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The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals by Charles Darwin

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the various movements, which have now been described as expressing
contempt and disgust, prevail throughout a large part of the world.
Dr. Rothrock, for instance, answers with a decided affirmative with
respect to certain wild Indian tribes of North America. Crantz says
that when a Greenlander denies anything with contempt or horror
he turns up his nose, and gives a slight sound through it.[9] Mr. Scott
has sent me a graphic description of the face of a young Hindoo at
the sight of castor-oil, which he was compelled occasionally to take.
Mr. Scott has also seen the same expression on the faces of high-caste
natives who have approached close to some defiling object.
Mr. Bridges says that the Fuegians "express contempt by shooting
out the lips and hissing through them, and by turning up the nose."
The tendency either to snort through the nose, or to make a noise
expressed by _ugh_ or _ach_, is noticed by several of my correspondents.

[9] As quoted by Tylor, `Primitive Culture,' 1871, vol. i. p. 169.

Spitting seems an almost universal sign of contempt or disgust;
and spitting obviously represents the rejection of anything offensive
from the mouth. Shakspeare makes the Duke of Norfolk say, "I spit at him--
call him a slanderous coward and a villain." So, again, Falstaff says,
"Tell thee what, Hal,--if I tell thee a lie, spit in my face."
Leichhardt remarks that the Australians "interrupted their speeches
by spitting, and uttering a noise like pooh! pooh! apparently
expressive of their disgust." And Captain Burton speaks
of certain negroes "spitting with disgust upon the ground."
Captain Speedy informs me that this is likewise the case with
the Abyssinians. Mr. Geach says that with the Malays of Malacca
the expression of disgust "answers to spitting from the mouth;"
and with the Fuegians, according to Mr. Bridges "to spit at one is
the highest mark of contempt."

I never saw disgust more plainly expressed than on the face of one of my
infants at the age of five months, when, for the first time, some cold water,
and again a month afterwards, when a piece of ripe cherry was put into
his mouth. This was shown by the lips and whole mouth assuming a shape
which allowed the contents to run or fall quickly out; the tongue being
likewise protruded. These movements were accompanied by a little shudder.
It was all the more comical, as I doubt whether the child felt real disgust--
the eyes and forehead expressing much surprise and consideration.
The protrusion of the tongue in letting a nasty object fall out of the mouth,
may explain how it is that lolling out the tongue universally serves
as a sign of contempt and hatred.[11]

[10] Both these quotations are given by Mr. H. Wedgwood, `On the Origin
of Language,' 1866, p. 75.

We have now seen that scorn, disdain, contempt, and disgust are
expressed in many different ways, by movements of the features,
and by various gestures; and that these are the same throughout the world.
They all consist of actions representing the rejection or exclusion
of some real object which we dislike or abhor, but which does not
excite in us certain other strong emotions, such as rage or terror;
and through the force of habit and association similar actions
are performed, whenever any analogous sensation arises in our minds.

_Jealousy, Envy, Avarice, Revenge, Suspicion, Deceit, Slyness, Guilt,
Vanity, Conceit, Ambition, Pride, Humility, &c_.--It is doubtful whether
the greater number of the above complex states of mind are revealed by any
fixed expression, sufficiently distinct to be described or delineated.
When Shakspeare speaks of Envy as _lean-faced_, or _black_, or _pale_,
and Jealousy as "_the green-eyed monster_;" and when Spenser describes
Suspicion as "_foul, ill-favoured, and grim_," they must have felt
this difficulty. Nevertheless, the above feelings--at least many of them--
can be detected by the eye; for instance, conceit; but we are often
guided in a much greater degree than we suppose by our previous knowledge
of the persons or circumstances.

My correspondents almost unanimously answer in the affirmative to my query,
whether the expression of guilt and deceit can be recognized amongst
the various races of man; and I have confidence in their answers,
as they generally deny that jealousy can thus be recognized. In the cases
in which details are given, the eyes are almost always referred to.
The guilty man is said to avoid looking at his accuser, or to give him
stolen looks. The eyes are said "to be turned askant," or "to waver
from side to side," or "the eyelids to be lowered and partly closed."
This latter remark is made by Mr. Hagenauer with respect to the Australians,
and by Gaika with respect to the Kafirs. The restless movements of the eyes
apparently follow, as will be explained when we treat of blushing,
from the guilty man not enduring to meet the gaze of his accuser.
I may add, that I have observed a guilty expression, without a
shade of fear, in some of my own children at a very early age.
In one instance the expression was unmistakably clear in a child two years
and seven months old, and led to the detection of his little crime.
It was shown, as I record in my notes made at the time, by an
unnatural brightness in the eyes, and by an odd, affected manner,
impossible to describe.

[11] This is stated to be the case by Mr. Tylor (Early Hist.
of Mankind, 2nd edit. 1870, p. 52); and he adds, "it is not
clear why this should be so."

Slyness is also, I believe, exhibited chiefly by movements about the eyes;
for these are less under the control of the will, owing to the force
of long-continued habit, than are the movements of the body.
Mr. Herbert Spencer remarks,[12] "When there is a desire to see something
on one side of the visual field without being supposed to see it,
the tendency is to check the conspicuous movement of the head,
and to make the required adjustment entirely with the eyes;
which are, therefore, drawn very much to one side. Hence, when the eyes
are turned to one side, while the face is not turned to the same side,
we get the natural language of what is called slyness."

[12] `Principles of Psychology,' 2nd edit. 1872, p. 552.

Of all the above-named complex emotions, Pride, perhaps, is the most
plainly expressed. A proud man exhibits his sense of superiority
over others by holding his head and body erect. He is haughty
(_haut_), or high, and makes himself appear as large as possible;
so that metaphorically he is said to be swollen or puffed up with pride.
A peacock or a turkey-cock strutting about with puffed-up feathers,
is sometimes said to be an emblem of pride.[13] The arrogant man
looks down on others, and with lowered eyelids hardly condescends
to see them; or he may show his contempt by slight movements,
such as those before described, about the nostrils or lips.
Hence the muscle which everts the lower lip has been called
the _musculus superbus_. In some photographs of patients
affected by a monomania of pride, sent me by Dr. Crichton Browne,
the head and body were held erect, and the mouth firmly closed.
This latter action, expressive of decision, follows, I presume,
from the proud man feeling perfect self-confidence in himself.
The whole expression of pride stands in direct antithesis to that
of humility; so that nothing need here be said of the latter
state of mind.

_Helplessness, Impotence: Shrugging the shoulders_.--When a man wishes
to show that he cannot do something, or prevent something being done,
he often raises with a quick movement both shoulders. At the same time,
if the whole gesture is completed, he bends his elbows closely inwards,
raises his open hands, turning them outwards, with the fingers separated.
The head is often thrown a little on one side; the eyebrows are elevated,
and this causes wrinkles across the forehead. The mouth is generally opened.
I may mention, in order to show how unconsciously the features are thus
acted on, that though I had often intentionally shrugged my shoulders
to observe how my arms were placed, I was not at all aware that my eyebrows
were raised and mouth opened, until I looked at myself in a glass;
and since then I have noticed the same movements in the faces of others.
In the accompanying Plate VI., figs. 3 and 4, Mr. Rejlander has successfully
acted the gesture of shrugging the shoulders.

[12] Gratiolet (De la Phys. p. 351) makes this remark,
and has some good observations on the expression of pride.
See Sir C. Bell (`Anatomy of Expression,' p. 111) on the action
of the _musculus superbus_.

Englishmen are much less demonstrative than the men of most other
European nations, and they shrug their shoulders far less frequently
and energetically than Frenchmen or Italians do. The gesture
varies in all degrees from the complex movement, just described,
to only a momentary and scarcely perceptible raising of both shoulders;
or, as I have noticed in a lady sitting in an arm-chair, to the mere
turning slightly outwards of the open hands with separated fingers.
I have never seen very young English children shrug their shoulders,
but the following case was observed with care by a medical professor
and excellent observer, and has been communicated to me by him.
The father of this gentleman was a Parisian, and his mother a Scotch lady.
His wife is of British extraction on both sides, and my informant
does not believe that she ever shrugged her shoulders in her life.
His children have been reared in England, and the nursemaid is a
thorough Englishwoman, who has never been seen to shrug her shoulders.
Now, his eldest daughter was observed to shrug her shoulders at the age
of between sixteen and eighteen months; her mother exclaiming at
the time, "Look at the little French girl shrugging her shoulders!"
At first she often acted thus, sometimes throwing her head a little
backwards and on one side, but she did not, as far as was observed,
move her elbows and hands in the usual manner. The habit gradually
wore away, and now, when she is a little over four years old,
she is never seen to act thus. The father is told that he sometimes
shrugs his shoulders, especially when arguing with any one; but it
is extremely improbable that his daughter should have imitated him at
so early an age; for, as he remarks, she could not possibly have often
seen this gesture in him. Moreover, if the habit had been acquired
through imitation, it is not probable that it would so soon have been
spontaneously discontinued by this child, and, as we shall immediately see,
by a second child, though the father still lived with his family.
This little girl, it may be added, resembles her Parisian grandfather
in countenance to an almost absurd degree. She also presents another and
very curious resemblance to him, namely, by practising a singular trick.
When she impatiently wants something, she holds out her little hand,
and rapidly rubs the thumb against the index and middle finger:
now this same trick was frequently performed under the same circumstances
by her grandfather.

This gentleman's second daughter also shrugged her shoulders before
the age of eighteen months, and afterwards discontinued the habit.
It is of course possible that she may have imitated her elder sister;
but she continued it after her sister had lost the habit.
She at first resembled her Parisian grandfather in a less degree
than did her sister at the same age, but now in a greater degree.
She likewise practises to the present time the peculiar habit of
rubbing together, when impatient, her thumb and two of her fore-fingers.

In this latter case we have a good instance, like those given
in a former chapter, of the inheritance of a trick or gesture;
for no one, I presume, will attribute to mere coincidence
so peculiar a habit as this, which was common to the grandfather
and his two grandchildren who had never seen him.

Considering all the circumstances with reference to these children
shrugging their shoulders, it can hardly be doubted that they
have inherited the habit from their French progenitors,
although they have only one quarter French blood in their veins,
and although their grandfather did not often shrug his shoulders.
There is nothing very unusual, though the fact is interesting,
in these children having gained by inheritance a habit during
early youth, and then discontinuing it; for it is of frequent
occurrence with many kinds of animals that certain characters
are retained for a period by the young, and are then lost.

As it appeared to me at one time improbable in a high degree
that so complex a gesture as shrugging the shoulders,
together with the accompanying movements, should be innate,
I was anxious to ascertain whether the blind and deaf Laura Bridgman,
who could not have learnt the habit by imitation, practised it.
And I have heard, through Dr. Innes, from a lady who has
lately had charge of her, that she does shrug her shoulders,
turn in her elbows, and raise her eyebrows in the same
manner as other people, and under the same circumstances.
I was also anxious to learn whether this gesture was practised
by the various races of man, especially by those who never have
had much intercourse with Europeans. We shall see that they act
in this manner; but it appears that the gesture is sometimes
confined to merely raising or shrugging the shoulders,
without the other movements.

Mr. Scott has frequently seen this gesture in the Bengalees and Dhangars
(the latter constituting a distinct race) who are employed in the
Botanic Garden at Calcutta; when, for instance, they have declared
that they could not do some work, such as lifting a heavy weight.
He ordered a Bengalee to climb a lofty tree; but the man, with a shrug
of his shoulders and a lateral shake of his head, said he could not.
Mr. Scott knowing that the man was lazy, thought he could,
and insisted on his trying. His face now became pale, his arms
dropped to his sides, his mouth and eyes were widely opened,
and again surveying the tree, he looked askant at Mr. Scott,
shrugged his shoulders, inverted his elbows, extended his open hands,
and with a few quick lateral shakes of the head declared his inability.
Mr. H. Erskine has likewise seen the natives of India shrugging
their shoulders; but he has never seen the elbows turned so much
inwards as with us; and whilst shrugging their shoulders they
sometimes lay their uncrossed hands on their breasts.

With the wild Malays of the interior of Malacca, and with the Bugis
(true Malays, though speaking a different, language), Mr. Geach has
often seen this gesture. I presume that it is complete, as, in answer
to my query descriptive of the movements of the shoulders, arms, hands,
and face, Mr. Geach remarks, "it is performed in a beautiful style."
I have lost an extract from a scientific voyage, in which shrugging
the shoulders by some natives (Micronesians) of the Caroline Archipelago
in the Pacific Ocean, was well described. Capt. Speedy informs me
that the Abyssinians shrug their shoulders but enters into no details.
Mrs. Asa Gray saw an Arab dragoman in Alexandria acting exactly
as described in my query, when an old gentleman, on whom he attended,
would not go in the proper direction which had been pointed out to him.

Mr. Washington Matthews says, in reference to the wild Indian
tribes of the western parts of the United States, "I have on a few
occasions detected men using a slight apologetic shrug, but the rest
of the demonstration which you describe I have not witnessed."
Fritz Muller informs me that he has seen the negroes in Brazil
shrugging their shoulders; but it is of course possible that they
may have learnt to do so by imitating the Portuguese. Mrs. Barber has
never seen this gesture with the Kafirs of South Africa; and Gaika,
judging from his answer, did not even understand what was meant
by my description. Mr. Swinhoe is also doubtful about the Chinese;
but he has seen them, under the circumstances which would make us
shrug our shoulders, press their right elbow against their side,
raise their eyebrows, lift up their hand with the palm directed
towards the person addressed, and shake it from right to left.
Lastly, with respect to the Australians, four of my informants
answer by a simple negative, and one by a simple affirmative.
Mr. Bunnett, who has had excellent opportunities for observation
on the borders of the Colony of Victory, also answers by a "yes,"
adding that the gesture is performed "in a more subdued and less
demonstrative manner than is the case with civilized nations."
This circumstance may account for its not having been noticed
by four of my informants.

These statements, relating to Europeans, Hindoos, the hill-tribes
of India, Malays, Micronesians, Abyssinians, Arabs, Negroes, Indians of
North America, and apparently to the Australians--many of these natives
having had scarcely any intercourse with Europeans--are sufficient
to show that shrugging the shoulders, accompanied in some cases
by the other proper movements, is a gesture natural to mankind.

This gesture implies an unintentional or unavoidable action
on our own part, or one that we cannot perform; or an action
performed by another person which we cannot prevent.
It accompanies such speeches as, "It was not my fault;"
"It is impossible for me to grant this favour;" "He must follow his
own course, I cannot stop him." Shrugging the shoulders likewise
expresses patience, or the absence of any intention to resist.
Hence the muscles which raise the shoulders are sometimes called,
as I have been informed by an artist, the patience muscles."
Shylock the Jew, says,

"Signor Antonio, many a time and oft
In the Rialto have you rated me
About my monies and usances;
Still have I borne it with a patient shrug."
_Merchant of Venice_, act 1. sc. 3.

Sir C. Bell has given[14] a life-like figure of a man,
who is shrinking back from some terrible danger,
and is on the point of screaming out in abject terror.
He is represented with his shoulders lifted up almost to his ears;
and this at once declares that there is no thought of resistance.

As shrugging the shoulders generally implies "I cannot do this or that,"
so by a slight change, it sometimes implies "I won't do it."
The movement then expresses a dogged determination not to act.
Olmsted describes[15] an Indian in Texas as giving a great shrug
to his shoulders, when he was informed that a party of men were
Germans and not Americans, thus expressing that he would have
nothing to do with them. Sulky and obstinate children may be seen
with both their shoulders raised high up; but this movement is not
associated with the others which generally accompany a true shrug.
An excellent observer[16] in describing a young man who was
determined not to yield to his father's desire, says, "He thrust
his hands deep down into his pockets, and set up his shoulders
to his ears, which was a good warning that, come right or wrong,
this rock should fly from its firm base as soon as Jack would;
and that any remonstrance on the subject was purely futile."
As soon as the son got his own way, he "put his shoulders into
their natural position."

[14] `Anatomy of Expression,' p. 166.

[15] `Journey through Texas,' p. 352.

Resignation is sometimes shown by the open hands being placed,
one over the other, on the lower part of the body. I should not have
thought this little gesture worth even a passing notice, had not
Dr. W. Ogle remarked to me that he had two or three times observed
it in patients who were preparing for operations under chloroform.
They exhibited no great fear, but seemed to declare by this posture
of their hands, that they had made up their minds, and were resigned
to the inevitable.

We may now inquire why men in all parts of the world when they feel,--
whether or not they wish to show this feeling,--that they
cannot or will not do something, or will not resist something
if done by another, shrug their shoulders, at the same time
often bending in their elbows, showing the palms of their hands
with extended fingers, often throwing their heads a little
on one side, raising their eyebrows, and opening their mouths.
These states of the mind are either simply passive,
or show a determination not to act. None of the above
movements are of the least service. The explanation lies,
I cannot doubt, in the principle of unconscious antithesis.
This principle here seems to come into play as clearly as in
the case of a dog, who, when feeling savage, puts himself in
the proper attitude for attacking and for making himself appear
terrible to his enemy; but as soon as he feels affectionate,
throws his whole body into a directly opposite attitude,
though this is of no direct use to him.

[16] Mrs. Oliphant, `The Brownlows,' vol. ii. p. 206.

Let it be observed how an indignant man, who resents, and will not
submit to some injury, holds his head erect, squares his shoulders,
and expands his chest. He often clenches his fists, and puts
one or both arms in the proper position for attack or defence,
with the muscles of his limbs rigid. He frowns,--that is,
he contracts and lowers his brows,--and, being determined,
closes his mouth. The actions and attitude of a helpless man are,
in every one of these respects, exactly the reverse. In Plate VI.
we may imagine one of the figures on the left side to have just said,
"What do you mean by insulting me?" and one of the figures
on the right side to answer, "I really could not help it."
The helpless man unconsciously contracts the muscles of his
forehead which are antagonistic to those that cause a frown,
and thus raises his eyebrows; at the same time he relaxes
the muscles about the mouth, so that the lower jaw drops.
The antithesis is complete in every detail, not only in the movements
of the features, but in the position of the limbs and in the attitude
of the whole body, as may be seen in the accompanying plate.
As the helpless or apologetic man often wishes to show his state
of mind, he then acts in a conspicuous or demonstrative manner.

In accordance with the fact that squaring the elbows and clenching
the fists are gestures by no means universal with the men of all races,
when they feel indignant and are prepared to attack their enemy,
so it appears that a helpless or apologetic frame of mind is expressed
in many parts of the world by merely shrugging the shoulders,
without turning inwards the elbows and opening the hands.
The man or child who is obstinate, or one who is resigned to some
great misfortune, has in neither case any idea of resistance
by active means; and he expresses this state of mind, by simply
keeping his shoulders raised; or he may possibly fold his arms
across his breast.

_Signs of affirmation or approval, and of negation or disapproval:
nodding and shaking the head_.--I was curious to ascertain how far
the common signs used by us in affirmation and negation were general
throughout the world. These signs are indeed to a certain extent
expressive of our feelings, as we give a vertical nod of approval
with a smile to our children, when we approve of their conduct;
and shake our heads laterally with a frown, when we disapprove.
With infants, the first act of denial consists in refusing food;
and I repeatedly noticed with my own infants, that they did so by
withdrawing their heads laterally from the breast, or from anything offered
them in a spoon. In accepting food and taking it into their mouths,
they incline their heads forwards. Since making these observations I
have been informed that the same idea had occurred to Charma.[17] It
deserves notice that in accepting or taking food, there is only
a single movement forward, and a single nod implies an affirmation.
On the other hand, in refusing food, especially if it be pressed on them,
children frequently move their heads several times from side to side,
as we do in shaking our heads in negation. Moreover, in the case of refusal,
the head is not rarely thrown backwards, or the mouth is closed,
so that these movements might likewise come to serve as signs of negation.
Mr. Wedgwood remarks on this subject,[18] that "when the voice is exerted
with closed teeth or lips, it produces the sound of the letter _n_ or _m_.
Hence we may account for the use of the particle _ne_ to signify negation,
and possibly also of the Greek mh in the same sense."

[17] `Essai sur le Langage,' 2nd edit. 1846. I am much
indebted to Miss Wedgwood for having given me this information,
with an extract from the work.

That these signs are innate or instinctive, at least with Anglo-Saxons,
is rendered highly probable by the blind and deaf Laura Bridgman
"constantly accompanying her _yes_ with the common affirmative nod,
and her _no_ with our negative shake of the head." Had not Mr. Lieber
stated to the contrary,[19] I should have imagined that these gestures
might have been acquired or learnt by her, considering her wonderful
sense of touch and appreciation of the movements of others.
With microcephalous idiots, who are so degraded that they never learn
to speak, one of them is described by Vogt,[20] as answering, when asked
whether he wished for more food or drink, by inclining or shaking his head.
Schmalz, in his remarkable dissertation on the education of the deaf
and dumb, as well as of children raised only one degree above idiotcy,
assumes that they can always both make and understand the common signs
of affirmation and negation."

Nevertheless if we look to the various races of man, these signs are
not so universally employed as I should have expected; yet they seem
too general to be ranked as altogether conventional or artificial.
My informants assert that both signs are used by the Malays,
by the natives of Ceylon, the Chinese, the negroes of the Guinea
coast, and, according to Gaika, by the Kafirs of South Africa,
though with these latter people Mrs. Barber has never seen a lateral
shake used as a negative. With respect to the Australians,
seven observers agree that a nod is given in affirmation; five agree
about a lateral shake in negation, accompanied or not by some word;
but Mr. Dyson Lacy has never seen this latter sign in Queensland,
and Mr. Bulmer says that in Gipps' Land a negative is expressed
by throwing the head a little backwards and putting out the tongue.
At the northern extremity of the continent, near Torres Straits,
the natives when uttering a negative "don't shake the head with it,
but holding up the right hand, shake it by turning it half round
and back again two or three times."[22] The throwing back of the head
with a cluck of the tongue is said to be used as a negative by the modern
Greeks and Turks, the latter people expressing _yes_ by a movement
like that made by us when we shake our heads.[23] The Abyssinians,
as I am informed by Captain Speedy, express a negative by jerking
the head to the right shoulder, together with a slight cluck,
the mouth being closed; an affirmation is expressed by the head
being thrown backwards and the eyebrows raised for an instant.
The Tagals of Luzon, in the Philippine Archipelago, as I hear from
Dr. Adolf Meyer, when they say "yes," also throw the head backwards.
According to the Rajah Brooke, the Dyaks of Borneo express an
affirmation by raising the eyebrows, and a negation by slightly
contracting them, together with a peculiar look from the eyes.
With the Arabs on the Nile, Professor and Mrs. Asa Gray concluded
that nodding in affirmation was rare, whilst shaking the head
in negation was never used, and was not even understood by them.
With the Esquimaux[24] a nod means _yes_ and a wink _no_.
The New Zealanders "elevate the head and chin in place
of nodding acquiescence."[25]

[18] `On the Origin of Language,' 1866, p. 91.

[19] `On the Vocal Sounds of L. Bridgman;' Smithsonian Contributions,
1851, vol. ii. p. 11.

[20] `Memoire sur les Microcephales,' 1867, p. 27.

[21] Quoted by Tylor, `Early History of Mankind,' 2nd edit.
1870, p. 38.

[22] Mr. J. B. Jukes, `Letters and Extracts,' &c. 1871, p. 248.

[23] F. Lieber, `On the Vocal Sounds,' &c. p. 11. Tylor, ibid. p. 53.

With the Hindoos Mr. H. Erskine concludes from inquiries
made from experienced Europeans, and from native gentlemen,
that the signs of affirmation and negation vary--a nod and a
lateral shake being sometimes used as we do; but a negative
is more commonly expressed by the head being thrown suddenly
backwards and a little to one side, with a cluck of the tongue.
What the meaning may be of this cluck of the tongue,
which has been observed with various people, I cannot imagine.
A native gentleman stated that affirmation is frequently shown
by the head being thrown to the left. I asked Mr. Scott to attend
particularly to this point, and, after repeated observations,
he believes that a vertical nod is not commonly used by
the natives in affirmation, but that the head is first thrown
backwards either to the left or right, and then jerked obliquely
forwards only once. This movement would perhaps have been
described by a less careful observer as a lateral shake.
He also states that in negation the head is usually held
nearly upright, and shaken several times.

Mr. Bridges informs me that the Fuegians nod their heads
vertically in affirmation, and shake them laterally in denial.
With the wild Indians of North America, according to
Mr. Washington Matthews, nodding and shaking the head have
been learnt from Europeans, and are not naturally employed.
They express affirmation by describing with the hand
(all the fingers except the index being flexed) a curve downwards
and outwards from the body, whilst negation is expressed by
moving the open hand outwards, with the palm facing inwards."
Other observers state that the sign of affirmation with these Indians
is the forefinger being raised, and then lowered and pointed
to the ground, or the hand is waved straight forward from the face;
and that the sign of negation is the finger or whole hand
shaken from side to side.[26] This latter movement probably
represents in all cases the lateral shaking of the head.
The Italians are said in like manner to move the lifted finger
from right to left in negation, as indeed we English sometimes do.

[24] Dr. King, Edinburgh Phil. Journal, 1845, p. 313.

[25] Tylor, `Early History of Mankind,' 2nd edit. 1870, p. 53.

On the whole we find considerable diversity in the signs
of affirmation and negation in the different races of man.
With respect to negation, if we admit that the shaking of
the finger or hand from side to side is symbolic of the lateral
movement of the head; and if we admit that the sudden backward
movement of the head represents one of the actions often
practised by young children in refusing food, then there is
much uniformity throughout the world in the signs of negation,
and we can see how they originated. The most marked exceptions
are presented by the Arabs, Esquimaux, some Australian tribes,
and Dyaks. With the latter a frown is the sign of negation,
and with us frowning often accompanies a lateral shake of the head.

With respect to nodding in affirmation, the exceptions
are rather more numerous, namely with some of the Hindoos,
with the Turks, Abyssinians, Dyaks, Tagals, and New Zealanders.
The eyebrows are sometimes raised in affirmation, and as a person
in bending his head forwards and downwards naturally looks up to
the person whom he addresses, he will be apt to raise his eyebrows,
and this sign may thus have arisen as an abbreviation.
So again with the New Zealanders, the lifting up the chin
and head in affirmation may perhaps represent in an abbreviated
form the upward movement of the head after it has been nodded
forwards and downwards.

[26] Lubbock, `The Origin of Civilization,' 1870, p. 277.
Tylor, ibid. p. 38. Lieber (ibid. p. 11) remarks on the negative
of the Italians. CHAPTER XII.


Surprise, astonishment--Elevation of the eyebrows--Opening the mouth--
Protrusion of the lips--Gestures accompanying surprise--
Admiration--Fear--Terror--Erection of the hair--Contraction of
the platysma muscle--Dilatation of the pupils--Horror--Conclusion.

ATTENTION, if sudden and close, graduates into surprise;
and this into astonishment; and this into stupefied amazement.
The latter frame of mind is closely akin to terror.
Attention is shown by the eyebrows being slightly raised;
and as this state increases into surprise, they are raised
to a much greater extent, with the eyes and mouth widely open.
The raising of the eyebrows is necessary in order that
the eyes should be opened quickly and widely; and this
movement produces transverse wrinkles across the forehead.
The degree to which the eyes and mouth are opened corresponds
with the degree of surprise felt; but these movements must
be coordinated; for a widely opened mouth with eyebrows only
slightly raised results in a meaningless grimace, as Dr. Duchenne
has shown in one of his photographs.[1] On the other hand,
a person may often be seen to pretend surprise by merely
raising his eyebrows.

Dr. Duchenne has given a photograph of an old man with his
eyebrows well elevated and arched by the galvanization of
the frontal muscle; and with his mouth voluntarily opened.
This figure expresses surprise with much truth.
I showed it to twenty-four persons without a word of explanation,
and one alone did not at all understand what was intended.
A second person answered terror, which is not far wrong; some of
the others, however, added to the words surprise or astonishment,
the epithets horrified, woful, painful, or disgusted.

[1] `Mecanisme de la Physionomie,' Album, 1862, p. 42.

The eyes and mouth being widely open is an expression universally
recognized as one of surprise or astonishment. Thus Shakespeare says,
"I saw a smith stand with open mouth swallowing a tailor's news."
(`King John,' act iv. scene ii.) And again, "They seemed almost,
with staring on one another, to tear the cases of their eyes;
there was speech in the dumbness, language in their very gesture;
they looked as they had heard of a world destroyed."
(`Winter's Tale,' act v. scene ii.)

My informants answer with remarkable uniformity to the same effect,
with respect to the various races of man; the above movements of
the features being often accompanied by certain gestures and sounds,
presently to be described. Twelve observers in different
parts of Australia agree on this head. Mr. Winwood Reade has
observed this expression with the negroes on the Guinea coast.
The chief Gaika and others answer _yes_ to my query with respect
to the Kafirs of South Africa; and so do others emphatically
with reference to the Abyssinians, Ceylonese, Chinese, Fuegians,
various tribes of North America, and New Zealanders. With the latter,
Mr. Stack states that the expression is more plainly shown by
certain individuals than by others, though all endeavour as much
as possible to conceal their feelings. The Dyaks of Borneo are said
by the Rajah Brooke to open their eyes widely, when astonished,
often swinging their heads to and fro, and beating their breasts.
Mr. Scott informs me that the workmen in the Botanic Gardens
at Calcutta are strictly ordered not to smoke; but they often
disobey this order, and when suddenly surprised in the act,
they first open their eyes and mouths widely. They then often
slightly shrug their shoulders, as they perceive that discovery
is inevitable, or frown and stamp on the ground from vexation.
Soon they recover from their surprise, and abject fear is exhibited
by the relaxation of all their muscles; their heads seem to sink
between their shoulders; their fallen eyes wander to and fro;
and they supplicate forgiveness.

The well-known Australian explorer, Mr. Stuart, has given[2]
a striking account of stupefied amazement together with terror
in a native who had never before seen a man on horseback.
Mr. Stuart approached unseen and called to him from a little distance.
"He turned round and saw me. What he imagined I was I do not know;
but a finer picture of fear and astonishment I never saw.
He stood incapable of moving a limb, riveted to the spot,
mouth open and eyes staring. . . . He remained motionless until
our black got within a few yards of him, when suddenly throwing down
his waddies, he jumped into a mulga bush as high as he could get."
He could not speak, and answered not a word to the inquiries made
by the black, but, trembling from head to foot, "waved with his
hand for us to be off."

That the eyebrows are raised by an innate or instinctive impulse
may be inferred from the fact that Laura Bridgman invariably
acts thus when astonished, as I have been assured by the lady
who has lately had charge of her. As surprise is excited
by something unexpected or unknown, we naturally desire,
when startled, to perceive the cause as quickly as possible;
and we consequently open our eyes fully, so that the field of vision
may be increased, and the eyeballs moved easily in any direction.
But this hardly accounts for the eyebrows being so greatly raised
as is the case, and for the wild staring of the open eyes.
The explanation lies, I believe, in the impossibility of opening
the eyes with great rapidity by merely raising the upper lids.
To effect this the eyebrows must be lifted energetically.
Any one who will try to open his eyes as quickly as possible
before a mirror will find that he acts thus; and the energetic
lifting up of the eyebrows opens the eyes so widely that they stare,
the white being exposed all round the iris. Moreover, the elevation
of the eyebrows is an advantage in looking upwards; for as long
as they are lowered they impede our vision in this direction.
Sir C. Bell gives[3] a curious little proof of the part
which the eyebrows play in opening the eyelids. In a stupidly
drunken man all the muscles are relaxed, and the eyelids
consequently droop, in the same manner as when we are falling asleep.
To counteract this tendency the drunkard raises his eyebrows;
and this gives to him a puzzled, foolish look, as is well
represented in one of Hogarth's drawings. The habit of raising
the eyebrows having once been gained in order to see as quickly
as possible all around us, the movement would follow from the force
of association whenever astonishment was felt from any cause,
even from a sudden sound or an idea.

[2] `The Polyglot News Letter,' Melbourne, Dec. 1858, p. 2.

With adult persons, when the eyebrows are raised,
the whole forehead becomes much wrinkled in transverse lines;
but with children this occurs only to a slight degree.
The wrinkles run in lines concentric with each eyebrow,
and are partially confluent in the middle. They are highly
characteristic of the expression of surprise or astonishment.
Each eyebrow, when raised, becomes also, as Duchenne remarks,[4]
more arched than it was before.

[3] `The Anatomy of Expression,' p. 106.

The cause of the mouth being opened when astonishment is felt,
is a much more complex affair; and several causes apparently concur
in leading to this movement. It has often been supposed[5] that
the sense of hearing is thus rendered more acute; but I have watched
persons listening intently to a slight noise, the nature and source
of which they knew perfectly, and they did not open their mouths.
Therefore I at one time imagined that the open mouth might aid
in distinguishing the direction whence a sound proceeded,
by giving another channel for its entrance into the ear through
the eustachian tube, But Dr. W. Ogle[6] has been so kind as to search
the best recent authorities on the functions of the eustachian tube,
and he informs me that it is almost conclusively proved that it remains
closed except during the act of deglutition; and that in persons
in whom the tube remains abnormally open, the sense of hearing,
as far as external sounds are concerned, is by no means improved;
on the contrary, it is impaired by the respiratory sounds being
rendered more distinct. If a watch be placed within the mouth,
but not allowed to touch the sides, the ticking is heard much less
plainly than when held outside. In persons in whom from disease
or a cold the eustachian tube is permanently or temporarily closed,
the sense of hearing is injured; but this may be accounted for by mucus
accumulating within the tube, and the consequent exclusion of air.
We may therefore infer that the mouth is not kept open under the sense
of astonishment for the sake of hearing sounds more distinctly;
notwithstanding that most deaf people keep their mouths open.

[4] Mecanisme de la Physionomie,' Album, p. 6.

[5] See, for instance, Dr. Piderit (`Mimik und Physiognomik,' s.
88), who has a good discussion on the expression of surprise.

[6] Dr. Murie has also given me information leading to the same conclusion,
derived in part from comparative anatomy.

Every sudden emotion, including astonishment, quickens the action
of the heart, and with it the respiration. Now we can breathe,
as Gratiolet remarks[7] and as appears to me to be the case,
much more quietly through the open mouth than through the nostrils.
Therefore, when we wish to listen intently to any sound, we either
stop breathing, or breathe as quietly as possible, by opening
our mouths, at the same time keeping our bodies motionless.
One of my sons was awakened in the night by a noise under
circumstances which naturally led to great care, and after
a few minutes he perceived that his mouth was widely open.
He then became conscious that he had opened it for the sake
of breathing as quietly as possible. This view receives
support from the reversed case which occurs with dogs.
A dog when panting after exercise, or on a hot day, breathes loudly;
but if his attention be suddenly aroused, he instantly pricks
his ears to listen, shuts his mouth, and breathes quietly,
as he is enabled to do, through his nostrils.

When the attention is concentrated for a length of time with fixed
earnestness on any object or subject, all the organs of the body
are forgotten and neglected;[8] and as the nervous energy
of each individual is limited in amount, little is transmitted
to any part of the system, excepting that which is at the time
brought into energetic action. Therefore many of the muscles
tend to become relaxed, and the jaw drops from its own weight.
This will account for the dropping of the jaw and open mouth of a man
stupefied with amazement, and perhaps when less strongly affected.
I have noticed this appearance, as I find recorded in my notes,
in very young children when they were only moderately surprised.

[7] `De la Physionomie,' 1865, p. 234.

[8] See, on this subject, Gratiolet, ibid. p. 254.

There is still another and highly effective cause, leading to the mouth
being opened, when we are astonished, and more especially when we
are suddenly startled. We can draw a full and deep inspiration much
more easily through the widely open mouth than through the nostrils.
Now when we start at any sudden sound or sight, almost all the muscles
of the body are involuntarily and momentarily thrown into strong action,
for the sake of guarding ourselves against or jumping away from
the danger, which we habitually associate with anything unexpected.
But we always unconsciously prepare ourselves for any great exertion,
as formerly explained, by first taking a deep and full inspiration,
and we consequently open our mouths. If no exertion follows, and we
still remain astonished, we cease for a time to breathe, or breathe as
quietly as possible, in order that every sound may be distinctly heard.
Or again, if our attention continues long and earnestly absorbed, all our
muscles become relaxed, and the jaw, which was at first suddenly opened,
remains dropped. Thus several causes concur towards this same movement,
whenever surprise, astonishment, or amazement is felt.

Although when thus affected, our mouths are generally opened,
yet the lips are often a little protruded. This fact reminds
us of the same movement, though in a much more strongly
marked degree, in the chimpanzee and orang when astonished.
As a strong expiration naturally follows the deep inspiration
which accompanies the first sense of startled surprise,
and as the lips are often protruded, the various sounds which
are then commonly uttered can apparently be accounted for.
But sometimes a strong expiration alone is heard; thus Laura Bridgman,
when amazed, rounds and protrudes her lips, opens them,
and breathes strongly.[9] One of the commonest sounds is a deep _Oh_;
and this would naturally follow, as explained by Helmholtz,
from the mouth being moderately opened and the lips protruded.
On a quiet night some rockets were fired from the `Beagle,' in a
little creek at Tahiti, to amuse the natives; and as each rocket,
was let off there was absolute silence, but this was invariably
followed by a deep groaning _Oh_, resounding all round the bay.
Mr. Washington Matthews says that the North American Indians
express astonishment by a groan; and the negroes on the West Coast
of Africa, according to Mr. Winwood Reade, protrude their lips,
and make a sound like _heigh, heigh_. If the mouth is not
much opened, whilst the lips are considerably protruded,
a blowing, hissing, or whistling noise is produced.
Mr. R. Brough Smith informs me that an Australian from the interior
was taken to the theatre to see an acrobat rapidly turning head
over heels: "he was greatly astonished, and protruded his lips,
making a noise with his mouth as if blowing out a match."
According to Mr. Bulmer the Australians, when surprised,
utter the exclamation _korki_, "and to do this the mouth is
drawn out as if going to whistle." We Europeans often whistle
as a sign of surprise; thus, in a recent novel[10] it is said,
"here the man expressed his astonishment and disapprobation
by a prolonged whistle." A Kafir girl, as Mr. J. Mansel Weale
informs me, "on hearing of the high price of an article,
raised her eyebrows and whistled just as a European would."
Mr. Wedgwood remarks that such sounds are written down as _whew_,
and they serve as interjections for surprise.

[9] Lieber, `On the Vocal Sounds of Laura Bridgman,'
Smithsonian Contributions, 1851, vol. ii. p. 7.

[10] `Wenderholme,' vol. ii. p. 91.

According to three other observers, the Australians often evince
astonishment by a clucking noise. Europeans also sometimes express
gentle surprise by a little clicking noise of nearly the same kind.
We have seen that when we are startled, the mouth is suddenly opened;
and if the tongue happens to be then pressed closely against the palate,
its sudden withdrawal will produce a sound of this kind, which might
thus come to express surprise.

Turning to gestures of the body. A surprised person often raises
his opened hands high above his head, or by bending his arms
only to the level of his face. The flat palms are directed
towards the person who causes this feeling, and the straightened
fingers are separated. This gesture is represented by
Mr. Rejlander in Plate VII. fig. 1. In the `Last Supper,'
by Leonardo da Vinci, two of the Apostles have their hands
half uplifted, clearly expressive of their astonishment.
A trustworthy observer told me that he had lately met his wife
under most unexpected circumstances: "She started, opened her mouth
and eyes very widely, and threw up both her arms above her head."
Several years ago I was surprised by seeing several of my young
children earnestly doing something together on the ground;
but the distance was too great for me to ask what they were about.
Therefore I threw up my open hands with extended fingers above my head;
and as soon as I had done this, I became conscious of the action.
I then waited, without saying a word, to see if my children
had understood this gesture; and as they came running to me
they cried out, "We saw that you were astonished at us."
I do not know whether this gesture is common to the various
races of man, as I neglected to make inquiries on this head.
That it is innate or natural may be inferred from the fact
that Laura Bridgman, when amazed, "spreads her arms and turns
her hands with extended fingers upwards;"[11] nor is it likely,
considering that the feeling of surprise is generally a brief one,
that she should have learnt this gesture through her keen
sense of touch.

Huschke describes[12] a somewhat different yet allied gesture, which he says
is exhibited by persons when astonished. They hold themselves erect,
with the features as before described, but with the straightened arms
extended backwards--the stretched fingers being separated from each other.
I have never myself seen this gesture; but Huschke is probably correct;
for a friend asked another man how he would express great astonishment,
and he at once threw himself into this attitude.

These gestures are, I believe, explicable on the principle of antithesis.
We have seen that an indignant man holds his head erect, squares his
shoulders, turns out his elbows, often clenches his fist, frowns, and closes
his mouth; whilst the attitude of a helpless man is in every one of
these details the reverse. Now, a man in an ordinary frame of mind,
doing nothing and thinking of nothing in particular, usually keeps his
two arms suspended laxly by his sides, with his hands somewhat flexed,
and the fingers near together. Therefore, to raise the arms suddenly,
either the whole arms or the fore-arms, to open the palms flat,
and to separate the fingers,--or, again, to straighten the arms,
extending them backwards with separated fingers,--are movements in complete
antithesis to those preserved under an indifferent frame of mind,
and they are, in consequence, unconsciously assumed by an astonished man.
There is, also, often a desire to display surprise in a conspicuous
manner, and the above attitudes are well fitted for this purpose.
It may be asked why should surprise, and only a few other states
of the mind, be exhibited by movements in antithesis to others.
But this principle will not be brought into play in the case
of those emotions, such as terror, great joy, suffering, or rage,
which naturally lead to certain lines of action and produce certain
effects on the body, for the whole system is thus preoccupied;
and these emotions are already thus expressed with the greatest plainness.

[11] Lieber, `On the Vocal Sounds,' &c., ibid. p. 7.

[12] Huschke, `Mimices et Physiognomices,' 1821, p. 18. Gratiolet (De
la Phys. p. 255) gives a figure of a man in this attitude, which,
however, seems to me expressive of fear combined with astonishment.
Le Brun also refers (Lavater, vol. ix. p. 299) to the hands of an
astonished man being opened.

There is another little gesture, expressive of astonishment
of which I can offer no explanation; namely, the hand being placed
over the mouth or on some part of the head. This has been observed
with so many races of man, that it must have some natural origin.
A wild Australian was taken into a large room full of official papers,
which surprised him greatly, and he cried out, _cluck, cluck, cluck_,
putting the back of his hand towards his lips. Mrs. Barber says
that the Kafirs and Fingoes express astonishment by a serious look
and by placing the right hand upon the mouth, Littering the word _mawo_,
which means `wonderful.' The Bushmen are said[13] to put their
right hands to their necks, bending their heads backwards.
Mr. Winwood Reade has observed that the negroes on the West Coast
of Africa, when surprised, clap their hands to their mouths,
saying at the same time, "My mouth cleaves to me," i. e. to my hands;
and he has heard that this is their usual gesture on such occasions.
Captain Speedy informs me that the Abyssinians place their right hand
to the forehead, with the palm outside. Lastly, Mr. Washington Matthews
states that the conventional sign of astonishment with the wild
tribes of the western parts of the United States "is made by placing
the half-closed hand over the mouth; in doing this, the head is often
bent forwards, and words or low groans are sometimes uttered."
Catlin[14] makes the same remark about the hand being pressed over
the mouth by the Mandans and other Indian tribes.

[13] Huschke, ibid. p. 18.

_Admiration_.--Little need be said on this head. Admiration apparently
consists of surprise associated with some pleasure and a sense of approval.
When vividly felt, the eyes are opened and the eyebrows raised; the eyes
become bright, instead of remaining blank, as under simple astonishment;
and the mouth, instead of gaping open, expands into a smile.

_Fear, Terror_.--The word `fear' seems to be derived from what is
sudden and dangerous;[15] and that of terror from the trembling
of the vocal organs and body. I use the word `terror' for
extreme fear; but some writers think it ought to be confined
to cases in which the imagination is more particularly concerned.
Fear is often preceded by astonishment, and is so far akin to it,
that both lead to the senses of sight and hearing being instantly aroused.
In both cases the eyes and mouth are widely opened, and the eyebrows raised.
The frightened man at first stands like a statue motionless and breathless,
or crouches down as if instinctively to escape observation.

[14] `North American Indians,' 3rd edit. 1842, vol. i. p. 105.

[15] H. Wedgwood, Dict. of English Etymology, vol. ii. 1862, p.
35. See, also, Gratiolet (`De la Physionomie,' p. 135) on the sources
of such words as `terror, horror, rigidus, frigidus,' &c.

The heart beats quickly and violently, so that it palpitates
or knocks against the ribs; but it is very doubtful whether it
then works more efficiently than usual, so as to send a greater
supply of blood to all parts of the body; for the skin instantly
becomes pale, as during incipient faintness. This paleness of
the surface, however, is probably in large part, or exclusively,
due to the vasomotor centre being affected in such a manner
as to cause the contraction of the small arteries of the skin.
That the skin is much affected under the sense of great fear,
we see in the marvellous and inexplicable manner in which
perspiration immediately exudes from it. This exudation
is all the more remarkable, as the surface is then cold,
and hence the term a cold sweat; whereas, the sudorific glands
are properly excited into action when the surface is heated.
The hairs also on the skin stand erect; and the superficial
muscles shiver. In connection with the disturbed action of the heart,
the breathing is hurried. The salivary glands act imperfectly;
the mouth becomes dry,[16] and is often opened and shut.
I have also noticed that under slight fear there is a strong
tendency to yawn. One of the best-marked symptoms is the trembling
of all the muscles of the body; and this is often first seen
in the lips. From this cause, and from the dryness of the mouth,
the voice becomes husky or indistinct, or may altogether fail.
"Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus haesit."

[16] Mr. Bain (`The Emotions and the Will,' 1865, p. 54) explains in
the following manner the origin of the custom "of subjecting criminals
in India to the ordeal of the morsel of rice. The accused is made
to take a mouthful of rice, and after a little time to throw it out.
If the morsel is quite dry, the party is believed to be guilty,--
his own evil conscience operating to paralyse the salivating organs."

Of vague fear there is a well-known and grand description in Job:--"In
thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men,
fear came upon me, and trembling, which made all my bones to shake.
Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up.
It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof:
an image was before my eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice,
saying, Shall mortal man be more just than God? Shall a man be more
pure than his Maker?" (Job iv. 13)

As fear increases into an agony of terror, we behold,
as under all violent emotions, diversified results.
The heart beats wildly, or may fail to act and faintness ensue;
there is a death-like pallor; the breathing is laboured;
the wings of the nostrils are wildly dilated; "there is a gasping
and convulsive motion of the lips, a tremor on the hollow cheek,
a gulping and catching of the throat;"[17] the uncovered
and protruding eyeballs are fixed on the object of terror;
or they may roll restlessly from side to side, _huc illuc
volvens oculos totumque pererrat_.[18] The pupils are said to be
enormously dilated. All the muscles of the body may become rigid,
or may be thrown into convulsive movements. The hands are
alternately clenched and opened, often with a twitching movement.
The arms may be protruded, as if to avert some dreadful danger,
or may be thrown wildly over the head. The Rev. Mr. Hagenauer has
seen this latter action in a terrified Australian. In other cases
there is a sudden and uncontrollable tendency to headlong flight;
and so strong is this, that the boldest soldiers may be seized
with a sudden panic.

[17] Sir C. Bell, Transactions of Royal Phil. Soc. 1822, p. 308.
`Anatomy of Expression,' p. 88 and pp. 164-469.

[18] See Moreau on the rolling of the eyes, in the edit. of 1820 of Lavater,
tome iv. p. 263. Also, Gratiolet, De la Phys. p. 17.

As fear rises to an extreme pitch, the dreadful scream of terror is heard.
Great beads of sweat stand on the skin. All the muscles of the body
are relaxed. Utter prostration soon follows, and the mental powers fail.
The intestines are affected. The sphincter muscles cease to act,
and no longer retain the contents of the body.

Dr. J. Crichton Browne has given me so striking an account
of intense fear in an insane woman, aged thirty-five, that
the description though painful ought not to be omitted.
When a paroxysm seizes her, she screams out, "This is hell!"
"There is a black woman!" "I can't get out!"--and other
such exclamations. When thus screaming, her movements are
those of alternate tension and tremor. For one instant she
clenches her hands, holds her arms out before her in a stiff
semi-flexed position; then suddenly bends her body forwards,
sways rapidly to and fro, draws her fingers through her hair,
clutches at her neck, and tries to tear off her clothes.
The sterno-cleido-mastoid muscles (which serve to bend the head
on the chest) stand out prominently, as if swollen, and the skin
in front of them is much wrinkled. Her hair, which is cut
short at the back of her head, and is smooth when she is calm,
now stands on end; that in front being dishevelled by the movements
of her hands. The countenance expresses great mental agony.
The skin is flushed over the face and neck, down to the clavicles,
and the veins of the forehead and neck stand out like
thick cords. The lower lip drops, and is somewhat everted.
The mouth is kept half open, with the lower jaw projecting.
The cheeks are hollow and deeply furrowed in curved lines running
from the wings of the nostrils to the corners of the mouth.
The nostrils themselves are raised and extended. The eyes
are widely opened, and beneath them the skin appears swollen;
the pupils are large. The forehead is wrinkled transversely
in many folds, and at the inner extremities of the eyebrows it
is strongly furrowed in diverging lines, produced by the powerful
and persistent contraction of the corrugators.

Mr. Bell has also described[19] an agony of terror and of despair,
which he witnessed in a murderer, whilst carried to the place of execution
in Turin. "On each side of the car the officiating priests were seated;
and in the centre sat the criminal himself. It was impossible
to witness the condition of this unhappy wretch without terror;
and yet, as if impelled by some strange infatuation, it was equally
impossible not to gaze upon an object so wild, so full of horror.
He seemed about thirty-five years of age; of large and muscular form;
his countenance marked by strong and savage features; half naked,
pale as death, agonized with terror, every limb strained in anguish,
his hands clenched convulsively, the sweat breaking out on his bent
and contracted brow, he kissed incessantly the figure of our Saviour,
painted on the flag which was suspended before him; but with an agony
of wildness and despair, of which nothing ever exhibited on the stage
can give the slightest conception."

I will add only one other case, illustrative of a man utterly prostrated
by terror. An atrocious murderer of two persons was brought into
a hospital, under the mistaken impression that he had poisoned himself;
and Dr. W. Ogle carefully watched him the next morning, while he was
being handcuffed and taken away by the police. His pallor was extreme,
and his prostration so great that he was hardly able to dress himself.
His skin perspired; and his eyelids and head drooped so much that it was
impossible to catch even a glimpse of his eyes. His lower jaw hung down.
There was no contraction of any facial muscle, and Dr. Ogle is almost
certain that the hair did not stand on end, for he observed it narrowly,
as it had been dyed for the sake of concealment.

[19] `Observations on Italy,' 1825, p. 48, as quoted in 'The Anatomy
of Expression,' p. 168.

With respect to fear, as exhibited by the various races of man, my informants
agree that the signs are the same as with Europeans. They are displayed
in an exaggerated degree with the Hindoos and natives of Ceylon. Mr. Geach
has seen Malays when terrified turn pale and shake; and Mr. Brough Smyth
states that a native Australian "being on one occasion much frightened,
showed a complexion as nearly approaching to what we call paleness,
as can well be conceived in the case of a very black man." Mr. Dyson Lacy
has seen extreme fear shown in an Australian, by a nervous twitching of
the hands, feet, and lips; and by the perspiration standing on the skin.
Many savages do not repress the signs of fear so much as Europeans;
and they often tremble greatly. With the Kafir, Gaika says, in his
rather quaint English, the shaking "of the body is much experienced,
and the eyes are widely open." With savages, the sphincter muscles
are often relaxed, just as may be observed in much frightened dogs,
and as I have seen with monkeys when terrified by being caught.

_The erection of the hair_.--Some of the signs of fear
deserve a little further consideration. Poets continually
speak of the hair standing on end; Brutus says to the ghost
of Caesar, "that mak'st my blood cold, and my hair to stare."
And Cardinal Beaufort, after the murder of Gloucester exclaims,
"Comb down his hair; look, look, it stands upright."
As I did not feel sure whether writers of fiction might not have
applied to man what they had often observed in animals, I begged
for information from Dr. Crichton Browne with respect to the insane.
He states in answer that he has repeatedly seen their hair
erected under the influence of sudden and extreme terror.
For instance, it is occasionally necessary to inject morphia,
under the skin of an insane woman, who dreads the operation
extremely, though it causes very little pain; for she believes
that poison is being introduced into her system, and that her
bones will be softened, and her flesh turned into dust.
She becomes deadly pale; her limbs are stiffened by a sort
of tetanic spasm, and her hair is partially erected on the front
of the head.

Dr. Browne further remarks that the bristling of the hair which is
so common in the insane, is not always associated with terror.
It is perhaps most frequently seen in chronic maniacs, who rave
incoherently and have destructive impulses; but it is during
their paroxysms of violence that the bristling is most observable.
The fact of the hair becoming erect under the influence both of rage
and fear agrees perfectly with what we have seen in the lower animals.
Dr. Browne adduces several cases in evidence. Thus with a man
now in the Asylum, before the recurrence of each maniacal paroxysm,
"the hair rises up from his forehead like the mane of a Shetland pony."
He has sent me photographs of two women, taken in the intervals between
their paroxysms, and he adds with respect to one of these women,
"that the state of her hair is a sure and convenient criterion of
her mental condition." I have had one of these photographs copied,
and the engraving gives, if viewed from a little distance,
a faithful representation of the original, with the exception
that the hair appears rather too coarse and too much curled.
The extraordinary condition of the hair in the insane is due,
not only to its erection, but to its dryness and harshness,
consequent on the subcutaneous glands failing to act.
Dr. Bucknill has said[20] that a lunatic "is a lunatic to his
finger's ends;" he might have added, and often to the extremity
of each particular hair.

Dr. Browne mentions as an empirical confirmation of the relation which exists
in the insane between the state of their hair and minds, that the wife
of a medical man, who has charge of a lady suffering from acute melancholia,
with a strong fear of death, for herself, her husband and children,
reported verbally to him the day before receiving my letter as follows,
"I think Mrs. ---- will soon improve, for her hair is getting smooth;
and I always notice that our patients get better whenever their hair
ceases to be rough and unmanageable."

Dr. Browne attributes the persistently rough condition of the hair in many
insane patients, in part to their minds being always somewhat disturbed,
and in part to the effects of habit,--that is, to the hair being
frequently and strongly erected during their many recurrent paroxysms.
In patients in whom the bristling of the hair is extreme, the disease
is generally permanent and mortal; but in others, in whom the bristling
is moderate, as soon as they recover their health of mind the hair
recovers its smoothness.

[20] Quoted by Dr. Maudsley, `Body and Mind,' 1870, p. 41.

In a previous chapter we have seen that with animals the hairs are
erected by the contraction of minute, unstriped, and involuntary muscles,
which run to each separate follicle. In addition to this action,
Mr. J. Wood has clearly ascertained by experiment, as he informs me,
that with man the hairs on the front of the head which slope forwards,
and those on the back which slope backwards, are raised in opposite
directions by the contraction of the occipito-frontalis or scalp muscle.
So that this muscle seems to aid in the erection of the hairs on the head
of man. in the same manner as the homologous _panniculus carnosus_ aids,
or takes the greater part, in the erection of the spines on the backs
of some of the lower animals.

_Contraction of the platysma myoides muscle_.--This muscle is spread
over the sides of the neck, extending downwards to a little beneath
the collar-bones, and upwards to the lower part of the cheeks.
A portion, called the risorius, is represented in the woodcut
(M) fig. 2. The contraction of this muscle draws the corners of
the mouth and the lower parts of the checks downwards and backwards.
It produces at the same time divergent, longitudinal, prominent ridges
on the sides of the neck in the young; and, in old thin persons,
fine transverse wrinkles. This muscle is sometimes said not to be
under the control of the will; but almost every one, if told to draw
the corners of his mouth backwards and downwards with great force,
brings it into action. I have, however, heard of a man who can
voluntarily act on it only on one side of his neck.

Sir C. Bell[21] and others have stated that this muscle is strongly
contracted under the influence of fear; and Duchenne insists so strongly
on its importance in the expression of this emotion, that he calls it
the _muscle of fright_.[22] He admits, however, that its contraction
is quite inexpressive unless associated with widely open eyes and mouth.
He has given a photograph (copied and reduced in the accompanying woodcut)
of the same old man as on former occasions, with his eyebrows strongly raised,
his mouth opened, and the platysma contracted, all by means of galvanism.
The original photograph was shown to twenty-four persons, and they were
separately asked, without any explanation being given, what expression
was intended: twenty instantly answered, "intense fright" or "horror;"
three said pain, and one extreme discomfort. Dr. Duchenne has given
another photograph of the same old man, with the platysma contracted,
the eyes and mouth opened, and the eyebrows rendered oblique,
by means of galvanism. The expression thus induced is very striking
(see Plate VII. fig. 2); the obliquity of the eyebrows adding the appearance
of great mental distress. The original was shown to fifteen persons;
twelve answered terror or horror, and three agony or great suffering.
From these cases, and from an examination of the other photographs given
by Dr. Duchenne, together with his remarks thereon, I think there can
be little doubt that the contraction of the platysma does add greatly
to the expression of fear. Nevertheless this muscle ought hardly to be
called that of fright, for its contraction is certainly not a necessary
concomitant of this state of mind.

[21] `Anatomy of Expression,' p. 168.

[22] Mecanisme de la Phys. Humaine, Album, Legende xi. A man may
exhibit extreme terror in the plainest manner by death-like pallor,
by drops of perspiration on his skin, and by utter prostration,
with all the muscles of his body, including the platysma,
completely relaxed. Although Dr. Browne has often seen this
muscle quivering and contracting in the insane, he has not been
able to connect its action with any emotional condition in them,
though he carefully attended to patients suffering from great fear.
Mr. Nicol, on the other hand, has observed three cases in which
this muscle appeared to be more or less permanently contracted
under the influence of melancholia, associated with much dread;
but in one of these cases, various other muscles about the neck
and head were subject to spasmodic contractions.

Dr. W. Ogle observed for me in one of the London hospitals about
twenty patients, just before they were put under the influence of chloroform
for operations. They exhibited some trepidation, but no great terror.
In only four of the cases was the platysma visibly contracted;
and it did not begin to contract until the patients began to cry.
The muscle seemed to contract at the moment of each deep-drawn inspiration;
so that it is very doubtful whether the contraction depended
at all on the emotion of fear. In a fifth case, the patient,
who was not chloroformed, was much terrified; and his platysma was
more forcibly and persistently contracted than in the other cases.
But even here there is room for doubt, for the muscle which appeared
to be unusually developed, was seen by Dr. Ogle to contract as the man
moved his head from the pillow, after the operation was over.

As I felt much perplexed why, in any case, a superficial
muscle on the neck should be especially affected by fear,
I applied to my many obliging correspondents for information
about the contraction of this muscle under other circumstances.
It would be superfluous to give all the answers which I have received.
They show that this muscle acts, often in a variable manner
and degree, under many different conditions. It is violently
contracted in hydrophobia, and in a somewhat less degree in lockjaw;
sometimes in a marked manner during the insensibility from chloroform.
Dr. W. Ogle observed two male patients, suffering from such
difficulty in breathing, that the trachea had to be opened,
and in both the platysma was strongly contracted. One of these men
overheard the conversation of the surgeons surrounding him, and when
he was able to speak, declared that he had not been frightened.
In some other cases of extreme difficulty of respiration, though not
requiring tracheotomy, observed by Drs. Ogle and Langstaff,
the platysma was not contracted.

Mr. J. Wood, who has studied with such care the muscles of the human body,
as shown by his various publications, has often seen the platysma
contracted in vomiting, nausea, and disgust; also in children and
adults under the influence of rage,--for instance, in Irishwomen,
quarrelling and brawling together with angry gesticulations.
This may possibly have been due to their high and angry tones;
for I know a lady, an excellent musician, who, in singing certain
high notes, always contracts her platysma. So does a young man,
as I have observed, in sounding certain notes on the flute.
Mr. J. Wood informs me that he has found the platysma best
developed in persons with thick necks and broad shoulders;
and that in families inheriting these peculiarities, its development
is usually associated with much voluntary power over the homologous
occipito-frontalis muscle, by which the scalp can be moved.

None of the foregoing cases appear to throw any light on
the contraction of the platysma from fear; but it is different,
I think, with the following cases. The gentleman before referred to,
who can voluntarily act on this muscle only on one side of his neck,
is positive that it contracts on both sides whenever he is startled.
Evidence has already been given showing that this muscle
sometimes contracts, perhaps for the sake of opening the mouth widely,
when the breathing is rendered difficult by disease, and during
the deep inspirations of crying-fits before an operation.
Now, whenever a person starts at any sudden sight or sound,
he instantaneously draws a deep breath; and thus the contraction
of the platysma may possibly have become associated with the sense
of fear. But there is, I believe, a more efficient relation.
The first sensation of fear, or the imagination of something dreadful,
commonly excites a shudder. I have caught myself giving
a little involuntary shudder at a painful thought, and I
distinctly perceived that my platysma contracted; so it does if I
simulate a shudder. I have asked others to act in this manner;
and in some the muscle contracted, but not in others.
One of my sons, whilst getting out of bed, shuddered from
the cold, and, as he happened to have his hand on his neck,
he plainly felt that this muscle strongly contracted.
He then voluntarily shuddered, as he had done on former occasions,
but the platysma was not then affected. Mr. J. Wood has also
several times observed this muscle contracting in patients,
when stripped for examination, and who were not frightened,
but shivered slightly from the cold. Unfortunately I have not
been able to ascertain whether, when the whole body shakes,
as in the cold stage of an ague fit, the platysma contracts.
But as it certainly often contracts during a shudder; and as a
shudder or shiver often accompanies the first sensation of fear,
we have, I think, a clue to its action in this latter case.[23]
Its contraction, however, is not an invariable concomitant
of fear; for it probably never acts under the influence
of extreme, prostrating terror.

[23] Ducheinne takes, in fact, this view (ibid. p. 45), as he
attributes the contraction of the platysma to the shivering of fear
(_frisson de la peur_); but he elsewhere compares the action with
that which causes the hair of frightened quadrupeds to stand erect;
and this can hardly be considered as quite correct.

_Dilatation of the Pupils_.--Gratiolet repeatedly insists[24]
that the pupils are enormously dilated whenever terror is felt.
I have no reason to doubt the accuracy of this statement,
but have failed to obtain confirmatory evidence, excepting in the one
instance before given of an insane woman suffering from great fear.
When writers of fiction speak of the eyes being widely dilated,
I presume that they refer to the eyelids. Munro's statement,"
that with parrots the iris is affected by the passions,
independently of the amount of light, seems to bear on this question;
but Professor Donders informs me, that he has often seen movements
in the pupils of these birds which he thinks may be related to their
power of accommodation to distance, in nearly the same manner
as our own pupils contract when our eyes converge for near vision.
Gratiolet remarks that the dilated pupils appear as if they were
gazing into profound darkness. No doubt the fears of man have often
been excited in the dark; but hardly so often or so exclusively,
as to account for a fixed and associated habit having thus arisen.
It seems more probable, assuming that Gratiolet's statement
is correct, that the brain is directly affected by the powerful
emotion of fear and reacts on the pupils; but Professor Donders
informs me that this is an extremely complicated subject.
I may add, as possibly throwing light on the subject, that Dr. Fyffe,
of Netley Hospital, has observed in two patients that the pupils
were distinctly dilated during the cold stage of an ague fit.
Professor Donders has also often seen dilatation of the pupils
in incipient faintness.

[24] `De la Physionomie,' pp. 51, 256, 346.

[25] As quoted in White's `Gradation in Man,' p. 57.

_Horror_.--The state of mind expressed by this term implies terror,
and is in some, cases almost synonymous with it. Many a man
must have felt, before the blessed discovery of chloroform,
great horror at the thought of an impending surgical operation.
He who dreads, as well as hates a man, will feel, as Milton uses
the word, a horror of him. We feel horror if we see any one,
for instance a child, exposed to some instant and crushing danger.
Almost every one would experience the same feeling in the highest
degree in witnessing a man being tortured or going to be tortured.
In these cases there is no danger to ourselves; but from the power
of the imagination and of sympathy we put ourselves in the position
of the sufferer, and feel something akin to fear.

Sir C. Bell remarks,[26] that "horror is full of energy;
the body is in the utmost tension, not unnerved by fear."
It is, therefore, probable that horror would generally be
accompanied by the strong contraction of the brows; but as fear
is one of the elements, the eyes and mouth would be opened,
and the eyebrows would be raised, as far as the antagonistic
action of the corrugators permitted this movement. Duchenne has
given a photograph[27] (fig. 21) of the same old man as before,
with his eyes somewhat staring, the eyebrows partially raised,
and at the same time strongly contracted, the mouth opened,
and the platysma in action, all effected by the means of galvanism.
He considers that the expression thus produced shows extreme
terror with horrible pain or torture. A tortured man, as long
as his sufferings allowed him to feel any dread for the future,
would probably exhibit horror in an extreme degree.
I have shown the original of this photograph to twenty-three
persons of both sexes and various ages; and thirteen
immediately answered horror, great pain, torture, or agony;
three answered extreme fright; so that sixteen answered nearly
in accordance with Duchenne's belief. Six, however, said anger,
guided no doubt, by the strongly contracted brows,
and overlooking the peculiarly opened mouth. One said disgust.
On the whole, the evidence indicates that we have here a fairly
good representation of horror and agony. The photograph
before referred to (Pl. VII. fig. 2) likewise exhibits horror;
but in this the oblique eyebrows indicate great mental distress
in place of energy.

[26] `Anatomy of Expression,' p. 169.

[27] `Mecanisme de la Physionomie,' Album, pl. 65, pp. 44, 45.

Horror is generally accompanied by various gestures,
which differ in different individuals. Judging from pictures,
the whole body is often turned away or shrinks; or the arms are
violently protruded as if to push away some dreadful object.
The most frequent gesture, as far as can be inferred from
the action of persons who endeavour to express a vividly-imagined
scene of horror, is the raising of both shoulders,
with the bent arms pressed closely against the sides or chest.
These movements are nearly the same with those commonly made when we
feel very cold; and they are generally accompanied by a shudder,
as well as by a deep expiration or inspiration, according as
the chest happens at the time to be expanded or contracted.
The sounds thus made are expressed by words like _uh_ or _ugh_.[28]
It is not, however, obvious why, when we feel cold or express
a sense of horror, we press our bent arms against our bodies,
raise our shoulders, and shudder.

[28] See remarks to this effect by Mr. Wedgwood, in the Introduction to his
`Dictionary of English Etymology,' 2nd edit. 1872, p. xxxvii. He shows
by intermediate forms that the sounds here referred to have probably given
rise to many words, such as _ugly, huge_, &c. _Conclusion_.--I have now
endeavoured to describe the diversified expressions of fear, in its gradations
from mere attention to a start of surprise, into extreme terror and horror.
Some of the signs may be accounted for through the principles of habit,
association, and inheritance,--such as the wide opening of the mouth and eyes,
with upraised eyebrows, so as to see as quickly as possible all around us,
and to hear distinctly whatever sound may reach our ears. For we have
thus habitually prepared ourselves to discover and encounter any danger.
Some of the other signs of fear may likewise be accounted for, at least
in part, through these same principles. Men, during numberless generations,
have endeavoured to escape from their enemies or danger by headlong flight,
or by violently struggling with them; and such great exertions will have
caused the heart to beat rapidly, the breathing to be hurried, the chest
to heave, and the nostrils to be dilated. As these exertions have often
been prolonged to the last extremity, the final result will have been
utter prostration, pallor, perspiration, trembling of all the muscles,
or their complete relaxation. And now, whenever the emotion of fear is
strongly felt, though it may not lead to any exertion, the same results
tend to reappear, through the force of inheritance and association.

Nevertheless, it is probable that many or most of the above
symptoms of terror, such as the beating of the heart,
the trembling of the muscles, cold perspiration, &c., are in large
part directly due to the disturbed or interrupted transmission
of nerve-force from the cerebro-spinal system to various parts
of the body, owing to the mind being so powerfully affected.
We may confidently look to this cause, independently of habit
and association, in such cases as the modified secretions of
the intestinal canal, and the failure of certain glands to act.
With respect to the involuntary bristling of the hair, we have
good reason to believe that in the case of animals this action,
however it may have originated, serves, together with certain
voluntary movements, to make them appear terrible to their enemies;
and as the same involuntary and voluntary actions are performed
by animals nearly related to man, we are led to believe that man has
retained through inheritance a relic of them, now become useless.
It is certainly a remarkable fact, that the minute unstriped muscles,
by which the hairs thinly scattered over man's almost naked body
are erected, should have been preserved to the present day;
and that they should still contract under the same emotions, namely,
terror and rage, which cause the hairs to stand on end in the lower
members of the Order to which man belongs. CHAPTER XIII.


Nature of a blush--Inheritance--The parts of the body most affected--
Blushing in the various races of man--Accompanying gestures--
Confusion of mind--Causes of blushing--Self-attention, the
fundamental element--Shyness--Shame, from broken moral laws and
conventional rules--Modesty--Theory of blushing--Recapitulation.

BLUSHING is the most peculiar and the most human of all expressions.
Monkeys redden from passion, but it would require an overwhelming
amount of evidence to make us believe that any animal could blush.
The reddening of the face from a blush is due to the relaxation
of the muscular coats of the small arteries, by which the capillaries
become filled with blood; and this depends on the proper vaso-motor
centre being affected. No doubt if there be at the same time much
mental agitation, the general circulation will be affected; but it is
not due to the action of the heart that the network of minute vessels
covering the face becomes under a sense of shame gorged with blood.
We can cause laughing by tickling the skin, weeping or frowning by a blow,
trembling from the fear of pain, and so forth; but we cannot cause
a blush, as Dr. Burgess remarks,[1] by any physical means,--that is
by any action on the body. It is the mind which must be affected.
Blushing is not only involuntary; but the wish to restrain it,
by leading to self-attention actually increases the tendency.

[1] `The Physiology or Mechanism of Blushing,' 1839, p. 156. I shall
have occasion often to quote this work in the present chapter.

The young blush much more freely than the old, but not during infancy,[2]
which is remarkable, as we know that infants at a very early age redden
from passion. I have received authentic accounts of two little girls blushing
at the ages of between two and three years; and of another sensitive child,
a year older, blushing, when reproved for a fault. Many children,
at a somewhat more advanced age blush in a strongly marked manner.
It appears that the mental powers of infants are not as yet sufficiently
developed to allow of their blushing. Hence, also, it is that idiots
rarely blush. Dr. Crichton Browne observed for me those under his care,
but never saw a genuine blush, though he has seen their faces flash,
apparently from joy, when food was placed before them, and from anger.
Nevertheless some, if not utterly degraded, are capable of blushing.
A microcephalous idiot, for instance, thirteen years old, whose eyes
brightened a little when he was pleased or amused, has been described
by Dr. Behn,[3] as blushing and turning to one side, when undressed
for medical examination.

Women blush much more than men. It is rare to see an old man, but not
nearly so rare to see an old woman blushing. The blind do not escape.
Laura Bridgman, born in this condition, as well as completely deaf,
blushes.[4] The Rev. R. H. Blair, Principal of the Worcester College,
informs me that three children born blind, out of seven or eight then
in the Asylum, are great blushers. The blind are not at first conscious
that they are observed, and it is a most important part of their education,
as Mr. Blair informs me, to impress this knowledge on their minds;
and the impression thus gained would greatly strengthen the tendency
to blush, by increasing the habit of self-attention.

[2] Dr. Burgess, ibid. p. 56. At p. 33 he also remarks on women
blushing more freely than men, as stated below.

[3] Quoted by Vogt, `Memoire sur les Microcephales,'
1867, p. 20. Dr. Burgess (ibid. p. 56) doubts whether
idiots ever blush.

The tendency to blush is inherited. Dr. Burgess gives the case[5] of a
family consisting of a father, mother, and ten children, all of whom,
without exception, were prone to blush to a most painful degree.
The children were grown up; "and some of them were sent to travel in order to
wear away this diseased sensibility, but nothing was of the slightest avail."
Even peculiarities in blushing seem to be inherited. Sir James Paget,
whilst examining the spine of a girl, was struck at her singular
manner of blushing; a big splash of red appeared first on one cheek,
and then other splashes, variously scattered over the face and neck.
He subsequently asked the mother whether her daughter always blushed
in this peculiar manner; and was answered, "Yes, she takes after me."
Sir J. Paget then perceived that by asking this question he had caused
the mother to blush; and she exhibited the same peculiarity as her daughter.

In most cases the face, ears and neck are the sole parts which redden;
but many persons, whilst blushing intensely, feel that their whole
bodies grow hot and tingle; and this shows that the entire surface must
be in some manner affected. Blushes are said sometimes to commence
on the forehead, but more commonly on the cheeks, afterwards spreading
to the ears and neck.[6] In two Albinos examined by Dr. Burgess,
the blushes commenced by a small circumscribed spot on the cheeks,
over the parotidean plexus of nerves, and then increased into a circle;
between this blushing circle and the blush on the neck there was
an evident line of demarcation; although both arose simultaneously.
The retina, which is naturally red in the Albino, invariably increased
at the same time in redness.[7] Every one must have noticed how easily
after one blush fresh blushes chase each other over the face.
Blushing is preceded by a peculiar sensation in the skin.
According to Dr. Burgess the reddening of the skin is generally
succeeded by a slight pallor, which shows that the capillary vessels
contract after dilating. In some rare cases paleness instead of redness
is caused under conditions which would naturally induce a blush.
For instance, a young lady told me that in a large and crowded party
she caught her hair so firmly on the button of a passing servant,
that it took some time before she could be extricated; from her
sensations she imagined that she had blushed crimson; but was assured
by a friend that she had turned extremely pale.

[4] Lieber `On the Vocal Sounds,' &c.; Smithsonian Contributions,
1851, vol. ii. p. 6.

[5] Ibid. p. 182.

I was desirous to learn how far down the body blushes extend;
and Sir J. Paget, who necessarily has frequent opportunities for observation,
has kindly attended to this point for me during two or three years.
He finds that with women who blush intensely on the face, ears, and nape
of neck, the blush does not commonly extend any lower down the body.
It is rare to see it as low down as the collar-bones and shoulder-blades;
and he has never himself seen a single instance in which it extended below
the upper part of the chest. He has also noticed that blushes sometimes
die away downwards, not gradually and insensibly, but by irregular
ruddy blotches. Dr. Langstaff has likewise observed for me several women
whose bodies did not in the least redden while their faces were crimsoned
with blushes. With. the insane, some of whom appear to be particularly
liable to blushing, Dr. J. Crichton Browne has several times seen the blush
extend as far down as the collar-bones, and in two instances to the breasts.
He gives me the case of a married woman, aged twenty-seven, who suffered
from epilepsy. On the morning after her arrival in the Asylum, Dr. Browne,
together with his assistants, visited her whilst she was in bed.
The moment that he approached, she blushed deeply over her cheeks and temples;
and the blush spread quickly to her ears. She was much agitated
and tremulous. He unfastened the collar of her chemise in order to examine
the state of her lungs; and then a brilliant blush rushed over her chest,
in an arched line over the upper third of each breast, and extended downwards
between the breasts nearly to the ensiform cartilage of the sternum.
This case is interesting, as the blush did not thus extend downwards until
it became intense by her attention being drawn to this part of her person.
As the examination proceeded she became composed, and the blush disappeared;
but on several subsequent occasions the same phenomena were observed.

[6] Moreau, in edit. of 1820 of Lavater, vol. iv. p. 303.

[7] Burgess. ibid. p. 38, on paleness after blushing, p. 177.

The foregoing facts show that, as a general rule, with English women,
blushing does not extend beneath the neck and upper part of the chest.
Nevertheless Sir J. Paget informs me that he has lately heard
of a case, on which he can fully rely, in which a little girl,
shocked by what she imagined to be an act of indelicacy,
blushed all over her abdomen and the upper parts of her legs.
Moreau also[8] relates, on the authority of a celebrated painter,
that the chest, shoulders, arms, and whole body of a girl,
who unwillingly consented to serve as a model, reddened when she
was first divested of her clothes.

It is a rather curious question why, in most cases the face, ears, and neck
alone redden, inasmuch as the whole surface of the body often tingles
and grows hot. This seems to depend, chiefly, on the face and adjoining
parts of the skin having been habitually exposed to the air, light,
and alternations of temperature, by which the small arteries not only
have acquired the habit of readily dilating and contracting, but appear
to have become unusually developed in comparison with other parts
of the surface.[9] It is probably owing to this same cause, as M. Moreau
and Dr. Burgess have remarked, that the face is so liable to redden under
various circumstances, such as a fever-fit. ordinary heat, violent exertion,
anger, a slight blow, &c.; and on the other hand that it is liable
to grow pale from cold and fear, and to be discoloured during pregnancy.
The face is also particularly liable to be affected by cutaneous complaints,
by small-pox, erysipelas, &c. This view is likewise supported by
the fact that the men of certain races, who habitually go nearly naked,
often blush over their arms and chests and even down to their waists.
A lady, who is a great blusher, informs Dr. Crichton Browne, that when she
feels ashamed or is agitated, she blushes over her face, neck, wrists,
and hands,--that is, over all the exposed portions of her skin.
Nevertheless it may be doubted whether the habitual exposure of the skin
of the face and neck, and its consequent power of reaction under stimulants
of all kinds, is by itself sufficient to account for the much greater tendency
in English women of these parts than of others to blush; for the hands
are well supplied with nerves and small vessels, and have been as much
exposed to the air as the face or neck, and yet the hands rarely blush.
We shall presently see that the attention of the mind having been directed
much more frequently and earnestly to the face than to any other part
of the body, probably affords a sufficient explanation.

[8] See Lavater, edit. of 1820, vol. iv. p. 303.

[9] Burgess, ibid. pp. 114, 122. Moreau in Lavater, ibid.
vol. iv. p. 293.

_Blushing in the various races of man_.--The small vessels
of the face become filled with blood, from the emotion of shame,
in almost all the races of man, though in the very dark
races no distinct change of colour can be perceived.
Blushing is evident in all the Aryan nations of Europe, and to a
certain extent with those of India. But Mr. Erskine has never
noticed that the necks of the Hindoos are decidedly affected.
With the Lepchas of Sikhim, Mr. Scott has often observed
a faint blush on the cheeks, base of the ears, and sides
of the neck, accompanied by sunken eyes and lowered head.
This has occurred when he has detected them in a falsehood,
or has accused them of ingratitude. The pale, sallow complexions
of these men render a blush much more conspicuous than in most
of the other natives of India. With the latter, shame, or it
may be in part fear, is expressed, according to Mr. Scott,
much more plainly by the head being averted or bent down,
with the eyes wavering or turned askant, than by any change
of colour in the skin.

The Semitic races blush freely, as might have been expected,
from their general similitude to the Aryans. Thus with
the Jews, it is said in the Book of Jeremiah (chap. vi.
15), "Nay, they were not at all ashamed, neither could they blush."
Mrs. Asa Gray saw an Arab managing his boat clumsily on the Nile,
and when laughed at by his companions, "he blushed quite to
the back of his neck." Lady Duff Gordon remarks that a young
Arab blushed on coming into her presence.[10]

Mr. Swinhoe has seen the Chinese blushing, but he thinks it is rare;
yet they have the expression "to redden with shame." Mr. Geach
informs me that the Chinese settled in Malacca and the native Malays
of the interior both blush. Some of these people go nearly naked,
and he particularly attended to the downward extension of the blush.
Omitting the cases in which the face alone was seen to blush, Mr. Geach
observed that the face, arms, and breast of a Chinaman, aged 24 years,
reddened from shame; and with another Chinese, when asked why he had not
done his work in better style, the whole body was similarly affected.
In two Malays[11] he saw the face, neck, breast, and arms blushing;
and in a third Malay (a Bugis) the blush extended down to the waist.

The Polynesians blush freely. The Rev. Mr. Stack has seen
hundreds of instances with the New Zealanders. The following case
is worth giving, as it relates to an old man who was unusually
dark-coloured and partly tattooed. After having let his land
to an Englishman for a small yearly rental, a strong passion
seized him to buy a gig, which had lately become the fashion with
the Maoris. He consequently wished to draw all the rent for four years
from his tenant, and consulted Mr. Stack whether he could do so.
The man was old, clumsy, poor, and ragged, and the idea of his
driving himself about in his carriage for display amused Mr. Stack
so much that he could not help bursting out into a laugh;
and then "the old man blushed up to the roots of his hair."
Forster says that "you may easily distinguish a spreading blush"
on the cheeks of the fairest women in Tahiti.[12] The natives
also of several of the other archipelagoes in the Pacific have
been seen to blush.

[10] `Letters from Egypt,' 1865, p. 66. Lady Gordon is mistaken
when she says Malays and Mulattoes never blush.

[11] Capt. Osborn (`Quedah,' p. 199), in speaking of a Malay,
whom be reproached for cruelty, says he was glad to see that
the man blushed.

Mr. Washington Matthews has often seen a blush on the faces
of the young squaws belonging to various wild Indian tribes
of North America. At the opposite extremity of the continent
in Tierra del Fuego, the natives, according to Mr. Bridges,
"blush much, but chiefly in regard to women; but they certainly
blush also at their own personal appearance." This latter
statement agrees with what I remember of the Fuegian, Jemmy Button,
who blushed when he was quizzed about the care which he took
in polishing his shoes, and in otherwise adorning himself.
With respect to the Aymara Indians on the lofty plateaus
of Bolivia, Mr. Forbes says,[13] that from the colour of their
skins it is impossible that their blushes should be as clearly
visible as in the white races; still under such circumstances
as would raise a blush in us, "there can always be seen the same
expression of modesty or confusion; and even in the dark,
a rise of temperature of the skin of the face can be felt,
exactly as occurs in the European." With the Indians who
inhabit the hot, equable, and damp parts of South America,
the skin apparently does not answer to mental excitement so
readily as with the natives of the northern and southern parts
of the continent, who have long been exposed to great vicissitudes
of climate; for Humboldt quotes without a protest the sneer
of the Spaniard, "How can those be trusted, who know not how to
blush?"[14] Von Spix and Martius, in speaking of the aborigines
of Brazil, assert that they cannot properly be said to blush;
"it was only after long intercourse with the whites, and after
receiving some education, that we perceived in the Indians
a change of colour expressive of the emotions of their minds."[15]
It is, however, incredible that the power of blushing could
have thus originated; but the habit of self-attention, consequent
on their education and new course of life, would have much
increased any innate tendency to blush.

[12] J. R. Forster, `Observations during a Voyage round the World,'
4to, 1778, p. 229. Waitz gives (`Introduction to Anthropology,' Eng.
translat. 1863, vol. i. p. 135) references for other islands in
the Pacific. See, also, Dampier `On the Blushing of the Tunquinese'
(vol. ii. p. 40); but I have not consulted this work.
Waitz quotes Bergmann, that the Kalmucks do not blush, but this may be
doubted after what we have seen with respect to the Chinese. He also
quotes Roth, who denies that the Abyssinians are capable of blushing.
Unfortunately, Capt. Speedy, who lived so long with the Abyssinians, has not
answered my inquiry on this head. Lastly, I must add that the Rajah Brooke
has never observed the least sign of a blush with the Dyaks of Borneo;
on the contrary under circumstances which would excite a blush in us,
they assert "that they feel the blood drawn from their faces."

[13] Transact. of the Ethnological Soc. 1870, vol. ii. p. 16.

Several trustworthy observers have assured me that they have
seen on the faces of negroes an appearance resembling a blush,
under circumstances which would have excited one in us, though their
skins were of an ebony-black tint. Some describe it as blushing brown,
but most say that the blackness becomes more intense. An increased supply
of blood in the skin seems in some manner to increase its blackness;
thus certain exanthematous diseases cause the affected places in the negro
to appear blacker, instead of, as with us, redder.[16] The skin, perhaps,
from being rendered more tense by the filling of the capillaries,
would reflect a somewhat different tint to what it did before.
That the capillaries of the face in the negro become filled with blood,
under the emotion of shame, we may feel confident; because a perfectly
characterized albino negress, described by Buffon,[17] showed a faint
tinge of crimson on her cheeks when she exhibited herself naked.
Cicatrices of the skin remain for a long time white in the negro,
and Dr. Burgess, who had frequent opportunities of observing a scar of this
kind on the face of a negress, distinctly saw that it "invariably became
red whenever she was abruptly spoken to, or charged with any trivial
offence."[18] The blush could be seen proceeding from the circumference
of the scar towards the middle, but it did not reach the centre.
Mulattoes are often great blushers, blush succeeding blush over their faces.
From these facts there can be no doubt that negroes blush, although no
redness is visible on the skin.

[14] Humboldt, `Personal Narrative,' Eng. translat. vol. iii. p. 229.

[15] Quoted by Prichard, Phys. Hist. of Mankind,
4th edit 1851, vol. i. p. 271.

[16] See, on this head, Burgess, ibid. p. 32. Also Waitz, `Introdnction
to Anthropology,' Eng. edit. vol. i. p. 139. Moreau gives
a detailed account (`Lavater,' 1820, tom. iv. p. 302) of the blushing
of a Madagascar negress-slave when forced by her brutal master to exhibit
her naked bosom.

I am assured by Gaika and by Mrs. Barber that the Kafirs of South Africa never
blush; but this may only mean that no change of colour is distinguishable.
Gaika adds that under the circumstances which would make a, European blush,
his countrymen "look ashamed to keep their heads up."

It is asserted by four of my informants that the Australians,
who are almost as black as negroes, never blush. A fifth
answers doubtfully, remarking that only a very strong blush
could be seen, on account of the dirty state of their skins.
Three observers state that they do blush;[19] Mr. S. Wilson adding
that this is noticeable only under a strong emotion, and when the skin
is not too dark from long exposure and want of cleanliness.
Mr. Lang answers, "I have noticed that shame almost always excites
a blush, which frequently extends as low as the neck." Shame is
also shown, as he adds, "by the eyes being turned from side to side."
As Mr. Lang was a teacher in a native school, it is probable
that he chiefly observed children; and we know that they blush
more than adults. Mr. G. Taplin has seen half-castes blushing,
and he says that the aborigines have a word expressive of shame.
Mr. Hagenauer, who is one of those who has never observed
the Australians to blush, says that he has "seen them looking
down to the ground on account of shame;" and the missionary,
Mr. Bulmer, remarks that though "I have not been able to detect
anything like shame in the adult aborigines, I have noticed
that the eyes of the children, when ashamed, present a restless,
watery appearance, as if they did not know where to look."

[17] Quoted by Prichard, Phys. Hist. of Mankind, 4th edit.
1851, vol. i. p. 225.

[18] Burgess, ibid. p. 31. On mulattoes blushing, see p. 33. I have
received similar accounts with respect to, mulattoes.

[19] Barrington also says that the Australians of New South Wales blush,
as quoted by Waitz, ibid. p. 135.

The facts now given are sufficient to show that blushing,
whether or not there is any change of colour, is common to most,
probably to all, of the races of man.

_Movements and gestures which accompany Blushing_.--Under a keen sense of
shame there is a, strong desire for concealment.[20] We turn away the whole
body, more especially the face, which we endeavour in some manner to hide.
An ashamed person can hardly endure to meet the gaze of those present,
so that he almost invariably casts down his eyes or looks askant.
As there generally exists at the same time a strong wish to avoid
the appearance of shame, a vain attempt is made to look direct at
the person who causes this feeling; and the antagonism between these
opposite tendencies leads to various restless movements in the eyes.
I have noticed two ladies who, whilst blushing, to which they are very liable,
have thus acquired, as it appears, the oddest trick of incessantly blinking
their eyelids with extraordinary rapidity. An intense blush is sometimes
accompanied by a slight effusion of tears;[21] and this, I presume,
is due to the lacrymal glands partaking of the increased supply of blood,
which we know rushes into the capillaries of the adjoining parts,
including the retina.

[20] Mr. Wedgwood says (Dict. of English Etymology, vol. iii. 1865, p.
155) that the word shame "may well originate in the idea of shade
or concealment, and may be illustrated by the Low German _scheme_,
shade or shadow." Gratiolet (De la Phys. pp. 357-362) has a good
discussion on the gestures accompanying shame; but some of his
remarks seem to me rather fanciful. See, also, Burgess (ibid. pp.
69, 134) on the same subject.

Many writers, ancient and modern, have noticed the foregoing movements;
and it has already been shown that the aborigines in various
parts of the world often exhibit their shame by looking
downwards or askant, or by restless movements of their eyes.
Ezra cries out (ch. ix. 6), "O, my God! I am ashamed,
and blush to lift up my head to thee, my God." In Isaiah
(ch. I. 6) we meet with the words, "I hid not my face from shame."
Seneca remarks (Epist. xi. 5) "that the Roman players hang down
their heads, fix their eyes on the ground and keep them lowered,
but are unable to blush in acting shame." According to Macrobius,
who lived in the filth century (`Saturnalia,' B. vii.
C. 11), "Natural philosophers assert that nature being moved
by shame spreads the blood before herself as a veil, as we
see any one blushing often puts his hands before his face."
Shakspeare makes Marcus (`Titus Andronicus,' act ii, sc. 5) say to
his niece, "Ah! now thou turn'st away thy face for shame."
A lady informs me that she found in the Lock Hospital a girl whom
she had formerly known, and who had become a wretched castaway,
and the poor creature, when approached, hid her face under
the bed-clothes, and could not be persuaded to uncover it.
We often see little children, when shy or ashamed, turn away,
and still standing up, bury their faces in their mother's gown;
or they throw themselves face downwards on her lap.

[21] Burgess, ibid. pp. 181, 182. Boerhaave also noticed
(as quoted by Gratiolet, ibid. p. 361) the tendency
to the secretion of tears during intense blushing.
Mr. Bulmer, as we have seen, speaks of the "watery eyes"
of the children of the Australian aborigines when ashamed.

_Confusion of mind_.--Most persons, whilst blushing intensely,
have their mental powers confused. This is recognized in such
common expressions as "she was covered with confusion."
Persons in this condition lose their presence of mind,
and utter singularly inappropriate remarks.
They are often much distressed, stammer, and make awkward
movements or strange grimaces. In certain cases involuntary
twitchings of some of the facial muscles may be observed.
I have been informed by a young lady, who blushes excessively,
that at such times she does not even know what she is saying.
When it was suggested to her that this might be due to her
distress from the consciousness that her blushing was noticed,
she answered that this could not be the case, "as she had
sometimes felt quite as stupid when blushing at a thought
in her own room."

I will give an instance of the extreme disturbance of mind
to which some sensitive men are liable. A gentleman,
on whom I can rely, assured me that he had been an eye-witness
of the following scene:--A small dinner-party was given in honour
of an extremely shy man, who, when he rose to return thanks,
rehearsed the speech, which he had evidently learnt by heart,
in absolute silence, and did not utter a single word;
but he acted as if he were speaking with much emphasis.
His friends, perceiving how the case stood, loudly applauded
the imaginary bursts of eloquence, whenever his gestures
indicated a pause, and the man never discovered that he had
remained the whole time completely silent. On the contrary,
he afterwards remarked to my friend, with much satisfaction,
that he thought he had succeeded uncommonly well.

When a person is much ashamed or very shy, and blushes intensely,
his heart beats rapidly and his breathing is disturbed.
This can hardly fail to affect the circulation of the blood
within the brain, and perhaps the mental powers.
It seems however doubtful, judging from the still more powerful
influence of anger and fear on the circulation, whether we can
thus satisfactorily account for the confused state of mind
in persons whilst blushing intensely.

The true explanation apparently lies in the intimate
sympathy which exists between the capillary circulation
of the surface of the head and face, and that of the brain.
On applying to Dr. J. Crichton Browne for information,
he has given me various facts bearing on this subject.
When the sympathetic nerve is divided on one side of the head,
the capillaries on this side are relaxed and become filled
with blood, causing the skin to redden and to grow hot, and at
the same time the temperature within the cranium on the same
side rises. Inflammation of the membranes of the brain leads
to the engorgement of the face, ears, and eyes with blood.
The first stage of an epileptic fit appears to be the contraction
of the vessels of the brain, and the first outward manifestation is,
an extreme pallor of countenance. Erysipelas of the head commonly
induces delirium. Even the relief given to a severe headache
by burning the skin with strong lotion, depends, I presume,
on the same principle.

Dr. Browne has often administered to his patients the vapour
of the nitrite of amyl,[22] which has the singular property of
causing vivid redness of the face in from thirty to sixty seconds.
This flushing resembles blushing in almost every detail:
it begins at several distinct points on the face, and spreads till it
involves the whole surface of the head, neck, and front of the chest;
but has been observed to extend only in one case to the abdomen.
The arteries in the retina become enlarged; the eyes glisten,
and in one instance there was a slight effusion of tears.
The patients are at first pleasantly stimulated, but, as the
flushing increases, they become confused and bewildered.
One woman to whom the vapour had often been administered asserted that,
as soon as she grew hot, she grew MUDDLED. With persons just
commencing to blush it appears, judging from their bright eyes and
lively behaviour, that their mental powers are somewhat stimulated.
It is only when the blushing is excessive that the mind grows confused.

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