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The Eleven Comedies by Aristophanes et al

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upon the War. When he handed in his accounts, he refused to explain the
use of a certain twenty talents and simply said, "_I spent them on what
was necessary_." Upon hearing of this reply, the Lacedaemonians, who were
already discontented with their kings, Cleandrides and Plistoanax, whom
they accused of carrying on the war in Attica with laxness, exiled the
first-named and condemned the second to payment of a fine of fifteen
talents for treachery. In fact, the Spartans were convinced that Pericles
had kept silent as to what he had done with the twenty talents, because
he did not want to say openly, "_I gave this sum to the Kings of

[545] The basket in which Aristophanes shows us Socrates suspended to
bring his mind nearer to the subtle regions of air.

[546] The scholiast tells us that Just Discourse and Unjust Discourse
were brought upon the stage in cages, like cocks that are going to fight.
Perhaps they were even dressed up as cocks, or at all events wore cocks'
heads as their masks.

[547] In the language of the schools of philosophy just reasoning was
called 'the stronger'--[Greek: ho kreitt_on logos], unjust reasoning,
'the weaker'--[Greek: ho h_ett_on logos].

[548] A character in one of the tragedies of Aeschylus, a beggar and a
clever, plausible speaker.

[549] A sycophant and a quibbler, renowned for his unparalleled bad faith
in the law-suits he was perpetually bringing forward.

[550] The opening words of two hymns, attributed to Lamprocles, an
ancient lyric poet, the son or the pupil of Medon.

[551] A poet and musician of Mitylené, who gained the prize of the lyre
at the Panathenaea in 457 B.C. He lived at the Court of Hiero, where,
Suidas says, he was at first a slave and the cook. He added two strings
to the lyre, which hitherto had had only seven. He composed effeminate
airs of a style unknown before his day.

[552] Zeus had a temple in the citadel of Athens under the name of
Polieus or protector of the city; bullocks were sacrificed to him
(Buphonia). In the days of Aristophanes, these feasts had become

[553] One of the oldest of the dithyrambic poets.

[554] Used by the ancient Athenians to keep their hair in place. The
custom was said to have a threefold significance; by it the Athenians
wanted to show that they were musicians, autochthons (i.e. indigenous to
the country) and worshippers of Apollo. Indeed, grasshoppers were
considered to sing with harmony; they swarmed on Attic soil and were
sacred to Phoebus, the god of music.

[555] Telesippus, Demophon and Pericles by name; they were a byword at
Athens for their stupidity. Hippocrates was a general.

[556] The famous gardens of the Academia, just outside the walls of
Athens; they included gymnasia, lecture halls, libraries and picture
galleries. Near by was a wood of sacred olives.

[557] Apparently the historian of that name is meant; in any case it
cannot refer to the celebrated epic poet, author of the 'Thebaïs.'

[558] Among the Greeks, hot springs bore the generic name of 'Baths of
Heracles.' A legend existed that these had gushed forth spontaneously
beneath the tread of the hero, who would plunge into them and there
regain fresh strength to continue his labours.

[559] King of Pylos, according to Homer, the wisest of all the Greeks.

[560] Peleus, son of Aeacus, having resisted the appeals of Astydamia,
the wife of Acastus, King of Iolchos, was denounced to her husband by her
as having wished to seduce her, so that she might be avenged for his
disdain. Acastus in his anger took Peleus to hunt with him on Mount
Pelion, there deprived him of his weapons and left him a prey to wild
animals. He was about to die, when Hermes brought him a sword forged by

[561] Thetis, to escape the solicitations of Peleus, assumed in turn the
form of a bird, of a tree, and finally of a tigress; but Peleus learnt of
Proteus the way of compelling Thetis to yield to his wishes. The gods
were present at his nuptials and made the pair rich presents.

[562] According to the scholiast, an adulterer was punished in the
following manner: a radish was forced up his rectum, then every hair was
torn out round that region, and the portion so treated was then covered
with burning embers.

[563] Having said this, Just Discourse threw his cloak into the
amphitheatre and took a seat with the spectators.

[564] Because it never rains there; for all other reasons residence in
Egypt was looked upon as undesirable.

[565] That is, the last day of the month.

[566] By Athenian law, if anyone summoned another to appear before the
Courts, he was obliged to deposit a sum sufficient to cover the costs of

[567] He points to an earthenware sphere, placed at the entrance of
Socrates' dwelling, and which was intended to represent the Whirlwind,
the deity of the philosophers. This sphere took the place of the column
which the Athenians generally dedicated to Apollo, and which stood in the
vestibule of their houses.

[568] An Athenian poet, who is said to have left one hundred and sixty
tragedies behind him; he only once carried off the prize. Doubtless he
had introduced gods or demi-gods bewailing themselves into one of his

[569] This exclamation, "Oh! Pallas, thou hast undone me!" and the reply
of Strepsiades are borrowed, says the scholiast, from a tragedy by
Xenocles, the son of Carcinus. Alcmena is groaning over the death of her
brother, Licymnius, who had been killed by Tlepolemus.

[570] A proverb, applied to foolish people.

[571] The ram of Phryxus, the golden fleece of which was hung up on a
beech tree in a field dedicated to Ares in Colchis.

[572] The subject of Euripides' 'Aeolus.' Since among the Athenians it
was lawful to marry a half-sister, if not born of the same mother,
Strepsiades mentions here that it was his _uterine_ sister, whom Macareus
dishonoured, thus committing both rape and incest.

[573] A cleft in the rocks at the back of the Acropolis at Athens, into
which criminals were hurled.

[574] He repeats the words of Socrates at their first interview, in



Academia, gardens of
Acharnae, hostages of
--inhabitants of
--township of
Acharnians, date fixed
--date of
Adonis, festivals of
Adultery, punishment of
Aegaean, Islands of
Aegeus, a mythical king
Aeschylus, character from
--plays after death
Aesop, Fable of
Aetolian, meaning of
Age fixed for playwrights
Agoracritus, crime imputed
--meaning of
Alcibiades, his father
Amorgos silks
Amphitheus, play on word
Amyclae, town near Sparta
Anagyra, town, an obstacle
Anapaests, reference to
Anaximenes, doctrine of
Andromeda, legend parodied
Anthesteria. See Dionysia
Antimachus, the historian
Apaturia, a feast
--festival of
Aphrodité Colias, the goddess of sensual love
Archeptolemus, treatment of
Archers, as policemen
Archilochus, singer of his own shame
Archimedes, fires Roman fleet
Argives (the), their misfortune
Army, Athenian
Artemesia, the Queen
Artemis, the huntress
Artemisium, naval battle of
Artichokes, to make tender
Arignotus, a soothsayer
Ariphrades, obscene habits
--a flute-player
Aristogiton, a conspirator
Aristophanes, anonymity of
Assemblies, forced attendance of citizens
Athamas, a condemned king
Athené, the goddess
--protection claimed
--seen in dream
Athenian women, fond of wine


"Babylonians," (The), a lost play
Bacchus, festivals of
Bacis, a soothsayer
Bagpipes, ancient
Barathrum, cleft of rock
--place of execution
Basket-bearers, the
Baths of Heracles
Beans, used for voting
Beetle, flying on a
Beetles, names of boats
Blankets, soiled with urine
Blood, unspilled in sacrifice
Boasting derided
Boeotians, the
Boulomachus, meaning of
Boy's name, dispute over
Brasidas, fell in Thrace
Brauron, its temple
"Brazen House," the
Bread, used for finger-wiping
Buckler, swearing over
Bucklers, as trophies
Bupalus, the sculptor
Byrsina, why hateful


Cabirian gods, mysteries of
Caesyra, an orator
Cage (a) for pigs
Calendar, reform of
Captives of Pylos
Captured towns
Carcinus, a fecund poet
Carcinus and sons, literary insufficiency of
Caria, situation of
Carystus, dissolute city
Catamite, faeces of
Cecrops, legend of
Cecydes, ancient poet
Centaur, legend of
Cephisodemus, an advocate
Ceramicus, burial-place
Ceremonies (sacred) personified
Ceres, sacrificed pigs
Chaerephon, disciple of Socrates
Chaeris, musician ridiculed
Chalcedon, situation of
--the town of
Chaonian, obscene allusion
Chargers, praise of their exploits
Charybdis, the whirlpool
Chastity, reward of
Cheese, as an emblem
Chersonese, towns of
Chians, obscene name of
Children, in procession
Chimney, obscene sense
Cholozyges, mad ox
Chorus (the) protects Agoracritus
Cicadas, use and significance
Cillicon, a traitor
Circus-races, terms of
Citizens (Athenian), four classes of
Clausimachus, meaning of
Cleaenetus, the law as to feeding
Cleomenes, King of Sparta
Cleon, allusion to treachery of
--disgorges tribute
--exhortation of
--foe of the aristocrats
--his former calling
--his retort
--ill results of reign
--the author of woe
--the rôle of
--the use of oracles
--unpaid sailors' wages
--vote of people
--classed as a woman
--glutton and parasite
--a general
Clepsydra, a spring
Clisthenes, a debauchee
--an effeminate
--an ill-famed orator
--a low personage
Clitagoras, song writer
Clopidian, meaning of
Cock-fighting, allusion to
Coesyra, wife of Alcmaeon
Collar (iron) for torturing
Connas, a poet
Cordax (the), licentious dance
Corinth, nickname of
Corinthians, allies of Sparta
Corybantes, priests
Cottabos, a favourite game
Country-home, ousted from
Crab, nickname of Corinth
Cranaus, citadel of
--the King
Crates, a comic poet, character of
Cratinus, a bad living poet
--first lines of poems
--poet and lover of wine
--reference to
--rival to Aristophanes
'Clouds,' the first edition
Crows, go to the, explained
Ctesias, an informer
Cunnilingue, vice of
Cyclocorus, a torrent
Cynecephalus, species of ape
Cynna, a courtesan
--famous courtesan
Cynthia, a mountain


Dactyl, the double meaning of
'Daedalians,' a lost play
Dance, an obscene
--the kick
Dances, lascivious
Dawn, the, time for love
Dead (the), a custom
Demagogues, secret of power
Demos, double meaning of
Demosthenes, a reproach of
Demostratus, a statesman
Depilation, referred to
Diagoras, the atheist
Dicaeopolis, meaning of
Dionysia, feasts
--the basket-bearer
Dionysus, statue of, place of honour
Diopithes, a bribe-taker
Discourse, Just and Unjust
Dog, a skinned, proverb
"Dog-fox," a brothel-keeper
--meaning of
Dogs, lubricity of
Dolphins, where worshipped
Double meanings, obscene
Dream, a
Drunken habits, results of


Eagle and beetle, a fable
Earth, sons of the
Earthquakes, Sparta menaced
Ecbatana, King's residence
Ecclesia, the, or Parliament
Ecclesiasts, their salary
Echinus, town of
Eclipses, allusion to
Eels, certain, esteemed
--with beet
Egypt, residence in
Election, character of
Electra, reference to
Eleusis, mysteries of
Elymnium, a temple
Embassies, dismissed
Erectheus, identity of
Eucrates, Athenian general
--hiding-place of
Euminides, temples of refuge
Eupolis, a comic writer
Euripides, a line from
--"Aeolus," subject of
--his mother
--his talent
--lost tragedy of
--verse from
Expedition, starting on


Fear, colour of
Feast of Cups
Fellation, alluded to
Festivals, three days
Fine, fixed by plaintiff
Finger, the, obscene allusion
Fleet (the), counsel concerning
Formula, a sacred


Gallop (the), in sexual intercourse
Games, war chariots in
"Garden of love," weeded
Garlic, an emblem
--for game-cocks
--the smell of
Genetyllides, minor deities
Genius, Good, explained
Glanis, invented name
"Goddesses (by the two)"
_Godemiché_, alluded to
Gods, the, belief in
Gorgon's head
Gorgons (the), name for gluttons
Greek stage, device of
Greenstuff, offered to gods
Gryttus, an orator
Gull, allusion to Cleon


Harmodius, assassin esteemed
--song in honour
Harpies (the), symbol of voracity
Heliasts, the, at Athens
--tribunal of
Hermippus, celebrated comic poet
Hephaestus, sword of
Heracles, as a glutton
_Hermae_, figures of the god
Hermes, conducts dead souls
--god of chance, and thieves
promised worship
Hieronymus, an obscure poet
--poet and pederast
Hippias, the Tyranny of
Hippocrates, sons of the general
Hipponax, satiric poet, ugliness of
Homeric verses, adapted
Hippo of Samos, doctrine
Honey, emblem of honey
Horse, marking of
Horses, good breed
Hyperbolus, a demagogue
--a general


Iliad, the, verses from
Incest with rape
Informers warned off
Initiated (the), after death
Invasion, result of
Iolas, a Theban hero
Ion (of Chios), a successful poet
Ionians, meaning
Isthmus, obscene pun


Jargon, meaningless
Jest, an obscene
_Judicatum solvi_ at Athens
Julius, a miser


Kneaded (to be), obscene
"Knockabouts," ancient


Lacratides, Archon
Lamachus, a brave general
Lame heroes, in plays
Lamprocles, a lyric poet
Language, used by orators
Laurel, the, carried off by wind
Law-costs, defendants'
Lawsuit against aliens
Lawsuits, Athenians' love of
--pretexts for
Leather, dominated by
--the market
Lemnos, ominous of misfortune
Lenaea. See Dionysia
Leonidas, hero of Thermopylae
"Let us drink," a song
Lipsydrion, fortified town
Loaves, Boeotian
"_Love and lewdness_"
Lyceum (the)
Lysicles, dealer in sheep
--husband of Aspasia
Lysimacha, derivation of
Lysistratus, a debauchee
--poverty of


Macareus rapes sister
_Mad Ox_, a nickname
Magnes, the comic poet
Male sexual organ, pun on
"_Many good men_"
"Maricas," play by Eupolis
Marpsias, an orator
Medimni, a measure
Megacles, family name
Megara, ally to Sparta
Megarians, boycotted
--(the), their sufferings
Melanion, chaste as
Melanthius, "Medea," tragedy by
--poet and gourmand
_Membrum virile_, punned upon
Micon, famous painter
Mice (the), a play
Mina, value of
Mines (silver), source of wealth
Mirrors, or burning glasses
Mitylené, city of
Modes of love, allusions to different
Month (the), how divided
Moon, the old and new
Mothon, an obscene dance
Morsimus, the poet
Morychus of Athens
Mountains, the golden
Mount Taygetus
Myronides, famous general
Mysian Telephus (the)


Names, fancy
Navarino, Battle of
Nero, Emperor, his finger
Nestor, the wise king
Nicarchus, an informer
Nicias, Greek general, satire on courage of


Oath, over a buckler
Obolus, "the honest penny"
Odomanti, a tribe
Offering, the priest's part
Old men, ridiculed
Olive branches, when carried
Olympus, a musician
Omens, their effect
Opora, the goddess
Opportunity, neglected
Opposite (the) to word expected
Oracles, belief in
--obscurity satirised
Orators, pederastic habits of
Orestes, symbol of rage
Oreus, a town
Orsilochus, brothel-keeper
Orthian mode, described


Pan, King of the Satyrs
Panathenaea, a festival
--(the), promised to Hermes
Pandeletus, renowned quibbler
Pandion, statue of
Paphlagonian tanner
--meaning of
Parabis, character of
Parliament (the), Athenian
Parnes, mountain of
Pauson, a painter
Peace, efforts for
Pederasty, school for oratory
Pegasus, in Euripides
--steed of Perseus
Peleus, accused of seduction
Pellené, a city, also name of courtesan
Penis, the drooping, as emblem
Penny royal, effect on fruit-eating
Peplus, the sacred, uses of
Pericles, maltreats conquered people
--squanders wealth
Periclides, chief of embassy
Persian buskins
Persians, alliance with Spartans
Perfumes, Rhodian
Phales, god of generation
Phallus (the), an emblem
Phallics. See Phallus
Phayllus, an athlete
Pheax, special pleader
Phelleus, a mountain
Pherecrates, playwright
Phidias, reward of work
Philocles, sons of
Philostratus, identity lost
Phormio, a great general
--a successful general
--famous admiral
Phrynis, poet and musician
Phryxus, ram of
Phylarch, cavalry captain
Phylé, a fortress of Attica
Pigs immolated
Pillar, used for treaties
Pimples, a swinish disease
Pindar, borrowed from
Piraeus, the
Pisander, a braggart captain
--revolutionary leader
Pittalus, a physician
Pleasures, wanton
Pnyx, purpose used for
Poetry, measures of
Poets, seduce young men
--supply theatrical gear
"_Poseidon and boat_"
Posidon, god of earthquakes
Potidaea, a tributary town
Pramnium, wine or
Prasiae, a town
Prepis, a vile pathic
Priapus, god of gardens
Prisoners, objects of sale
Prisoners, Spartan
Processions, barred to married women
Prodicus, celebrated sophist
Prytanes, duties of
--(the), their functions
Prytaneum, meals, why given
Pseudartabas, the King's Eye
Pun, far-fetched
--of ill omen
--on "father" and cowardice
--on word Pylos
Punishment (of slaves)
Pyanepsia, a festival
Pylos, history of
--barley, meaning
--the affair of
--towns of
Pyrrandrus, origin of name
Pythagorean doctrine


Question before sacrificing


Radishes, used as punishment
Rape and incest
Reasoning, names for


Salabaccha, famous courtesan
Salamis, the island of
Samos, friend to Athens
Samothrace, the island of
Samphoras, mark of horses
"Scythian woman"
Semi-sextarius, the
Senate, admission to
--how composed
Seriphian, island of
Sesame-cake, emblem of fecundity
Shoes, taken off
Sibyrtius, the son of
Sicilian Expedition (the)
Sicily, towns of
Sicyonians, blood in sacrifice
Silphium, a plant
Simonides, a timeserver
Sisters, marriage of half-
Sisyphus, his cunning
Sitalces, a king
_Skytalé_, used for despatches
Slaves, names of
Smicythes, the King
Socrates, basket used for meditation
--chief accusation against
--his birthplace
--his meanness
--taught everywhere
--teaching _re_ bodily health
--sprinkles flour
--words mocked at
Soldiers, inexpert at speaking
Soldier's nation
Sophocles, writing for gain
Sow, obscene pun on word
Spartans (the), prisoners
Speeches, limited by clocks
Sphere, earthenware
Stage (the Greek), contrivance of
--(the), of theatre
State treasure
Stealing, under pretence of teaching
Steeds, exploits of
Stilbides, a diviner
Stone seats, where used
Strangers, at Athens
Strategi (the)
Strato, orator of ill-fame
Stupidity, in government
Suidas, referred to
Sunium, temple of
Sybaris, a town
Sybil (the), of Delphi
Syrmaea, a purgative


Tail, when burning
Tails, animals without
Tambourines, with lewd dancing
Telamon, war-song writer
--"Telephus," a lost play
--Tents at Olympic games
"Tereus," a lost play
Thales, mentioned
Thasian wine
Theagenes, an evil liver
Themistocles, work for Athens
--death, 33
Theognis, a poet sans life
Theophanes, identity of
Theoria, why in care of Senate
Thetis, solicited by Peleus
Thucydides, references to
Thumantis unhoused
Timocreon, song of
Timon, the misanthrope
Toad-eaters, orators
Treachery, reward of
Tributes, paid to Athens
Trierarch, duties of
Tricorysus, gnat-haunted
Truces, how personified
Tyndarus, sons of


Vegetables, at feast of Dionysia
Vessels (Grecian), allusion to crew
Vintages, result of peace
Violation of brides, origin of war
Vocative (the), in Ionic


Wages of rowers, how avoided
War-chariots, prize for
War, hardships
--results of, Peloponnesian
"Wasps (The)," verses from
Water-cress, depredations of
Wealth, given to traitors
Whirlwind, the, as deity
"_Who is here?_"
Wind, the, snatches off laurel
Wine, water in
Wines, symbolic
Women, Athenian, love of wine
--lascivious dancing
Women, loose, wear silk
Wrestling school, place of pederasty


_Xenocles_, a line from


Zacynthus, an island
Zeus, appealed to
--sons of
Zeus Polieus
Zeuxis, the painter

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