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The Elson Readers, Book 5 by William H. Elson and Christine M. Keck

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This book is based on the belief that an efficient reader for the
fifth grade must score high when tested on five fundamental features:
quality of literature; variety of literature; organization of
literature; quantity of literature; and definite helps sufficient to
make the text a genuine tool for classroom use.

Quality Literature:

First among these features is the essential that the foundation of the
book must be the acknowledged masterpieces of American and British
authors. American boys and girls may be depended upon to read current
magazines and newspapers, but if they are ever to have their taste and
judgment of literary values enriched by familiarity with the classics
of our literature, the schools must provide the opportunity. This
ideal does not mean the exclusion of well established present-day
writers, but it does mean that the core of the school reader should be
the rich literary heritage that has won recognition for its enduring
value. Moreover, these masterpieces must come to the pupil in complete
units, not in mere excerpts or garbled "cross-sections"; for the pupil
in his school life should gain some real literary possessions.

A study of the contents of The Elson Readers, Book Five, will show how
consistently its authors have based the book on this sound test of
quality. The works of the acknowledged "makers" of our literature have
been abundantly drawn upon to furnish a foundation of great stories
and poems, gripping in interest and well within the powers of
child-appreciation in this grade.

Variety of Literature:

Variety is fundamental to a well-rounded course of reading. If the
school reader is to provide for all the purposes that a collection
of literature for this grade should serve, it must contain material
covering at least the following types: (1) literature representing
both British and American authors; (2) some of the best modern poetry
and prose as well as the literature of the past; (3) important race
stories--great epics--and world-stories of adventure; (4) patriotic
literature, rich in ideals of home and country, loyalty and service,
thrift, cooperation, and citizenship--ideals of which American
children gained, during the World War, a new conception that the
school reader should perpetuate; (5) literature suited to festival
occasions, particularly those celebrated in the schools: Armistice
Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, Arbor Day and Bird Day,
anniversaries of the birthdays of Lincoln and Washington, as well as
of Longfellow and other great American authors; (6) literature of the
seasons, Nature, and out-of-door life; (7) literature of humor that
will enliven the reading and cultivate the power to discriminate
between wholesome humor--an essential part of life--and crude humor,
so prevalent in the pupil's outside reading; (8) adventure stories
both imaginative and real; (9) literature suited to dramatization,
providing real project material.

This book offers a well-rounded course of reading covering all the
types mentioned above. Especially by means of groups of stories and
poems that portray love of home and its festivals, love of our free
country and its flag, and unselfish service to others, this book makes
a stirring appeal to good citizenship. Moreover, it will be noted that
wholesome ethical ideals pervade the literature throughout.

Organization of Literature:

The literature of a school reader, if it is to do effective work, must
be purposefully organized. Sound organization groups into related
units the various selections that center about a common theme. This
arrangement enables the pupil to see the larger dominant ideas of the
book as a whole, instead of looking upon it as a confused scrapbook
of miscellaneous selections. Such arrangement also fosters literary
comparison by bringing together selections having a common theme or

This book has been so organized as to fulfill these purposes. There
are three main Parts, each distinguished by unity of theme or
authorship. Part I, leading from a wholesome appreciation of Nature,
particularly in its American setting, centers mainly about the
important themes of patriotism, service, and good citizenship; Part II
introduces some of the great tales that typify our love of stirring
deeds; Part III presents some of our greatest American authors at
sufficient length to make them stand out to the pupil. Through these
grouped selections, together with the accompanying biographies, pupils
may come to be familiar with and love some of the great company of
writers that have made the name of America known in the world of

Attention is called to three special features that keep the dominant
theme of each Part clearly in the foreground: (1) "A Forward Look" and
"A Backward Look" for each main division and important subdivisions
emphasize the larger theme, and show how each selection contributes to
the group-idea (see pages 19, 56, etc.); (2) the Notes and Questions
frequently call the pupil's attention to the relation the selection
bears to the main thought (see pages 39, 75, etc.); (3) the three main
divisions, and the subordinate groups within each main unit, are made
to stand out clearly by illustrations that typify the theme (see
pages 18, 21, etc.) and by topical headings that enable the pupil to
visualize the group-units. By these three means the organization of
the book is emphasized, and fundamental ideals are kept dominant.

Quality of Literature:

Obviously, a book that is to supply the pupil with a year's course in
literature must be a generous volume. Variety is impossible without
quantity, especially where literary wholes rather than mere
fragmentary excerpts are offered. Particularly is this true when
complete units are included not only for intensive study, but also for
extensive reading--longer units, of the so-called "paper classics"
type, to be read mainly for the story-element. In bulk such units
should be as large as the pupil can control readily in rapid silent
reading, a kind of reading that increases the power to enjoy with
intelligence a magazine or a book.

The Elson Readers, Book Five, is a generous volume in provision for
these needs. Its inclusiveness makes possible a proper balance between
prose and poetry, between long and short selections, and between
material for intensive and extensive reading.

Definite Helps:

If the pupil is to gain the full benefit from his reading, certain
definite helps must be provided. An efficient reader must score a high
test not only on the fundamentals of quality, variety, organization
and quantity of literature, but also on its fitness as a tool for
classroom use. The effectiveness of this Reader as such a tool may be
indicated by the following distinguishing features:

(1) A distinctive introduction, "The Crystal Glass" (see page 13),
gives the pupil an illuminating interpretation of the organization and
literary content of the volume.

(2) Definite suggestions for developing speed and concentration in
silent reading. (See pages 21, 30, 34, 163, etc.)

(3) A comprehensive Glossary (pages 399-418) contains the words
and phrases that offer valuable vocabulary training, either of
pronunciation or meaning. The teacher is free to use the Glossary
according to the needs of her particular class, but suggestive type
words and phrases are listed under Notes and Questions.

(4) A complete program of study, "How to Gain the Full Benefit from
Your Reading" (pages 28, 29), gives a concise explanation of the
various helps found in the book.

(5) The helps to study are more than mere notes; they aid in making
significant the larger purposes of the literature. These "Notes and
Questions" include:

(a) Biographies of the authors, that supply data for interpreting the
stories and poems; particularly helpful are those of Part III;

(b) Historical settings, wherever they are necessary to the
intelligent understanding of the selection (see pages 94, 105, etc.);

(c) Questions and suggestions that present clearly the main idea,
stimulate original discussion and comparison, and bring out modern
parallels to the situations found in the selections;

(d) Words of everyday use frequently mispronounced, listed, for study
under "Discussion" (see page 29, etc.);

(e) Phrases that offer idiomatic difficulty; for convenience in
locating these phrases the page and line numbers are indicated;

(f) Projects, individual and social.






A Forward Look


Turk, The Faithful Dog Samuel White Baker
Our Uninvited Guest Ernest Harold Baynes
Hunting The American Buffalo Theodore Roosevelt


The Birds And I Liberty H. Bailey
The Brown Thrush Lucy Larcom
Sing On, Blithe Bird William Motherwell


The Violet And The Bee John B. Tabb
Four-Leaf Clovers Ella Higginson
Jack In The Pulpit Clara Smith


September Helen Hunt Jackson
October's Bright Blue Weather Helen Hunt Jackson
November Alice Cary
Today Thomas Carlyle
The Night Has A Thousand Eyes Francis Bourdillon

A Backward Look


A Forward Look

Adventures of Munchausen R. E. Raspe
The Blind Men and the Elephant John G. Saxe
Darius Green John T. Trowbridge
Birthday Greetings Lewis Carroll
The Wind and The Moon George Macdonald

A Backward Look


A Forward Look


Home, Sweet Home John Howard Payne
The Grapevine Swing Samuel Minturn Peck
Lullaby of an Infant Chief Sir Walter Scott
The First Thanksgiving Day Margaret Junkin Preston
A Visit from St. Nicholas Clement C. Moore


The Land of Liberty (Author Unknown)
The Flag of Our Country Charles Sumner
The Name of Old Glory James Whitcomb Riley
The Star-Spangled Banner Francis Scott Key
The Boyhood of Lincoln Elbridge S. Brooks
Washington with Braddock Elbridge S. Brooks


Somebody's Mother (Author Unknown)
The Leak in the Dike Phoebe Cary
Casablanca Felicia Hemans
Tubal Cain Charles Mackay
The Inchcape Rock Robert Southey
My Boyhood on the Prairie Hamlin Garland
Woodman, Spare That Tree George P. Morris
The American Boy Theodore Roosevelt

A Backward Look



A Forward Look


Aladdin, or The Wonderful Lamp
Ali Baba and the Open Sesame
Sindbad The Sailor

Robin Hood Joseph Walker McSpadden
Gulliver's Travels Jonathan Swift
Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe

A Backward Look



A Forward Look


The Whistle
An Ax to Grind


The Yellow Violet
The Gladness of Nature


The Huskers
The Corn-Song


Capturing the Wild Horse
The Adventure of the Mason


The Arrow and the Song
The Children's Hour
The Song of Hiawatha


The Paradise of Children
The Golden Touch

A Backward Look


In The Elson Readers selections are grouped according to theme or
authorship. Such an arrangement enables the pupil to see the dominant
ideas of the book as a whole. This purpose is further aided by A
Forward Look, or introduction, and A Backward Look, or review, for
each main group. The book, therefore, emphasizes certain fundamental
ideals, making them stand out clearly in the mind of the pupil. This
result can best be accomplished by reading all the selections of a
group in the order given, before taking up those of a different
group. The order of the groups, however, may be varied to suit school
conditions or preferences.

It goes without saying that selections particularly suited to the
celebration of special days will be read in connection with such
festival occasions. For example, "The First Thanksgiving Day," page
92, will be read immediately before the Thanksgiving holiday, even if
the class at that particular time is in the midst of some other
main part of the Reader. Before assigning a selection out of order,
however, the teacher should scrutinize the notes and questions, to
make certain that no references are made within these notes to a
discussion in A Forward Look or to other selections in the group
that pupils have not yet read. In case such references are found
the teacher may well conduct a brief class discussion to make these
questions significant to the pupils.

It is the belief of the authors that the longer selections, such as
those found in Part II, should be read silently and reported on in
class. In this way the monotony incident to the reading of such
selections aloud in class will be avoided. However, the class will
wish to read aloud certain passages from these longer units because of
their beauty, their dramatic quality, or the forceful way in which
the author has expressed his thoughts. Class readings are frequently
suggested for this purpose. In this way reading aloud is given


Once upon a time, as the fairy tale has it, there was a mighty
magician named Merlin. He was the teacher of the young Prince Arthur,
who was one day to become the British King. Merlin was old and
wise, and he had the power of prophecy. One of his most wonderful
possessions was a magic glass, a globe of crystal, into which one
might gaze and see distant places as if they were near at hand, and
see the events of past and future as if they were happening right
before his eyes.

No one knows now the whereabouts of this wonder-working crystal, or
what was its appearance. Very likely it seemed ordinary enough, though
a glass of curious shape. Only those who knew how to use it could
learn its secrets; for all others it had no power. But the magic that
once lay in it has been given to certain books, which, like Merlin's
globe, are filled with mysterious power. Such a book you now hold in
your hands. If you do not understand how to use it, it will tell you
nothing. But if you have this understanding, you have only to look
within these pages, and past and present and future will be unfolded
to your gaze.

Here is what you will find if you use this book as a Merlin's glass
wherein to see the wonders which lie concealed within it.

First of all, you will see the world of animals and birds and flowers
and times and seasons--the world of Nature. There is a story about a
little girl who wanted to see the King to ask of him a favor. But no
one could see him unless he was accompanied by some friends, for the
King would not trust anyone unless he had proved himself friendly so
that people loved to be with him. Now this little girl was very poor,
and she had no friends. She wandered alone in the forest, and cried
because she had no friends. Just at this time she came into the
knowledge of a wonderful secret by which she could understand the
language of the birds and of all the shy animals of the forest, and as
soon as she could understand them and talk with them, they loved
her, and the forest was no longer a lonely place but was filled with
friends. Some of these friends went with her to the King's palace, and
she now had no difficulty. She knew the language of those who lived in
the forest, and she was no longer poor and lonely. So in the pages
of this book you will learn of the lives of faithful dogs and huge
buffaloes, and the brown thrush will sing for you a song full of
meaning. The modest violet, the jack-in-the-pulpit, even the four-leaf
clovers will tell you stories about the forest and the field, so that
wherever you walk you will be surrounded by your friends. The magic
glass of Merlin will unseal for you this world of Nature.

Merlin's globe also enables you to look into the past and live in
it as if it were the present. You will take part in the first
Thanksgiving Day. You will learn why the flag of our country is called
Old Glory. You will look in upon the boy Lincoln, tired after his
hard day's work on the farm, reading by the open fire in his father's
cabin. You will see the young Washington bravely helping General
Braddock to save his soldiers. So the magic glass of reading will make
the early history of our country real to you, and the past will no
longer be the past but a part of your present life.

If you wish to live for a time in the fairy realm, where there are
buried treasure chests or magic lamps and rings, or if you would like
to make a journey to far-off lands where are many wonders, you have
only to look in this magic glass, and in a twinkling you are whisked
away. You find yourself in a strange country where men and women wear
curious, flowing garments of many colors, where trees and animals are
unfamiliar, and where queer buildings with many towers attract your
delighted eyes. The narrow streets are filled with strange life. You
see a boy with eyes that seem to be looking on strange things. He is
talking with an evil-looking man who bends over him, pointing down the
street and out into the open country at the other end of the town. And
presently the boy goes with the stranger, and you follow, for it is
Aladdin and the magician, and you wish to know the adventure that is
to come.

After this, Ali Baba and the cave of buried treasure and the forty
thieves and Morgiana, the shrewd slave-girl, and the jars of oil
will all appear in the magic glass, and another series of marvelous
adventures will be disclosed to you. And then again, you come to a
rich man's home, and before it, gazing enviously at it, is a poor
tramp. Go up the steps with him and look upon the feast within the
house. There is a queer table filled with food of strange form. And
there is the rich man, Sindbad the Sailor, and you may listen if you
will to his stories of travel to marvelous lands. Thus you travel
to the mysterious East, without effort. You take part in wonderful
adventures, without danger. Your magic glass is the window through
which a world of fairy magic gleams vividly.

At another time you look, and the glass shows an English scene. It is
the greenwood, somewhat out from London. Never were trees so green, or
flowers so fresh and gay, or birds so filled with joy. You listen, and
a gay fellow sings,

"Under the greenwood tree
Who loves to lie with me,
And tune his merry note
Unto the sweet bird's throat,

"Come hither! come hither! come hither!
Here shall he see
No enemy
But winter and rough weather."

Presently you hear the sound of a horn deep in the forest, to be
followed soon by the coming of a merry crowd. Here is the prince
of outlaws, clad in Lincoln green and followed by a score of lusty
fellows, and at once there are songs, wrestling matches, and merry
jests, till your heart is filled with joy. Little John, and the
Sheriff of Nottingham, and Friar Tuck, and Robin Hood, and last of
all, the King himself--these are the actors in the play that you see
through your magic glass. And so it goes through all these stories of
adventure--they become a part of your experience, and you live more
lives than one. Last of all, your magic glass, which is this book, and
which is always ready to do you service when you call upon it, will
introduce you to a group of great Americans who long ago learned these
secrets and wrote down what they themselves had seen. A patriot who
helped to make our America will tell you several stories of his
childhood. A Nature-loving poet will tell you about flowers and birds.
Another poet will furnish stories about merry times on the farm. A
third will tell you legends of the Indians. Once more the world of
Nature, the world of adventure, and the world of history and legend
will open before you, but this time you will learn something also of
the men who have lived in our America and have written about it in
such way as to show us that, after all, we need no marvelous Eastern
country or desert islands--there is adventure enough and to spare all
about us, if we have eyes to see.

And here is the greatest charm of all. It is good to know about this
magic glass of reading, so that we shall never want for the joy it
can bring. But while we use it, we shall find our sight made pure and
strong, so that when we no longer have the crystal globe, we can walk
in field and wood, and along our streets, and see, wondering, the
beauty of the world in which we live.



Better--a thousand times better--than all the material wealth the
world can give is the love for the best books.



If we have eyes to see, the world of Nature is a fairyland. Further
on in this book you will read how Aladdin--a boy who was led by a
magician to a cave in which were all kinds of wonderful objects--came
upon a garden underground wherein grew trees filled with extraordinary
fruit. "Each tree bore fruit of a different color," we are told: "The
white were pearls; the sparkling were diamonds; the deep red were
rubies; the green, emeralds; the blue, turquoises."

Now with this compare a story about a great American author, Ralph
Waldo Emerson. Emerson loved all the forms of Nature. He wrote of
the bee, of the wild flowers, of the storm, of the snowbird, and of
running waters. And in talking of the magic of a river he reminds us
of Aladdin's fairy fruits:

"I see thy brimming, eddying stream
And thy enchantment,
For thou changest every rock in thy bed
Into a gem.
All is opal and agate,
And at will thou pavest with diamonds."

Now we may suppose that Aladdin often waded through the brook and
noticed the shining pebbles and heard the tinkling music of the water
as it rippled over stones in the stream. He noticed the pebbles, but
did not look at them. He heard the murmur of the waters, but he did
not listen. But when the magician uttered his magic words, and the
earth opened, and Aladdin saw a little ladder leading down into a deep
cave, and in that cave found curious trees bearing curious fruits, he
was so surprised that he looked more closely, and all that he saw was
full of wonder. Now the poet is like the magician. His words open the
door of enchantment for us if we care to enter.

For the poets have been lovers of Nature, and they help us to see
the beauty that lies about us. One of them calls the stars "the
forget-me-nots of the angels." Another writes of the song of the brook
as it goes dancing and singing down into the river, until we hear the
music of the waters in the melody of the poet's verse. Through such
stories and poems of animals and birds and flowers and of the seasons
of the year as you will find in the following pages, your magic glass
of reading will open up the fairyland of Nature.

For magic wonders are not limited to the fairylands that we read about
in the Arabian Nights or in the tales of Cinderella or of the Sleeping
Beauty. There is the enchantment which put the princess and all her
household to sleep for a hundred years until the prince came to
release them. There is also the enchantment of the frost, that stills
all the life of brook and lake and river, and holds the outdoor world
in deep sleep until the breath of spring comes and releases the
prisoners. There is the enchantment which Aladdin controlled by his
lamp and his ring, so that at his bidding giant figures appeared to do
his will; there is also the enchantment of the snow, of the fire,
of the lightning, of the storm; or there is the equally marvelous
enchantment by which the rose unfolds from the bud, the apple grows
from the blossom, and the robin from the tiny blue egg. Only we must
see and listen when the magicians lead us to the fairy world of
Nature. Aladdin had passed the entrance to the magic cave a hundred
times and had seen nothing. So men pass the fields and see nothing but
the corn and the wheat and the cotton, and in the autumn they see the
harvesters gathering the crops of the fields. But the poet looks on
these same fields and gathers another crop from them, and this he puts
into a song, and this song opens for us the world of Nature.



Samuel White Baker


When I was a boy, my grandfather frequently told a story concerning a
dog which he knew, as an example of true fidelity. This animal was
a mastiff that belonged to a friend, Mr. Prideaux, to whom it was a
constant companion. Whenever Mr. Prideaux went out for a walk, Turk
was sure to be near his heels. Street dogs would bark and snarl at the
giant as his massive form attracted their attention, but Turk seldom
noticed them. At night he slept outside his master's door, and no
sentry could be more alert upon his watch than the faithful dog.

One day Mr. Prideaux had a dinner party. The dog Turk was present, and
stretched his huge form upon the hearthrug. It was a cold night in
winter, and Mr. Prideaux's friends after dinner began to discuss the
subject of dogs. Almost every person had an anecdote to relate, and
my own grandfather, being present, had no doubt added his mite to the
collection, when Turk suddenly awoke from a sound sleep, and having
stretched himself, walked up to his master's side and rested his large
head upon the table. "Ha, ha, Turk!" exclaimed Mr. Prideaux, "you
must have heard our arguments about the dogs, so you have put in an

"And a magnificent animal he is!" remarked my grandfather; "but
although a mastiff is the largest of dogs, I do not think it is as
sensible as many others."

"As a rule you are right," replied his master, "because they are
generally chained up as watch-dogs, and have not the intimate
association with human beings which is so great an advantage to
house-dogs; but Turk has been my constant companion from the first
month of his life, and his intelligence is very remarkable. He
understands most things that I say, if they are connected with
himself; he will often lie upon the rug with his large eyes fixed upon
me, and he will frequently become aware that I wish to go out; at such
times he will fetch my hat, cane, or gloves, whichever may be at hand,
and wait for me at the front door. He will take a letter to several
houses of my acquaintance, and wait for a reply; and he can perform a
variety of actions that would imply a share of reason seldom possessed
by other dogs."

A smile upon several faces was at once noticed by Mr. Prideaux, who
immediately took a guinea from his pocket, and said to his dog, "Here,
Turk! They won't believe in you! Take this guinea to No.--Street, to
Mr.--, and bring me a receipt."

The dog wagged his huge tail with pleasure, and the guinea having been
placed in his mouth, he hastened toward the door; this being opened,
he was admitted through the front entrance to the street. It was a
miserable night.

The wind was blowing the sleet and rain against the windows, and the
gutters were running with muddy water; nevertheless, Turk had started
upon his mission in the howling gale, while the front door was once
more closed against the blast.

The party were comfortably seated around the fire, much interested in
the success or failure of the dog's adventure.

"How long will it be before we may expect Turk's return?" inquired a

"The house to which I have sent him is about a mile and a half
distant; therefore, if there is no delay when he barks for admission
at the door, and my friend is not absent from home, he should return
in about three-quarters of an hour with a receipt. If, on the other
hand, he cannot gain admission, he may wait for any length of time,"
replied his master.

Some among the company supported the dog's chances of success, while
others were against him. The evening wore away; the allotted time
was exceeded, and a whole hour had passed, but no dog had returned.
Nevertheless, his master was still hopeful.

"I must tell you," said Mr. Prideaux, "that Turk frequently carries
notes for me, and as he knows the house well, he certainly will not
make a mistake; perhaps my friend may be dining out, in which case,
Turk will probably wait for a longer time."

Two hours passed; the storm was raging. Mr. Prideaux himself went to
the front door, which flew open before a fierce gust the instant
that the lock was turned. The gutters were clogged with masses of
half-melted snow. "Poor Turk!" muttered his master, "this is indeed
a wretched night for you. Perhaps they have kept you in the warm
kitchen, and will not allow you to return in such fearful weather."

When Mr. Prideaux returned to his guests, he could not conceal his
disappointment. "Ha!" exclaimed one, "with a guinea in his mouth, he
has probably gone into some house of entertainment where dogs are
supplied with dinner and a warm bed, instead of shivering in a
winter's gale!" Jokes were made at the absent dog's expense, but his
master was anxious and annoyed. Poor Turk's reputation had suffered

It was long past midnight; the guests had departed, the storm was
raging, and violent gusts occasionally shook the house. Mr. Prideaux
was alone in his study, and he poked the fire until it blazed and
roared up the chimney. "What can have become of that dog?" exclaimed
his master to himself, now really anxious; "I hope they kept him; most
likely they would not send him back upon such a dreadful night."

Mr. Prideaux's study was close to the front door, and his attention
was suddenly directed to a violent shaking and scratching. In an
instant he ran into the hall and unlocked the entrance door. A mass of
filth and mud entered. This was Turk!

The dog was shivering with wet and cold. His usually clean coat was
thick with mire, as though he had been dragged through deep mud.
He wagged his tail when he heard his master's voice, but appeared
dejected and ill. The dog was taken downstairs, and immediately placed
in a large tub of hot water, in which he was accustomed to be bathed.
It was now discovered that in addition to mud and dirt, which almost
concealed his coat, he was besmeared with blood! Mr. Prideaux sponged
his favorite with warm water, and, to his surprise, he saw wounds of a
serious nature; the dog's throat was badly torn, his back and breast
were deeply bitten, and there could be no doubt that he had been
worried by a pack of dogs.

He was now washed clean, and was being rubbed dry with a thick towel
while he stood upon a blanket before the fire. "Why, Turk, old boy,
what has been the matter? Tell us all about it, poor old man!"
exclaimed his master.

The dog was now thoroughly warmed and he panted with the heat of
the kitchen fire; he opened his mouth, and the guinea which he had
received in trust dropped on the kitchen floor!

"There is some mystery in this," said Mr. Prideaux, "which I will try
to discover tomorrow. He has been set upon by strange dogs, and rather
than lose the guinea, he has allowed himself to be half killed without
once opening his mouth in self-defense! Poor Turk!" continued his
master, "you must have lost your way old man, in the darkness and
storm; most likely confused after the unequal fight. What an example
you have given us in being faithful to a trust!"

Turk was wonderfully better after his warm bath. He lapped up a large
bowl of good thick soup mixed with bread, and in half an hour was
comfortably asleep upon his thick rug by his master's bedroom door.


Upon the following morning the storm had cleared away, and a bright
sky had succeeded to the gloom of the preceding night. Immediately
after breakfast Mr. Prideaux, accompanied by his dog (which was,
although rather stiff, not much the worse for the rough treatment he
had received), started for a walk toward the house to which he had
directed Turk upon the previous evening. He was anxious to discover
whether his friend had been absent, as he believed that the dog might
have been waiting for admittance, and had been perhaps attacked by
some dogs in the neighborhood.

The master and Turk had walked for nearly a mile, and had just turned
the corner of a street, when, as they passed a butcher's shop, a large
brindled mastiff rushed from the shop-door and flew at Turk.

"Call your dog off!" shouted Mr. Prideaux to the butcher, who watched
the attack with impudent satisfaction. "Call him off, or my dog will
kill him!" continued Mr. Prideaux.

The usually docile Turk had rushed to meet his assailant with a fury
that was extraordinary. With a growl like that of a lion he quickly
seized his foe by the throat, and in a fierce struggle of only a few
seconds he threw the brindled dog upon his back. It was in vain that
Mr. Prideaux tried to call him off; he never for an instant relaxed
his hold, but with the strength of a wild beast of prey Turk shook the
head of the butcher's dog to the right and left. The butcher attempted
to interfere and lashed him with a huge whip. "Stand clear! fair play!
Don't you strike my dog!" shouted Mr. Prideaux. "Your dog was the
first to attack!" Mr. Prideaux seized Turk by his collar, while the
butcher was endeavoring to release his dog from the deadly grip. At
length Mr. Prideaux's voice and action appeared for a moment to create
a calm, and he held back his dog. Turk's flanks were heaving with
the intense exertion and excitement of the fight, and he strained
to escape from his master's hold to attack once more his enemy. At
length, by kind words and the caress of the well-known hand, his fury
was calmed down.

"Well, that's the most curious adventure I've ever had with a dog!"
exclaimed the butcher who was now completely crestfallen. "Why, that's
the very dog! That's the very dog that came by my shop late last night
in the howling storm, and my dog Tiger went at him and tousled him
up completely. I never saw such a cowardly cur; he wouldn't show any
fight, although he was pretty near as big as a donkey; and there my
dog Tiger nearly ate half of him, and dragged the other half about
the gutter, till he looked more like an old door-mat than dog; and I
thought he must have killed him; and here he comes out as fresh as
paint today."

"What do you say?" asked Mr. Prideaux. "Was it your dog that worried
my poor dog last night when he was upon a message of trust? My friend,
let me inform you of the fact that my dog had a guinea in his mouth to
carry to my friend, and rather than drop it, he allowed himself to be
half killed by your savage Tiger. Today he has proved his courage,
and your dog has discovered his mistake. This is the guinea that he
dropped from his mouth when he returned to me after midnight, beaten
and distressed!" said Mr. Prideaux, much excited. "Here, Turk, old
boy, take the guinea again, and come along with me! You have had your
revenge, and have given us all a lesson." His master gave him the
guinea in his mouth, and they continued their walk.

It appeared, upon Mr. Prideaux's arrival at his friend's house, that
Turk had never been there; probably after his defeat he had become so
confused that he lost his way in the heavy storm, and had at length
regained the road home some time after midnight, in the condition
already described.

How to Gain the Full Benefit from Your Reading

The reading of this story, besides giving you pleasure, has no doubt
given you a new idea of the faithfulness often shown by dogs. But if
you are to get the full benefit from any story or poem in this Reader,
you will need to pause long enough to notice certain things that will
give you a better understanding of it.

The Crystal Glass, A Forward Look, and A Backward Look.

First, you should read and discuss in class "The Crystal Glass" and
study the Table of Contents, to gain a general idea of the book as a
whole. Next, you should notice that each story and poem is a part of
some special group that treats of some one big idea--such as Nature,
Home and Country, etc. Each selection will have a fuller meaning for
you if you understand how it helps to bring out the big idea of this
group. Before reading the stories in any group you should read and
discuss in class the "Forward Look" (see page 19) that precedes them.
And after you have read all the selections in a group, you will enjoy
a pleasant class period discussing the "Backward Look"--taking stock,
as it were, of the joy and benefit gained from your reading.

In addition, each selection is followed by Notes and Questions that
contain some or all of the following features: Biography. First, it is
always desirable to learn something about the author. When you read,
for example, that Samuel White Baker gave the best years of his
life to a study of animals, you feel that his story of the dog's
faithfulness is well worth reading. Discussion. Next, if you will read
the story so carefully that you can answer the questions given under
the topic Discussion, you will probably find it easier to understand
certain incidents. For example, you hear much about the word "service"
in the different wars in which American soldiers have served their
country so nobly. But perhaps when you think of the answer to the
third question you will see more clearly than before that "service"
and "faithfulness" are qualities that are shown not only on the
battlefield but in humble walks of life--sometimes even by animals.
Glossary. One of the benefits that should result from reading is the
learning of new words. At the end of the Discussion you will find
a list of words, the meaning of which you are to look up in the
Glossary, and a second list that you should find out how to pronounce.
Many of these words you may feel certain you know how to pronounce
correctly. But perhaps you have been mispronouncing some of them. Look
up in the glossary the words listed under question 9, and you may find
that you have been mispronouncing calm, hearth, or extraordinary. When
you are looking up words in the pronunciation lists, be sure that you
understand the meaning, also. Besides the individual words that you do
not understand, you will sometimes read a phrase, or group of words,
used in some special sense. The most striking are listed under the
topic Phrases for Study. Look them up in the Glossary, for you will
often find the hardest passage of the reading lesson made easy by the
explanation of a single phrase.


Biography. Samuel White Baker (1821-1893) was an English engineer and
author. At the age of twenty-four he went to Ceylon, where he soon
became known as an explorer and hunter of big game. With his wife he
later explored the region of the Nile River. He is the author of True
Tales for My Grandsons, from which "Turk, the Faithful Dog" is taken.

Discussion. 1. How does this story prove the intelligence of Turk? 2.
How does it prove his fidelity? 3. Here are two qualities that every
man should desire to possess; do you think many men, set upon by
robbers, would act as bravely and as faithfully as Turk? Give reasons
for your answer. 4. What do you know of the author? 5. Class readings:
The conversation between Mr. Prideaux and the butcher, (2 pupils). 6.
Outline for testing silent reading. Tell the story in your own words,
using these topics: (a) Turk's adventure; (b) how the mystery was
explained. 7. You will enjoy reading "Cap, the Red Cross Dog" (in
Stories for Children, Faulkner). 8. Find in the Glossary the meaning
of: alert; mission; dejected; besmeared; brindled; docile; relaxed;
crestfallen. 9. Pronounce: hearthrug; anecdote; guinea; toward;
extraordinary; calm.

Phrases for Study:

intimate association, of a serious nature, imply a share of reason,
received in trust, supported the dog's chances, succeeded to the


Ernest Harold Baynes

"Jimmy," our young black bear, was known to every child in the
neighborhood. If a children's vote had been taken for the most popular
animal in the county, I believe that Jimmy would have been unanimously
elected. If the grown people had held the election, however, it
is certain that there would have been some votes against him. For
example, when Mr. W--, one of our neighbors, came home very late one
night, got into bed in the dark, and unwittingly kicked a bear cub
that had climbed in at a window earlier in the evening, of course he
had his toes nipped. That man would never have voted for Jimmy.

Neither would the farmer's wife he met one evening coming from the
barn with a pail of new milk. The weather was warm, Jimmy was thirsty,
and he was particularly fond of new milk. So he stood on his hind
legs, threw his arms around the pail, and sucked up half the contents
before the good woman had recovered from her astonishment. But with
the children he was a great favorite. He was one of them, and they
understood him. Like them he was full of fun and mischief, and he
would play as long as anyone cared to play with him.

One Christmas we gave a children's party, and perhaps a score of girls
and boys came to spend the evening. As it was not possible to make
Jimmy understand about the party, he went to bed early, as usual, and
was asleep in his own den under the porch long before the first guests
arrived. He was not forgotten by his little friends, however, and
"Where's Jimmy?" was the first question asked by almost every child as
he came in. But there was so much to chatter about, and there were so
many games to play, that absent comrades--even Jimmy--were soon out
of mind.

At last supper was ready, and all the children trooped into the
dining-room and took their places at the long table.

For a little while everyone was so busy that there was little to be
heard except the clatter of forks and spoons and plates. I stood at
the end of the room, enjoying the fun. For the moment, my eyes were on
a small boy who seemed to be enjoying himself even more than the
rest. He was making more noise than anyone else, and at the same time
performing remarkable sleight-of-mouth tricks with a large piece of
cake and a plate of ice cream. Suddenly, I saw his face change. His
laugh was cut in two, his smile faded, the remains of the cake fell to
his plate, and a spoonful of ice cream, on its way to his open mouth,
remained suspended in the air. He was facing a window, and as I
followed his gaze, I saw a hairy black face, with a tawny muzzle and
a pair of small shining black eyes, looking eagerly into the room. It
was the bear cub, whose slumbers had been disturbed by the noise, and
who had come to see what it was all about.

In an instant the room was in an uproar. All the children left the
table at once, and crowded around the window yelling--"Jimmy!" "It's
Jimmy!" "Let him in!" "Don't you do it!" "Keep him out!" "Open the
window!" "Give him some cake!" One little boy, with a piece of cake in
his hand, raised the window just a little. That was enough for Jimmy;
he thrust his strong muzzle under the sash, raised it with one jerk of
his head, and came tumbling into the room. How those children yelled
and scattered! While they all thought it good fun to have the cub
at the party, none of them knew just what he would do, and some;
especially among the younger ones, were decidedly nervous. A small
girl hid behind the window curtains, two little boys scurried upstairs
and peeped through the banisters, and another, by means of a chair,
scrambled to the top of a sideboard. But Jimmy had his own ideas about
a party. His first interest was in the supper table. Standing up on
his hind legs, he placed his forepaws on the cloth. Just in front of
him was a plate with some apple jelly on it. One sweep of his long
tongue and the plate was almost as clean as if it had been washed.
A dish of blancmange was the next to be gobbled up, and then a boy
rather bolder than the rest made an attempt to save the cake. He
seized the intruder by the skin of his neck, but except for a loud,
grumbling protest, the bear paid no attention to him. He walked right
along, pulling the boy with him, and one slice of cake after another
disappeared down the black throat. The little girl behind the
curtains, seeing that Jimmy did not intend to hurt anyone, came from
her hiding place to try to help the boy who was holding him. Now
this little girl had been eating strawberry jam, and as little girls
sometimes do, had left some of it on her lips. The moment she touched
him, Jimmy turned, and seeing and smelling the jam, he caught the
child in his short forearms, and in spite of her screams, licked her
face all over before letting her go. Then he reached for the sugar
basin, lifted it from the table with his paws, and sat down on his
haunches to devour the contents.

By this time the children who had been nervous were quite at their
ease again, and gathered round to see him eat the sugar. In a few
moments he had satisfied his hunger, and was ready to play. First of
all he acted as if he had lost his wits; or as if he wanted to "show
off," which is about the same thing. He rolled over on his back,
turned somersaults, and batted the chairs and the table legs with
his paws. The children got down on the floor to romp with him, and
together they had a merry time.

When they were all upon their feet again, Jimmy arose and stood
perfectly straight on his hind legs. Then he picked out a girl about
his own height and took a step toward her, raising his paws as though
inviting her to a boxing match. The girl accepted the challenge, and
as she was strong, she held her own very well for a time. But as Jimmy
warmed up to his work, he became very rough and swung his heavy paws
as hard as he could. At last he gave his playmate a stinging slap on
the side of her face, and she decided not to play any more. And as I
thought that Jimmy had had about enough fun for one evening, I opened
the door, and he galloped off to his den under the porch.


Biography. Ernest Harold Baynes (1868-1925), the naturalist-author,
lived in Meriden, New Hampshire. He was the author of the interesting
book Wild Bird Guests, and of "Our Animal Allies" (in Harper's
Magazine, January, 1921). During the World War I Mr. Baynes was in
France, studying the part that birds and animals played in helping to
win the war. Wherever he went he organized bird clubs, in order to
protect our wild birds.

Discussion. 1. Why was Jimmy not popular with the farmer's wife? 2.
Why do you think the children liked the bear? 3. Do you think they
would have enjoyed the party more, or less, if there had been no
"uninvited guest"? 4. Class readings: The description of the supper,
page 31, line 7, to page 32, line 26. 5. Outline for testing silent
reading. Tell the story of the "uninvited guest," using these topics:
(a) the bear and how he was liked; (b) the bear's actions at the
children's party; (c) the boxing match. 6. You will find interesting
stories in Bear Stories Retold from St. Nicholas, Carter, and in The
Biography of a Grizzly, Seton. 7. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
unanimously; unwittingly; sleight-of-mouth; tawny; muzzle; intruder.
Pronounce: blancmange; haunches.



In the fall of 1889 I heard that a very few bison were still left
around the head of Wisdom River. Thither I went and hunted faithfully;
there was plenty of game of other kinds, but of bison not a trace did
we see. Nevertheless, a few days later that same year I came across
these great wild cattle at a time when I had no idea of seeing them.

It was, as nearly as we could tell, in Idaho, just south of the
Montana boundary line, and some twenty-five miles west of the line of
Wyoming. We were camped high among the mountains, with a small pack
train. On the day in question we had gone out to find moose, but had
seen no sign of them, and had then begun to climb over the higher
peaks with an idea of getting sheep. The old hunter who was with me
was, very fortunately, suffering from rheumatism, and he therefore
carried a long staff instead of his rifle; I say fortunately, for if
he had carried his rifle, it would have been impossible to stop his
firing at such game as bison, nor would he have spared the cows and

About the middle of the afternoon we crossed a low, rocky ridge, and
saw at our feet a basin, or round valley, of singular beauty. Its
walls were formed by steep mountains. At its upper end lay a small
lake, bordered on one side by a meadow of emerald green. The lake's
other side marked the edge of the frowning pine forest which filled
the rest of the valley. Beyond the lake the ground rose in a pass much
frequented by game in bygone days, their trails lying along it in
thick zigzags, each gradually fading out after a few hundred yards,
and then starting again in a little different place, as game trails so
often seem to do.

We bent our steps toward these trails, and no sooner had we reached
the first than the old hunter bent over it with a sharp exclamation of
wonder. There in the dust, apparently but a few hours old, were the
hoof-marks of a small band of bison. They were headed toward the lake.
There had been half a dozen animals in the party; one a big bull, and
two calves.

We immediately turned and followed the trail. It led down to the
little lake, where the beasts had spread and grazed on the tender,
green blades, and had drunk their fill. The footprints then came
together again, showing where the animals had gathered and walked off
in single file to the forest. Evidently they had come to the pool in
the early morning, and after drinking and feeding had moved into the
forest to find some spot for their noontide rest.

It was a very still day, and there were nearly three hours of daylight
left. Without a word my silent companion, who had been scanning the
whole country with hawk-eyed eagerness, took the trail, motioning
me to follow. In a moment we entered the woods, breathing a sigh of
relief as we did so; for while in the meadow we could never tell that
the buffalo might not see us, if they happened to be lying in some
place with a commanding lookout.

It was not very long before we struck the day-beds, which were made
on a knoll, where the forest was open, and where there was much down
timber. After leaving the day-beds the animals had at first fed
separately around the grassy base and sides of the knoll, and had then
made off in their usual single file, going straight to a small pool in
the forest. After drinking they had left this pool and traveled down
toward the mouth of the basin, the trail leading along the sides of
the steep hill, which were dotted by open glades. Here we moved with
caution, for the sign had grown very fresh, and the animals had once
more scattered and begun feeding. When the trail led across the
glades, we usually skirted them so as to keep in the timber.

At last, on nearing the edge of one of these glades, we saw a movement
among the young trees on the other side, not fifty yards away. Peering
through some thick evergreen bushes, we speedily made out three bison,
a cow, a calf, and a yearling, grazing greedily on the other side of
the glade. Soon another cow and calf stepped out after them. I did not
wish to shoot, waiting for the appearance of the big bull which I knew
was accompanying them.

So for several minutes I watched the great, clumsy, shaggy beasts, as
they grazed in the open glade. Mixed with the eager excitement of
the hunter was a certain half-melancholy feeling as I gazed on these
bison, themselves part of the last remnant of a nearly vanished race.
Few, indeed, are the men who now have, or evermore shall have, the
chance of seeing the mightiest of American beasts in all his wild

At last, when I had begun to grow very anxious lest the others should
take alarm, the bull likewise appeared on the edge of the glade, and
stood with outstretched head, scratching his throat against a young
tree, which shook violently. I aimed low, behind his shoulder, and
pulled the trigger. At the crack of the rifle all the bison turned
and raced off at headlong speed. The fringe of young pines beyond and
below the glade cracked and swayed as if a whirlwind were passing,
and in another moment the bison reached the top of a steep incline,
thickly strewn with boulders and dead reckless speed; the timber. Down
this they plunged with surefootedness was a marvel. A column of dust
obscured their passage, and under its cover they disappeared in the
forest; but the trail of the bull was marked by splashes of frothy
blood, and we followed it at a trot. Fifty yards beyond the border
of the forest we found the black body stretched motionless. He was a
splendid old bull, still in his full vigor, with large, sharp horns,
and heavy mane and glossy coat; and I felt the most exulting pride as
I handled and examined him; for I had procured a trophy such as can
fall henceforth to few hunters indeed.


Biography. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), twenty-sixth President of
the United States, was born in New York City. As a boy he was frail of
body, but overcame this handicap by regular exercise and outdoor life.
He was always interested in animals and birds and particularly in
hunting game in the western plains and mountains. In 1884 Roosevelt
bought two cattle ranches in North Dakota, where for two years he
lived and entered actively into western life and spirit. Two of the
books in which he has recorded his western experience: The Deer Family
and The Wilderness Hunter, from the latter of which "Hunting the
American Buffalo" is taken.

Discussion. 1. What makes this story "exciting," or "thrilling"?
2. How does the writer let you know his feelings? 3. What proof of
Roosevelt's good sportsmanship is found in the second paragraph on
page 34? 4. Class reading: From page 35, line 3, to page 36, line 13.
5. Outline for testing silent reading. Tell the story briefly, using
these topics: (a) the discovery; (b) the pursuit; (c) the first view;
(d) the end of the story. 6. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
day-beds; glade; skirted; yearling; trophy. 7. Pronounce: bison;
boundary; frequented; knoll; melancholy; remnant; incline; strewn.

Phrases for Study pack train, hawk-eyed eagerness, frowning pine
forest, commanding lookout, much frequented, down timber, thick
zigzags, obscured their passage.



Liberty H. Bailey

The springtime belongs to the birds and me. We own it. We know when
the mayflowers and the buttercups bloom. We know when the first frogs
peep. We watch the awakening of the woods. We are wet by the warm
April showers. We go where we will, and we are companions. Every tree
and brook and blade of grass is ours; and our hearts are full of song.

There are boys who kill the birds, and girls who want to catch them
and put them into cages, and there are others who steal their eggs.
The birds are not partners with them; they are only servants. Birds,
like people, sing for their friends, not for their masters. I am sure
that one cannot think much of the springtime and the flowers if his
heart is always set upon killing or catching something. We are happy
when we are free, and so are the birds.

The birds and I get acquainted all over again every spring. They have
seen strange lands in the winter, and all the brooks and woods have
been covered with snow. So we run and romp together, and find all the
nooks and crannies which we had half-forgotten since October. The
birds remember the old places. The wrens pull the sticks from the old
hollow rail and seem to be wild with joy to see the place again. They
must be the same wrens that were here last year, for strangers could
not make so much fuss over an old rail. The bluebirds and wrens look
into every crack and corner for a place in which to build, and the
robins and chirping-sparrows explore every tree in the old orchard.

If the birds want to live with us, we should encourage them. The first
thing to do is to leave them alone. Let them be as free from danger
and fear as you and I. Take the hammer off the old gun, give pussy so
much to eat that she will not care to hunt for birds, and keep away
the boys who steal eggs and who carry sling-shots and throw stones.
Plant trees and bushes about the borders of the place, and let some of
them, at least, grow into tangles; then, even in the back yard, the
wary catbird may make its home.


Biography. Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954) has written many books on
Nature and outdoor life. He was chairman of the Commission on Country
Life, appointed by Roosevelt.

Discussion. 1. Why does the author say that the springtime belongs to
"the birds and me"? 2. When may we say the birds are our partners and
when our servants? 3. What different ways of dealing with birds are
spoken of? Which way does the writer prefer? 4. How may you encourage
the birds to live near you? 5. What do you gain if you persuade them
to do this? Find an answer to this question in the poems that follow.
6. What birds come to trees near your home? 7. How are birds helpful
to men? 8. You will find interesting stories and pictures of birds in
The Burgess Bird Book for Children, Burgess. 9. Find in the Glossary
the meaning of: acquainted; explore; wary. 10. Pronounce: partners;



There's a merry brown thrush sitting up in a tree--
He's singing to me! he's singing to me!
And what does he say, little girl, little boy?
"Oh, the world's running over with joy!
Don't you hear? Don't you see?
Hush! Look! In my tree
I'm as happy as happy can be!"

And the brown thrush keeps singing--"A nest do you see,
And five eggs, hid by me in the juniper-tree?
Don't meddle! don't touch! little girl, little boy,
Or the world will lose some of its joy.
Now I'm glad! Now I'm free!
And I always shall be,
If you never bring sorrow to me."

So the merry brown thrush sings away in the tree,
To you and to me, to you and to me;
And he sings all the day, little girl, little boy--
"Oh, the world's running over with joy;
But long it won't be,
Don't you know, don't you see,
Unless we're as good as can be?"


Biography. Lucy Larcom (1826-1893) was the daughter of a sea captain.
During twenty years of teaching school, she wrote many charming poems
for children.

Discussion. 1. Who is supposed to be speaking in the first two lines?
2. Who asks the question in the third line? 3. Who answers the
question? 4. Find the answer to the question in the first stanza. 5.
Why is the little bird so happy? 6. What will make him unhappy? 7. How
can you help to make the world "run over with joy"? 8. You will enjoy
hearing "Songs of Our Native Birds" and "How Birds Sing", Victor
records by Kellogg.



I've plucked the berry from the bush, the brown nut from the tree, But
heart of happy little bird ne'er broken was by me. I saw them in their
curious nests, close couching, slyly peer With their wild eyes, like
glittering beads, to note if harm were near; I passed them by, and
blessed them all; I felt that it was good To leave unmoved the
creatures small whose home was in the wood.

And here, even now, above my head, a lusty rogue doth sing; He pecks
his swelling breast and neck, and trims his little wing. He will not
fly; he knows full well, while chirping on that spray, I would not
harm him for a world, or interrupt his lay. Sing on, sing on, blithe
bird! and fill my heart with summer gladness; It has been aching many
a day with measures full of sadness!


Biography. William Motherwell (1797-1835), a Scotch poet and
journalist, was born in Glasgow, where he lived and died. In 1830
he became editor of the Glasgow Courier. He wrote a volume of local
ballads, and many of his poems were published in the magazines and

Discussion. 1. To what does the poet compare the eyes of birds? 2.
Find the lines that tell why the bird is not afraid of the poet. 3.
How do you think the birds know their friends? 4. What happiness does
the poet get because of his kindness to the birds? 5. Read the lines
that another poet who loved birds has written about his love for them:

"He prayeth well who loveth well
Both man and bird and beast.

"He prayeth best who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all."

6. You will find helpful suggestions in the illustrated Farmers'
Bulletins, Bird Houses and How to Build Them, and How to Attract
Birds, sent free by the Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 7.
In the Forward Look, on pages 19 and 20, you were told that the poets
and wise story writers of Nature help us to see the beauty that lies
in the great outdoor world. Mention instances of help that you have
received from the stories and poems you have read in this group. 8.
Find in the Glossary the meaning of: glittering; trims; spray; blithe;

Phrases for Study: close couching, lusty rogue, note if harm were
near, knows full well, leave unmoved, interrupt his lay.


John Bannister Tabb

"And pray, who are you?"
Said the Violet blue
To the Bee, with surprise,
At his wonderful size,
In her eyeglass of dew.
"I, madam," quoth he,
"Am a publican Bee,
Collecting the tax
Of honey and wax.
Have you nothing for me?"


Biography. Reverend John B. Tabb (1845-1909), a Southern poet, was
born near Richmond, Virginia. All his life he was interested in birds,
flowers, and outdoor life. When the Civil War began, he joined the
Southern army, although he was a mere lad of sixteen. After the war he
became a clergyman and a teacher.

Discussion. 1. What did the Violet ask the Bee? 2. What surprised the
Violet? 3. What is the Violet's "eyeglass of dew"? 4. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: quoth; publican; tax.


Ella Higginson

I know a place where the sun is like gold,
And the cherry blooms burst with snow;
And down underneath is the loveliest nook,
Where the four-leaf clovers grow.

One leaf is for hope, and one is for faith,
And one is for love, you know;
But God put another in for luck--
If you search, you will find where they grow.

But you must have hope, and you must have faith;
You must love and be strong; and so,
If you work, if you wait, you will find the place
Where the four-leaf clovers grow.


Biography. Ella Higginson (1862-1940), an American writer, lived
in Bellingham, on Puget Sound, Washington. She won a prize of five
hundred dollars, offered by a magazine for the best short story.

Discussion. 1. To whom is the four-leaf clover supposed to bring good
luck? 2. Which do you think will give greater happiness, to learn
something by hard work or to gain it by chance? Why do you think so?
3. What does the poem say we must have? 4. What does the poem say we
must do? 5. If we have all these things and do all these things, shall
we need to hunt for the four-leaf clover to bring us good fortune?
Why? 6. Commit the poem to memory.


Clara Smith

Jack in the pulpit
Preaches today,
Under the green trees
Just over the way.
Squirrel and song-sparrow,
High on their perch,
Hear the sweet lily-bells
Ringing to church.
Come hear what his reverence
Rises to say
In his low, painted pulpit
This calm Sabbath day.

Meek-faced anemones,
Drooping and sad;
Great yellow violets,
Smiling out glad;
Buttercups' faces,
Beaming and bright;
Clovers with bonnets,
Some red and some white;
Daisies, their white fingers
Half-clasped in prayer;
Dandelions, proud of
The gold of their hair;
Innocents, children
Guileless and frail,

Meek little faces
Upturned and pale;
Wildwood geraniums,
All in their best,
Languidly leaning,
In purple gauze dressed--
All are assembled
This sweet Sabbath day
To hear what the priest
In his pulpit will say.

So much for the preacher;
The sermon comes next--
Shall we tell how he preached it
And where was his text?
Alas! like too many
Grown-up folks who play
At worship in churches
Man-builded today,
We heard not the preacher
Expound or discuss;
But we looked at the people
And they looked at us.
We saw all their dresses--
Their colors and shapes,
The trim of their bonnets;
The cut of their capes;
We heard the wind-organ,
The bee, and the bird,
But of Jack in the pulpit
We heard not a word!


Biography. Clara Smith is not a well-known writer, but her poem, "Jack
in the Pulpit," is full of beauty. The rhythm is as pleasing as the
picture is charming.

Discussion. 1. What time of year is described in this poem? 2. Who
make up the congregation when Jack in the pulpit preaches? 3. How does
the poet make the flowers seem like people? 4. How many of the flowers
described in this poem are familiar to you? 5. Which flower is most
beautifully described? Find the lines that give the description. 6.
Why are we not told about the sermon? 7. What was the congregation
doing during the sermon? 8. What did they see? What did they hear?
9. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: drooping; beaming; gauze;
assembled; text; worship; expound. 10. Pronounce: anemones; guileless;

Phrases for Study: his reverence, all in their best, painted pulpit,
man-builded today.


Helen Hunt Jackson

The goldenrod is yellow;
The corn is turning brown;
The trees in apple orchards
With fruit are bending down.

The gentian's bluest fringes
Are curling in the sun;
In dusky pods the milkweed
Its hidden silk has spun.

The sedges flaunt their harvest
In every meadow-nook;
And asters by the brookside
Make asters in the brook.

From dewy lanes at morning
The grapes' sweet odors rise;
At noon the roads all flutter
With yellow butterflies.

By all these lovely tokens
September days are here,
With summer's best of weather,
And autumn's best of cheer.


Biography. Helen Hunt Jackson (1831-1885) was an American poet and
novelist. She was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, where her father
was a professor in Amherst College, but she spent much of her life in
California. She married a banker in Colorado Springs, Colorado,
where she lived for a few years. Her poems are very beautiful, and
"September" and "October's Bright Blue Weather" are especially good
pictures of these autumn months. Every child should know these poems
by heart.

Discussion. 1. What is meant by the harvest of the sedges? 2. How are
the "asters in the brook" made? 3. Which lines in the last stanza tell
us what September brings? 4. What things mentioned in this poem have
you seen? 5. Read again what is said on pages 19 and 20 about the poet
as a magician; what beauty of Nature does the poet show you in the
following lines?

"And asters by the brookside
Make asters in the brook."

6. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: sedges; flaunt; flutter. 7.
Pronounce: gentian; dusky.

Phrases for Study: dusky pods, lovely tokens, hidden silk has spun,
best of cheer.


Helen Hunt Jackson

O sun and skies and clouds of June
And flowers of June together,
Ye cannot rival for one hour
October's bright blue weather;

When loud the bumblebee makes haste,
Belated, thriftless vagrant,
And goldenrod is dying fast,
And lanes with grapes are fragrant;

When gentians roll their fringes tight,
To save them for the morning,
And chestnuts fall from satin burs
Without a sound of warning;

When on the ground red apples lie
In piles like jewels shining,
And redder still on old stone walls
Are leaves of woodbine twining;

When all the lovely wayside things
Their white-winged seeds are sowing,
And in the fields, still green and fair,
Late aftermaths are growing;

When springs run low, and on the brooks
In idle, golden freighting,
Bright leaves sink noiseless in the hush
Of woods, for winter waiting;

When comrades seek sweet country haunt
By twos and twos together,
And count like misers hour by hour
October's bright blue weather.

O sun and skies and flowers of June,
Count all your boasts together,
Love loveth best of all the year
October's bright blue weather.


For Biography see above.

Discussion. 1. What comparison is made in the first stanza between
June and October? 2. Why is the bumblebee described as "loud"? 3.
Compare the description of the goldenrod in this poem with the
description of the goldenrod in "September." 4. Compare the
description of the apples in this poem with the description of the
apples in "September." 5. Find the line that tells why the "gentians
roll their fringes tight." 6. What is the color of the woodbine
leaves? 7. What are the "wayside things" usually called? 8. What do
good comrades like to do in October? 9. Why are we sorry to have
October go? 10. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: fragrant;
twining; aftermath; haunts. 11. Pronounce: rival; vagrant; freighting.

Phrases for Study: rival for one hour, hush of woods, belated,
thriftless vagrant, count like misers, satin burs, count all your
boasts, idle, golden freighting.


Alice Cary

The leaves are fading and falling;
The winds are rough and wild;
The birds have ceased their calling--
But let me tell you, my child,

Though day by day, as it closes,
Doth darker and colder grow,
The roots of the bright red roses
Will keep alive in the snow.

And when the winter is over,
The boughs will get new leaves,
The quail come back to the clover,
And the swallow back to the eaves.

The robin will wear on his bosom
A vest that is bright and new,
And the loveliest wayside blossom
Will shine with the sun and dew.

The leaves today are whirling;
The brooks are all dry and dumb--
But let me tell you, my darling,
The spring will be sure to come.

There must be rough, cold weather,
And winds and rains so wild;
Not all good things together
Come to us here, my child.

So, when some dear joy loses
Its beauteous summer glow,
Think how the roots of the roses
Are kept alive in the snow.


Biography. Alice Cary (1820-1871), an American poet, was born in
Cincinnati. She and her sister, Phoebe, wrote many beautiful poems
and sketches. They removed to New York City and lived together there.
"November" is one of Alice Cary's most widely known poems.

Discussion. 1. What signs of autumn are mentioned in the first stanza?
2. What signs of the coming winter are mentioned in the second stanza?
3. Where have the birds gone? 4. What is meant by the word "here" in
line 4, above? 5. Why are the brooks "dry and dumb" in November? 6. Is
this true in all parts of the country? 7. What are we told about the
spring in "October's Bright Blue Weather"? 8. What will happen when
the winter is over? 9. Where does the swallow build his nest? 10. What
wonder of Nature, about which you read in A Forward Look, above, does
the second stanza tell you? 11. How can the snow help keep the roots
alive? 12. In what stanza is this thought repeated? 13. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: fading; quail; eaves.

Phrases for Study: ceased their calling, wayside blossom, vest that is
bright, beauteous summer glow.


Thomas Carlyle

Lo, here hath been dawning
Another blue day;
Think, wilt thou let it
Slip useless away?

Out of Eternity
This new day is born;
Into Eternity,
At night, will return.

Behold it aforetime
No eye ever did;
So soon it forever
From all eyes is hid.

Here hath been dawning
Another blue day;
Think, wilt thou let it
Slip useless away?


Biography. Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) was a great Scotch writer of
essays and history. He lived in Edinburgh, and later in London.

Discussion. 1. Find the lines that explain why the day is called a
"new day." 2. Find the lines which remind us that the day will pass
quickly. 3. The poet tells us in the first stanza to "think"; what
does he want us to think about? 4. Find the same lines in another
stanza. Why did the poet repeat these words? 5. Read the short story
that follows, and tell whether Titus and the poet have the same, idea
of a "useless" day.

The Roman Emperor, Titus, won the love of all his people by his
kindness and generosity to those who were in trouble. One night
at supper, remembering that he had not helped anyone that day, he
exclaimed, "My friends, I have lost a day!"

Phrases for Study: behold it aforetime blue day.


Francis Bourdillon

The night has a thousand eyes,
And the day but one;
Yet the light of the bright world dies
With the dying sun.

The mind has a thousand eyes,
And the heart but one;
Yet the light of a whole life dies
When love is done.


Biography. Francis William Bourdillon (1852-1921) an English poet,
lived at Buddington, England. He attended college at Oxford. Few poets
have written more beautiful lines than his "The Night Has a Thousand

Discussion. 1. What are the eyes of the night? 2. What is the eye of
the day? 3. How many eyes does the poet say the mind has? 4. How many
eyes does he say the heart has? 5. In which line are we told what the
eye of the heart is? 6. In A Forward Look, above, you read that the
poet is a magician whose words open for us the fairyland of Nature;
what have the words of this poet done for you? 7. Memorize the poem.


As you look backward over the animal stories you have read in this
group, which did you enjoy most? Which story would be the most
interesting to tell to a younger brother or sister? Which do you like
better, stories in which animals are the actors, or stories about the
hunting of animals?

Which one of the poems about birds has lines in it that sound like
the bird's song? Which author makes you feel most keenly his love
for birds? Which one tells you of pleasures that birds enjoy? Make a
program for Arbor and Bird Day from selections found or suggested in
this group.

In the "Notes and Questions" you have found a number of suggestions
for outside reading. Did you find in the school library or public
library any of the books that are mentioned in the different
biographies? In your class, who has read Baker's True Tales for
My Grandsons, or other selections mentioned in the biographies or
elsewhere? What progress have you made in silent reading?

If you were making a blackboard calendar for each of the
months--September, October, and November--what stanzas in each of
the three poems on these months would give you ideas for decoration?
Select a stanza from these poems as a motto for each of your
calendars. November teaches Alice Caw a truth which she passes on to
us; what is this truth?

On pages 19 and 20 you read that the world of Nature is a fairyland,
and that the poets help us to see the beauty that lies about us.
Perhaps now when you look up into a starry sky you say to yourself
almost without thinking, "The night has a thousand eyes--" What other
poems have revealed beauties of Nature to you?


Here is matter for your entertainment. Several interesting persons
will appear and will show you that a small part of the joy of reading
consists in the merry tales that you may find in books. One of the
English poets somewhere calls upon the spirits of fun and joy, a
cheerful nymph and her companions, to drive dull care away. This poet,
John Milton by name, wrote many poems and prose works on very serious
matters. He lived in a serious time, the time when many Englishmen
were leaving their native country and emigrating to America in order
that they might find a freedom that was denied to them at home.

But even under these circumstances, sympathizing with those who went
into exile for freedom, and studying night and day how he could
himself advance the cause of liberty, John Milton was too great a man
to believe that life is altogether serious and earnest. Humor and
jesting and wholesome fun have a part in every life; they are no more
to be neglected than the spices in a Thanksgiving pie. So the poet
called upon the cheerful nymph and her attendants to help him see the
brighter side of life; the fun that there is in foolishness, and the
health that comes with a hearty laugh. Here is what he wrote:

"Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee
Jest and youthful Jollity,

Come, and trip it, as you go,
On the light, fantastic toe."

Now let us imagine that we, also, are inviting these kindly spirits of
Mirth. Our lives are serious, too. We have arithmetic to learn, or
we have a composition to write. People expect us to do all sorts of
things that take our time, and of course we want to do these things.
But here comes Laughter holding both his sides, a fat old gentleman
who makes you feel merry the moment you set eyes on him. And Father
Laughter first introduces the Baron Munchausen, who will tell some
of his marvelous experiences. We are not compelled to believe all of
them. Perhaps Father Laughter wanted to take a sly dig or two at the
yarns some travelers tell when they get home. By this means the story
illustrates one of the great sources of humor--monstrous exaggeration.
It also shows what a foolish thing it is to be a boaster. Most people,
at one time or another, are tempted to brag about their deeds, their
possessions, or their smartness. If they would only think of Baron
Munchausen, they would flee from this temptation.

After this comes a story about the blind men and the elephant. Here
Father Laughter gets his way with you by making you see how absurd
were the guesses about the elephant made by men who knew only the
animal's trunk, or his tusks, or his tail. And here, too, after you
have laughed heartily at the foolish fellows who were so positive that
they knew everything when they knew nothing, you begin to see the
danger in what are called "snap judgments." "Look at these ridiculous
fellows," says Father Laughter, "and consider how silly it is to jump
to a conclusion unless you have all the facts."

You will agree that Father Laughter's next performer, Darius Green, is
especially interesting in these days when men fly across the Atlantic
or from New York to San Francisco. Darius seems to have been the first
"bird-man," and though he was absurd enough, he reminds one of the
fact that many useful inventions that now add to our comfort were
prepared for by men who seemed to their friends and acquaintances
crazy enough.

But this is introduction a-plenty; there's really no need to keep you
any longer from getting acquainted with Father Laughter and the antics
he likes to play.


R. E. Raspe

The Savage Boar

Baron Munchausen had feasted his friends right well, and after supper
he leaned back in his chair and said, "So you want me to tell you of
my adventures in the past." His guests eagerly urged him on, and he
began his story.

Once, when I was returning from a hunt, with an empty gun (having used
all my ammunition), a raging wild boar rushed at me. Well, you know
how unpleasant such an encounter may be, so I am sure none of you will
think me a coward for hastily climbing the nearest tree; it was a
young birch which could hardly bear my weight. The boar made a dash
for the tree, but was a moment too late, for I had just drawn my legs
out of his reach. But so violent was his rush that his tusks went
through the trunk of the tree and projected an inch through the other
side. I slid down the tree, picked up a stone the size of my fist, and
riveted down the projecting points of the tusks. You can imagine what
a narrow escape I had when I tell you that the beast weighed five
tons--a good deal for a wild boar."

A Narrow Escape

"At another time, when I was hunting in Ceylon, I was terrified to see
a gigantic lion approaching, with the evident intention of devouring
me. My gun was only loaded with bird-shot, and I had no other about
me. The savage animal shook his head several times, uttered a loud
roar, and prepared to spring. I turned to flee, and--my flesh creeps
even now at the recollection of it--there, on the bank of a river that
lay behind me, was a huge crocodile with his terrible jaws open ready
to swallow me!

"Imagine, gentlemen, the horror of my situation--before me the lion,
behind me the crocodile, on my left a rushing torrent, and on the
right an abyss full of poisonous snakes! I gave myself up for lost,
and fell to the ground in an almost fainting condition, expecting
nothing better than to meet with a horrible death from one or the
other of these terrible animals.

"After waiting a few seconds I heard a violent noise, different from
any that had fallen on my ears before. I ventured to raise my head,
and what do you think had happened?

"The lion had, in his eagerness, jumped clean over me into the
crocodile's jaws; the head of the one stuck in the throat of the
other, and they were struggling to free themselves. I quickly sprang
to my feet, drew out my hunting-knife, and with one blow severed the
lion's head. Then, with the butt-end of my gun, I rammed the head
farther into the throat of the crocodile, and destroyed him by
suffocation. The hide of the crocodile, which was exactly forty
feet in length, I had stuffed, and it now forms one of the chief
attractions in the museum at Amsterdam, where the superintendent
relates the story to all spectators, with harrowing additions.

"One of these is that the lion jumped right through the crocodile,
but as soon as the head appeared, Monsieur the Famous Baron (as he is
pleased to call me) cut it off, and three feet of the crocodile's tail
as well, whereupon the crocodile turned round, snatched the knife out
of my hand, and swallowed it so greedily that it pierced his heart and
killed him!

"I need not tell you how annoyed I was by these exaggerations. In
this age of doubt people who do not know me might possibly be led to
disbelieve the real facts when they are mixed up with such absurd


"Some years later I made a voyage to Gibraltar to visit my old friend,
General Elliott. He received me with joy and took me for a stroll
along the ramparts to examine the operations of the enemy. I had
brought with me an excellent telescope, which I had purchased in Rome.
Looking through it, I saw that the enemy were about to discharge a
thirty-six pound cannon at the very spot where we were standing. I
rushed toward our nearest cannon, a forty-eight pounder, and placed it
exactly facing that of the enemy. I watched carefully till I saw the
Spanish gunner apply a match to the touchhole, and then I, too, gave
the word 'Fire.'

"Both reports rang out at the same instant, and the two cannon balls
met halfway with amazing force. Ours, being the heavier, caused the
enemy's ball to recoil with such violence as to kill the man who had
discharged it; it then passed through the masts of three ships which
lay in a line behind each other, and flew across the Straits of
Gibraltar some miles into Africa. Our own ball, after repelling the
other, proceeded on its way, dismounted the very cannon which had just
been used against us, and forced it into the hold of the ship, where
it fell with so much force as to break its way through the bottom.
The ship immediately filled and sank, with about a thousand Spanish
sailors and a large number of soldiers on board, who were all drowned.

"You can see for yourselves that this strange tale must be true,
however improbable it sounds, or else how could it possibly have


A long time ago a book called The Travels of Baron Munchausen was
written by Rudolph Erich Raspe. The tales told in this book were so
extravagant that the name Munchausen is often applied to boasters. The
author pretends that the stories are all strictly true.

Discussion. 1. What extravagant statements do you find in the story

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