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The Effects of Cross & Self-Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom by Charles Darwin

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crossed with pollen from another crossed plant, and produced fine
capsules. The flowers on the self-fertilised plants of the last
generation were allowed to fertilise themselves spontaneously under a
net, and they produced some remarkably fine capsules. The two lots of
seeds thus produced germinated on sand, and eight pairs were planted on
opposite sides of four pots. These plants were measured to the tips of
their leaves on the 20th of October of the same year, and the eight
crossed plants averaged in height 8.4 inches, whilst the self-fertilised
averaged 8.53 inches, so that the crossed were a little inferior in
height, as 100 to 101.5. By the 5th of June of the following year these
plants had grown much bulkier, and had begun to form heads. The crossed
had now acquired a marked superiority in general appearance, and
averaged 8.02 inches in height, whilst the self-fertilised averaged 7.31
inches; or as 100 to 91. The plants were then turned out of their pots
and planted undisturbed in the open ground. By the 5th of August their
heads were fully formed, but several had grown so crooked that their
heights could hardly be measured with accuracy. The crossed plants,
however, were on the whole considerably taller than the self-fertilised.
In the following year they flowered; the crossed plants flowering before
the self-fertilised in three of the pots, and at the same time in Pot 2.
The flower-stems were now measured, as shown in Table 4/29.

TABLE 3/29. Brassica oleracea.

Measured in inches to tops of flower-stems: 0 signifies that a
Flower-stem was not formed.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 49 2/8 : 44.
Pot 1 : 39 4/8 : 41.

Pot 2 : 37 4/8 : 38.
Pot 2 : 33 4/8 : 35 4/8.

Pot 3 : 47 : 51 1/8.
Pot 3 : 40 : 41 2/8.
Pot 3 : 42 : 46 4/8.

Pot 4 : 43 6/8 : 20 2/8.
Pot 4 : 37 2/8 : 33 3/8.
Pot 4 : 0 : 0.

Total : 369.75 : 351.00.

The nine flower-stems on the crossed plants here average 41.08 inches,
and the nine on the self-fertilised plants 39 inches in height, or as
100 to 95. But this small difference, which, moreover, depended almost
wholly on one of the self-fertilised plants being only 20 inches high,
does not in the least show the vast superiority of the crossed over the
self-fertilised plants. Both lots, including the two plants in Pot 4,
which did not flower, were now cut down close to the ground and weighed,
but those in Pot 2 were excluded, for they had been accidentally injured
by a fall during transplantation, and one was almost killed. The eight
crossed plants weighed 219 ounces, whilst the eight self-fertilised
plants weighed only 82 ounces, or as 100 to 37; so that the superiority
of the former over the latter in weight was great.

THE EFFECTS OF A CROSS WITH A FRESH STOCK.

Some flowers on a crossed plant of the last or second generation were
fertilised, without being castrated, by pollen taken from a plant of the
same variety, but not related to my plants, and brought from a nursery
garden (whence my seeds originally came) having a different soil and
aspect. The flowers on the self-fertilised plants of the last or second
generation (Table 4/29) were allowed to fertilise themselves
spontaneously under a net, and yielded plenty of seeds. These latter and
the crossed seeds, after germinating on sand, were planted in pairs on
the opposite sides of six large pots, which were kept at first in a cool
greenhouse. Early in January their heights were measured to the tips of
their leaves. The thirteen crossed plants averaged 13.16 inches in
height, and the twelve (for one had died) self-fertilised plants
averaged 13.7 inches, or as 100 to 104; so that the self-fertilised
plants exceeded by a little the crossed plants.

TABLE 3/30. Brassica oleracea.

Weights in ounces of plants after they had formed heads.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants from Pollen of fresh Stock.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants of the Third Generation.

Pot 1 : 130 : 18 2/4.

Pot 2 : 74 : 34 3/4.

Pot 3 : 121 : 17 2/4.

Pot 4 : 127 2/4 : 14.

Pot 5 : 90 : 11 2/4.

Pot 6 : 106 2/4 : 46.

Total : 649.00 : 142.25.

Early in the spring the plants were gradually hardened, and turned out
of their pots into the open ground without being disturbed. By the end
of August the greater number had formed fine heads, but several grew
extremely crooked, from having been drawn up to the light whilst in the
greenhouse. As it was scarcely possible to measure their heights, the
finest plant on each side of each pot was cut down close to the ground
and weighed. In Table 4/30 we have the result.

The six finest crossed plants average 108.16 ounces, whilst the six
finest self-fertilised plants average only 23.7 ounces, or as 100 to 22.
This difference shows in the clearest manner the enormous benefit which
these plants derived from a cross with another plant belonging to the
same sub-variety, but to a fresh stock, and grown during at least the
three previous generations under somewhat different conditions.

THE OFFSPRING FROM A CUT-LEAVED, CURLED, AND VARIEGATED WHITE-GREEN
CABBAGE CROSSED WITH A CUT-LEAVED, CURLED, AND VARIEGATED CRIMSON-GREEN
CABBAGE, COMPARED WITH THE SELF-FERTILISED OFFSPRING FROM THE TWO
VARIETIES.

These trials were made, not for the sake of comparing the growth of the
crossed and self-fertilised seedlings, but because I had seen it stated
that these varieties would not naturally intercross when growing
uncovered and near one another. This statement proved quite erroneous;
but the white-green variety was in some degree sterile in my garden,
producing little pollen and few seeds. It was therefore no wonder that
seedlings raised from the self-fertilised flowers of this variety were
greatly exceeded in height by seedlings from a cross between it and the
more vigorous crimson-green variety; and nothing more need be said about
this experiment.

The seedlings from the reciprocal cross, that is, from the crimson-green
variety fertilised with pollen from the white-green variety, offer a
somewhat more curious case. A few of these crossed seedlings reverted to
a pure green variety with their leaves less cut and curled, so that they
were altogether in a much more natural state, and these plants grew more
vigorously and taller than any of the others. Now it is a strange fact
that a much larger number of the self-fertilised seedlings from the
crimson-green variety than of the crossed seedlings thus reverted; and
as a consequence the self-fertilised seedlings grew taller by 2 1/2
inches on an average than the crossed seedlings, with which they were
put into competition. At first, however, the crossed seedlings exceeded
the self-fertilised by an average of a quarter of an inch. We thus see
that reversion to a more natural condition acted more powerfully in
favouring the ultimate growth of these plants than did a cross; but it
should be remembered that the cross was with a semi-sterile variety
having a feeble constitution.

Iberis umbellata.

VAR. KERMESIANA.

This variety produced plenty of spontaneously self-fertilised seed under
a net. Other plants in pots in the greenhouse were left uncovered, and
as I saw small flies visiting the flowers, it seemed probable that they
would be intercrossed. Consequently seeds supposed to have been thus
crossed and spontaneously self-fertilised seeds were sown on opposite
sides of a pot. The self-fertilised seedlings grew from the first
quicker than the supposed crossed seedlings, and when both lots were in
full flower the former were from 5 to 6 inches higher than the crossed!
I record in my notes that the self-fertilised seeds from which these
self-fertilised plants were raised were not so well ripened as the
crossed; and this may possibly have caused the great difference in their
growth, in a somewhat analogous manner as occurred with the
self-fertilised plants of the eighth generation of Ipomoea raised from
unhealthy parents. It is a curious circumstance, that two other lots of
the above seeds were sown in pure sand mixed with burnt earth, and
therefore without any organic matter; and here the supposed crossed
seedlings grew to double the height of the self-fertilised, before both
lots died, as necessarily occurred at an early period. We shall
hereafter meet with another case apparently analogous to this of Iberis
in the third generation of Petunia.

The above self-fertilised plants were allowed to fertilise themselves
again under a net, yielding self-fertilised plants of the second
generation, and the supposed crossed plants were crossed by pollen of a
distinct plant; but from want of time this was done in a careless
manner, namely, by smearing one head of expanded flowers over another. I
should have thought that this would have succeeded, and perhaps it did
so; but the fact of 108 of the self-fertilised seeds weighing 4.87
grains, whilst the same number of the supposed crossed seeds weighed
only 3.57 grains, does not look like it. Five seedlings from each lot of
seeds were raised, and the self-fertilised plants, when fully grown,
exceeded in average height by a trifle (namely .4 of an inch) the five
probably crossed plants. I have thought it right to give this case and
the last, because had the supposed crossed plants proved superior to the
self-fertilised in height, I should have assumed without doubt that the
former had really been crossed. As it is, I do not know what to
conclude.

Being much surprised at the two foregoing trials, I determined to make
another, in which there should be no doubt about the crossing. I
therefore fertilised with great care (but as usual without castration)
twenty-four flowers on the supposed crossed plants of the last
generation with pollen from distinct plants, and thus obtained
twenty-one capsules. The self-fertilised plants of the last generation
were allowed to fertilise themselves again under a net, and the
seedlings reared from these seeds formed the third self-fertilised
generation. Both lots of seeds, after germinating on bare sand, were
planted in pairs on the opposite sides of two pots. All the remaining
seeds were sown crowded on opposite sides of a third pot; but as all the
self-fertilised seedlings in this latter pot died before they grew to
any considerable height, they were not measured. The plants in Pots 1
and 2 were measured when between 7 and 8 inches in height, and the
crossed exceeded the self-fertilised in average height by 1.57 inches.
When fully grown they were again measured to the summits of their
flower-heads, with the following result:--

TABLE 4/31. Iberis umbellata.

Heights of plants to the summits of their flower-heads, in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants of the Third Generation.

Pot 1 : 18 : 19.
Pot 1 : 21 : 21.
Pot 1 : 18 2/8 : 19 4/8.

Pot 2 : 19 : 16 6/8.
Pot 2 : 18 4/8 : 7 4/8.
Pot 2 : 17 6/8 : 14 4/8.
Pot 2 : 21 3/8 : 16 4/8.

Total : 133.88 : 114.75.

The average height of the seven crossed plants is here 19.12 inches, and
that of the seven self-fertilised plants 16.39, or as 100 to 86. But as
the plants on the self-fertilised side grew very unequally, this ratio
cannot be fully trusted, and is probably too high. In both pots a
crossed plant flowered before any one of the self-fertilised. These
plants were left uncovered in the greenhouse; but from being too much
crowded they were not very productive. The seeds from all seven plants
of both lots were counted; the crossed produced 206, and the
self-fertilised 154; or as 100 to 75.

CROSS BY A FRESH STOCK.

From the doubts caused by the two first trials, in which it was not
known with certainty that the plants had been crossed; and from the
crossed plants in the last experiment having been put into competition
with plants self-fertilised for three generations, which moreover grew
very unequally, I resolved to repeat the trial on a larger scale, and in
a rather different manner. I obtained seeds of the same crimson variety
of Iberis umbellata from another nursery garden, and raised plants from
them. Some of these plants were allowed to fertilise themselves
spontaneously under a net; others were crossed by pollen taken from
plants raised from seed sent me by Dr. Durando from Algiers, where the
parent-plants had been cultivated for some generations. These latter
plants differed in having pale pink instead of crimson flowers, but in
no other respect. That the cross had been effective (though the flowers
on the crimson mother-plant had NOT been castrated) was well shown when
the thirty crossed seedlings flowered, for twenty-four of them produced
pale pink flowers, exactly like those of their father; the six others
having crimson flowers exactly like those of their mother and like those
of all the self-fertilised seedlings. This case offers a good instance
of a result which not rarely follows from crossing varieties having
differently coloured flowers; namely, that the colours do not blend, but
resemble perfectly those either of the father or mother plant. The seeds
of both lots, after germinating on sand, were planted on opposite sides
of eight pots. When fully grown, the plants were measured to the summits
of the flower-heads, as shown in Table 4/32.

TABLE 4/32. Iberis umbellata.

Height of Plants to the summits of the flower-heads, measured in inches:
0 signifies that the Plant died.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Plants from a Cross with a fresh Stock.

Column 3: Plants from Spontaneously Self-fertilised Seeds.

Pot 1 : 18 6/8 : 17 3/8.
Pot 1 : 17 5/8 : 16 7/8.
Pot 1 : 17 6/8 : 13 1/8.
Pot 1 : 20 1/8 : 15 3/8.

Pot 2 : 20 2/8 : 0.
Pot 2 : 15 7/8 : 16 6/8.
Pot 2 : 17 : 15 2/8.

Pot 3 : 19 2/8 : 13 6/8.
Pot 3 : 18 1/8 : 14 2/8.
Pot 3 : 15 2/8 : 13 4/8.

Pot 4 : 17 1/8 : 16 4/8.
Pot 4 : 18 7/8 : 14 4/8.
Pot 4 : 17 5/8 : 16.
Pot 4 : 15 6/8 : 15 3/8.
Pot 4 : 14 4/8 : 14 7/8.

Pot 5 : 18 1/8 : 16 4/8.
Pot 5 : 14 7/8 : 16 2/8.
Pot 5 : 16 2/8 : 14 2/8.
Pot 5 : 15 5/8 : 14 2/8.
Pot 5 : 12 4/8 : 16 1/8.

Pot 6 : 18 6/8 : 16 1/8.
Pot 6 : 18 6/8 : 15.
Pot 6 : 17 3/8 : 15 2/8.

Pot 7 : 18 : 16 3/8.
Pot 7 : 16 4/8 : 14 4/8.
Pot 7 : 18 2/8 : 13 5/8.

Pot 8 : 20 6/8 : 15 6/8.
Pot 8 : 17 7/8 : 16 3/8.
Pot 8 : 13 5/8 : 20 2/8.
Pot 8 : 19 2/8 : 15 6/8.

Total : 520.38 : 449.88.

The average height of the thirty crossed plants is here 17.34, and that
of the twenty-nine self-fertilised plants (one having died) 15.51, or as
100 to 89. I am surprised that the difference did not prove somewhat
greater, considering that in the last experiment it was as 100 to 86;
but this latter ratio, as before explained, was probably too great. It
should, however, be observed that in the last experiment (Table 4/31),
the crossed plants competed with plants of the third self-fertilised
generation; whilst in the present case, plants derived from a cross with
a fresh stock competed with self-fertilised plants of the first
generation.

The crossed plants in the present case, as in the last, were more
fertile than the self-fertilised, both lots being left uncovered in the
greenhouse. The thirty crossed plants produced 103 seed-bearing
flowers-heads, as well as some heads which yielded no seeds; whereas the
twenty-nine self-fertilised plants produced only 81 seed-bearing heads;
therefore thirty such plants would have produced 83.7 heads. We thus get
the ratio of 100 to 81, for the number of seed-bearing flower-heads
produced by the crossed and self-fertilised plants. Moreover, a number
of seed-bearing heads from the crossed plants, compared with the same
number from the self-fertilised, yielded seeds by weight, in the ratio
of 100 to 92. Combining these two elements, namely, the number of
seed-bearing heads and the weight of seeds in each head, the
productiveness of the crossed to the self-fertilised plants was as 100
to 75.

The crossed and self-fertilised seeds, which remained after the above
pairs had been planted, (some in a state of germination and some not
so), were sown early in the year out of doors in two rows. Many of the
self-fertilised seedlings suffered greatly, and a much larger number of
them perished than of the crossed. In the autumn the surviving
self-fertilised plants were plainly less well-grown than the crossed
plants.

7. PAPAVERACEAE.--Papaver vagum.

A SUB-SPECIES OF Papaver dubium, FROM THE SOUTH OF FRANCE.

The poppy does not secrete nectar, but the flowers are highly
conspicuous and are visited by many pollen-collecting bees, flies and
beetles. The anthers shed their pollen very early, and in the case of
Papaver rhoeas, it falls on the circumference of the radiating stigmas,
so that this species must often be self-fertilised; but with Papaver
dubium the same result does not follow (according to H. Muller 'Die
Befruchtung' page 128), owing to the shortness of the stamens, unless
the flower happens to stand inclined. The present species, therefore,
does not seem so well fitted for self-fertilisation as most of the
others. Nevertheless Papaver vagum produced plenty of capsules in my
garden when insects were excluded, but only late in the season. I may
here add that Papaver somniferum produces an abundance of spontaneously
self-fertilised capsules, as Professor H. Hoffmann likewise found to be
the case. (4/2. 'Zur Speciesfrage' 1875 page 53.) Some species of
Papaver cross freely when growing in the same garden, as I have known to
be the case with Papaver bracteatum and orientale.

Plants of Papaver vagum were raised from seeds sent me from Antibes
through the kindness of Dr. Bornet. Some little time after the flowers
had expanded, several were fertilised with their own pollen, and others
(not castrated) with pollen from a distinct individual; but I have
reason to believe, from observations subsequently made, that these
flowers had been already fertilised by their own pollen, as this process
seems to take place soon after their expansion. (4/3. Mr. J. Scott found
'Report on the Experimental Culture of the Opium Poppy' Calcutta 1874
page 47, in the case of Papaver somniferum, that if he cut away the
stigmatic surface before the flower had expanded, no seeds were
produced; but if this was done "on the second day, or even a few hours
after the expansion of the flower on the first day, a partial
fertilisation had already been effected, and a few good seeds were
almost invariably produced." This proves at how early a period
fertilisation takes place.) I raised, however, a few seedlings of both
lots, and the self-fertilised rather exceeded the crossed plants in
height.

Early in the following year I acted differently, and fertilised seven
flowers, very soon after their expansion, with pollen from another
plant, and obtained six capsules. From counting the seeds in a
medium-sized one, I estimated that the average number in each was at
least 120. Four out of twelve capsules, spontaneously self-fertilised at
the same time, were found to contain no good seeds; and the remaining
eight contained on an average 6.6 seeds per capsule. But it should be
observed that later in the season the same plants produced under a net
plenty of very fine spontaneously self-fertilised capsules.

The above two lots of seeds, after germinating on sand, were planted in
pairs on opposite sides of five pots. The two lots of seedlings, when
half an inch in height, and again when 6 inches high, were measured to
the tips of their leaves, but presented no difference. When fully grown,
the flower-stalks were measured to the summits of the seed capsules,
with the following result:--

TABLE 4/33. Papaver vagum.

Heights of flower-stalks to the summits of the seed capsules measured in
inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 24 2/8 : 21.
Pot 1 : 30 : 26 5/8.
Pot 1 : 18 4/8 : 16.

Pot 2 : 14 4/8 : 15 3/8.
Pot 2 : 22 : 20 1/8.
Pot 2 : 19 5/8 : 14 1/8.
Pot 2 : 21 5/8 : 16 4/8.

Pot 3 : 20 6/8 : 19 2/8.
Pot 3 : 20 2/8 : 13 2/8.
Pot 3 : 20 6/8 : 18.

Pot 4 : 25 3/8 : 23 2/8.
Pot 4 : 24 2/8 : 23.

Pot 5 : 20 : 18 3/8.
Pot 5 : 27 7/8 : 27.
Pot 5 : 19 : 21 2/8.

Total : 328.75 : 293.13.

The fifteen crossed plants here average 21.91 inches, and the fifteen
self-fertilised plants 19.54 inches in height, or as 100 to 89. These
plants did not differ in fertility, as far as could be judged by the
number of capsules produced, for there were seventy-five on the crossed
side and seventy-four on the self-fertilised side.

Eschscholtzia californica.

This plant is remarkable from the crossed seedlings not exceeding in
height or vigour the self-fertilised. On the other hand, a cross greatly
increases the productiveness of the flowers on the parent-plant, and is
indeed sometimes necessary in order that they should produce any seed;
moreover, plants thus derived are themselves much more fertile than
those raised from self-fertilised flowers; so that the whole advantage
of a cross is confined to the reproductive system. It will be necessary
for me to give this singular case in considerable detail.

Twelve flowers on some plants in my flower-garden were fertilised with
pollen from distinct plants, and produced twelve capsules; but one of
these contained no good seed. The seeds of the eleven good capsules
weighed 17.4 grains. Eighteen flowers on the same plants were fertilised
with their own pollen and produced twelve good capsules, which contained
13.61 grains weight of seed. Therefore an equal number of crossed and
self-fertilised capsules would have yielded seed by weight as 100 to 71.
(4/4. Professor Hildebrand experimented on plants in Germany on a larger
scale than I did, and found them much more self-fertile. Eighteen
capsules, produced by cross-fertilisation, contained on an average
eighty-five seeds, whilst fourteen capsules from self-fertilised flowers
contained on an average only nine seeds; that is, as 100 to 11: 'Jahrb.
fur Wissen Botanik.' B. 7 page 467.) If we take into account of the fact
that a much greater proportion of flowers produced capsules when crossed
than when self-fertilised, the relative fertility of the crossed to the
self-fertilised flowers was as 100 to 52. Nevertheless these plants,
whilst still protected by the net, spontaneously produced a considerable
number of self-fertilised capsules.

The seeds of the two lots after germinating on sand were planted in
pairs on the opposite sides of four large pots. At first there was no
difference in their growth, but ultimately the crossed seedlings
exceeded the self-fertilised considerably in height, as shown in Table
4/34. But I believe from the cases which follow that this result was
accidental, owing to only a few plants having been measured, and to one
of the self-fertilised plants having grown only to a height of 15
inches. The plants had been kept in the greenhouse, and from being drawn
up to the light had to be tied to sticks in this and the following
trials. They were measured to the summits of their flower-stems.

TABLE 4/34. Eschscholtzia californica.

Heights of Plants to the summits of their flower-stems measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 33 4/8 : 25.

Pot 2 : 34 2/8 : 35.

Pot 3 : 29 : 27 2/8.

Pot 4 : 22 : 15.

Total : 118.75 : 102.25.

The four crossed plants here average 29.68 inches, and the four
self-fertilised 25.56 in height; or as 100 to 86. The remaining seeds
were sown in a large pot in which a Cineraria had long been growing; and
in this case again the two crossed plants on the one side greatly
exceeded in height the two self-fertilised plants on the opposite side.
The plants in the above four pots from having been kept in the
greenhouse did not produce on this or any other similar occasion many
capsules; but the flowers on the crossed plants when again crossed were
much more productive than the flowers on the self-fertilised plants when
again self-fertilised. These plants after seeding were cut down and kept
in the greenhouse; and in the following year, when grown again, their
relative heights were reversed, as the self-fertilised plants in three
out of the four pots were now taller than and flowered before the
crossed plants.

CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS OF THE SECOND GENERATION.

The fact just given with respect to the growth of the cut-down plants
made me doubtful about my first trial, so I determined to make another
on a larger scale with crossed and self-fertilised seedlings raised from
the crossed and self-fertilised plants of the last generation. Eleven
pairs were raised and grown in competition in the usual manner; and now
the result was different, for the two lots were nearly equal during
their whole growth. It would therefore be superfluous to give a table of
their heights. When fully grown and measured, the crossed averaged
32.47, and the self-fertilised 32.81 inches in height; or as 100 to 101.
There was no great difference in the number of flowers and capsules
produced by the two lots when both were left freely exposed to the
visits of insects.

PLANTS RAISED FROM BRAZILIAN SEED.

Fritz Muller sent me from South Brazil seeds of plants which were there
absolutely sterile when fertilised with pollen from the same plant, but
were perfectly fertile when fertilised with pollen from any other plant.
The plants raised by me in England from these seeds were examined by
Professor Asa Gray, and pronounced to belong to E. Californica, with
which they were identical in general appearance. Two of these plants
were covered by a net, and were found not to be so completely
self-sterile as in Brazil. But I shall recur to this subject in another
part of this work. Here it will suffice to state that eight flowers on
these two plants, fertilised with pollen from another plant under the
net, produced eight fine capsules, each containing on an average about
eighty seeds. Eight flowers on these same plants, fertilised with their
own pollen, produced seven capsules, which contained on an average only
twelve seeds, with a maximum in one of sixteen seeds. Therefore the
cross-fertilised capsules, compared with the self-fertilised, yielded
seeds in the ratio of about 100 to 15. These plants of Brazilian
parentage differed also in a marked manner from the English plants in
producing extremely few spontaneously self-fertilised capsules under a
net.

Crossed and self-fertilised seeds from the above plants, after
germinating on bare sand, were planted in pairs on the opposite sides of
five large pots. The seedlings thus raised were the grandchildren of the
plants which grew in Brazil; the parents having been grown in England.
As the grandparents in Brazil absolutely require cross-fertilisation in
order to yield any seeds, I expected that self-fertilisation would have
proved very injurious to these seedlings, and that the crossed ones
would have been greatly superior in height and vigour to those raised
from self-fertilised flowers. But the result showed that my anticipation
was erroneous; for as in the last experiment with plants of the English
stock, so in the present one, the self-fertilised plants exceeded the
crossed by a little in height. It will be sufficient to state that the
fourteen crossed plants averaged 44.64, and the fourteen self-fertilised
45.12 inches in height; or as 100 to 101.

THE EFFECTS OF A CROSS WITH A FRESH STOCK.

I now tried a different experiment. Eight flowers on the self-fertilised
plants of the last experiment (i.e., grandchildren of the plants which
grew in Brazil) were again fertilised with pollen from the same plant,
and produced five capsules, containing on an average 27.4 seeds, with a
maximum in one of forty-two seeds. The seedlings raised from these seeds
formed the second SELF-FERTILISED generation of the Brazilian stock.

Eight flowers on one of the crossed plants of the last experiment were
crossed with pollen from another grandchild, and produced five capsules.
These contained on an average 31.6 seeds, with a maximum in one of
forty-nine seeds. The seedlings raised from these seeds may be called
the INTERCROSSED.

Lastly, eight other flowers on the crossed plants of the last experiment
were fertilised with pollen from a plant of the English stock, growing
in my garden, and which must have been exposed during many previous
generations to very different conditions from those to which the
Brazilian progenitors of the mother-plant had been subjected. These
eight flowers produced only four capsules, containing on an average 63.2
seeds, with a maximum in one of ninety. The plants raised from these
seeds may be called the ENGLISH-CROSSED. As far as the above averages
can be trusted from so few capsules, the English-crossed capsules
contained twice as many seeds as the intercrossed, and rather more than
twice as many as the self-fertilised capsules. The plants which yielded
these capsules were grown in pots in the greenhouse, so that their
absolute productiveness must not be compared with that of plants growing
out of doors.

The above three lots of seeds, namely, the self-fertilised,
intercrossed, and English-crossed, were planted in an equal state of
germination (having been as usual sown on bare sand) in nine large pots,
each divided into three parts by superficial partitions. Many of the
self-fertilised seeds germinated before those of the two crossed lots,
and these were of course rejected. The seedlings thus raised are the
great-grandchildren of the plants which grew in Brazil. When they were
from 2 to 4 inches in height, the three lots were equal. They were
measured when four-fifths grown, and again when fully grown, and as
their relative heights were almost exactly the same at these two ages, I
will give only the last measurements. The average height of the nineteen
English-crossed plants was 45.92 inches; that of the eighteen
intercrossed plants (for one died), 43.38; and that of the nineteen
self-fertilised plants, 50.3 inches. So that we have the following
ratios in height:--

The English-crossed to the self-fertilised plants, as 100 to 109.

The English-crossed to the intercrossed plants, as 100 to 94.

The intercrossed to the self-fertilised plants, as 100 to 116.

After the seed-capsules had been gathered, all these plants were cut
down close to the ground and weighed. The nineteen English crossed
plants weighed 18.25 ounces; the intercrossed plants (with their weight
calculated as if there had been nineteen) weighed 18.2 ounces; and the
nineteen self-fertilised plants, 21.5 ounces. We have therefore for the
weights of the three lots of plants the following ratios:--

The English-crossed to the self-fertilised plants, as 100 to 118.

The English-crossed to the intercrossed plants, as 100 to 100.

The intercrossed to the self-fertilised plants, as 100 to 118.

We thus see that in weight, as in height, the self-fertilised plants had
a decided advantage over the English-crossed and intercrossed plants.

The remaining seeds of the three kinds, whether or not in a state of
germination, were sown in three long parallel rows in the open ground;
and here again the self-fertilised seedlings exceeded in height by
between 2 and 3 inches the seedlings in the two other rows, which were
of nearly equal heights. The three rows were left unprotected throughout
the winter, and all the plants were killed, with the exception of two of
the self-fertilised; so that as far as this little bit of evidence goes,
some of the self-fertilised plants were more hardy than any of the
crossed plants of either lot.

We thus see that the self-fertilised plants which were grown in the nine
pots were superior in height (as 116 to 100), and in weight (as 118 to
100), and apparently in hardiness, to the intercrossed plants derived
from a cross between the grandchildren of the Brazilian stock. The
superiority is here much more strongly marked than in the second trial
with the plants of the English stock, in which the self-fertilised were
to the crossed in height as 101 to 100. It is a far more remarkable
fact--if we bear in mind the effects of crossing plants with pollen from
a fresh stock in the cases of Ipomoea, Mimulus, Brassica, and
Iberis--that the self-fertilised plants exceeded in height (as 109 to
100), and in weight (as 118 to 100), the offspring of the Brazilian
stock crossed by the English stock; the two stocks having been long
subjected to widely different conditions.

If we now turn to the fertility of the three lots of plants we find a
very different result. I may premise that in five out of the nine pots
the first plant which flowered was one of the English-crossed; in four
of the pots it was a self-fertilised plant; and in not one did an
intercrossed plant flower first; so that these latter plants were beaten
in this respect, as in so many other ways. The three closely adjoining
rows of plants growing in the open ground flowered profusely, and the
flowers were incessantly visited by bees, and certainly thus
intercrossed. The manner in which several plants in the previous
experiments continued to be almost sterile as long as they were covered
by a net, but set a multitude of capsules immediately that they were
uncovered, proves how effectually the bees carry pollen from plant to
plant. My gardener gathered, at three successive times, an equal number
of ripe capsules from the plants of the three lots, until he had
collected forty-five from each lot. It is not possible to judge from
external appearance whether or not a capsule contains any good seeds; so
that I opened all the capsules. Of the forty-five from the
English-crossed plants, four were empty; of those from the intercrossed,
five were empty; and of those from the self-fertilised, nine were empty.
The seeds were counted in twenty-one capsules taken by chance out of
each lot, and the average number of seeds in the capsules from the
English-crossed plants was 67; from the intercrossed, 56; and from the
self-fertilised, 48.52. It therefore follows that:--

The forty-five capsules (the four empty ones included) from the
English-crossed plants contained 2747 seeds.

The forty-five capsules (the five empty ones included) from the
intercrossed plants contained 2240 seeds.

The forty-five capsules (the nine empty ones included) from the
self-fertilised plants contained 1746.7 seeds.

The reader should remember that these capsules are the product of
cross-fertilisation, effected by the bees; and that the difference in
the number of the contained seeds must depend on the constitution of the
plants;--that is, on whether they were derived from a cross with a
distinct stock, or from a cross between plants of the same stock, or
from self-fertilisation. From the above facts we obtain the following
ratios:--

Number of seeds contained in an equal number of naturally fertilised
capsules produced:--

By the English-crossed and self-fertilised plants, as 100 to 63.

By the English-crossed and intercrossed plants, as 100 to 81.

By the intercrossed and self-fertilised plants, as 100 to 78.

But to have ascertained the productiveness of the three lots of plants,
it would have been necessary to know how many capsules were produced by
the same number of plants. The three long rows, however, were not of
quite equal lengths, and the plants were much crowded, so that it would
have been extremely difficult to have ascertained how many capsules were
produced by them, even if I had been willing to undertake so laborious a
task as to collect and count all the capsules. But this was feasible
with the plants grown in pots in the greenhouse; and although these were
much less fertile than those growing out of doors, their relative
fertility appeared, after carefully observing them, to be the same. The
nineteen plants of the English-crossed stock in the pots produced
altogether 240 capsules; the intercrossed plants (calculated as
nineteen) produced 137.22 capsules; and the nineteen self-fertilised
plants, 152 capsules. Now, knowing the number of seeds contained in
forty-five capsules of each lot, it is easy to calculate the relative
numbers of seeds produced by an equal number of the plants of the three
lots.

Number of seeds produced by an equal number of naturally-fertilised
plants:--

Plants of English-crossed and self-fertilised parentage, as 100 to 40
seeds.

Plants of English-crossed and intercrossed parentage, as 100 to 45
seeds.

Plants of intercrossed and self-fertilised parentage, as 100 to 89
seeds.

The superiority in productiveness of the intercrossed plants (that is,
the product of a cross between the grandchildren of the plants which
grew in Brazil) over the self-fertilised, small as it is, is wholly due
to the larger average number of seeds contained in the capsules; for the
intercrossed plants produced fewer capsules in the greenhouse than did
the self-fertilised plants. The great superiority in productiveness of
the English-crossed over the self-fertilised plants is shown by the
larger number of capsules produced, the larger average number of
contained seeds, and the smaller number of empty capsules. As the
English-crossed and intercrossed plants were the offspring of crosses in
every previous generation (as must have been the case from the flowers
being sterile with their own pollen), we may conclude that the great
superiority in productiveness of the English-crossed over the
intercrossed plants is due to the two parents of the former having been
long subjected to different conditions.

The English-crossed plants, though so superior in productiveness, were,
as we have seen, decidedly inferior in height and weight to the
self-fertilised, and only equal to, or hardly superior to, the
intercrossed plants. Therefore, the whole advantage of a cross with a
distinct stock is here confined to productiveness, and I have met with
no similar case.

8. RESEDACEAE.--Reseda lutea.

Seeds collected from wild plants growing in this neighbourhood were sown
in the kitchen-garden; and several of the seedlings thus raised were
covered with a net. Of these, some were found (as will hereafter be more
fully described) to be absolutely sterile when left to fertilise
themselves spontaneously, although plenty of pollen fell on their
stigmas; and they were equally sterile when artificially and repeatedly
fertilised with their own pollen; whilst other plants produced a few
spontaneously self-fertilised capsules. The remaining plants were left
uncovered, and as pollen was carried from plant to plant by the hive and
humble-bees which incessantly visit the flowers, they produced an
abundance of capsules. Of the necessity of pollen being carried from one
plant to another, I had ample evidence in the case of this species and
of R. odorata; for those plants, which set no seeds or very few as long
as they were protected from insects, became loaded with capsules
immediately that they were uncovered.

Seeds from the flowers spontaneously self-fertilised under the net, and
from flowers naturally crossed by the bees, were sown on opposite sides
of five large pots. The seedlings were thinned as soon as they appeared
above ground, so that an equal number were left on the two sides. After
a time the pots were plunged into the open ground. The same number of
plants of crossed and self-fertilised parentage were measured up to the
summits of their flower-stems, with the result given in Table 4/35.
Those which did not produce flower-stems were not measured.

TABLE 4/35. Reseda lutea, in pots.

Heights of plants to the summits of the flower-stems measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 21 : 12 7/8.
Pot 1 : 14 2/8 : 16.
Pot 1 : 19 1/8 : 11 7/8.
Pot 1 : 7 : 15 2/8.
Pot 1 : 15 1/8 : 19 1/8.

Pot 2 : 20 4/8 : 12 4/8.
Pot 2 : 17 3/8 : 16 2/8.
Pot 2 : 23 7/8 : 16 2/8.
Pot 2 : 17 1/8 : 13 3/8.
Pot 2 : 20 6/8 : 13 5/8.

Pot 3 : 16 1/8 : 14 4/8.
Pot 3 : 17 6/8 : 19 4/8.
Pot 3 : 16 2/8 : 20 7/8.
Pot 3 : 10 : 7 7/8.
Pot 3 : 10 : 17 6/8.

Pot 4 : 22 1/8 : 9.
Pot 4 : 19 : 11 4/8.
Pot 4 : 18 7/8 : 11.
Pot 4 : 16 4/8 : 16.
Pot 4 : 19 2/8 : 16 3/8.

Pot 5 : 25 2/8 : 14 6/8.
Pot 5 : 22 : 16.
Pot 5 : 8 6/8 : 14 3/8.
Pot 5 : 14 2/8 : 14 2/8.

Total : 412.25 : 350.86.

The average height of the twenty-four crossed plants is here 17.17
inches, and that of the same number of self-fertilised plants 14.61; or
as 100 to 85. Of the crossed plants all but five flowered, whilst
several of the self-fertilised did not do so. The above pairs, whilst
still in flower, but with some capsules already formed, were afterwards
cut down and weighed. The crossed weighed 90.5 ounces; and an equal
number of the self-fertilised only 19 ounces, or as 100 to 21; and this
is an astonishing difference.

Seeds of the same two lots were also sown in two adjoining rows in the
open ground. There were twenty crossed plants in the one row and
thirty-two self-fertilised plants in the other row, so that the
experiment was not quite fair; but not so unfair as it at first appears,
for the plants in the same row were not crowded so much as seriously to
interfere with each other's growth, and the ground was bare on the
outside of both rows. These plants were better nourished than those in
the pots and grew to a greater height. The eight tallest plants in each
row were measured in the same manner as before, with the following
result:--

TABLE 4/36. Reseda lutea, growing in the open ground.

Heights of plants to the summits of the flower-stems measured in inches.

Column 1: Crossed Plants.

Column 2: Self-fertilised Plants.

28 : 33 2/8.
27 3/8 : 23.
27 5/8 : 21 5/8.
28 6/8 : 20 4/8.
29 7/8 : 21 5/8.
26 6/8 : 22.
26 2/8 : 21 2/8.
30 1/8 : 21 7/8.

Total : 224.75 : 185.13

The average height of the crossed plants, whilst in full flower, was
here 28.09, and that of the self-fertilised 23.14 inches; or as 100 to
82. It is a singular fact that the tallest plant in the two rows, was
one of the self-fertilised. The self-fertilised plants had smaller and
paler green leaves than the crossed. All the plants in the two rows were
afterwards cut down and weighed. The twenty crossed plants weighed 65
ounces, and twenty self-fertilised (by calculation from the actual
weight of the thirty-two self-fertilised plants) weighed 26.25 ounces;
or as 100 to 40. Therefore the crossed plants did not exceed in weight
the self-fertilised plants in nearly so great a degree as those growing
in the pots, owing probably to the latter having been subjected to more
severe mutual competition. On the other hand, they exceeded the
self-fertilised in height in a slightly greater degree.

Reseda odorata.

Plants of the common mignonette were raised from purchased seed, and
several of them were placed under separate nets. Of these some became
loaded with spontaneously self-fertilised capsules; others produced a
few, and others not a single one. It must not be supposed that these
latter plants produced no seed because their stigmas did not receive any
pollen, for they were repeatedly fertilised with pollen from the same
plant with no effect; but they were perfectly fertile with pollen from
any other plant. Spontaneously self-fertilised seeds were saved from one
of the highly self-fertile plants, and other seeds were collected from
the plants growing outside the nets, which had been crossed by the bees.
These seeds after germinating on sand were planted in pairs on the
opposite sides of five pots. The plants were trained up sticks, and
measured to the summits of their leafy stems--the flower-stems not being
included. We here have the result:--

TABLE 4/37. Reseda odorata (seedlings from a highly self-fertile plant).

Heights of plants to the summits of the leafy stems, flower-stems not
included, measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 20 7/8 : 22 4/8.
Pot 1 : 34 7/8 : 28 5/8.
Pot 1 : 26 6/8 : 23 2/8.
Pot 1 : 32 6/8 : 30 4/8.

Pot 2 : 34 3/8 : 28 5/8.
Pot 2 : 34 5/8 : 30 5/8.
Pot 2 : 11 6/8 : 23.
Pot 2 : 33 3/8 : 30 1/8.

Pot 3 : 17 7/8 : 4 4/8.
Pot 3 : 27 : 25.
Pot 3 : 30 1/8 : 26 3/8.
Pot 3 : 30 2/8 : 25 1/8.

Pot 4 : 21 5/8 : 22 6/8.
Pot 4 : 28 : 25 4/8.
Pot 4 : 32 5/8 : 15 1/8.
Pot 4 : 32 3/8 : 24 6/8.

Pot 5 : 21 : 11 6/8.
Pot 5 : 25 2/8 : 19 7/8.
Pot 5 : 26 6/8 : 10 4/8.

Total : 522.25 : 428.50.

The average height of the nineteen crossed plants is here 27.48, and
that of the nineteen self-fertilised 22.55 inches; or as 100 to 82. All
these plants were cut down in the early autumn and weighed: the crossed
weighed 11.5 ounces, and the self-fertilised 7.75 ounces, or as 100 to
67. These two lots having been left freely exposed to the visits of
insects, did not present any difference to the eye in the number of
seed-capsules which they produced.

The remainder of the same two lots of seeds were sown in two adjoining
rows in the open ground; so that the plants were exposed to only
moderate competition. The eight tallest on each side were measured, as
shown in Table 4/38.

TABLE 4/38. Reseda odorata, growing in the open ground.

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Crossed Plants.

Column 2: Self-fertilised Plants.

24 4/8 : 26 5/8.
27 2/8 : 25 7/8.
24 : 25.
26 6/8 : 28 3/8.
25 : 29 7/8.
26 2/8 : 25 7/8.
27 2/8 : 26 7/8.
25 1/8 : 28 2/8.

Total : 206.13 : 216.75

The average height of the eight crossed plants is 25.76, and that of the
eight self-fertilised 27.09; or as 100 to 105.

We here have the anomalous result of the self-fertilised plants being a
little taller than the crossed; of which fact I can offer no
explanation. It is of course possible, but not probable, that the labels
may have been interchanged by accident.

Another experiment was now tried: all the self-fertilised capsules,
though very few in number, were gathered from one of the
semi-self-sterile plants under a net; and as several flowers on this
same plant had been fertilised with pollen from a distinct individual,
crossed seeds were thus obtained. I expected that the seedlings from
this semi-self-sterile plant would have profited in a higher degree from
a cross, than did the seedlings from the fully self-fertile plants. But
my anticipation was quite wrong, for they profited in a less degree. An
analogous result followed in the case of Eschscholtzia, in which the
offspring of the plants of Brazilian parentage (which were partially
self-sterile) did not profit more from a cross, than did the plants of
the far more self-fertile English stock. The above two lots of crossed
and self-fertilised seeds from the same plant of Reseda odorata, after
germinating on sand, were planted on opposite sides of five pots, and
measured as in the last case, with the result in Table 4/39.

TABLE 4/39. Reseda odorata (seedlings from a semi-self-sterile plant).

Heights of plants to the summits of the leafy stems, flower-stems not
included, measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 33 4/8 : 31.
Pot 1 : 30 6/8 : 28.
Pot 1 : 29 6/8 : 13 2/8.
Pot 1 : 20 : 32.

Pot 2 : 22 : 21 6/8.
Pot 2 : 33 4/8 : 26 6/8.
Pot 2 : 31 2/8 : 25 2/8.
Pot 2 : 32 4/8 : 30 4/8.

Pot 3 : 30 1/8 : 17 2/8.
Pot 3 : 32 1/8 : 29 6/8.
Pot 3 : 31 4/8 : 24 6/8.
Pot 3 : 32 2/8 : 34 2/8.

Pot 4 : 19 1/8 : 20 6/8.
Pot 4 : 30 1/8 : 32 6/8.
Pot 4 : 24 3/8 : 31 4/8.
Pot 4 : 30 6/8 : 36 6/8.

Pot 5 : 34 6/8 : 24 5/8.
Pot 5 : 37 1/8 : 34.
Pot 5 : 31 2/8 : 22 2/8.
Pot 5 : 33 : 37 1/8.

Total : 599.75 : 554.25.

The average height of the twenty crossed plants is here 29.98, and that
of the twenty self-fertilised 27.71 inches; or as 100 to 92. These
plants were then cut down and weighed; and the crossed in this case
exceeded the self-fertilised in weight by a mere trifle, namely, in the
ratio of 100 to 99. The two lots, left freely exposed to insects, seemed
to be equally fertile.

The remainder of the seed was sown in two adjoining rows in the open
ground; and the eight tallest plants in each row were measured, with the
result in Table 4/40.

TABLE 4/40. Reseda odorata, (seedlings from a semi-self-sterile plant,
planted in the open ground).

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Crossed Plants.

Column 2: Self-fertilised Plants.

28 2/8 : 22 3/8.
22 4/8 : 24 3/8.
25 7/8 : 23 4/8.
25 3/8 : 21 4/8.
29 4/8 : 22 5/8.
27 1/8 : 27 3/8.
22 4/8 : 27 3/8.
26 2/8 : 19 2/8.

Total : 207.38 : 188.38.

The average height of the eight crossed plants is here 25.92, and that
of the eight self-fertilised plants 23.54 inches; or as 100 to 90.

9. VIOLACEAE.--Viola tricolor.

Whilst the flowers of the common cultivated heartsease are young, the
anthers shed their pollen into a little semi-cylindrical passage, formed
by the basal portion of the lower petal, and surrounded by papillae. The
pollen thus collected lies close beneath the stigma, but can seldom gain
access into its cavity, except by the aid of insects, which pass their
proboscides down this passage into the nectary. (4/5. The flowers of
this plant have been fully described by Sprengel, Hildebrand, Delpino,
and H. Muller. The latter author sums up all the previous observations
in his 'Befruchtung der Blumen' and in 'Nature' November 20, 1873 page
44. See also Mr. A.W. Bennett in 'Nature' May 15, 1873 page 50 and some
remarks by Mr. Kitchener ibid page 143. The facts which follow on the
effects of covering up a plant of V. tricolor have been quoted by Sir J.
Lubbock in his 'British Wild Flowers' etc. page 62.) Consequently when I
covered up a large plant of a cultivated variety, it set only eighteen
capsules, and most of these contained very few good seeds--several from
only one to three; whereas an equally fine uncovered plant of the same
variety, growing close by, produced 105 fine capsules. The few flowers
which produce capsules when insects are excluded, are perhaps fertilised
by the curling inwards of the petals as their wither, for by this means
pollen-grains adhering to the papillae might be inserted into the cavity
of the stigma. But it is more probable that their fertilisation is
effected, as Mr. Bennett suggests, by Thrips and certain minute beetles
which haunt the flowers, and which cannot be excluded by any net.
Humble-bees are the usual fertilisers; but I have more than once seen
flies (Rhingia rostrata) at work, with the under sides of their bodies,
heads and legs dusted with pollen; and having marked the flowers which
they visited, I found them after a few days fertilised. (4/6. I should
add that this fly apparently did not suck the nectar, but was attracted
by the papillae which surround the stigma. Hermann Muller also saw a
small bee, an Andrena, which could not reach the nectar, repeatedly
inserting its proboscis beneath the stigma, where the papillae are
situated; so that these papillae must be in some way attractive to
insects. A writer asserts 'Zoologist' volume 3-4 page 1225, that a moth
(Plusia) frequently visits the flowers of the pansy. Hive-bees do not
ordinarily visit them, but a case has been recorded 'Gardeners'
Chronicle' 1844 page 374, of these bees doing so. Hermann Muller has
also seen the hive-bee at work, but only on the wild small-flowered
form. He gives a list 'Nature' 1873 page 45, of all the insects which he
has seen visiting both the large and small-flowered forms. From his
account, I suspect that the flowers of plants in a state of nature are
visited more frequently by insects than those of the cultivated
varieties. He has seen several butterflies sucking the flowers of wild
plants, and this I have never observed in gardens, though I have watched
the flowers during many years.) It is curious for how long a time the
flowers of the heartsease and of some other plants may be watched
without an insect being seen to visit them. During the summer of 1841, I
observed many times daily for more than a fortnight some large clumps of
heartsease growing in my garden, before I saw a single humble-bee at
work. During another summer I did the same, but at last saw some
dark-coloured humble-bees visiting on three successive days almost every
flower in several clumps; and almost all these flowers quickly withered
and produced fine capsules. I presume that a certain state of the
atmosphere is necessary for the secretion of nectar, and that as soon as
this occurs the insects discover the fact by the odour emitted, and
immediately frequent the flowers.

As the flowers require the aid of insects for their complete
fertilisation, and as they are not visited by insects nearly so often as
most other nectar-secreting flowers, we can understand the remarkable
fact discovered by H. Muller and described by him in 'Nature,' namely,
that this species exists under two forms. One of these bears conspicuous
flowers, which, as we have seen, require the aid of insects, and are
adapted to be cross-fertilised by them; whilst the other form has much
smaller and less conspicuously coloured flowers, which are constructed
on a slightly different plan, favouring self-fertilisation, and are thus
adapted to ensure the propagation of the species. The self-fertile form,
however, is occasionally visited, and may be crossed by insects, though
this is rather doubtful.

In my first experiments on Viola tricolor I was unsuccessful in raising
seedlings, and obtained only one full-grown crossed and self-fertilised
plant. The former was 12 1/2 inches and the latter 8 inches in height.
On the following year several flowers on a fresh plant were crossed with
pollen from another plant, which was known to be a distinct seedling;
and to this point it is important to attend. Several other flowers on
the same plant were fertilised with their own pollen. The average number
of seeds in the ten crossed capsules was 18.7, and in the twelve
self-fertilised capsules 12.83; or as 100 to 69. These seeds, after
germinating on bare sand, were planted in pairs on the opposite sides of
five pots. They were first measured when about a third of their full
size, and the crossed plants then averaged 3.87 inches, and the
self-fertilised only 2.00 inches in height; or as 100 to 52. They were
kept in the greenhouse, and did not grow vigorously. Whilst in flower
they were again measured to the summits of their stems (see Table 4/41),
with the following result:--

TABLE 4/41. Viola tricolor.

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 8 2/8 : 0 2/8.
Pot 1 : 7 4/8 : 2 4/8.
Pot 1 : 5 : 1 2/8.

Pot 2 : 5 : 6.
Pot 2 : 4 : 4.
Pot 2 : 4 4/8 : 3 1/8.

Pot 3 : 9 4/8 : 3 1/8.
Pot 3 : 3 3/8 : 1 7/8.
Pot 3 : 8 4/8 : 0 5/8.

Pot 4 : 4 7/8 : 2 1/8.
Pot 4 : 4 2/8 : 1 6/8.
Pot 4 : 4 : 2 1/8.

Pot 5 : 6 : 3.
Pot 5 : 3 3/8 : 1 4/8.

Total : 78.13 : 33.25.

The average height of the fourteen crossed plants is here 5.58 inches,
and that of the fourteen self-fertilised 2.37; or as 100 to 42. In four
out of the five pots, a crossed plant flowered before any one of the
self-fertilised; as likewise occurred with the pair raised during the
previous year. These plants without being disturbed were now turned out
of their pots and planted in the open ground, so as to form five
separate clumps. Early in the following summer (1869) they flowered
profusely, and being visited by humble-bees set many capsules, which
were carefully collected from all the plants on both sides. The crossed
plants produced 167 capsules, and the self-fertilised only 17; or as 100
to 10. So that the crossed plants were more than twice the height of the
self-fertilised, generally flowered first, and produced ten times as
many naturally fertilised capsules.

By the early part of the summer of 1870 the crossed plants in all the
five clumps had grown and spread so much more than the self-fertilised,
that any comparison between them was superfluous. The crossed plants
were covered with a sheet of bloom, whilst only a single self-fertilised
plant, which was much finer than any of its brethren, flowered. The
crossed and self-fertilised plants had now grown all matted together on
the respective sides of the superficial partitions still separating
them; and in the clump which included the finest self-fertilised plant,
I estimated that the surface covered by the crossed plants was about
nine times as large as that covered by the self-fertilised plants. The
extraordinary superiority of the crossed over the self-fertilised plants
in all five clumps, was no doubt due to the crossed plants at first
having had a decided advantage over the self-fertilised, and then
robbing them more and more of their food during the succeeding seasons.
But we should remember that the same result would follow in a state of
nature even to a greater degree; for my plants grew in ground kept clear
of weeds, so that the self-fertilised had to compete only with the
crossed plants; whereas the whole surface of the ground is naturally
covered with various kinds of plants, all of which have to struggle
together for existence.

The ensuing winter was very severe, and in the following spring (1871)
the plants were again examined. All the self-fertilised were now dead,
with the exception of a single branch on one plant, which bore on its
summit a minute rosette of leaves about as large as a pea. On the other
hand, all the crossed plants without exception were growing vigorously.
So that the self-fertilised plants, besides their inferiority in other
respects, were more tender.

Another experiment was now tried for the sake of ascertaining how far
the superiority of the crossed plants, or to speak more correctly, the
inferiority of the self-fertilised plants, would be transmitted to their
offspring. The one crossed and one self-fertilised plant, which were
first raised, had been turned out of their pot and planted in the open
ground. Both produced an abundance of very fine capsules, from which
fact we may safely conclude that they had been cross-fertilised by
insects. Seeds from both, after germinating on sand, were planted in
pairs on the opposite sides of three pots. The naturally crossed
seedlings derived from the crossed plants flowered in all three pots
before the naturally crossed seedlings derived from the self-fertilised
plants. When both lots were in full flower, the two tallest plants on
each side of each pot were measured, and the result is shown in Table
4/42.

TABLE 4/42. Viola tricolor: seedlings from crossed and self-fertilised
plants, the parents of both sets having been left to be naturally
fertilised.

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Naturally Crossed Plants from artificially crossed Plants.

Column 3: Naturally Crossed Plants from Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 12 1/8 : 9 6/8.
Pot 1 : 11 6/8 : 8 3/8.

Pot 2 : 13 2/8 : 9 6/8.
Pot 2 : 10 : 11 4/8.

Pot 3 : 14 4/8 : 11 1/8.
Pot 3 : 13 6/8 : 11 3/8.

Total : 75.38 : 61.88.

The average height of the six tallest plants derived from the crossed
plants is 12.56 inches; and that of the six tallest plants derived from
the self-fertilised plants is 10.31 inches; or as 100 to 82. We here see
a considerable difference in height between the two sets, though very
far from equalling that in the previous trials between the offspring
from crossed and self-fertilised flowers. This difference must be
attributed to the latter set of plants having inherited a weak
constitution from their parents, the offspring of self-fertilised
flowers; notwithstanding that the parents themselves had been freely
intercrossed with other plants by the aid of insects.

10. RANUNCULACEAE.--Adonis aestivalis.

The results of my experiments on this plant are hardly worth giving, as
I remark in my notes made at the time, "seedlings, from some unknown
cause, all miserably unhealthy." Nor did they ever become healthy; yet I
feel bound to give the present case, as it is opposed to the general
results at which I have arrived. Fifteen flowers were crossed and all
produced fruit, containing on an average 32.5 seeds; nineteen flowers
were fertilised with their own pollen, and they likewise all yielded
fruit, containing a rather larger average of 34.5 seeds; or as 100 to
106. Seedlings were raised from these seeds. In one of the pots all the
self-fertilised plants died whilst quite young; in the two others, the
measurements were as follows:

TABLE 4/43. Adonis aestivalis.

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 14 : 13 4/8.
Pot 1 : 13 4/8 : 13 4/8.

Pot 2 : 16 2/8 : 15 2/8.
Pot 2 : 13 2/8 : 15.

Total : 57.00 : 57.25.

The average height of the four crossed plants is 14.25, and that of the
four self-fertilised plants 14.31; or as 100 to 100.4; so that they were
in fact of equal height. According to Professor H. Hoffman, this plant
is proterandrous (4/7. 'Zur Speciesfrage' 1875 page 11.); nevertheless
it yields plenty of seeds when protected from insects.

Delphinium consolida.

It has been said in the case of this plant, as of so many others, that
the flowers are fertilised in the bud, and that distinct plants or
varieties can never naturally intercross. (4/8. Decaisne
'Comptes-Rendus' July 1863 page 5.) But this is an error, as we may
infer, firstly from the flowers being proterandrous,--the mature stamens
bending up, one after the other, into the passage which leads to the
nectary, and afterwards the mature pistils bending in the same
direction; secondly, from the number of humble-bees which visit the
flowers (4/9. Their structure is described by H. Muller 'Befruchtung'
etc., page 122.); and thirdly, from the greater fertility of the flowers
when crossed with pollen from a distinct plant than when spontaneously
self-fertilised. In the year 1863 I enclosed a large branch in a net,
and crossed five flowers with pollen from a distinct plant; these
yielded capsules containing on an average 35.2 very fine seeds, with a
maximum of forty-two in one capsule. Thirty-two other flowers on the
same branch produced twenty-eight spontaneously self-fertilised
capsules, containing on an average 17.2 seeds, with a maximum in one of
thirty-six seeds. But six of these capsules were very poor, yielding
only from one to five seeds; if these are excluded, the remaining
twenty-two capsules give an average of 20.9 seeds, though many of these
seeds were small. The fairest ratio, therefore, for the number of seeds
produced by a cross and by spontaneous self-fertilisation is as 100 to
59. These seeds were not sown, as I had too many other experiments in
progress.

In the summer of 1867, which was a very unfavourable one, I again
crossed several flowers under a net with pollen from a distinct plant,
and fertilised other flowers on the same plant with their own pollen.
The former yielded a much larger proportion of capsules than the latter;
and many of the seeds in the self-fertilised capsules, though numerous,
were so poor that an equal number of seeds from the crossed and
self-fertilised capsules were in weight as 100 to 45. The two lots were
allowed to germinate on sand, and pairs were planted on the opposite
sides of four pots. When nearly two-thirds grown they were measured, as
shown in Table 4/44.

TABLE 4/44. Delphinium consolida.

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 11 : 11.

Pot 2 : 19 : 16 2/8.
Pot 2 : 16 2/8 : 11 4/8.

Pot 3 : 26 : 22.

Pot 4 : 9 4/8 : 8 2/8.
Pot 4 : 8 : 6 4/8.

Total : 89.75 : 75.50.

The six crossed plants here average 14.95, and the six self-fertilised
12.50 inches in height; or as 100 to 84. When fully grown they were
again measured, but from want of time only a single plant on each side
was measured; so that I have thought it best to give the earlier
measurements. At the later period the three tallest crossed plants still
exceeded considerably in height the three tallest self-fertilised, but
not in quite so great a degree as before. The pots were left uncovered
in the greenhouse, but whether the flowers were intercrossed by bees or
self-fertilised I do not know. The six crossed plants produced 282
mature and immature capsules, whilst the six self-fertilised plants
produced only 159; or as 100 to 56. So that the crossed plants were very
much more productive than the self-fertilised.

11. CARYOPHYLLACEAE.--Viscaria oculata.

Twelve flowers were crossed with pollen from another plant, and yielded
ten capsules, containing by weight 5.77 grains of seeds. Eighteen
flowers were fertilised with their own pollen and yielded twelve
capsules, containing by weight 2.63 grains. Therefore the seeds from an
equal number of crossed and self-fertilised flowers would have been in
weight as 100 to 38. I had previously selected a medium-sized capsule
from each lot, and counted the seeds in both; the crossed one contained
284, and the self-fertilised one 126 seeds; or as 100 to 44. These seeds
were sown on opposite sides of three pots, and several seedlings raised;
but only the tallest flower-stem of one plant on each side was measured.
The three on the crossed side averaged 32.5 inches, and the three on the
self-fertilised side 34 inches in height; or as 100 to 104. But this
trial was on much too small a scale to be trusted; the plants also grew
so unequally that one of the three flower-stems on the crossed plants
was very nearly twice as tall as that on one of the others; and one of
the three flower-stems on the self-fertilised plants exceeded in an
equal degree one of the others.

In the following year the experiment was repeated on a larger scale: ten
flowers were crossed on a new set of plants and yielded ten capsules
containing by weight 6.54 grains of seed. Eighteen spontaneously
self-fertilised capsules were gathered, of which two contained no seed;
the other sixteen contained by weight 6.07 grains of seed. Therefore the
weight of seed from an equal number of crossed and spontaneously
self-fertilised flowers (instead of artificially fertilised as in the
previous case) was as 100 to 58.

The seeds after germinating on sand were planted in pairs on the
opposite sides of four pots, with all the remaining seeds sown crowded
in the opposite sides of a fifth pot; in this latter pot only the
tallest plant on each side was measured. Until the seedlings had grown
about 5 inches in height no difference could be perceived in the two
lots. Both lots flowered at nearly the same time. When they had almost
done flowering, the tallest flower-stem on each plant was measured, as
shown in Table 4/45.

TABLE 4/45. Viscaria oculata.

Tallest flower-stem on each plant measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 19 : 32 3/8.
Pot 1 : 33 : 38.
Pot 1 : 41 : 38.
Pot 1 : 41 : 28 7/8.

Pot 2 : 37 4/8 : 36.
Pot 2 : 36 4/8 : 32 3/8.
Pot 2 : 38 : 35 6/8.

Pot 3 : 44 4/8 : 36.
Pot 3 : 39 4/8 : 20 7/8.
Pot 3 : 39 : 30 5/8.

Pot 4 : 30 2/8 : 36.
Pot 4 : 31 : 39.
Pot 4 : 33 1/8 : 29.
Pot 4 : 24 : 38 4/8.

Pot 5 : 30 2/8 : 32.
Crowded.

Total : 517.63 : 503.36.

The fifteen crossed plants here average 34.5, and the fifteen
self-fertilised 33.55 inches in height; or as 100 to 97. So that the
excess of height of the crossed plants is quite insignificant. In
productiveness, however, the difference was much more plainly marked.
All the capsules were gathered from both lots of plants (except from the
crowded and unproductive ones in Pot 5), and at the close of the season
the few remaining flowers were added in. The fourteen crossed plants
produced 381, whilst the fourteen self-fertilised plants produced only
293 capsules and flowers; or as 100 to 77.

Dianthus caryophyllus.

The common carnation is strongly proterandrous, and therefore depends to
a large extent upon insects for fertilisation. I have seen only
humble-bees visiting the flowers, but I dare say other insects likewise
do so. It is notorious that if pure seed is desired, the greatest care
is necessary to prevent the varieties which grow in the same garden from
intercrossing. (4/10. 'Gardeners' Chronicle' 1847 page 268.) The pollen
is generally shed and lost before the two stigmas in the same flower
diverge and are ready to be fertilised. I was therefore often forced to
use for self-fertilisation pollen from the same plant instead of from
the same flower. But on two occasions, when I attended to this point, I
was not able to detect any marked difference in the number of seeds
produced by these two forms of self-fertilisation.

Several single-flowered carnations were planted in good soil, and were
all covered with a net. Eight flowers were crossed with pollen from a
distinct plant and yielded six capsules, containing on an average 88.6
seeds, with a maximum in one of 112 seeds. Eight other flowers were
self-fertilised in the manner above described, and yielded seven
capsules containing on an average 82 seeds, with a maximum in one of 112
seeds. So that there was very little difference in the number of seeds
produced by cross-fertilisation and self-fertilisation, namely, as 100
to 92. As these plants were covered by a net, they produced
spontaneously only a few capsules containing any seeds, and these few
may perhaps be attributed to the action of Thrips and other minute
insects which haunt the flowers. A large majority of the spontaneously
self-fertilised capsules produced by several plants contained no seeds,
or only a single one. Excluding these latter capsules, I counted the
seeds in eighteen of the finest ones, and these contained on an average
18 seeds. One of the plants was spontaneously self-fertile in a higher
degree than any of the others. On another occasion a single covered-up
plant produced spontaneously eighteen capsules, but only two of these
contained any seed, namely 10 and 15.

CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS OF THE FIRST GENERATION.

The many seeds obtained from the above crossed and artificially
self-fertilised flowers were sown out of doors, and two large beds of
seedlings, closely adjoining one another, thus raised. This was the
first plant on which I experimented, and I had not then formed any
regular scheme of operation. When the two lots were in full flower, I
measured roughly a large number of plants but record only that the
crossed were on an average fully 4 inches taller than the
self-fertilised. Judging from subsequent measurements, we may assume
that the crossed plants were about 28 inches, and the self-fertilised
about 24 inches in height; and this will give us a ratio of 100 to 86.
Out of a large number of plants, four of the crossed ones flowered
before any one of the self-fertilised plants.

Thirty flowers on these crossed plants of the first generation were
again crossed with pollen from a distinct plant of the same lot, and
yielded twenty-nine capsules, containing on an average 55.62 seeds, with
a maximum in one of 110 seeds.

Thirty flowers on the self-fertilised plants were again self-fertilised;
eight of them with pollen from the same flower, and the remainder with
pollen from another flower on the same plant; and these produced
twenty-two capsules, containing on an average 35.95 seeds, with a
maximum in one of sixty-one seeds. We thus see, judging by the number of
seeds per capsule, that the crossed plants again crossed were more
productive than the self-fertilised again self-fertilised, in the ratio
of 100 to 65. Both the crossed and self-fertilised plants, from having
grown much crowded in the two beds, produced less fine capsules and
fewer seeds than did their parents.

CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS OF THE SECOND GENERATION.

The crossed and self-fertilised seeds from the crossed and
self-fertilised plants of the last generation were sown on opposite
sides of two pots; but the seedlings were not thinned enough, so that
both lots grew very irregularly, and most of the self-fertilised plants
after a time died from being smothered. My measurements were, therefore,
very incomplete. From the first the crossed seedlings appeared the
finest, and when they were on an average, by estimation, 5 inches high,
the self-fertilised plants were only 4 inches. In both pots the crossed
plants flowered first. The two tallest flower-stems on the crossed
plants in the two pots were 17 and 16 1/2 inches in height; and the two
tallest flower-stems on the self-fertilised plants 10 1/2 and 9 inches;
so that their heights were as 100 to 58. But this ratio, deduced from
only two pairs, obviously is not in the least trustworthy, and would not
have been given had it not been otherwise supported. I state in my notes
that the crossed plants were very much more luxuriant than their
opponents, and seemed to be twice as bulky. This latter estimate may be
believed from the ascertained weights of the two lots in the next
generation. Some flowers on these crossed plants were again crossed with
pollen from another plant of the same lot, and some flowers on the
self-fertilised plants again self-fertilised; and from the seeds thus
obtained the plants of the next generation were raised.

CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS OF THE THIRD GENERATION.

The seeds just alluded to were allowed to germinate on bare sand, and
were planted in pairs on the opposite sides of four pots. When the
seedlings were in full flower, the tallest stem on each plant was
measured to the base of the calyx. The measurements are given in Table
4/46. In Pot 1 the crossed and self-fertilised plants flowered at the
same time; but in the other three pots the crossed flowered first. These
latter plants also continued flowering much later in the autumn than the
self-fertilised.

TABLE 4/46. Dianthus caryophyllus (third generation).

Tallest flower-stem on each plant measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 28 6/8 : 30.
Pot 1 : 27 3/8 : 26.

Pot 2 : 29 : 30 7/8.
Pot 2 : 29 4/8 : 27 4/8.

Pot 3 : 28 4/8 : 31 6/8.
Pot 3 : 23 4/8 : 24 5/8.

Pot 4 : 27 : 30.
Pot 4 : 33 4/8 : 25.

Total : 227.13 : 225.75.

The average height of the eight crossed plants is here 28.39 inches, and
of the eight self-fertilised 28.21; or as 100 to 99. So that there was
no difference in height worth speaking of; but in general vigour and
luxuriance there was an astonishing difference, as shown by their
weights. After the seed-capsules had been gathered, the eight crossed
and the eight self-fertilised plants were cut down and weighed; the
former weighed 43 ounces, and the latter only 21 ounces; or as 100 to
49.

These plants were all kept under a net, so that the capsules which they
produced must have been all spontaneously self-fertilised. The eight
crossed plants produced twenty-one such capsules, of which only twelve
contained any seed, averaging 8.5 per capsule. On the other hand, the
eight self-fertilised plants produced no less than thirty-six capsules,
of which I examined twenty-five, and, with the exception of three, all
contained seeds, averaging 10.63 seeds per capsule. Thus the
proportional number of seeds per capsule produced by the plants of
crossed origin to those produced by the plants of self-fertilised origin
(both lots being spontaneously self-fertilised) was as 100 to 125. This
anomalous result is probably due to some of the self-fertilised plants
having varied so as to mature their pollen and stigmas more nearly at
the same time than is proper to the species; and we have already seen
that some plants in the first experiment differed from the others in
being slightly more self-fertile.

THE EFFECTS OF A CROSS WITH A FRESH STOCK.

Twenty flowers on the self-fertilised plants of the last or third
generation, in Table 4/46, were fertilised with their own pollen, but
taken from other flowers on the same plants. These produced fifteen
capsules, which contained (omitting two with only three and six seeds)
on an average 47.23 seeds, with a maximum of seventy in one. The
self-fertilised capsules from the self-fertilised plants of the first
generation yielded the much lower average of 35.95 seeds; but as these
latter plants grew extremely crowded, nothing can be inferred with
respect to this difference in their self-fertility. The seedlings raised
from the above seeds constitute the plants of the fourth self-fertilised
generation in Table 4/47.

Twelve flowers on the same plants of the third self-fertilised
generation, in Table 4/46, were crossed with pollen from the crossed
plants in the same table. These crossed plants had been intercrossed for
the three previous generations; and many of them, no doubt, were more or
less closely inter-related, but not so closely as in some of the
experiments with other species; for several carnation plants had been
raised and crossed in the earlier generations. They were not related, or
only in a distant degree, to the self-fertilised plants. The parents of
both the self-fertilised and crossed plants had been subjected to as
nearly as possible the same conditions during the three previous
generations. The above twelve flowers produced ten capsules, containing
on an average 48.66 seeds, with a maximum in one of seventy-two seeds.
The plants raised from these seeds may be called the INTERCROSSED.

Lastly, twelve flowers on the same self-fertilised plants of the third
generation were crossed with pollen from plants which had been raised
from seeds purchased in London. It is almost certain that the plants
which produced these seeds had grown under very different conditions to
those to which my self-fertilised and crossed plants had been subjected;
and they were in no degree related. The above twelve flowers thus
crossed all produced capsules, but these contained the low average of
37.41 seeds per capsule, with a maximum in one of sixty-four seeds. It
is surprising that this cross with a fresh stock did not give a much
higher average number of seeds; for, as we shall immediately see, the
plants raised from these seeds, which may be called the LONDON-CROSSED,
benefited greatly by the cross, both in growth and fertility.

The above three lots of seeds were allowed to germinate on bare sand.
Many of the London-crossed germinated before the others, and were
rejected; and many of the intercrossed later than those of the other two
lots. The seeds after thus germinating were planted in ten pots, made
tripartite by superficial divisions; but when only two kinds of seeds
germinated at the same time, they were planted on the opposite sides of
other pots; and this is indicated by blank spaces in one of the three
columns in Table 4/47. A 0 in the table signifies that the seedling died
before it was measured; and a + signifies that the plant did not produce
a flower-stem, and therefore was not measured. It deserves notice that
no less than eight out of the eighteen self-fertilised plants either
died or did not flower; whereas only three out of the eighteen
intercrossed, and four out of the twenty London-crossed plants, were in
this predicament. The self-fertilised plants had a decidedly less
vigorous appearance than the plants of the other two lots, their leaves
being smaller and narrower. In only one pot did a self-fertilised plant
flower before one of the two kinds of crossed plants, between which
there was no marked difference in the period of flowering. The plants
were measured to the base of the calyx, after they had completed their
growth, late in the autumn.

TABLE 4/47. Dianthus caryophyllus.

Heights of plants to the base of the calyx, measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: London-Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Intercrossed Plants.

Column 4: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 39 5/8 : 25 1/8 : 29 2/8.
Pot 1 : 30 7/8 : 21 6/8 : +.

Pot 2 : 36 2/8 : : 22 3/8.
Pot 2 : 0 : : +.

Pot 3 : 28 5/8 : 30 2/8 : .
Pot 3 : + : 23 1/8 : .

Pot 4 : 33 4/8 : 35 5/8 : 30.
Pot 4 : 28 7/8 : 32 : 24 4/8.

Pot 5 : 28 : 34 4/8 : +.
Pot 5 : 0 : 24 2/8 : +.

Pot 6 : 32 5/8 : 24 7/8 : 30 3/8.
Pot 6 : 31 : 26 : 24 4/8.

Pot 7 : 41 7/8 : 29 7/8 : 27 7/8.
Pot 7 : 34 7/8 : 26 4/8 : 27.

Pot 8 : 34 5/8 : 29 : 26 6/8.
Pot 8 : 28 5/8 : 0 : +.

Pot 9 : 25 5/8 : 28 5/8 : +.
Pot 9 : 0 : + : 0.

Pot 10 : 38 : 28 4/8 : 22 7/8.
Pot 10 : 32 1/8 : + : 0.

Total : 525.13 : 420.00 : 265.50.

The average height of the sixteen London-crossed plants in Table 4/47 is
32.82 inches; that of the fifteen intercrossed plants, 28 inches; and
that of the ten self-fertilised plants, 26.55.

So that in height we have the following ratios:--

The London-crossed to the self-fertilised as 100 to 81.

The London-crossed to the intercrossed as 100 to 85.

The intercrossed to the self-fertilised as 100 to 95.

These three lots of plants, which it should be remembered were all
derived on the mother-side from plants of the third self-fertilised
generation, fertilised in three different ways, were left exposed to the
visits of insects, and their flowers were freely crossed by them. As the
capsules of each lot became ripe they were gathered and kept separate,
the empty or bad ones being thrown away. But towards the middle of
October, when the capsules could no longer ripen, all were gathered and
were counted, whether good or bad. The capsules were then crushed, and
the seed cleaned by sieves and weighed. For the sake of uniformity the
results are given from calculation, as if there had been twenty plants
in each lot.

The sixteen London-crossed plants actually produced 286 capsules;
therefore twenty such plants would have produced 357.5 capsules; and
from the actual weight of the seeds, the twenty plants would have
yielded 462 grains weight of seeds.

The fifteen intercrossed plants actually produced 157 capsules;
therefore twenty of them would have produced 209.3 capsules and the
seeds would have weighed 208.48 grains.

The ten self-fertilised plants actually produced 70 capsules, therefore
twenty of them would have produced 140 capsules; and the seeds would
have weighed 153.2 grains.

From these data we get the following ratios:--

NUMBER OF CAPSULES PRODUCED BY AN EQUAL NUMBER OF PLANTS OF THE THREE
LOTS.

NUMBER OF CAPSULES:

The London-crossed to the self-fertilised as 100 to 39.

The London-crossed to the intercrossed as 100 to 45.

The intercrossed to the self-fertilised as 100 to 67.

WEIGHT OF SEEDS PRODUCED BY AN EQUAL NUMBER OF PLANTS OF THE THREE LOTS.

WEIGHT OF SEED:

The London-crossed to the self-fertilised as 100 to 33.

The London-crossed to the intercrossed as 100 to 45.

The intercrossed to the self-fertilised as 100 to 73.

We thus see how greatly the offspring from the self-fertilised plants of
the third generation crossed by a fresh stock, had their fertility
increased, whether tested by the number of capsules produced or by the
weight of the contained seeds; this latter being the more trustworthy
method. Even the offspring from the self-fertilised plants crossed by
one of the crossed plants of the same stock, notwithstanding that both
lots had been long subjected to the same conditions, had their fertility
considerably increased, as tested by the same two methods.

In conclusion it may be well to repeat in reference to the fertility of
these three lots of plants, that their flowers were left freely exposed
to the visits of insects and were undoubtedly crossed by them, as may be
inferred from the large number of good capsules produced. These plants
were all the offspring of the same mother-plants, and the strongly
marked difference in their fertility must be attributed to the nature of
the pollen employed in fertilising their parents; and the difference in
the nature of the pollen must be attributed to the different treatment
to which the pollen-bearing parents had been subjected during several
previous generations.

COLOUR OF THE FLOWERS.

The flowers produced by the self-fertilised plants of the last or fourth
generation were as uniform in tint as those of a wild species, being of
a pale pink or rose colour. Analogous cases with Mimulus and Ipomoea,
after several generations of self-fertilisation, have been already
given. The flowers of the intercrossed plants of the fourth generation
were likewise nearly uniform in colour. On the other hand, the flowers
of the London-crossed plants, or those raised from a cross with the
fresh stock which bore dark crimson flowers, varied extremely in colour,
as might have been expected, and as is the general rule with seedling
carnations. It deserves notice that only two or three of the
London-crossed plants produced dark crimson flowers like those of their
fathers, and only a very few of a pale pink like those of their mothers.
The great majority had their petals longitudinally and variously striped
with the two colours,--the groundwork tint being, however, in some cases
darker than that of the mother-plants.

12. MALVACEAE.--Hibiscus africanus.

Many flowers on this Hibiscus were crossed with pollen from a distinct
plant, and many others were self-fertilised. A rather larger
proportional number of the crossed than of the self-fertilised flowers
yielded capsules, and the crossed capsules contained rather more seeds.
The self-fertilised seeds were a little heavier than an equal number of
the crossed seeds, but they germinated badly, and I raised only four
plants of each lot. In three out of the four pots, the crossed plants
flowered first.

TABLE 4/48. Hibiscus africanus.

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 13 4/8 : 16 2/8.

Pot 2 : 14 : 14.

Pot 3 : 8 : 7.

Pot 4 : 17 4/8 : 20 4/8.

Total : 53.00 : 57.75.

The four crossed plants average 13.25, and the four self-fertilised
14.43 inches in height; or as 100 to 109. Here we have the unusual case
of self-fertilised plants exceeding the crossed in height; but only four
pairs were measured, and these did not grow well or equally. I did not
compare the fertility of the two lots.

CHAPTER V.

GERANIACEAE, LEGUMINOSAE, ONAGRACEAE, ETC.

Pelargonium zonale, a cross between plants propagated by cuttings does
no good.
Tropaeolum minus.
Limnanthes douglasii.
Lupinus luteus and pilosus.
Phaseolus multiflorus and vulgaris.
Lathyrus odoratus, varieties of, never naturally intercross in England.
Pisum sativum, varieties of, rarely intercross, but a cross between them
highly beneficial.
Sarothamnus scoparius, wonderful effects of a cross.
Ononis minutissima, cleistogene flowers of.
Summary on the Leguminosae.
Clarkia elegans.
Bartonia aurea.
Passiflora gracilis.
Apium petroselinum.
Scabiosa atropurpurea.
Lactuca sativa.
Specularia speculum.
Lobelia ramosa, advantages of a cross during two generations.
Lobelia fulgens.
Nemophila insignis, great advantages of a cross.
Borago officinalis.
Nolana prostrata.

13. GERANIACEAE.--Pelargonium zonale.

This plant, as a general rule, is strongly proterandrous, and is
therefore adapted for cross-fertilisation by the aid of insects. (5/1.
Mr. J. Denny, a great raiser of new varieties of pelargoniums, after
stating that this species is proterandrous, adds 'The Florist and
Pomologist' January 1872 page 11, "there are some varieties, especially
those with petals of a pink colour, or which possess a weakly
constitution, where the pistil expands as soon as or even before the
pollen-bag bursts, and in which also the pistil is frequently short, so
when it expands it is smothered as it were by the bursting anthers;
these varieties are great seeders, each pip being fertilised by its own
pollen. I would instance Christine as an example of this fact." We have
here an interesting case of variability in an important functional
point.) Some flowers on a common scarlet variety were self-fertilised,
and other flowers were crossed with pollen from another plant; but no
sooner had I done so, than I remembered that these plants had been
propagated by cuttings from the same stock, and were therefore parts in
a strict sense of the same individual. Nevertheless, having made the
cross I resolved to save the seeds, which, after germinating on sand,
were planted on the opposite sides of three pots. In one pot the
quasi-crossed plant was very soon and ever afterwards taller and finer
than the self-fertilised. In the two other pots the seedlings on both
sides were for a time exactly equal; but when the self-fertilised plants
were about 10 inches in height, they surpassed their antagonists by a
little, and ever afterwards showed a more decided and increasing
advantage; so that the self-fertilised plants, taken altogether, were
somewhat superior to the quasi-crossed plants. In this case, as in that
of the Origanum, if individuals which have been asexually propagated
from the same stock, and which have been long subjected to the same
conditions, are crossed, no advantage whatever is gained.

Several flowers on another plant of the same variety were fertilised
with pollen from the younger flowers on the same plant, so as to avoid
using the old and long-shed pollen from the same flower, as I thought
that this latter might be less efficient than fresh pollen. Other
flowers on the same plant were crossed with fresh pollen from a plant
which, although closely similar, was known to have arisen as a distinct
seedling. The self-fertilised seeds germinated rather before the others;
but as soon as I got equal pairs they were planted on the opposite sides
of four pots.

TABLE 5/49. Pelargonium zonale.

Heights of plants measured in inches.

Column 1: Number (Name) of Pot.

Column 2: Crossed Plants.

Column 3: Self-fertilised Plants.

Pot 1 : 22 3/8 : 25 5/8.
Pot 1 : 19 6/8 : 12 4/8.

Pot 2 : 15 : 19 6/8.
Pot 2 : 12 2/8 : 22 3/8.

Pot 3 : 30 5/8 : 19 4/8.
Pot 3 : 18 4/8 : 7 4/8.

Pot 4 : 38 : 9 1/8.

Total : 156.50 : 116.38.

When the two lots of seedlings were between 4 and 5 inches in height
they were equal, excepting in Pot 4, in which the crossed plant was much
the tallest. When between 11 and 14 inches in height, they were measured
to the tips of their uppermost leaves; the crossed averaged 13.46, and
the self-fertilised 11.07 inches in height, or as 100 to 82. Five months
later they were again measured in the same manner, and the results are
given in Table 5/49.

The seven crossed plants now averaged 22.35, and the seven
self-fertilised 16.62 inches in height, or as 100 to 74. But from the
great inequality of the several plants, the result is less trustworthy
than in most other cases. In Pot 2 the two self-fertilised plants always
had an advantage, except whilst quite young over the two crossed plants.

As I wished to ascertain how these plants would behave during a second
growth, they were cut down close to the ground whilst growing freely.
The crossed plants now showed their superiority in another way, for only
one out of the seven was killed by the operation, whilst three of the
self-fertilised plants never recovered. There was, therefore, no use in
keeping any of the plants excepting those in Pots 1 and 3; and in the
following year the crossed plants in these two pots showed during their
second growth nearly the same relative superiority over the
self-fertilised plants as before.

Tropaeolum minus.

The flowers are proterandrous, and are manifestly adapted for
cross-fertilisation by insects, as shown by Sprengel and Delpino. Twelve
flowers on some plants growing out of doors were crossed with pollen
from a distinct plant and produced eleven capsules, containing
altogether twenty-four good seeds. Eighteen flowers were fertilised with
their own pollen and produced only eleven capsules, containing
twenty-two good seeds; so that a much larger proportion of the crossed
than of the self-fertilised flowers produced capsules, and the crossed
capsules contained rather more seed than the self-fertilised in the

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