, That a
freehold in fifty acres of land in the district, having been a
citizen of one of the States, and being resident in the district,
or the like freehold and two years' residence in the district,
shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a

SEC. 10. The. representatives thus elected shall serve for the
term of two years; and in case of the death of a representative,
or removal from office, the governor shall issue a writ to the
county or township, for which he was a member, to elect another
in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term.

SEC. 11. The general assembly, or legislature, shall consist of
the governor, legislative council, and a house of
representatives. The legislative council shall consist of five
members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner removed
by Congress; any three of whom to be a quorum; and the members of
the council shall be nominated and appointed in the following
manner, to wit: As soon as representatives shall be elected the
governor shall appoint a time and place for them to meet
together, and when met they shall nominate ten persons, resident
in the district, and each possessed of a freehold in five hundred
acres of land, and return their names to Congress, five of whom
Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as aforesaid; and
whenever a vacancy shall happen in the council, by death or
removal from office, the house of representatives shall nominate
two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return
their names to Congress, one of whom Congress shall appoint and
commission for the residue of the term; and every five years,
four months at least before the expiration of the time of service
of the members of the council, the said house shall nominate ten
persons, qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to
Congress, five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to
serve as members of the council five years, unless sooner
removed. And the governor, legislative council, and house of
representatives shall have authority to make laws in all cases
for the good government of the district, not repugnant to the
principles and articles in this ordinance established and
declared. And all bills, having passed by a majority in the
house, and by a majority in the council, shall be referred to the
governor for his assent; but no bill, or legislative act
whatever, shall be of any force without his assent. The governor
shall have power to convene, prorogue, and dissolve the general
assembly when, in his opinion, it shall be expedient.

SEC. 12. The governor, judges, legislative council, secretary,
and such other officers as Congress shall appoint in the
district, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity, and of
office; the governor before the President of Congress, and all
other officers before the governor. As soon as a legislature
shall be formed in the district, the council and house assembled,
in one room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a
delegate to Congress, who shall have a seat in Congress, with a
right of debating, but not of voting, during this temporary

SEC. 13. And for extending the fundamental principles of civil
and religious liberty, which form the basis whereon these
republics, their laws and constitutions, are erected; to fix and
establish those principles as the basis of all laws,
constitutions, and governments, which forever hereafter shall be
formed in the said territory; to provide, also, for the
establishment of States, and permanent government therein, and
for their admission to a share in the Federal councils on an
equal footing with the original States, at as early periods as
may be consistent with the general interest:

SEC. 14. It is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority
aforesaid, that the following articles shall be considered as
articles of compact, between the original States and the people
and States in the said territory, and forever remain unalterable,
unless by common consent, to wit:


No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner,
shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship, or
religious sentiments, in the said territories.


The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to
the benefits of the writs of habeas corpus, and of the trial by
jury; of a propo[r]tionate representation of the people in the
legislature, and of judicial proceedings according to the course
of the common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless for
capital offences, where the proof shall be evident, or the
presumption great. All fines shall be moderate; and no cruel or
unusual punishments shall be inflicted. No man shall be deprived
of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or
the law of the land, and should the public exigencies make it
necessary, for the common preservation, to take any person's
property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation
shall be made for the same. And, in the just preservation of
rights and property, it is understood and declared, that no law
ought ever to be made or have force in the said territory, that
shall, in any manner whatever, interfere with or affect private
contracts, or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud
previously formed.


Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good
government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of
education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith
shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and
property shall never be taken from them without their consent;
and in their property, rights, and liberty they never shall be
invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized
by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall, from
time to time, be made, for preventing wrongs being done to them,
and for preserving peace and friendship with them.

The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein,
shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United
States of America, subject to the Articles of Confederation, and
to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made;
and to all the acts and ordinances of the United States in
Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and
settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of
the Federal debts, contracted, or to be contracted, and a
proportional part of the expenses of government to be apportioned
on them by Congress, according to the same common rule and
measure by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the
other States; and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be
laid and levied by the authority and direction of the
legislatures of the district, or districts, or new States, as in
the original States, within the time agreed upon by the United
States in Congress assembled. The legislatures of those
districts, or new States, shall never interfere with the primary
disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled,
nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing
the title in such soil to the bona-fide purchasers. No tax shall
be imposed on lands the property of the United States; and in no
case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than
residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and
Saint Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall
be common highways, and forever free, as well to the inhabitants
of the said territory as to the citizens of the United States,
and those of any other States that may be admitted into the
confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.


There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three
nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as
soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession and consent to
the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit:
The western State, in the said territory, shall be bounded by the
Mississippi, the Ohio, and the Wabash Rivers; a direct line drawn
from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due north, to the territorial
line between the United States and Canada; and by the said
territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The
middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash
from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line
drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said
territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern
State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the
Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided,
however, And it is further understood and declared, that the
boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be
altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient,
they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part
of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line
drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And
whenever any of the said States shall have sixty thousand free
inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its
delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal
footing with the original States, in all respects whatever; and
shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State
government: Provided, The constitution and government, so to be
formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles
contained in these articles, and, so far as it can be consistent
with the general interest of the confederacy, such admission
shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a
less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand.


There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the
said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes,
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided
always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor
or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States,
such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the
person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the resolutions
of the 23d of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this
ordinance, be, and the same are hereby, repealed, and declared
null and void.

Done by the United States, in Congress assembled, the 13th day of
July, in the year of our Lord 1787, and of their sovereignty and
independence the twelfth.


WE THE PEOPLE Of the United States, in Order to form a more
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and
secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity,
do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States
of America.


SECTION. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a
Senate and House of Representatives.

SECTION. 2. 1.The House of Representatives shall be composed of
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several
States, and the Electors in each State shall have the
Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch
of the State Legislature.

2. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have
attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a
Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be
an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 3.
[Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union, according
to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding
to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to
Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed,
three fifths of all other Persons.] The actual Enumeration shall
be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the
Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term
of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The
Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New
Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight,
Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five,
New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one,
Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina
five, and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State,
the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to
fill such Vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and
other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

SECTION. 3. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed
of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature
thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of
the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be
into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class
shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second year, of the
second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the
third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that
one-third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies
happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make
temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature,
which shall then fill such Vacancies.

3. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to
the Age of thi[r]ty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant
of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of
the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally

5. The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a
President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or
when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United

6. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments.
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or
Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried,
the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted
without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

7. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy
any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but
the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to
Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

SECTION. 4. 1. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each
State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any
time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the
Places of chusing Senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and
such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless
they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

SECTION. 5. 1. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of
each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller
Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to
compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and
under such Penalties as each House may provide.

2. Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish
its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of
two thirds, expel a Member.

3. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in
their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the
Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of
one fifth of those present, be entered on the Journal.

4. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without
the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor
to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be

SECTION. 6. 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and
paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all
Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be
privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of
their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the
same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall
not be questioned in any other Place.

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which
he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the
Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or
the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such
time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States,
shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in

SECTION. 7. 1. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in
the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or
concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

2. Every Bill which shall have passed the House of
Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be
presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he
shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections
to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter
the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to
reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that
House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together
with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall
likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that
House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of
both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names
of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered
on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not
be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted)
after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a
Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress
by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall
not be a Law.

3. Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of
the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except
on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President
of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect,
shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be
repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of
Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations
prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

SECTION. 8. 1. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect
Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide
for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States;
but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout
the United States;

2. To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

3. To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the
several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

4. To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform
Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5. To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign
Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

6. To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities
and current Coin of the United States;

7. To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

8. To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by
securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive
Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

9. To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

10. To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the
high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

11. To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and
make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

12. To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

13. To provide and maintain a Navy;

14. To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land
and naval Forces;

15. To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws
of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the
Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed
in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States
respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority
of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by

17. To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever,
over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by
Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress,
become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to
exercise like Authority over all places purchased by the Consent
of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for
the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other
needful Buildings;--And

18. To, make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for
carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other
Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the
United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

SECTION. 9. 1. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as
any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall
not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand
eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such
Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be
suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the
public Safety may require it.

3. No Bill of Attainder or expost facto Law shall be passed.

4. No Capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in
Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to
be taken.

5. No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any

6. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or
Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor
shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter,
clear, or pay Duties in another.

7. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence
of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and
Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money
shall be published from time to time.

8. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States:
And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them,
shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any
present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from
any King, Prince, or foreign State.

SECTION. 10. 1. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance,
or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque or Reprisal; coin
Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver
Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex
post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or
grant any Title of Nobility.

2. No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any
Imposts or Duties on imports or Exports, except what may be
absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws: and the
net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on
Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the
United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision
and Controul of the Congress.

3. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty
of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter
into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a
foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in
such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.


SECTION. 1. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President
of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during
the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President,
chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

2. Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature
thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole
Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be
entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or
Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United
States, shall be appointed an Elector.

3. The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors,
and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall
be the same throughout the United States.

4. No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution,
shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any
Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to
the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident
within the United States.

5. In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and
Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice
President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of
Removal, Death, Resignation, or Inability, both of the President
and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as
President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the
Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

6. The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his
Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor
dimished during the Period for which he shall have been elected,
and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument
from the United States, or any of them.

7. Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take
the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or
affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of the
President of the United States, and will to the best of my
ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the
United States."

SECTION. 2. 1. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the
several States, when called into the actual Service of the United
States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal
Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject
relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall
have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against
the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

2. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators
present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice
and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other
public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and
all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are
not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established
by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such
inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone,
in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

3. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that
may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting
Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

SECTION. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress
Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their
Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and
expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both
Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between
them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn
them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive
Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that
the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the
Officers of the United States.

SECTION. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers
of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment
for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes
and Misdemeanors.


SECTION. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges,
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices
during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for
their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished
during their Continuance in Office.

SECTION. 2. 1. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in
Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the
United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under
their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other
public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and
maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United
States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more
States;--between a State and Citizens of another State --between
Citizens of different States,--between Citizens of the same State
claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a
State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or

2. In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme
Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases
before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate
Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and
under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

3. The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall
be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the
said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed
within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as
the Congress may by Law have directed.

SECTION. 3. 1. Treason against the United States, shall consist
only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their
Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be
convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to
the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

2. The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of
Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person


SECTION. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to
the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner
in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and
the Effect thereof.

SECTION. 2. 1. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to
all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

2. A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another
State, shall on Demand of the Executive Authority of the State
from which he fled, be delivered up to be removed to the State
having jurisdiction of the Crime.

3. No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the
Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any
Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or
Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom
such Service or Labour may be due.

SECTION. 3. 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into
this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within
the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by
the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without
the Consent of the Legislature of the States concerned as well as
of the Congress.

2. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all
needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other
Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this
Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of
the United States, or of any particular State.

SECTION 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect
each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the
Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be
convened) against domestic Violence.


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on
the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several
States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which,
in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as
Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of
three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three
fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may
be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may
be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight
shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the
Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without
its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the


1. All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the
United States under this Constitution, as under the

2. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which
shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or
which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States,
shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every
State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or
Laws of any States to the Contrary notwithstanding.

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and
judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several
States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this
Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a
Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be
sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the
States so ratifying the Same.

DONE in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present
the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one
thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven, and of the Independance
of the United States of America the Twelfth In Witness whereof We
have hereunto subscribed our Names,

GO: WASHINGTON--Presidt. and Deputy from Virginia.

New Hampshire.



New York.

New Jersey.





North Carolina.

South Carolina.


Attest WILLIAM JACKSON Secretary


There are many comprehensive histories which include the period
covered by the present volume, of which a few--without
disparaging the other--are deserving of mention for some
particular reason. David Ramsay's "History of the American
Revolution," 2 vols. (1789, and subsequently reprinted), gives
but little space to this particular period, but it reveals the
contemporary point of view. Richard Hildreth's "History of the
United States," 6 vols. (1849-1852), is another early work that
is still of value, although it is written with a Federalist bias.
J. B. McMaster's "History of the People of the United States from
the Revolution to the Civil War," 8 vols. (1883-1913), presents a
kaleidoscopic series of pictures gathered largely from
contemporary newspapers, throwing light upon, and adding color to
the story. E. M. Avery's "History of the United States," of which
seven volumes have been published (1904-1910), is remarkable for
its illustrations and reproductions of prints, documents, and
maps. Edward Channing's "History of the United States," of which
four volumes have appeared (1905-1917), is the latest, most
readable, and probably the best of these comprehensive histories.

Although it was subsequently published as Volume VI in a revised
edition of his "History of the United States of America," George
Bancroft's "History of the Formation of the Constitution," 2
vols. (1882), is really a separate work. The author appears at
his best in these volumes and has never been entirely superseded
by later writers. G. T. Curtis's "History of the Constitution of
the United States, "2 vols. (1854), which also subsequently
appeared as Volume I of his "Constitutional History of the United
States," is one of the standard works, but does not retain quite
the same hold that Bancroft's volumes do.

Of the special works more nearly covering the same field as the
present volume, A. C. McLaughlin's "The Confederation and the
Constitution" (1905), in the "American Nation," is distinctly the
best. John Fiske's "Critical Period of American History" (1888),
written with the clearness of presentation and charm of style
which are characteristic of the author, is an interesting and
readable comprehensive account. Richard Frothingham's "Rise of
the Republic of the United States" (1872; 6th ed.1895), tracing
the two ideas of local self-government and of union, begins with
early colonial times and culminates in the Constitution.

The treaty of peace opens up the whole field of diplomatic
history, which has a bibliography of its own. But E. S. Corwin's
"French Policy and the American Alliance" (1916) should be
mentioned as the latest and best work, although it lays more
stress upon the phases indicated by the title. C. H. Van Tyne's
"Loyalists in the American Revolution" (1902) remains the
standard work on this subject, but special studies are appearing
from time to time which are changing our point of view.

The following books on economic and industrial aspects are not
for popular reading, but are rather for reference: E. R. Johnson
et al., "History of the Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the
United States" 2 vols. (1915); V. S. Clark, "History of the
Manufactures of the United States, 1607-1860" (1916). G. S.
Callender has written short introductions to the various chapters
of his "Selections from the Economic History of the United
States" (1909), which are brilliant interpretations of great
value. P. J. Treat's "The National Land System, 1785-1820"
(1910), gives the most satisfactory account of the subject
indicated by the title. Of entirely different character is
Theodore Roosevelt's "Winning of the West," 4 vols. (1889-96;
published subsequently in various editions), which is both
scholarly and of fascinating interest on the subject of the early
expansion into the West.

On the most important subject of all, the formation of the
Constitution, the material ordinarily wanted can be found in Max
Farrand's "Records of the Federal Convention," 3 vols. (1910),
and the author has summarized the results of his studies in "The
Framing of the Constitution" (1913). C. A. Beard's "An Economic
Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States" (1913)
gives some interesting and valuable facts regarding economic
aspects of the formation of the Constitution, and particularly on
the subject of investments in government securities. There is no
satisfactory account of the adoption of the Constitution, but the
debates in many of the State conventions are included in Jonathan
Elliot's "Debates on the Federal Constitution," 5 vols.
(1836-1845, subsequently reprinted in many editions).

A few special works upon the adoption of the Constitution in the
individual States may be mentioned: H. B. Grigsby's "History of
the Virginia Federal Convention of 1788," Virginia Historical
Society Collections, N. S., IX and X(1890-91); McMaster and
Stone's "Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-88"
(1888); S. B. Harding's "Contest over the Ratification of the
Federal Constitution in the State of Massachusetts"(1896); O. G.
Libby's "The Geographical Distribution of the Vote of the
Thirteen States on the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788"
(University of Wisconsin, "Bulletin, Economics, Political
Science, and History Series," I, No. 1,1894).

Contemporary differences of opinion upon the Constitution will be
found in P. L. Ford's "Pamphlets on the Constitution," etc.
(1888). The most valuable commentary on the Constitution, "The
Federalist," is to be found in several editions of which the more
recent are by E. H. Scott (1895) and P. L. Ford (1898).

A large part of the so-called original documents or first-hand
sources of information is to be found in letters and private
papers of prominent men. For most readers there is nothing better
than the "American Statesmen Series," from which the following
might be selected: H. C. Lodge's "George Washington "(2 vols.,
1889) and "Alexander Hamilton" (1882); J. T. Morse's "Benjamin
Franklin" (1889), "John Adams" (1885), and "Thomas Jefferson"
(1883); Theodore Roosevelt's "Gouverneur Morris," (1888). Other
readable volumes are P. L. Ford's "The True George Washington"
(1896) and "The Many-sided Franklin" (1899); F. S. Oliver's
"Alexander Hamilton, An Essay on American Union" (New ed. London,
1907); W. G. Brown's "Life of Oliver Ellsworth"(1905); A. McL.
Hamilton's "The Intimate Life of Alexander Hamilton" (1910);
James Schouler's "Thomas Jefferson" (1893); Gaillard Hunt's "Life
of James Madison" (1902).

Of the collections of documents it may be worth while to notice:
"Documentary History of the Constitution of the United States," 5
vols. (1894-1905); B. P. Poore's "Federal and State
Constitutions, Colonial Charters, etc.," 2 vols. (1877); F. N.
Thorpe's "The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters,
and other Organic Laws", 7 vols. (1909); and the "Journals of the
Continental Congress" (1904-1914), edited from the original
records in the Library of Congress by Worthington C. Ford and
Gaillard Hunt, of which 23 volumes have appeared, bringing the
records down through 1782.



Forty signatures were attached to the Constitution of the United
States in the Federal Convention on September 17, 1787, by
thirty-nine delegates, representing twelve States, and the
secretary of the Convention, as the attesting officer. George
Washington, who signed as president of the Convention, was a
delegate from Virginia. There are reproduced in this volume the
effigies or pretended effigies of thirty-seven of them, from
etchings by Albert Rosenthal in an extra-illustrated volume
devoted to the Members of the Federal Convention, 1787, in the
Thomas Addis Emmet Collection owned by the New York Public
Library. The autographs are from the same source. This series
presents no portraits of David Brearley of New Jersey, Thomas
Fitzsimons of Pennsylvania, and Jacob Broom of Delaware. With
respect to the others we give such information as Albert
Rosenthal, the Philadelphia artist, inscribed on each portrait
and also such other data as have been unearthed from the
correspondence of Dr. Emmet, preserved in the Manuscript Division
of the New York Public Library.

Considerable controversy has raged, on and off, but especially of
late, in regard to the painted and etched portraits which
Rosenthal produced nearly a generation ago, and in particular
respecting portraits which were hung in Independence Hall,
Philadelphia. Statements in the case by Rosenthal and by the late
Charles Henry Hart are in the "American Art News," March 3, 1917,
p. 4. See also Hart's paper on bogus American portraits in
"Annual Report, 1913," of the American Historical Association. To
these may be added some interesting facts which are not
sufficiently known by American students.

In the ninth decade of the nineteenth century, principally from
1885 to 1888, a few collectors of American autographs united in
an informal association which was sometimes called a "Club," for
the purpose of procuring portraits of American historical
characters which they desired to associate with respective
autographs as extra-illustrations. They were pioneers in their
work and their purposes were honorable. They cooperated in effort
and expenses, 'in a most commendable mutuality. Prime movers and
workers were the late Dr. Emmet, of New York, and Simon Gratz,
Esq., still active in Philadelphia. These men have done much to
stimulate appreciation for and the preservation of the
fundamental sources of American history. When they began, and for
many years thereafter, not the same critical standards reigned
among American historians, much less among American collectors,
as the canons now require. The members of the "Club" entered into
an extensive correspondence with the descendants of persons whose
portraits they wished to trace and then have reproduced. They
were sometimes misled by these descendants, who themselves, often
great-grandchildren or more removed by ties and time, assumed
that a given portrait represented the particular person in
demand, because in their own uncritical minds a tradition was as
good as a fact.

The members of the "Club," then, did the best they could with the
assistance and standards of their time. The following extract
from a letter written by Gratz to Emmet, November 10, 1885,
reveals much that should be better known. He wrote very frankly
as follows: "What you say in regard to Rosenthal's work is
correct: but the fault is not his. Many of the photographs are
utterly wanting in expression or character; and if the artist
were to undertake to correct these deficiencies by making the
portrait what he may SUPPOSE it should be, his production (while
presenting a better appearance ARTISTICALLY) might be very much
less of a LIKENESS than the photograph from which he works.
Rosenthal always shows me a rough proof of the unfinished
etching, so that I may advise him as to corrections & additions
which I may consider justifiable & advisable."

Other correspondence shows that Rosenthal received about twenty
dollars for each plate which he etched for the "Club."

The following arrangement of data follows the order of the names
as signed to the Constitution. The Emmet numbers identify the
etchings in the bound volume from which they have been

1. George Washington, President (also delegate from Virginia),
Emmet 9497, inscribed "Joseph Wright Pinxit Phila. 1784. Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888. Aqua fortis."


2. John Langdon, Emmet 9439, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Painting by Trumbull."

Mr. Walter Langdon, of Hyde Park, N. Y., in January, 1885, sent
to Dr. Emmet a photograph of a "portrait of Governor John Langdon
LL.D." An oil miniature painted on wood by Col. John Trumbull, in
1792, is in the Yale School of Fine Arts. There is also painting
of Langdon in Independence Hall, by James Sharpless.

3. Nicholas Gilman, Emmet 9441, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." A drawing by the same artist formerly
hung in Independence Hall. The two are not at all alike. No
contemporary attribution is made and the Emmet correspondence
reveals nothing.


4. Nathaniel Gorham, Emmet 9443. It was etched by Albert
Rosenthal but without inscription of any kind or date. A painting
by him, in likeness identical, formerly hung in Independence
Hall. No evidence in Emmet correspondence.

5. Rufus King, Emmet 9445, inscribed "Etched by Albert Rosenthal
Phila. 1888 after Painting by Trumbull." King was painted by Col.
John Trumbull from life and the portrait is in the Yale School of
Fine Arts. Gilbert Stuart painted a portrait of King and there is
one by Charles Willson Peale in Independence Hall.

6. William Samuel Johnson, Emmet 9447, inscribed "Etched by
Albert Rosenthal Phila. 1888 from Painting by Gilbert Stuart." A
painting by Rosenthal after Stuart hung in Independence Hall.
Stuart's portrait of Dr. Johnson "was one of the first, if not
the first, painted by Stuart after his return from England."
Dated on back 1792. Also copied by Graham.Mason, Life of Stuart,

7. Roger Sherman, Emmet 9449, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Painting by Earle." The identical
portrait copied by Thomas Hicks, after Ralph Earle, is in
Independence Hall.


8. Alexander Hamilton, Emmet 9452, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal 1888 after Trumbull." A full length portrait, painted
by Col. John Trumbull, is in the City Hall, New York. Other
Hamilton portraits by Trumbull are in the Metropolitan Museum of
Art, New York, the Boston Museum of Art, and in private


9. William Livingston, Emmet 9454, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila., 1888." A similar portrait, painted by
Rosenthal, formerly hung in Independence Hall. No correspondence
relating to it is in the Emmet Collection.

10. David Brearley. There is no portrait. Emmet 9456 is a drawing
of a Brearley coat-of-arms taken from a book-plate.

11. William Paterson, Emmet 9458, inscribed "Albert Rosenthal
Phila. 1888." A painted portrait by an unknown artist was hung in
Independence Hall. The Emmet correspondence reveals nothing.

12. Jonathan Dayton, Emmet 9460, inscribed "Albert Rosenthal." A
painting by Rosenthal also formerly hung in Independence Hall.
The two are dissimilar. The etching is a profile, but the
painting is nearly a full-face portrait. The Emmet correspondence
reveals no evidence.


13. Benjamin Franklin, Emmet 9463, inscribed "C. W. Peale Pinxit.
Albert Rosenthal Sc."

14. Thomas Mifflin, Emmet 9466, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Painting by Gilbert Stuart." A
portrait by Charles Willson Peale, in civilian dress, is in
Independence Hall. The Stuart portrait shows Mifflin in military

15. Robert Morris, Emmet 9470, inscribed "Gilbert Stuart Pinxit.
Albert Rosenthal Sc." The original painting is in the Historical
Society of Pennsylvania. Stuart painted Morris in 1795. A copy
was owned by the late Charles Henry Hart; a replica also existed
in the possession of Morris's granddaughter.--Mason, "Life of
Stuart," 225.

16. George Clymer, Emmet 9475, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Painting by C. W. Peale." There is a
similar type portrait, yet not identical, in Independence Hall,
where the copy was attributed to Dalton Edward Marchant.

17. Thomas Fitzsimons. There is no portrait and the Emmet
correspondence offers no information.

18. Jared Ingersoll, Emmet 9468, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal after Painting by C. W. Peale." A portrait of the same
origin, said to have been copied by George Lambdin, "after
Rembrandt Peale," hung in Independence Hall.

19. James Wilson, Emmet 9472, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal 1888." Seems to have been derived from a painting by
Charles Willson Peale in Independence Hall.

20. Gouverneur Morris, Emmet 9477, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after a copy by Marchant from Painting by
T. Sully." The Emmet correspondence has no reference to it.


21. George Read, Emmet 9479, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." There is in Emmet 9481 a stipple plate
"Engraved by J. B. Longacre from a Painting by -- Pine." It is
upon the Longacre-Pine portrait that Rosenthal and others, like
H. B. Hall, have depended for their portrait of Read.

22. Gunning Bedford, Jr., Emmet 9483, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." Rosenthal also painted a portrait, "after
Charles Willson Peale," for Independence Hall. The, etching is
the same portrait. On May 13, 1883, Mr. Simon Gratz wrote to Dr.
Emmet: "A very fair lithograph can, I think, be made from the
photograph of Gunning Bedford, Jun.; which I have just received
from you. I shall call the artist's attention to the excess of
shadow on the cravat." The source was a photograph furnished by
the Bedford descendants.

23. John Dickinson, Emmet 9485, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Painting by C. W. Peale." The Peale
painting is in Independence Hall.

24. Richard Bassett, Emmet 9487, inscribed "Albert Rosenthal."
There was also a painting by Rosenthal in Independence Hall.
While similar in type, they are not identical. They vary in
physiognomy and arrangement of hair. There is nothing in the
Emmet correspondence about this portrait.

25. Jacob Broom. There is no portrait and no information in the
Emmet correspondence.


26. James McHenry, Emmet 9490, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." Rosenthal also painted a portrait for
Independence Hall "after Saint-Memin." They are not alike. The
etching faces three-quarters to the right, whilst the St. Memin
is a profile portrait. In January, 1885, Henry F. Thompson, of
Baltimore, wrote to Dr. Emmet: "If you wish them, you can get
Portraits and Memoirs of James McHenry and John E. Howard from
their grandson J. Howard McHenry whose address is No. 48 Mount
Vernon Place, Baltimore."

27. Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Emmet 9494, inscribed "Etched
by Albert Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Trumbull." Rosenthal also
painted a portrait for Independence Hall. They are not identical.
A drawn visage is presented in the latter. In January, 1885,
Henry F. Thompson of Baltimore, wrote to Dr. Emmet: "Mr. Daniel
Jenifer has a Portrait of his Grand Uncle Daniel of St. Thomas
Jenifer and will be glad to make arrangements for you to get a
copy of it . . . . His address is No. 281 Linden Ave, Baltimore."
In June, of the same year, Simon Gratz wrote to Emmet: "The Dan.
of St. Thos. Jenifer is so bad, that I am almost afraid to give
it to Rosenthal. Have you a better photograph of this man (from
the picture in Washington [sic.]), spoken of in one of your

28. Daniel Carroll, Emmet 9492, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal, Phila. 1888." Henry F. Thompson, of Baltimore, in
January, 1885, wrote to Dr. Emmet: "If you will write to Genl.
John Carroll No. 61 Mount Vernon Place you can get a copy of Mr.
Carroll's (generally known as Barrister Carroll) Portrait."


29. John Blair, Emmet 9500, inscribed "Albert Rosenthal Etcher."
He also painted a portrait for Independence Hall. The two are of
the same type but not alike. The etching is a younger looking
picture. There is no evidence in the Emmet correspondence.

30. James Madison, Jr., Emmet 9502, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Painting by G. Stuart." Stuart
painted several paintings of Madison, as shown in Mason, Life of
Stuart, pp. 218-9. Possibly the Rosenthal etching was derived
from the picture in the possession of the Coles family of


31. William Blount, Emmet 9504, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." He also painted a portrait for
Independence Hall. The two are alike. In November, 1885, Moses
White, of Knoxville, Tenn., wrote thus: Genl. Marcus J. Wright,
published, last year, a life of Win. Blount, which contains a
likeness of him . . . . This is the only likeness of Gov. Blount
that I ever saw." This letter was written to Mr. Bathurst L.
Smith, who forwarded it to Dr. Emmet.

32. Richard Dobbs Spaight, Emmet 9506, inscribed "Etched by
Albert Rosenthal Phila. 1887." In Independence Hall is a portrait
painted by James Sharpless. On comparison these two are of the
same type but not alike. The etching presents an older facial
appearance. On November 8, 1886, Gen. John Meredith Read, writing
from Paris, said he had found in the possession of his friend in
Paris, J. R. D. Shepard, "St. Memin's engraving of his
great-grandfather Governor Spaight of North Carolina." In 1887
and 1888, Dr. Emmet and Mr. Gratz were jointly interested in
having Albert Rosenthal engrave for them a portrait of Spaight.
On December 9, 1887, Gratz wrote to Emmet: "Spaight is worthy of
being etched; though I can scarcely agree with you that our
lithograph is not a portrait of the M. O. C. Is it taken from the
original Sharpless portrait, which hangs in our old State House?
. . . However if you are sure you have the right man in the
photograph sent, we can afford to ignore the lithograph."

33. Hugh Williamson, Emmet 9508, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal after Painting by J. Trumbull Phila. 1888," Rosenthal
also painted a copy "after John Wesley Jarvis" for Independence
Hall. The two are undoubtedly from the same original source. The
Emmet correspondence presents no information on this subject.


34. John Rutledge, Emmet 9510, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after J. Trumbull." The original painting
was owned by the Misses Rutledge, of Charleston, S. C.

35. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Emmet 9519, inscribed "Etched by
Albert Rosenthal Phila. 1888. Painting by Trumbull." An oil
miniature on wood was painted by Col. John Trumbull, in 1791,
which is in the Yale School of Fine Arts. Pinckney was also
painted by Gilbert Stuart and the portrait was owned by the
family at Runnymeade, S. C. Trumbull's portrait shows a younger

36. Charles Pinckney, Emmet 9514, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." He also painted a portrait for
Independence Hall. They are alike. In the Emmet correspondence
the following information, furnished to Dr. Emmet, is found:
"Chas. Pinckney--Mr. Henry L. Pinckney of Stateburg [S. C.] has a
picture of Gov. Pinckney." The owner of this portrait was a
grandson of the subject. On January 12, 1885, P. G. De Saussure
wrote to Emmet: "Half an hour ago I received from the
Photographer two of the Pictures [one being] Charles Pinckney
copied from a portrait owned by Mr. L. Pinckney--who lives in
Stateburg, S. C." The owner had put the portrait at Dr. Emmet's
disposal, in a letter of December 4, 1884, in which he gave its
dimensions as "about 3 ft. nearly square," and added, "it is very
precious to me."

37. Pierce Butler, Emmet 9516, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." He also painted a portrait for
Independence Hall. They are dissimilar and dubious. Three letters
in the Emmet correspondence refer to the Butler portraiture. On
January 31, 1887, Mrs. Sarah B. Wister, of Philadelphia, wrote to
Dr. Emmet: "I enclose photograph copies of two miniatures of Maj.
Butler wh. Mr. Louis Butler [a bachelor then over seventy years
old living in Paris, France] gave me not long ago: I did not know
of their existence until 1882, & never heard of any likeness of
my great-grandfather, except an oil-portrait wh. was last seen
more than thirty years ago in a lumber room in his former house
at the n. w. corner of 8th & Chestnut streets [Phila.], since
then pulled down." On February 8th, Mrs. Wister wrote: "I am not
surprised that the two miniatures do not strike you as being of
the same person. Yet I believe there is no doubt of it; my cousin
had them from his father who was Maj. Butler's son. The more
youthful one is evidently by a poor artist, & therefore probably
was a poor likeness." In her third letter to Dr. Emmet, on April
5, 1888, Mrs. Wister wrote: "I sent you back the photo. from the
youthful miniature of Maj. Butler & regret very much that I have
no copy of the other left; but four sets were made of wh. I sent
you one & gave the others to his few living descendants. I regret
this all the more as I am reluctant to trust the miniature again
to a photographer. I live out of town so that there is some
trouble in sending & calling for them; (I went personally last
time, & there are no other likenesses of my great grandfather


38. William Few, Emmet 9518, inscribed "Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." He also painted a portrait "after John
Ramage," for Independence Hall. They are identical.

39. Abraham Baldwin, Emmet 9520, inscribed" Etched by Albert
Rosenthal Phila. 1888." There is also a painting "after Fulton"
in Independence Hall. They are of the same type but not exactly
alike, yet likely from the same original. The variations may be
just artist's vagaries. There is no information in the Emmet

40. William Jackson, Secretary, Emmet 9436, inscribed "Etched by
Albert Rosenthal Phila. 1888 after Painting by J. Trumbull."
Rosenthal also painted a copy after Trumbull for Independence
Hall. They are identical.

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest