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The Diary of Samuel Pepys by Samuel Pepys

Part 9 out of 18

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that is made as an experiment to bring credit to the Exchequer,
for goods and money to be advanced upon the credit of that Act.
The great evil of this year, and the only one indeed, is the fall
of my Lord of Sandwich, whose mistake about the prizes hath
undone him, I believe, as to interest at Court; though sent (for
a little palliating it) Embassador into Spayne, which he is now
fitting himself for. But the Duke of Albemarle goes with the
Prince to sea this next year, and my Lord is very meanly spoken
of; and, indeed, his miscarriage about the prize goods is not to
be excused, to suffer a company of rogues to go away with ten
times as much as himself, and the blame of all to be deservedly
laid upon him. My whole family hath been well all the while, and
all my friends I know of, saving my aunt Bell, who is dead, and
some children of my cosen Sarah's, of the plague. But many of
such as I know very well, dead; yet, to our great joy, the town
fills apace, and shops begin to be open again. Pray God continue
the plague's decrease! for that keeps the Court away from the
place of business, and so all goes to rack as to publick matters,
they at this distance not thinking of it.

1665-6. JANUARY 3. I to the Duke of Albemarle and back again:
and at the Duke's with great joy I received the good news of the
decrease of the plague this week to 70, and but 253 in all; which
is the least Bill hath been known these twenty years in the City.
Through the want of people in London, is it that must make it so
low below the ordinary number for Bills.

5th. I with my Lord Brouncker and Mrs. Williams by coach with
four horses to London, to my Lord's house in Covent-Garden. But,
Lord! what staring to see a nobleman's coach come to town. And
porters every where bow to us; and such begging of beggars! And
delightful it is to see the town full of people again; and shops
begin to open, though in many places seven or eight together, and
more, all shut; but yet the town is full, compared with what it
used to be. I mean the City end: for Covent-Garden and
Westminster are yet very empty of people, no Court nor gentry
being there. Reading a discourse about the River of Thames, the
reason of its being choked up in several places with shelfes:
which is plain is by the encroachments made upon the River, and
running out of causeways into the River at every wood-wharfe;
which was not heretofore when Westminster Hall and White Hall
were built, and Redriffe Church, which now are sometimes
overflown with water.

7th. The town talks of my Lord Craven being to come into Sir G.
Carteret's place; but sure it cannot be true. But I do fear
those two families, his and my Lord Sandwich's, are quite broken.
And I must now stand upon my own legs.

9th. Pierce tells me how great a difference hath been between
the Duke and Duchesse, he suspecting her to be naught with Mr.
Sidney. But some way or other the matter is made up; but he was
banished the Court, and the Duke for many days did not speak to
the Duchesse at all. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich is lost
there at Court, though the King is particularly his friend. But
people do speak every where slightly of him; which is a sad story
to me, but I hope it may be better again. And that Sir G.
Carteret is neglected, and hath great enemies at work against
him. That matters must needs go bad, while all the town, and
every boy in the street, openly cries, "The King cannot go away
till my Lady Castlemaine be ready to come along with him;" she
being lately put to bed. But that he visits her and Mrs. Stewart
every morning before he eats his breakfast.

10th. The plague is encreased this week from seventy to eighty-
nine. We have also great fear of our Hambrough fleet, of their
meeting with the Dutch; as also have certain news, that by storms
Sir Jer. Smith's fleet is scattered, and three of them come
without masts back to Plymouth.

13th. Home with his Lordship to Mrs. Williams's, in Covent-
Garden, to dinner, (the first time I ever was there,) and there
met Captain Cocke; and pretty merry, though not perfectly so,
because of the fear that; there is of a great encrease again of
the plague this week. And again my Lord Brouncker do tell us,
that he hath it from Sir John Baber, [Physician in Ordinary to
the King.] who is related to my Lord Craven, that my Lord Craven
do look after Sir G. Carteret's place, and do reckon himself sure
of it.

16th. Mightily troubled at the news of the plague's being
encreased, and was much the saddest news that the plague hath
brought me from the beginning of it; because of the lateness of
the year, and the fear, we may with reason have, of its
continuing with us the next summer. The total being now 375, and
the plague 158.

17th. I rode to Dagenhams in the dark. It was my Lord Crewe's
desire that I should come, and chiefly to discourse with me of my
Lord Sandwich's matters; and therein to persuade, what I had done
already, that my Lord should sue out a pardon for his business of
the prizes, as also for Bergen, and all he hath done this year
past, before he begins his Embassy to Spain. For it is to be
feared that the Parliament will fly out against him and
particular men, the next Session. He is glad also that my Lord
is clear of his sea-imployment, though sorry as I am, only in the
manner of its bringing about.

18th. My wife and I anon and Mercer, by coach, to Pierce; where
mighty merry, and sing and dance with great pleasure; and I
danced, who never did in company in my life.

19th. It is a remarkable thing how infinitely naked all that end
of the town, Covent-Garden, is at this day of people; while the
City is almost as full again of people as ever it was.

22nd. At noon my Lord Brouncker did come, but left the keys of
the chests we should open, at Sir G. Carteret's lodgings, of my
Lord Sandwich's, wherein How's supposed jewells are; so we could
not, according to my Lord Arlington's order, see them to-day; but
we parted, resolving to meet here at night: my Lord Brouncker
being going with Dr. Wilkins, Mr. Hooke, [Dr. Robert Hooke,
before mentioned, Professor of Geometry at Gresham College, and
Curator of the Experiments to the Royal Society, of which he was
one of the earliest and most distinguished members. Ob. 1678.]
and others, to Colonel Blunt's, to consider again of the business
of chariots, and to try their new invention. Which I saw here my
Lord Brouncker ride in; where the coachman sits astride upon a
pole over the horse, but do not touch the horse, which is a
pretty odde thing; but it seems it is most easy for the horse,
and, as they say, for the man also. The first meeting of Gresham
College, since the plague. Dr. Goddard did fill us with talk, in
defence of his and his fellow physicians going out of town in the
plague-time; saying that their particular patients were most gone
out of town, and they left at liberty; and a great deal more, &c.
But what, among other fine discourse pleased me most, was Sir G.
Ent [Sir George Ent, F.R.S., President of the College of
Physicians.] about Respiration; that it is not to this day
known, or concluded on among physicians, nor to be done either,
how the action is managed by nature, or for what use it is.

23rd. Good news beyond all expectation of the decrease of the
plague, being now but 79, and the whole but 272. So home with
comfort to bed. A most furious storme all night and morning.

24th. My Lord and I, the weather being a little fairer, by water
to Deptford to Sir G. Carteret's house, where W. How met us, and
there we opened the chests, and saw the poor sorry rubys which
have caused all this ado to the undoing of W. How; though I am
not much sorry for it, because of his pride and ill nature.
About 200 of these very small stones, and a cod of muske (which
it is strange I was not able to smell) is all we could find; so
locked them up again, and my Lord and I, the wind being again
very furious, so as we durst not go by water, walked to London
quite round the bridge, no boat being able to stirre; and, Lord!
what a dirty walk we had, and so strong the wind, that in the
fields we many times could not carry our bodies against it, but
were driven backwards. We went through Horslydowne, where I
never was since a boy, that I went to enquire after my father,
whom we did give over for lost coming from Holland. It was
dangerous to walk the streets, the bricks and tiles falling from
the houses that the whole streets were covered with them; and
whole chimneys, nay, whole houses in two or three places, blowed
down. But, above all, the pales of London-bridge on both sides
were blown away, so that we were fain to stoop very low for fear
of blowing off of the bridge. We could see no boats in the
Thames afloat, but what were broke loose, and carried through the
bridge, it being ebbing water. And the greatest sight of all
was, among other parcels of ships driven here and there in
clusters together, one was quite overset and lay with her masts
all along in the water, and keel above water.

25th. It is now certain that the King of France hath publickly
declared war against us, and God knows how little fit we are for

28th. Took coach, and to Hampton Court, where we find the King,
and Duke, and Lords, all in council; so we walked up and down:
there being none of the ladies come, and so much the more
business I hope will be done. The Council being up, out comes
the King, and I kissed his hand, and he grasped me very kindly by
the hand. The Duke also, I kissed his, and he mighty kind, and
Sir W. Coventry. I found my Lord Sandwich there, poor man! I
see with it melancholy face, and suffers his beard to grow on his
upper lip more than usual. I took him a little aside to know
when I should wait on him, and where: he told me, and that it
would be best to meet at his lodgings, without being seen to walk
together. Which I liked very well; and, Lord! to see in what
difficulty I stand, that I dare not walk with Sir W. Coventry,
for fear my Lord or Sir G. Carteret should see me: nor with
either of them, for fear Sir W. Coventry should. I went down
into one of the Courts, and there met the King and Duke; and the
Duke called me to him, And the King come to me of himself, and
told me, "Mr. Pepys," says he, "I do give you thanks for your
good service all this year, and I assure you I am very sensible
of it."

29th. Mr. Evelyn and I into my Lord Brouncker's coach, and rode
together with excellent discourse till we come to Clapham.
Talking of the vanity and vices of the Court, which makes it a
most contemptible thing; and indeed in all his discourse I find
him a most worthy person. Particularly he entertained me with
discourse of an Infirmary, which he hath projected for the sick
and wounded seamen against the next year; which I mightily
approve of; and will endeavour to promote it, being a worthy
thing, and of use, and will save money.

30th. This is the first time I have been in the church [Probably
St. Olave's, Hart Street.] since I left London for the plague,
and it frighted me indeed to go through the church more than I
thought it could have done, to see so many graves lie so high
upon the churchyards where people have been buried of the plague.
I was much troubled at it, and do not think to go through it
again a good while.

31st. I find many about the City that live near the churchyards
solicitous to have the churchyards covered with lime, and I think
it is needfull, and ours I hope will be done. To my Lord
Chancellor's new house which he is building, only to view it,
hearing so much from Mr. Evelyn of it; and, indeed, it is the
finest pile I ever did see in my life, and will be a glorious
house. To White Hall, and to my great joy people begin to bustle
up and down there, the King holding his resolution to be in town
to-morrow, and hath good encouragement, blessed be God! to do
so, the plague being decreased this week to 36, and the total to

FEBRUARY 2, 1665-6. My Lord Sandwich is come to town with the
King and Duke.

4th. (Lord's day;) and my wife and I the first time together at
church since the plague, and now only because of Mr. Mills his
coming home to preach his first sermon; expecting a great excuse
for his leaving the parish before any body went, and now staying
till all are come home; but he made but a very poor and short
excuse, and a bad sermon. It was a frost, and had snowed last
night, which covered the graves in the churchyard, so as I was
the less afraid for going through.

8th. Lord Brouncker with the King and Duke upon the water to-
day, to see Greenwich house, and the yacht Castle is building of.

9th. Thence to Westminster, to the Exchequer, about my Tangier
business, and so to Westminster Hall, where the first day of the
Terme and the hall very full of people, and much more than was
expected, considering the plague that hath been.

11th (Lord's day). Up; and put on a new black cloth suit to an
old coat that I make to be in mourning at Court, where they are
all, for the King of Spain. I to the Park, and walked two or
three times of the Pell Mell with the company about the King and
Duke: the Duke speaking to me a good deal. There met Lord
Brouncker and Mr. Coventry, and discoursed about the Navy
business; and all of us much at a loss that we yet can hear
nothing of Sir Jeremy Smith's fleet, that went away to the
Straights the middle of December, through all the storms that we
have had since that have driven back three or four of them with
their masts by the board. Yesterday come out the King's
Declaration of War against the French, but with such mild
invitations of both them and the Dutch to come over here with
promise of their protection, that every body wonders at it.

12th. Comes Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute-master, whom I have not
seen since the plague before, but he hath been in Westminster
Hall all this while very well; and tells me in the height of it,
how bold people there were, to go in sport to one another's
burials: and in spite too, ill people would breathe in the faces
(out of their windows) of well people going by.

13th. Ill news this night that the plague is encreased this
week, and in many places else about the town, and at Chatham and

14th. I took Mr. Hill to my Lord Chancellor's new house that is
building, and went with trouble up to the top of it, and there is
the noblest prospect that ever I saw in my life, Greenwich being
nothing to it; and in everything is a beautiful house, and most,
strongly built in every respect; and as if, as it hath, it had
the Chancellor for its master. I staid a meeting of the Duke of
York's, and the officers of the Navy and Ordnance. My Lord
Treasurer lying in bed of the gowte.

15th. Mr. Hales [John Hayls, or Hales, a portrait-painter
remarkable for copying Vandyke well, and being a rival of Lely.]
began my wife's portrait in the posture we saw one of my Lady
Peters, like a St. Katharine. While he painted, Knipp, [Of Mrs.
Knipp's history, nothing seems known; except that she was a
married actress belonging to the King's house, and as late as
1677, her name occurs among the performers in the "Wily False
One."] and Mercer, and I, sang. We hear this night of Sir
Jeremy Smith, that he and his fleet have been seen at Malaga;
which is good news.

16th. To the Coffee-House, the first time I have been there,
where very full, and company it seems hath been there all the
plague time. The Queene comes to Hampton Court to-night.

18th. It being a brave day, I walked to White Hall, where the
Queene and ladies are all come: I saw some few of them, but not
the Queene, nor any of the great beauties.

19th. I am told for certain, what I have heard once or twice
already, of a Jew in town, that in the name of the rest do offer
to give any man 10l. to be paid 100l., if a certain person now at
Smyrna be within these two years owned by all the Princes of the
East, and particularly the grand Segnor as the King of the world,
in the same manner we do the King of England here, and, that this
man is the true Messiah. One named a friend of his that had
received ten pieces in gold upon this score, and says that the
Jew hath disposed of 1100l. in this manner, which is very
strange; and certainly this year of 1666 will be a year of great
action; but what the consequences of it will be, God knows! To
White Hall, and there saw the Queene at cards with many ladies,
but none of our beauties were there. But glad I was to see the
Queene so well, who looks prettily; and methinks hath more life
than before, since it is confessed of all that she miscarried
lately; Dr. Clerke telling me yesterday of it at White Hall.
[The details in the original leave no doubt of the fact,--and
exculpate the Chancellor from the charge of having selected the
Queen as incapable of bearing children.]

20th. Up, and to the office; where, among other businesses, Mr.
Evelyn's proposition about publick Infirmarys was read and agreed
on, he being there: and at noon I took him home to dinner, being
desirous of keeping my acquaintance with him; and a most
excellent humoured man I still find him, and mighty knowing.

21st. The Duke did bring out a book of great antiquity of some
of the customs of the Navy, about 100 years since, which he did
lend us to read and deliver him back again. To Trinity-house,
being invited to an Elder Brother's feast; and there met and sat
by Mr. Prin, and had good discourse about the privileges of
Parliament, which, he says, are few to the Commons' House, and
those not examinable by them, but only by the House of Lords.
Thence with my Lord Brouncker to Gresham College, the first time
after the sickness that I was there, and the second time any met.
And here a good lecture of Mr. Hooke's about the trade of felt-
making, very pretty. And anon alone with me about the art of
drawing pictures by Prince Rupert's rule and machine, and another
of Dr. Wren's; [Sir Christopher Wren.] but he says nothing do
like squares, or, which is the best in the world, like a darke

22nd. We are much troubled that the sickness in general (the
town being so full of people) should be but three, and yet of the
particular disease of the plague there should be ten encrease.

23rd. To my Lord Sandwich's, who did lie the last night at his
house in Lincoln's Inne Fields. It being fine walking in the
morning, and the streets full of people again. There I staid,
and the house full of people come to take leave of my Lord, who
this day goes out of towne upon his embassy towards Spayne. And
I was glad to find Sir W. Coventry to come, though I know it is
only a piece of courtshipp. Comes Mrs. Knipp to see my wife, and
I spent all the night talking with this baggage, and teaching her
my song of "Beauty retire," which she sings and makes go most
rarely, and a very fine song it seems to be. She also
entertained me with repeating many of her own and others' parts
of the play-house, which she do most excellently; and tells me
the whole practices of the play-house and players, and is in
every respect most excellent company.

25th. With our coach of four horses to Windsor, and so to
Cranborne, about eleven o'clock, and found my Lord [Sandwich.]
and the ladies at a sermon in the house; which being ended we to
them, and all the company glad to see us, and mighty merry to
dinner. Here was my Lord, and Lord Hinchingbroke, and Mr.
Sidney, [Sidney Montagu, Lord Sandwich's second son.] Sir
Charles Herbert, and Mr. Carteret, my Lady Carteret, my Lady
Jemimah, and Lady Slaning. [Sir G. Carteret's daughter
Caroline.] After dinner to walk in the Park, my Lord and I
alone; and he tells me my Lord of Suffolk, Lord Arlington,
Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Treasurer, Mr. Atturny Montagu,
Sir Thomas Clifford in the House of Commons, Sir G. Carteret, and
some others I cannot presently remember, are friends that I may
rely on for him. He dreads the issue of this year, and fears
there will be some very great revolutions before his coming back
again. He doubts it is needful for him to have a pardon for his
last year's actions, all which he did without commission, and at
most but the King's private single single word for that of
Bergen; but he dares not ask it at this time, lest it should make
them think that there is something more in it than yet they know;
and if it should be denied, it would be of very ill consequence.
He says also, if it should in Parliament be enquired into the
selling of Dunkirke, (though the Chancellor was the man that
would have sold it to France, saying the King of Spain had no
money to give for it;) yet he will be found to have been the
greatest adviser of it; which he is a little apprehensive may be
called upon by this Parliament. Then I with the young ladies and
gentlemen, who played on the guittar, and mighty merry, and anon
to supper; and then my Lord going away to write, the young
gentlemen to flinging of cushions, and other mad sports till
towards twelve at night, and then being sleepy, I and my wife in
a passage-room to bed, and slept not very well because of noise.

26th. Called up about five in the morning, and my Lord up, and
took leave, a little after six, very kindly of me and the whole
company. So took coach and to Windsor, to the Garter, and
thither sent for Dr. Childe: [William Child, Doctor of Music,
Organist of St. George's Chapel, at Windsor. Ob. 1696, aged 91.]
who come to us, and carried us to St. George's Chapel, and there
placed us among the Knights' stalls; (and pretty the
observation, that no man, but a woman may sit in a Knight's
place, where any brass-plates are set,) and hither come!
cushions to us, and a young singing-boy to bring us a copy of the
anthem to be sung. And here, for our sakes, had this anthem and
the great service sung extraordinary, only to entertain us. It
is a noble place indeed, and a good Quire of voices. Great
bowing by all the people, the poor Knights in particularly, to
the Alter. After prayers, we to see the plate of the chapel, and
the robes of Knights, and a man to show us the banners of the
several Knights in being, which hang up over the stalls. And so
to other discourse very pretty, about the Order. Was shown where
the late King is buried, and King Henry the Eighth, and my Lady
Seymour. This being done, to the King's house, and to observe
the neatness and contrivance of the house and gates: it is the
most romantique castle that is in the world. But, Lord! the
prospect that is in the balcone in the Queene's lodgings, and the
terrace and walk, are strange things to consider, being the best
in the world, sure; and so giving a great deal of money to this
and that man and woman, we to our tavern, and there dined, the
Doctor with us; and so took coach and away to Eton, the Doctor
with me. At Eton I left my wife in the coach, and he and I to
the College, and there find all mighty fine. The school good,
and the custom pretty of boys cutting their names in the shuts of
the windows when they go to Cambridge, by which many a one hath
lived to see himself a Provost and Fellow, that hath his name in
the window standing. To the Hall, and there find the boys'
verses, "De Peste;" it being their custom to make verses at
Shrove-tide. I read several, and very good they were; better, I
think, than ever I made when I was a boy, and in rolls as long
and longer than the whole Hall, by much. Here is a picture of
Venice hung up, and a monument made of Sir H. Wotton's giving it
to the College. Thence to the porter's, in the absence of the
butler, and did drink of the College beer, which is very good;
and went into the back fields to see the scholars play. And so
to the chapel, and there saw, among other things, Sir H. Wotton's
stone with this Epitaph:

Hic jacet primus hujus sententiae Author:--
Disputandi pruritus fit ecclesiae scabies.

But unfortunately the word "Author" was wrong writ, and now so
basely altered that it disgraces the stone.

MARCH 1, 1665-6. Blessed be God! a good Bill this week we have;
being but 257 in all, and 42 of the plague, and of them but six
in the City: though my Lord Brouncker says, that these six are
most of them in new parishes where they were not the last week

3rd. To Hales's, and there saw my wife sit; and I do like her
picture mightily, and very like it will be, and a brave piece of
work. But he do complain that her nose hath cost him as much
work as another's face, and he hath done it finely indeed.

5th. News for certain of the King of Denmark's declaring for the
Dutch, and resolution to assist them. I find my Lord Brouncker
and Mrs. Williams, and they would of their own accord, though I
had never obliged them (nor my wife neither) with one visit for
many of theirs, go see my house and my wife; which I showed them,
and made them welcome with wine and China oranges (now a great
rarity since the war, none to be had.) My house happened to be
mighty clean, and did me great honour, and they mightily pleased
with it.

7th. Up betimes, and to St. James's, thinking Mr. Coventry had
lain there; but he do not, but at White Hall; so thither I went
to him. We walked an hour in the Matted Gallery: he of himself
begun to discourse of the unhappy differences between him and my
Lord of Sandwich, and from the beginning to the end did run
through all passages wherein my Lord hath, at any time gathered
any dissatisfaction, and cleared himself to me most honourably;
and in truth, I do believe he do as he says. I did afterwards
purge myself of all partiality in the business of Sir G.
Carteret, (whose story Sir W. Coventry did also run over,) that I
do mind the King's interest, notwithstanding my relation to him;
all which he declares he firmly believes, and assures me he hath
the same kindness and opinion of me as ever. And when I said I
was jealous of myself, that having now come to such an income as
I am, by his favour, I should not be found to do as much service
as might deserve it; he did assure me, he thinks it not too much
for me, but thinks I deserve it as much as any man in England.
All this discourse did cheer my heart, and sets me right again,
after a good deal of melancholy, out of fears of his
disinclination to me, upon the difference with my Lord Sandwich
and Sir G. Carteret; but I am satisfied thoroughly, and so went
away quite another man, and by the grace of God will never lose
it again by my folly in not visiting and writing to him, as I
used heretofore to do. The King and Duke are to go to-morrow to
Audly End, in order to the seeing and buying of it of my Lord

9th. Made a visit to the Duke of Albemarle, and to my great joy
find him the same man to me that heretofore, which I was in great
doubt of, through my negligence in not visiting of him a great
while; and having now set all to rights there, I shall never
suffer matters to run so far backwards again as I have done of
late, with reference to my neglecting him and Sir W. Coventry.
The truth is, I do indulge myself a little the more in pleasure,
knowing that this is the proper age of my life to do it; and out
of my observation that most men that do thrive in the world, do
forget to take pleasure during the time that they are getting
their estate, but reserve that till they have got one, and then
it is too late for them to enjoy it.

12th. My Uncle Talbot Pepys died the last week. All the news
now is, that Sir Jeremy Smith is at Cales [Cadiz.] with his
fleet; and Mings in the Elve. The King is come this noon to town
from Audly End, with the Duke of York and a fine train of

13th. The plague encreased this week 29 from 28, though the
total fallen from 238 to 207.

14th. With my Lord Brouncker towards London, and in our way
called in Covent Garden, and took in Sir John (formerly Dr.)
Baber; who hath this humour that he will not enter into discourse
while any stranger is in company, till he be told who he is that
seems a stranger to him. This he did declare openly to me, and
asked my Lord who I was. Thence to Guildhall, (in our way taking
in Dr. Wilkins,) and there my Lord and I had full and large
discourse with Sir Thomas Player, [One of the City Members in the
Oxford and Westminster Parliaments. See more of him in the
Notes, by Scott, to Absalom and Achitophel; in which poem he is
introduced under the designation of "railing Rabsheka."] the
Chamberlain of the City (a man I have much heard of) about the
credit of our tallies, which are lodged there for security to
such as should lend money thereon to the use of the Navy. I had
great satisfaction therein: and the truth is, I find all our
matters of credit to be in an ill condition. To walk all alone
in the fields behind Grayes Inne, making an end of reading over
my dear "Faber fortunae," of my Lord Bacon's.

15th. To Hales, where I met my wife and people; and do find the
picture, above all things, a most pretty picture, and mighty like
my wife; and I asked him his price: he says 14l. and the truth
is, I think he do deserve it.

17th. To Hales's, and paid him 14l. for the picture, and 1l. 5s.
for the frame. This day I began to sit, and he will make me, I
think, a very fine picture. He promises it shall be as good as
my wife's, and I sit to have it full of shadows, and do almost
break my neck looking over my shoulder to make the posture for
him to work by. Home, having a great cold: so to bed, drinking

19th. After dinner we walked to the King's play-house, all in
dirt, they being altering of the stage to make it wider. But God
knows when they will begin to act again; but my business here was
to see the inside of the stage and all the tiring-rooms and
machines: and, indeed, it was a sight worthy seeing. But to see
their clothes, and the various sorts, and what a mixture of
things there was; here a wooden-leg, there a ruff, here a hobby-
horse, there a crown, would make a man split himself with
laughing; and particularly Lacy's [John Lacy, the celebrated
comedian, author of four plays. Ob. 1681.] wardrobe, and
Shotrell's. [Robert and William Shotterel both belonged to the
King's company at the opening of their new Theatre in 1663. One
of them had been Quarter-master to the troop of horse in which
Hart was serving as Lieutenant under Charles the First's
standard. He is called by Downs a good actor, but nothing
further is recorded of his merits or career. NOTE TO CIBBER'S
APOLOGY.] But then again, to think now fine they show on the
stage by candle-light, and how poor things they are to look at
too near hand, is not pleasant at all. The machines are fine,
and the paintings very pretty. With Sir W. Warren, talking of
many things belonging to us particularly, and I hope to get
something considerably by him before the year be over. He gives
me good advice of circumspection in my place, which I am now in
great mind to improve; for I think our office stands on very
ticklish terms, the Parliament likely to sit shortly and likely
to be asked more money, and we able to give a very bad account of
the expence of what we have done with what they did give before.
Besides, the turning out the prize officers may be an example for
the King's giving us up to Parliament's pleasure as easily, for
we deserve it as much. Besides, Sir G. Carteret did tell me to-
night how my Lord Brouncker, whose good-will I could have
depended as much on as any, did himself to him take notice of the
many places I have; and though I was a painful man, yet the Navy
was enough for any man to go through with in his own single place
there, which much troubles me, and shall yet provoke me to more
and more care and diligence than ever.

21st. Sir Robert Long [Sir Robert Long, Secretary to Charles II.
during his exile, and subsequently made Auditor of the Exchequer,
and a privy Counsellor, and created a Baronet 1662, Ob.
unmarried, 1673.] told us of the plenty of partridges in France,
where he says the King of France and his company killed with
their guns, in the plain de Versailles, 300 and odd partridges at
one bout. With Sir W. Warren, who tells me that at the Committee
of the Lords for the prizes to-day, there passed very high words
between my Lord Ashly and Sir W. Coventry, about our business of
the prize ships. And that my Lord Ashly did snuff and talk as
high to him, as he used to do to any ordinary man. And that Sir
W. Coventry did take it very quietly, but yet for all did speak
his mind soberly and with reason, and went away, saying that he
had done his duty therein.

24th. After the Committee up. I had occasion to follow the Duke
into his lodgings, into a chamber where the Duchesse was sitting
to have her picture drawn by Lilly, who was then at work. But I
was well pleased to see that there was nothing near so much
resemblance of her face in his work, which is now the second, if
not the third time, as there was of my wife's at the very first
time. Nor do I think at last it can be like, the lines not being
in proportion to those of her face.

28th. My Lord Brouncker and I to the Tower, to see the famous
engraver, to get him to grave a seal for the office. And did see
some of the finest pieces of work in embossed work, that ever I
did see in my life, for fineness and smallness of the images

28th. To the Cockpitt, and dined with a great deal of company at
the Duke of Albemarle's, and a bad and dirty, nasty dinner. This
night, I am told, the Queene of Portugall, the mother to our
Queene, is lately dead, and news brought of it hither this day.

30th. I out to Lombard-streete, and there received 2200l. and
brought it home; and, contrary to expectation, received 35l. for
the use of 2000l. of it for a quarter of a year, where it hath
produced me this profit, and hath been a convenience to me as to
care and security at my house, and demandable at two days'
warning, as this hath been. To Hales's, and there sat till
almost quite dark upon working my gowne, which I hired to be
drawn in; an Indian gowne.

April 1, 1666. To Charing Cross, to wait on Sir Philip Howard;
whom I found in bed: and he do receive me very civilly. My
request was about suffering my wife's brother to go to sea, and
to save his pay in the Duke's guards; which after a little
difficulty he did with great respect agree to. I find him a very
fine-spoken gentleman, and one of great parts, and very
courteous. Meeting Dr. Allen, [Probably Thomas Allen, M.D. of
Caius College, Cambridge, and Member of the College of
Physicians. Ob. 1685.] the physician, he and I and another
walked in the Park, a most pleasant warm day and to the Queene's
chapel; where I do not so dislike the musick. Here I saw on a
post an invitation to all good Catholics to pray for the soul of
such a one departed this life. The Queene, I hear, do not yet
hear of the death of her mother, she being in a course of
physick, that they dare not tell it her. Up and down my Lord St.
Albans his new building and market-house, looking to and again
into every place building. I this afternoon made a visit to my
Lady Carteret, whom I understood newly come to towne; and she
took it mighty kindly, but I see her face and heart are dejected
from the condition her husband's matters stand in. But I hope
they will do all well enough. And I do comfort her as much as I
can, for she is a noble lady.

5th. The plague is, to our great grief, encreased nine this
week, though decreased a few in the total. And this encrease
runs through many parishes, which makes us much fear the next

6th. Met by agreement with Sir Stephen Fox and Mr. Ashburnham,
and discoursed the business of our Excise tallies; the former
being Treasurer of the guards, and the other Cofferer of the
King's household. This day great news of the Swedes declaring
for us against the Dutch, and so far as that I believe it.

8th. To the Duke of York, where we all met to hear the debate
between Sir Thomas Allen and Mr. Wayth; the former complaining of
the latter's ill usage of him at the late pay of his ship. But a
very sorry poor occasion he had for it. The Duke did determine
it with great judgement, chiding both, but encouraging Wayth to
continue to be a check to all captains in any thing to the King's
right. And, indeed, I never did see the Duke do any thing more
in order, nor with more judgement than he did pass the verdict in
this business, The Court full this morning of the news of Tom
Cheffins' death, the King's closet-keeper. [Sir E. Walker,
Garter King at Arms, in 1644 gave a grant of arms GRATIS, to
Thomas Chiffinch, Esq., one of the Pages of His Majesty's
Bedchamber, Keeper of his private Closet, and Comptroller of the
Excise. His brother William appears to have succeeded to the two
first-named appointments, and became a great favourite with the
King, whom he survived. There is a portrait of William Chiffinch
at Gorhamburg.] He was well last night as ever, playing at
tables in the house, and not very ill this morning at six
o'clock, yet dead before seven: they think, of an imposthume in
his breast. But it looks fearfully among people now-a-days, the
plague, as we hear encreasing every where again. To the Chapel,
but could not get in to hear well. But I had the pleasure once
in my life to see an Archbishop (this was of York) [Richard
Sterne, Bishop of Carlisle, elected Archbishop of York, 1664.
Ob. 1683.] in a pulpit. Then at a loss how to get home to
dinner, having promised to carry Mrs. Hunt thither. At last got
my Lord Hinchingbroke's coach, he staying at Court; and so took
her up in Axe-yard, and home and dined. And good discourse of
the old matters of the Protector and his family, she having a
relation to them. The Protector lives in France: spends about
500l. per annum.

9th. By coach to Mrs. Pierce's, and with her and Knipp and Mrs.
Pierce's boy and girl abroad, thinking to have been merry at
Chelsey; but being come almost to the house by coach near the
waterside, a house alone, I think the Swan, a gentleman walking
by called to us to tell us that the house was shut up of the
sickness. So we with great affright turned back, being holden to
the gentleman: and went away (I for my part in great disorder)
for Kensington.

11th. To Hales's, where there was nothing to be done more to my
picture, [This potrait is now in the possession of Samuel Pepys
Cockerel, Esq.] but the musique, which now pleases me mightily,
it being painted true. To Gresham College, where a great deal of
do and formality in choosing of the Council and Officers. I had
three votes to be of the Council, who am but a stranger, nor
expected any.

15th. Walked into the Park to the Queen's chapel, and there
heard a good deal of their mass, and some of their musique, which
is not so contemptible, I think, as our people would make it, it
pleasing me very well; and, indeed, better than the anthem I
heard afterwards at White Hall, at my coming back. I staid till
the King went down to receive the Sacrament, and stood in his
closet with a great many others, and there saw him receive it,
which I did never see the manner of before. Thence walked to Mr.
Pierce's, and there dined: very good company and good discourse,
they being able to tell me all the businesses of the Court: the
amours and the mad doings that are there: how for certain Mrs.
Stewart is become the King's mistress; and that the King hath
many bastard children that are known and owned, besides the Duke
of Monmouth.

18th. To Mr. Lilly's, the painter's; and there saw the heads,
some finished, and all begun, of the flaggmen in the late great
fight with the Duke of York against the Dutch. The Duke of York
hath them done to hang in his chamber, and very finely they are
done indeed. Here are the Prince's, Sir G. Askue's, Sir Thomas
Teddiman's, Sir Christopher Mings, Sir Joseph Jordan, Sir William
Berkeley, Sir Thomas Allen, and Captain Harman's, [Afterwards Sir
John Harman.] as also the Duke of Albemarle's; and will be my
Lord Sandwich's, Sir W. Pen's, and Sir Jeremy Smith's. I was
very well satisfied with this sight, and other good pictures
hanging in the house.

21st. I down to walk in the garden at White Hall, it being a
mighty hot and pleasant day; and there was the King, who, among
others, talked to us a little; and among other pretty things, he
swore merrily that he believed the ketch that Sir W. Batten
bought the last year at Colchester, was of his own getting, it
was so thick to its length. Another pleasant thing he said of
Christopher Pett, commanding him that he will not alter his
moulds of ships upon any man's advice; "as," says he,
"Commissioner Taylor I fear do of his New London, that he makes
it differ, in hopes of mending the Old London, built by him."
"For," says he, "he finds that God hath put him into the right,
and so will keep in it while he is in." "And," says the King, "I
am sure it must be God put him in, for no art of his own ever
could have done it;" for it seems he cannot give a good account
of what he do as an artist. Thence with my Lord Brouncker in his
coach to Hide Parke, the first time I have been there this year.
There the King was; but I was sorry to see my Lady Castlemaine,
for the mourning forceing all the ladies to go in black, with
their hair plain and without spots. I find her to be a much more
ordinary woman than ever I durst have thought she was; and,
indeed, is not so pretty as Mrs. Stewart.

22nd. To the Cockpitt, and there took my leave of the Duke of
Albemarle, who is going to-morrow to sea. He seems mightily
pleased with me, which I am glad of; but I do find infinitely my
concernment in being careful to appear to the King and Duke to
continue my care of his business, and to be found diligent as I
used to be.

23rd. To White Hall, where I had the opportunity to take leave
of the Prince, and again of the Duke of Albemarle; and saw them
kiss the King's hands and the Duke's; and much content indeed,
there seems to be in all people at their going to sea, and they
promise themselves much good from them. This morning the House
of Parliament do meet, only to adjourne again till winter. The
plague, I hear, encreases in the town much, and exceedingly in
the country every where. Bonfires in the street, for being
St.George's day, and the King's Coronation, and the day of the
Prince and Duke's going to sea.

25th. I to the office, where Mr. Prin come to meet about the
Chest-business; and till company come, did discourse with me a
good while in the garden about the laws of England, telling me
the main faults in them; and among others, their obscurity
through multitude of long statutes, which he is about to abstract
out of all of a sort; and as he lives, and Parliaments come, get
them put into laws, and the other statutes repealed, and then it
will be a short work to know the law. Having supped upon the
leads, to bed. The plague, blessed be God! is decreased sixteen
this week.

29th. To Mr. Evelyn's, where I walked in his garden till he come
from Church, with great pleasure reading Ridly's discourse, all
my way going and coming, upon the Civill and Ecclesiastical Law.
He being come home, he and I walked together in the garden with
mighty pleasure, he being a very ingenious man; and the more I
know him the more I love him.

30th. I after dinner to even all my accounts of this month; and
bless God, I find myself, notwithstanding great expences of late;
viz. 80l. now to pay for a necklace; near 40l. for a set of
chairs and couch; near 40l. for my three pictures: yet I do
gather, and am worth 5200l. My wife comes home by and by, and
hath pitched upon a necklace with three rows, which is a very
good one, and 80l. is the price. So ends this month with great
layings-out. Good health and gettings, and advanced well in the
whole of my estate, for which God make me thankful!

May 1, 1666. At noon, my cosen Thomas Pepys did come to me, to
consult about the business of his being a Justice of the Peace,
which he is much against; and among other reasons, tells me, as a
confidant, that he is not free to exercise punishment according
to the Act against Quakers and other people, for religion. Nor
do he understand Latin, and so is not capable of the place as
formerly, now all warrants do run in Latin. Nor he in Kent,
though he be of Deptford parish, his house standing in Surry.
However, I did bring him to incline towards it, if he be pressed
to take it. I do think it may be some repute to me to have my
kinsman in Commission there, specially, if he behave himself to
content in the country.

12th. Met Sir G. Downing on White Hall bridge, and there walked
half an hour, talking of the success of the late new Act; and
indeed it is very much, that that hath stood really in the room
of 800,000l. [There appears to be some error in these figures.]
now since Christmas, being itself but 1,250,000l. And so I do
really take it to be a very considerable thing done by him; for
the beginning, end, and every part of it, is to be imputed to
him. The fleet is not yet gone from the Nore. The plague
encreases in many places, and is 53 this week with us.

13th. Into St. Margett's [St. Margaret's.] Church, where I
heard a young man play the fool upon the doctrine of Purgatory.

16th. I to my Lord Crowe's, who is very lately come to town, and
he talked for half an hour of the business of the warr, wherein
he is very doubtful, from our want of money, that we shall fail.
And I do concur with him therein. After some little discourse of
ordinary matters, I away to Sir Philip Warwick's again, and he
was come in, and gone out to my Lord Treasurer's; whither I
followed him, and there my business was, to be told that my Lord
Treasurer hath got 10,000l. for us in the Navy, to answer our
great necessities, which I did thank him for; but the sum is not
considerable. The five brothers Houblons came, and Mr. Hill, to
my house; and a very good supper we had, and good discourse with
great pleasure. My new plate sets off my cupboard very nobly.
Here they were till about eleven at night: and a fine sight it
is to see these five brothers thus loving one to another, and all
industrious merchants.

[Two of these brothers, Sir James and Sir John Houblon, Knts. and
Aldermen, rose to great wealth; the former represented the City
of London, and the latter became Lord Mayor in 1695. The
following epitaph, in memory of their father, who was interred in
the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, is here inserted, as having been
written by Mr. Pepys:-

Jacobus Houblon
Londin. Petri filius,
Ob fidem Flandria exulantis:
Ex C. Nepotibus habuit LXX superstites:
Filios V. videns mercatores florentissimos;
Ipse Londinensis Bursae Pater.
Plissime obiit Nonagenarius,

19th. Mr. Deane and I did discourse about his ship Rupert, built
by him there, which succeeds so well as he hath got great honour
by it, and I some by recommending him; the King, Duke, and every
body, saying it is the best ship that was ever built. And then
he fell to explain to me his manner of casting the draught of
water which a ship will draw beforehand: which is a secret the
King and all admire in him; and he is the first that hath come to
any certainty beforehand of foretelling the draught of water of a
ship before she be launched

20th. I discoursed awhile with Mr. Yeabsly, whom I met and took
up in my coach with me, and who hath this day presented my Lord
Ashly with 100l. to bespeak his friendship to him in his accounts
now before us; and my Lord hath received, and so I believe is as
bad, as to bribes, as what the world says of him.

21st. I away in some haste to my Lord Ashly, where it is
stupendous to see how favourably, and yet closely, my Lord Ashly
carries himself to Mr. Yeabsly, in his business, so as I think we
shall do his business for him in very good manner. But it is a
most extraordinary thing to observe, and that which I would not
but have had the observation of for a great deal of money.

23rd. Towards White Hall, calling in my way on my Lord Bellasses,
[John Lord Bellassis, second son of Thomas Viscount Falconberg,
an officer of distinction on the King's side, during the Civil
War. He was afterwards Governor of Tangier, and Captain of the
Band of Gentlemen Pensioners. Being a Catholic, the Test Act
deprived him of all his appointments in 1672; but James II, in
1684, made him first Commissioner of the Treasury. Ob, 1689.]
where I come to his bedside, and he did give me a full and long
account of his matters, how he kept them at Tangier. Declares
himself fully satisfied with my care: seems cunningly to argue
for encreasing the number of men there. Told me the whole story
of his gains by the Turky prizes, which he owns he hath got about
5000l. by. Promised me the same profits Povy was to have had;
and in fine, I find him a pretty subtle man; and so I left him.
Staid at Sir G. Carteret's chamber till the Council rose, and
then he and I, by agreement this morning, went forth in his coach
by Tiburne, to the park; discoursing of the state of the Navy as
to money, and the state of the Kingdom too, how ill able to raise
more: and of our office, as to the condition of the officers; he
giving me caution as to myself, that there are those that are my
enemies as well as his, and by name my Lord Brouncker who hath
said some odd speeches against me. So that he advises me to
stand on my guard; which I shall do, and unless my too-much
addiction to pleasure undo me, will be acute enough for any of

25th. A gentleman arrived here this day, Mr. Brown of St.
Maloes, among other things tells me the meaning of the setting
out of dogs every night out of the town walls, which are said to
secure the city: but it is not so, but only to secure the
anchors, cables, and ships that lie dry, which might otherwise in
the night be liable to be robbed. And these dogs are set out
every night, and called together in, every morning by a man with
a horne, and they go in very orderly.

29th. Home this evening, but with great trouble in the streets
by bonfires, it being the King's birth-day and day of
Restoration; but Lord! to see the difference how many there were
on the other side, and so few ours, the City side of the Temple,
would make one wonder the difference between the temper of one
sort of people and the other: and the difference among all
between what they do now, and what it was the night when Monk
came into the City. Such a night as that I never think to see
again, nor think it can be.

30th. I find the Duke gone out with the King to-day on hunting.

31st. A public Fast-day appointed to pray for the good success
of the fleet. But it is a pretty thing to consider how little a
matter they make of this keeping of a Fast, that it was not so
much as declared time enough to be read in the churches, the last
Sunday; but ordered by proclamation since: I suppose upon some
sudden news of the Dutch being come out. As to public business;
by late tidings of the French fleet being come to Rochell, (how
true, though, I know not) our fleet is divided; Prince Rupert
being gone with about thirty ships to the Westward as is
conceived to meet the French, to hinder their coming to join with
the Dutch. My Lord Duke of Albemarle lies in the Downes with the
rest, and intends presently to sail to the Gunfleete.

June 2, 1666. Up, and to the office, where certain news is
brought us of a letter come to the King this morning from the
Duke of Albemarle, dated yesterday at eleven o'clock, as they
were sailing to the Gunfleete, that they were in sight of the
Dutch fleet, and were fitting themselves to fight them; so that
they are ere this certainly engaged: besides, several do averr
they heard the guns yesterday in the afternoon. This put us at
the Board into a tosse. Presently come orders for our sending
away to the fleet a recruite of 200 soldiers. So I rose from the
table, and to the Victualling-office, and thence upon the River
among several vessels, to consider of the sending them away; and
lastly, down to Greenwich, and there appointed two yachts to be
ready for them; and did order the soldiers to march to
Blackewall. Having set all things in order against the next
flood, I went on shore with Captain Erwin at Greenwich, and into
the parke, and there: we could hear the guns from the fleete
most plainly. We walked to the water-side, and there seeing the
King and Duke come down in their barge to Greenwich-house, I to
them, and did give them an account what I was doing. They went
up to the park to hear the guns of the fleet go off. All our
hopes now are that Prince Rupert with his fleet is coming back
and will be with the fleet this even: a message being sent to
him for that purpose on Wednesday last; and a return is come from
him this morning, that he did intend to sail from St. Ellen's
point about four in the afternoon yesterday; which gives us great
hopes, the wind being very fair, that he is with them this even,
and the fresh going off of the guns makes us believe the same.
Down to Blackewall, and there saw the soldiers (who were by this
time gotten most of them drunk) shipped off. But, Lord! to see
how the poor fellows kissed their wives and sweet-hearts in that
simple manner at their going off, and shouted, and let off their
guns, was strange sport. In the evening come up the River the
Katharine yacht, Captain Fazeby, who hath brought over my Lord of
Alesbury [Robert Bruce, created Earl of Aylesbury, 1663. Ob.
1685.] and Sir Thomas Liddall [Of Ravensworth Castle, Durham,
succeeded his grandfather, the first Baronet, 1650. He had three
daughters. Ob. 1697.] (with a very pretty daughter, and in a
pretty travelling-dress) from Flanders, who saw the Dutch fleet
on Thursday, and ran from them; but from that hour to this hath
not heard one gun, nor any news of any fight. Having put the
soldiers on board, I home.

3rd (Lord's-day; Whit-sunday). Up; and by water to White Hall,
and there met with Mr. Coventry, who tells me the only news from
the fleet is brought by Captain Elliott, of the Portland, which,
by being run on board by the Guernsey, was disabled from staying
abroad: so is come in to Albrough. That he saw one of the Dutch
great ships blown up, and three on fire. That they begun to
fight on Friday; and at his coming into port, could make another
ship of the King's coming in, which he judged to be the Rupert:
that he knows of no other hurt to our ships. With this good news
I home by water again. The Exchange as full of people, and hath
been all this noon as of any other day, only for news. To White
Hall, and there met with this bad news farther, that the Prince
come to Dover but at ten o'clock last night, and there heard
nothing of a fight; so that we are defeated of all our hopes of
his help to the fleet. It is also reported by some Victuallers
that the Duke of Albemarle and Holmes [Sir Robert Holmes.] their
flags were shot down, and both fain to come to anchor to renew
their rigging and sails. A letter is also come this afternoon,
from Harman in the Henery; which states, that she was taken by
Elliott for the Rupert; that being fallen into the body of the
Dutch fleet, he made his way through them, was set on by three
fire-ships one after another, got two of them off, and disabled
the third; was set on fire himself; upon which many of his men
leapt into the sea and perished; among others, the parson first.
Have lost above 100 men, and a good many women, (God knows what
is become of Balty [Balthazar St. Michel, Mrs. Pepys's brother,
employed in the office for sick and hurt at Deal afterwards, and
in 1686 Commissioner at Woolwich and Deptford.] ) and at last
quenched his own fire and got to Albrough; being, as all say, the
greatest hazard that ever any ship escaped, and so bravely
managed by him. The mast of the third fire ship fell into their
ship on fire, and hurt Harman's leg, which makes him lame now,
but not dangerous. I to Sir G. Carteret, who told me there hath
been great bad management in all this; that the King's orders
that went on Friday for calling back the Prince, were sent but by
the ordinary post on Wednesday; and come to the Prince his hands
but on Friday; and then, instead of sailing presently, he stays
till four in the evening. And that which is worst of all, the
Hampshire, laden with merchants' money, come from the Straights,
set out with or but just before the fleet, and was in the Downes
by five in the clock yesterday morning; and the Prince with his
fleet come to Dover but at ten of the clock at night. This is
hard to answer, if it be true. This puts great astonishment into
the King, and Duke, and Court, every body being out of
countenance. Home by the 'Change, which is full of people still,
and all talk highly of the failure of the Prince in not making
more haste after his instructions did come, and of our
managements here in not giving it sooner and with more care and

4th. To White Hall, where, when we come, we find the Duke at St.
James's, whither he is lately gone to lodge. So walking through
the Park we saw hundreds of people listening at the Gravell-pits,
and to and again in the Park to hear the guns. I saw a letter,
dated last night, from Strowd, Governor of Dover Castle, which
sags that the Prince come thither the night before with his
fleet; but that for the guns which we writ that we heard, it is
only a mistake for thunder; and so far as to yesterday it is a
miraculous thing that we all Friday, and Saturday and yesterday,
did hear every where most plainly the guns go off, and yet at
Deal and Dover to last night they did not hear one word of a
fight, nor think they heard one gun. This, added to what I have
set down before the other day about the Katharine, makes room for
a great dispute in philosophy, how we should hear it and they
not, the same wind that brought it to us being the same that
should bring it to them: but so it is. Major Halsey, however,
(He was sent down on purpose to hear news) did bring news this
morning that he did see the Prince and his fleet at nine of the
clock yesterday morning, four or five leagues to sea behind the
Goodwin, so that by the hearing of the guns this morning, we
conclude he is come to the fleet. After wayting upon the Duke
with Sir W. Pen, (who was commanded to go to-night by water down
to Harwich, to dispatch away all the ships he can,) I home:
where no sooner come, but news is brought me of a couple of men
come to speak with me from the fleet; so I down, and who should
it be but Mr. Daniel, all muffled up, and his face as black as
the chimney, and covered with dirt, pitch, and tar, and powder,
and muffled with dirty clouts, and his right eye stopped with
okum. He is come last night; at five o'clock from the fleet,
with a comrade of his that hath endangered another eye. They
were set on shore at Harwich this morning, and at two o'clock, in
a catch with about twenty more wounded men from the Royall
Charles. They being able to ride, took post about three this
morning, and were here between eleven and twelve. I went
presently into the coach with them, and carried them to Somerset-
House-stairs, and there took water (all the world gazing upon us,
and concluding it to be news from the fleet, and every body's
face appeared expecting of news,) to the Privy-stairs, and left
them at Mr. Coventry's lodgings (he, though, not being there);
and so I into the Park to the King, and told him my Lord Generall
was well the last night at five o'clock, and the Prince come with
his fleet and joyned with his about seven. The King was mightily
pleased with this news, and so took me by the hand and talked a
little of it, giving him the best account I could; and then he
bid me to fetch the two seamen to him, he walking into the house.
So I went and fetched the seamen into the same room to him, and
there he heard the whole account.


How we found the Dutch fleet at anchor on Friday half seas over,
between Dunkirke and Ostend, and made them let slip their
anchors. They about ninety, and we less than sixty. We fought
them, and put them to the run, till they met with about sixteen
sail of fresh ships, and so bore up again. The fight continued
till night, and then again the next morning from five till seven
at night. And so, too, yesterday morning they begun again, and
continued till about four o'clock, they chasing us for the most
part of Saturday, and yesterday we flying from them. The Duke
himself and then those people who were put into the catch, by and
by spied the Prince's fleet coming, upon which De Ruyter called a
little council, (being in chase at this time of us,) and
thereupon their fleet divided into two squadrons; forty in one,
and about thirty in the other (the fleet being at first about
ninety, but by one accident or other, supposed to be lessened to
about seventy); the bigger to follow the Duke, the less to meet
the Prince. But the Prince come up with the Generall's fleet,
and the Dutch come together again and bore towards their own
coast, and we with them; and now what the consequence of this day
will be, we know not. The Duke was forced to come to anchor on
Friday, having lost his sails and rigging. No particular person
spoken of to be hurt but Sir W. Clerke, who hath lost his leg,
and bore it bravely. The Duke himself had a little hurt in his
thigh, but signified little. The King did pull out of his pocket
about twenty pieces in gold, and did give it Daniel for himself
and his companion; and so parted, mightily pleased with the
account he did give him of the fight, and the success it ended
with, of the Prince's coming, though it seems the Duke did give
way again and again. The King did give order for care to be had
of Mr. Daniel and his companion; and so we parted from him, and
then met the Duke of York, and gave him the same account: and so
broke up, and I left them going to the surgeon's. To the Crown,
behind the 'Change, and there supped at the club with my Lord
Brouncker, Sir G. Ent, and others of Gresham College; and all our
discourse is of this fight at sea, and all are doubtful of the
success, and conclude all had been lost if the Prince had not
come in, they having chased us the greatest part of Saturday and
Sunday. Thence with my Lord Brouncker and Creed by coach to
White Hall, where fresh letters are come from Harwich, where the
Gloucester, Captain Clerke, is come in, and says that on Sunday
night upon coming in of the Prince, the Duke did fly; but all
this day they have been fighting; therefore they did face again
to be sure. Captain Bacon of the Bristoll is killed. They cry
up Jenings of the Ruby, and Saunders of the Sweepstakes. They
condemn mightily Sir Thomas Teddiman for a coward, but with what
reason time must show.

5th. At noon, though I should have dined with my Lord Mayor and
Aldermen at an entertainment of Commissioner Taylor's, yet it
being a time of expectation of the success of the fleet, I did
not go. No manner of news this day, but of the Rainbow's being
put in from the fleet maimed as the other ships are.

6th. By and by walking a little further, Sir Philip Frowde
[Secretary to the Duchess of York.] did meet the Duke with an
express to Sir W. Coventry (who was by) from Captain Taylor, the
Storekeeper at Harwich, being the narration of Captain Hayward of
the Dunkirke; who gives a very serious account, how upon Monday
the two fleets fought all day till seven at night, and then the
whole fleet of Dutch did betake themselves to a very plain
flight, and never looked back again. That Sir Christopher Mings
is wounded in the leg; that the Generall is well. That it is
conceived reasonably, that of all the Dutch fleet, which, with
what recruits they had, come to one hundred sail, there is not
above fifty got home; and of them, few if any of their flags.
And that little Captain Bell, in one of the fire-ships, did at
the end of the day fire a ship of 70 guns. We were also so
overtaken with this good news, that the Duke ran with it to the
King, who was gone to chapel, and there all the Court was in a
hubbub, being rejoiced over head and ears in this good news.
Away go I by coach to the new Exchange, and there did spread this
good news a little, though I find it had broke out before. And
so home to our own church, it being the common Fast-day, and it
was just before sermon; but, Lord! how all the people in the
church stared upon me to see me whisper to Sir John Minnes and my
Lady Pen. Anon I saw people stirring and whispering below, and
by and by comes up the sexton from my Lady Ford to tell me the
news, (which I had brought) being now sent into the church by Sir
W. Batten in writing, and passed from pew to pew. But that which
pleased me as much as the news, was, to have the fair Mrs.
Middleton at our church, who indeed is a very beautiful lady.
Idled away the whole night till twelve at night at the bonfire in
the streets. Some of the people thereabouts going about with
musquets, and did give me two or three vollies of their musquets,
I giving them a crown to drink; and so home. Mightily pleased
with this happy day's news, and the more, because confirmed by
Sir Daniel Harvy, [Ranger of Richmond Park.] who was in the
whole fight with the Generall, and tells me that there appear but
thirty-six in all of the Dutch fleet left at the end of the
voyage when they run home. The joy of the City was this night
exceeding great.

7th. Up betimes, and to my office about business, (Sir W.
Coventry having sent me word that he is gone down to the fleet to
see how matters stand, and to be back again speedily); and with
the same expectation of congratulating ourselves with the victory
that I had yesterday. But my Lord Brouncker and Sir T. H.
[Probably Sir Thomas Harvey.] that come from court, tell me the
contrary news, which astonishes me: that is to say, that we are
beaten, lost many ships and good commanders; have not taken one
ship of the enemy's; and so can only report ourselves a victory:
nor is it certain that we were left masters of the field. But,
above all, that the Prince run on shore upon the Galloper, and
there stuck; was endeavoured to be fetched off by the Dutch, but
could not; and so they burned her; and Sir G. Ascue is taken
prisoner, and carried into Holland. This news do much trouble
me, and the thoughts of the ill consequences of it, and the pride
and presumption that brought us to it. At noon to the 'Change,
and there find the discourse of town, and their countenances much
changed; but yet not very plain. By and by comes Mr. Wayth to
me; and discoursing of our ill success, he tells me plainly from
Captain Page's own mouth, (who hath lost his arm in the fight,)
that the Dutch did pursue us two hours before they left us, and
then they suffered us to go on homewards, and they retreated
towards their coast: which is very sad news. The Duke much
damped. In his discourse, touching the late fight, and all the
Court talk sadly of it. The Duke did give me several letters he
had received from the fleet, and Sir W. Coventry and Sir W. Pen,
who are gone down thither, for me to pick out some works to be
done for the setting out the fleet again; and so I took them home
with me, and was drawing out an abstract of them till midnight.
And as to news, I do find great reason to think that we are
beaten in every respect, and that we are the losers. The Prince
upon the Galloper, where both the Royall Charles and Royall
Katharine had come twice aground, but got off. The Essex carried
into Holland; the Swiftsure missing (Sir W. Barkeley) ever since
the beginning of the fight. Captains Bacon, Tearne, Wood,
Mootham, Whitty, and Coppin, slayne. The Duke of Albemarle
writes, that he never fought with worse officers in his life, not
above twenty of them behaving themselves like men. Sir William
Clerke lost his leg; and in two days died. The Loyall George,
Seven Oakes, and Swiftsure, are still missing, having never, as
the Generall writes himself, engaged with them. It was as great
an alteration to find myself required to write a sad letter
instead of a triumphant one, to my Lady Sandwich this night, as
ever on any occasion I had in my life.

8th. To my very great joy I find Balty come home without any
hurt, after the utmost imaginable danger he hath gone through in
the Henery, being upon the quarter-deck with Harman all the time;
and for which service, Harman I heard this day commended most
seriously and most eminently by the Duke of York. As also the
Duke did do most utmost right to Sir Thomas Teddiman, of whom a
scandal was raised, but without cause, he having behaved himself
most eminently brave all the whole fight, and to extraordinary
great service and purpose, having given Trump himself such a
broadside as was hardly ever given to any ship. Mings is shot
through the face, and into the shoulder, where the bullet is
lodged. Young Holmes is also ill-wounded, and Atber in the
Rupert. Balty tells me the case of the Henery; and it was,
indeed, most extraordinary sad and desperate. After dinner Balty
and I to my office, and there talked a great deal of this fight;
and I am mightily pleased in him, and have great content in, and
hopes of his doing well. Thence out to White Hall to a Committee
for Tangier, but it met not. But, Lord! to see how melancholy
the Court is, under the thoughts of this last overthrow, (for so
it is,) instead of a victory, so much and so unreasonably
expected. We hear the Swiftsure, Sir W. Barkeley, is come in
safe to the Nowre, after her being absent ever since the
beginning of the fight, wherein she did not appear at all from
beginning to end.

9th. The Court is divided about the Swiftsure and the Essex's
being safe. And wagers and odds laid on both sides. Sir W.
Coventry is come to town; so I to his chamber. But I do not hear
that he is at all pleased or satisfied with the late fight; but
he tells me more news of our suffering, by the death of one or
two captains more than I knew before. But he do give over the
thoughts of the safety of the Swiftsure or Essex.

10th. I met with Pierce the surgeon, who is lately come from the
fleet, and tells me that all the commanders, officers, and even
the common seamen do condemn every part of the late conduct of
the Duke of Albemarle; both in his fighting at all, running among
them in his retreat, and running the ships on ground; so as
nothing can be worse spoken of. That Holmes, Spragg, and Smith
do all the business, and the old and wiser commanders nothing.
So as Sir Thomas Teddiman (whom the King and all the world speak
well of) is mightily discontented, as being wholly slighted. He
says we lost more after the Prince came, than before too. The
Prince was so maimed, as to be forced to be towed home. He says
all the fleet confess their being chased home by the Dutch; and
yet the body of the Dutch that did it, was not above forty sail
at most. And yet this put us into the fright, as to bring all
our ships on ground. He says, however, that the Duke of
Albemarle is as high almost as ever, and pleases himself to think
that he hath given the Dutch their bellies full, without sense of
what he hath lost us; and talks how he knows now the way to beat
them. But he says, that even Smith himself, one of his
creatures, did himself condemn the late conduct from the
beginning to the end. He tells me further, how the Duke of York
is wholly given up to his new mistress, my Lady Denham, [Miss
Brookes, a relative of the Earl of Bristol, married to Sir J.
Denham, frequently mentioned in the "Memoires de Grammont."]
going at noonday with all his gentlemen with him, to visit her in
Scotland Yard; she declaring she will not be his mistress, as
Mrs. Price, to go up and down the Privy-stairs, but will be owned
publicly; and so she is. Mr. Brouncker, [Henry Brouncker,
younger brother to Lord Brouncker, whom he succeeded in his
title. He was Groom of the Bed-chamber to the Duke of York, and
a famous chess-player.] it seems, was the pimp to bring it
about, and my Lady Castlemaine, who designs thereby to fortify
herself by the Duke; there being a falling-out the other day
between the King and her: on this occasion, the Queene, in
ordinary talk before the ladies in her drawing-room, did say to
my Lady Castlemaine that she feared the King did take cold, by
staying so late abroad at her house. She answered before them
all, that he did not stay so late abroad with her, for he went
betimes thence, (though he do not before one, two, or three in
the morning,) but must stay somewhere else. The King then coming
in and overhearing, did whisper in the eare aside, and told her
she was a bold impertinent woman, and bid her to be gone out of
the Court, and not to come again till he sent for her; which she
did presently, and went to a lodging in the Pell Mell, and kept
there two or three days, and then sent to the King to know
whether she might send for her things away out of her house. The
King went to her, she must first come and view them: and so she
come, and the King went to her, and all friends again. He tells
me she did, in her anger, say she would be even with the King,
and print his letters to her. So putting all together, we are
and are like to be in a sad condition. We are endeavouring to
raise money by borrowing it of the City; but I do not think the
City will lend a farthing. Sir G. Carteret and I walked an hour
in the church-yard, under Henry the Seventh's Chapel, he being
lately come from the fleet; and tells me, as I hear from every
body else, that the management in the late fight was bad from
top to bottom. That several said that this would not have been
if my Lord Sandwich had had the ordering of it. Nay, he tells me
that certainly had my Lord Sandwich had the misfortune to have
done as they have done, the King could not have saved him. There
is, too, nothing but discontent among the officers; and all the
old experienced men are slighted. He tells me to my question,
(but as a great secret,) that the dividing of the fleet did
proceed first from a proposition from the fleet, though agreed to
hence. But he confesses it arose from want of due intelligence.
He do, however, call the fleet's retreat on Sunday a very
honourable one, and that the Duke of Albemarle did do well in it,
and would have been well if he had done it sooner, rather than
venture the loss of the fleet and crown, as he must have done if
the Prince had not come. He was surprised when I told him I
heard that the King did intend to borrow some money of the City,
and would know who had spoke of it to me; I told him Sir Ellis
Layton this afternoon. He says it is a dangerous discourse, for
that the City certainly will not be invited to do it, and then
for the King to ask it and be denied, will be the beginning of
our sorrow. He seems to fear we shall all fall to pieces among
ourselves. This evening we hear that Sir Christopher Mings is
dead of his late wounds; and Sir W. Coventry did commend him to
me in a most extraordinary manner. But this day, after three
days' trial in vain, and the hazard of the spoiling of the ship
in lying till next spring, besides the disgrace of it, news is
brought that the Loyall London is launched at Deptford.

11th. I with my Lady Pen and her daughter to see Harman; whom we
find lame in bed. His bones of his ancle are broke, but he hopes
to do well soon; and a fine person by his discourse he seems to
be: and he did plainly tell me that at the Council of War before
the fight, it was against his reason to begin the fight then, and
the reasons of most sober men there, the wind being such, and we
to windward, that they could not use their lower tier of guns.
Late comes Sir Jo. Bankes to see me, who tells me that coming up
from Rochester he overtook three or four hundred seamen, and he
believes every day they come flocking from the fleet in like
numbers; which is a sad neglect there, when it will be impossible
to get others, and we have little reason to think these will
return presently again. Walking in the galleries at White Hall,
I find the Ladies of Honour dressed in their riding garbs, with
coats and doublets with deep skirts, just for all the world like
mine, and buttoned their doublets up the breast, with perriwigs
and with hats; so that, only for a long petticoat dragging under
their men's coats, nobody could take them for women in any point
whatever; which was an odde sight, and a sight did not please me.
It was Mrs. Wells and another fine lady that I saw thus.

13th. Sir H. C. Cholmly [Sir Hugh Cholmely of Whitby, Yorkshire,
Bart., was employed in constructing the Mole at Tangier, and
resided there some years. Ob. 1688.] tells me there are great
jarrs between the Duke of York and the Duke of Albemarle, about
the latter's turning out one or two of the commanders put in by
the Duke of York. Among others, Captain Du Tell, a Frenchman,
put in by the Duke of York, and mightily defended by him; and is
therein led by Monsieur Blancford, that it seems hath the same
command over the Duke of York as Sir W. Coventry hath; which
raises ill blood between them. And I do in several little things
observe that Sir W. Coventry hath of late, by the by, reflected
on the Duke of Albemarle and his captains, particularly in that
of old Teddiman, who did deserve to be turned out this fight, and
was so; but I heard Sir W. Coventry say that the Duke of
Albemarle put in one as bad as he in his room, and one that did
as little. Invited to Sir Christopher Mings's funeral, but find
them gone to church. However I into the church (which is a fair
large church, and a great chapel) and there heard the service,
and staid till they buried him, and then out. And there met with
Sir W. Coventry (who was there out of great generosity, and no
person of quality there but he) and went with him into his coach,
and being in it with him there happened this extraordinary case,
--one of the most romantique that ever I heard in my life, and
could not have believed, but that I did see it; which was this.
--About a dozen able, lusty, proper men come to the coach-side
with tears in their eyes, and one of them that spoke for the rest
begun and said to Sir W. Coventry, "We are here a dozen of us,
that have long known and loved, and served our dead commander,
Sir Christopher Mings, and have now done the last office of
laying him in the ground. We would be glad we had any other to
offer after him, and in revenge of him. All we have is our
lives; if you will please to get His Royal Highness to give us a
fire-ship among us all, here are a dozen of us, out of all which
choose you one to be commander, and the rest of us, whoever he
is, will serve him; and, if possible, do that which shall show
our memory of our dead commander, and our revenge." Sir W.
Coventry was herewith much moved, (as well as I, who could hardly
abstain from weeping,) and took their names, and so parted;
telling me that he would move his Royal Highness as in a thing
very extraordinary. The truth is, Sir Christopher Mings was a
very stout man, and a man of great parts, and most excellent
tongue among ordinary men: and as Sir W. Coventry says, could
have been the most useful man at such a pinch of time as this.
He was come into great renowne here at home, and more abroad in
the West Indys. He had brought his family into a way of being
great; but dying at this time, his memory and name (his father
being always and at this day a shoemaker, and his mother a
hoyman's daughter; of which he was used frequently to boast) will
be quite forgot in a few months as if he had never been, nor any
of his name be the better by it; he having not had time to will
any estate, but is dead poor rather than rich. So we left the
church and crowd.

14th. With my wife and father to Hales's, and there looked only
on my father's picture, (which is mighty like); and so away to
White Hall to a committee for Tangier. Where the Duke of York
was, and Sir W. Coventry, and a very full committee: and instead
of having a very prejudiced meeting, they did, though inclined
against Yeabsly, yield to the greatest part of his account, so as
to allow of his demands to the value of 7000l. and more, and only
give time for him to make good his pretence to the rest; which
was mighty joy to me: and so we rose up. But I must observe the
force of money, which did make my Lord Ashly to argue and behave
himself in the business with the greatest friendship, and yet
with all the discretion imaginable; and it will be a business of
admonition and instruction to me concerning him (and other men,
too, for aught I know) as long as I live.

16th. The King, Duke of York, and Sir W. Coventry are gone down
to the fleet. It seems the Dutch do mightily insult of their
victory, and they have great reason. Sir William Barkeley was
killed before his ship taken; and there he lies dead in a sugar-
chest, for every body to see, with his flag standing up by him.
And Sir George Ascue is carried up and down the Hague for people
to see.

18th. Sir W. Coventry is returned this night from the fleet; he
being the activest man, in the world, and we all (myself
particularly) more afraid of him than of the King or his service,
for aught I see; God forgive us! This day the great news is come
of the French, their taking the island of St. Christopher from
us; and it is to be feared they have done the like of all those
islands thereabouts: this makes me mad.

19th. I to Sir G. Carteret's by appointment; where I perceive by
him the King is going to borrow some money of the City; but I
fear it will do no good, but hurt. He tells me how the Generall
is displeased, and there have been some high words between the
Generall and Sir W. Coventry. And it may be so; for I do not
find Sir W. Coventry so highly commending the Duke as he used to
be, but letting fall now and then some little jerkes: as this
day, speaking of news from Holland, he says, "I find their
victory begins to shrinke there as well as ours here." Here I
met with Captain Cocke, and he tells me that the first thing the
Prince said to the King upon his coming was, complaining of the
Commissioners of the Navy: that they could have been abroad in
three or four days but for us; that we do not take care of them:
which I am troubled at, and do fear may in violence break out
upon this office some time or other; for we shall not be able to
carry on the business.

21st. Up, and at the office all the morning; where by several
circumstances I find Sir W. Coventry and the Duke of Albemarle do
not agree as they used to do; Sir W. Coventry commending Aylett,
(in some reproach to the Duke), whom the Duke hath put out for
want of courage; and found fault with Steward, whom the Duke
keeps in, though as much in fault as any commander in the fleet.
Sir George Smith tells me that this day my Lord Chancellor and
some of the Court have been with the City, and that the City have
voted to lend the King 100,000l.; which, if soon paid, (as he
says he believes it will,) will be a greater service than I did
ever expect at this time from the City.

23rd. Reading Pompey the Great, (a play translated from the
French by several noble persons; among others, my Lord
Buckhurst,) that to me is but a mean play, and the words and
sense not very extraordinary. From Deptford I walked to
Redriffe, and in my way was overtaken by Bagwell, lately come
from sea in the Providence, who did give me an account of several
particulars in the late fight, and how his ship was deserted
basely by the York, Captain Swanly, commander.

24th. In the gallery among others met with Major Halsey, a great
creature of the Duke of Albemarle's: who tells me that the Duke
by name hath said that he expected to have the work here up in
the River done, having left Sir W. Batten and Mr. Phipps there.
He says that the Duke of Albemarle do say that this is a victory
we have had, having, as he was sure, killed them 8000 men, and
sunk about fourteen of their ships; but nothing like this appears
true. He lays much of the little success we have had, however,
upon the fleet's being divided by order from above, and the want
of spirit in the commanders; and that he was commanded by order
to go out of the Downes to the Gunfleete, and in the way meeting
the Dutch fleet, what should he do? should he not fight them?
especially having beat them heretofore at as great disadvantage.
He tells me further, that having been downe with the Duke of
Albemarle, he finds that Holmes and Spragge do govern most
business of the Navy; and by others I understand that Sir Thomas
Allen is offended thereat: that he is not so much advised with
as he ought to be. He tells me also, as he says of his own
knowledge, that several people before the Duke went out did offer
to supply the King with 100,000l. provided he would be treasurer
of it, to see it laid out for the Navy; which he refused, and so
it died. But I believe none of this. This day I saw my Lady
Falmouth, [Elizabeth, daughter of Hervey Bagot, Esq., and widow
of Charles Berkeley, Earl of Falmouth, married secondly, Charles
first Duke of Dorset. She had been Maid of Honour to the Duchess
of York.] with whom I remember now I have dined at my Lord
Barkeley's heretofore, a pretty woman: she was now in her second
or third mourning, and pleasant in her looks. By and by the
Council rises, and Sir W. Coventry come out; and he and I went
aside; and discoursed of much business of the Navy; and
afterwards took his coach, and to Hide-Parke, he and I alone:
there we had much talk. First, he stated a discourse of a talk
he hears about the town, which, says he, is a very bad one, and
fit to be suppressed, if we knew how: which is, the comparing of
the success of the last year with that of this; saying that that
was good, and that bad. I was as sparing in speaking as I could,
being jealous of him and myself also, but wished it could be
stopped; but said I doubted it could not otherwise than by the
fleet's being abroad again, and so finding other work for men's
minds and discourse. Then to discourse of himself, saying, that
he heard that he was under the lash of people's discourse about
the Prince's not having notice of the Dutch being out, and for
him to come back again, nor the Duke of Albemarle notice that the
Prince was sent for back again: to which he told me very
particularly how careful he was the very same night that it was
resolved to send for the Prince back, to cause orders to be writ,
and waked the Duke, who was then in bed, to sign them; and that
they went by express that very night, being the Wednesday night
before the fight, which begun on the Friday; and that for sending
them by the post express, and not by gentlemen on purpose, he
made a sport of it, and said, I knew of none to send it with but
would at least have lost more time in fitting themselves out,
than any diligence of theirs beyond that of the ordinary post
would have recovered. I told him that this was not so much the
towne talk as the reason of dividing the fleete. To this he told
me he ought not to say much; but did assure me in general that
the proposition did first come from the fleet, and the resolution
not being prosecuted with orders so soon as the Generall thought
fit, the Generall did send Sir Edward Spragge up on purpose for
them; and that there was nothing in the whole business which was
not done with the full consent and advice of the Duke of
Albemarle. But he did adde, (as the Catholiques call LE SECRET
DE LA MASSE) that Sir Edward Spragge--who had even in Sir
Christopher Mings's time, put in to be the great favourite of the
Prince, but much more now had a mind to be the great man with
him, and to that end had a mind to have the Prince at a distance
from the Duke of Albemarle, that they might be doing something
alone--did, as he believed, put on this business of dividing the
fleet, and that thence it came. He tells me as to the business
of intelligence, the want whereof the world did complain much of,
that for that it was not his business, and as he was therefore to
have no share in the blame, so he would not meddle to lay it any
where else. That De Ruyter was ordered by the States not to make
it his business to come into much danger, but to preserve himself
as much as was fit out of harm's way, to be able to direct the
fleet. He do, I perceive, with some violence, forbear saying any
thing to the reproach of the Duke of Albemarle; but, contrarily,
speaks much of his courage; but I do as plainly see that he do
not like the Duke of Albemarle's proceedings, but, contrarily, is
displeased therewith. And he do plainly diminish the commanders
put in by the Duke, and do lessen the miscarriages of any that
have been removed by him. He concurs with me, that the next bout
will be a fatal one to one side or other, because, if we be
beaten, we shall not be able to set out our fleet again. He do
confess with me that the hearts of our seamen are much saddened;
and for that reason, among others, wishes Sir Christopher Mings
was alive, who might inspire courage and spirit into them.
Speaking of Holmes, how great a man he is, and that he do for the
present, and hath done all the voyage, kept himself in good order
and within bounds: but, says he, a cat will be a cat still, and
some time or other out his humours must break again. He do not
disowne but that the dividing of the fleet upon the presumptions
that were then had (which, I suppose, was the French fleet being
come this way,) was a good resolution.

25th. News from Sir W. Coventry that the Dutch are certainly
come out. Mrs. Pen carried us to two gardens at Hackny, (which I
every day grow more and more in love with,) Mr. Drake's one,
where the garden is good, and house and the prospect admirable;
the other my Lord Brooke's [Robert Lord Brooke, ob. 1676. Evelyn
mentions this garden as Lady Brooke's. Brooke House at Clapton,
was lately occupied as a private madhouse.] where the gardens
are much better, but the house not so good, nor the prospect good
at all. But the gardens are excellent; and here I first saw
oranges grow: some green, some half, some a quarter, and some
full ripe, on the same tree, and one fruit of the same tree do
come a year or two after the other. I pulled off a little one by
stealth (the man being mightily curious of them) and eat it, and
it was just as other little green small oranges are: as big as
half the end of my little finger. Here were also great variety
of other exotique plants, and several labarinths, and a pretty

26th. In the morning come Mr. Chichly [Mr., afterwards Sir
Thomas Chicheley, a Privy-Counsellor and Commissioner of the
Ordnance.] to Sir W. Coventry, to tell him the ill success of
the guns made for the Loyall London; which is, that in the trial
every one of the great guns, the whole cannon of seven (as I take
it), broke in pieces.

27th. To Sir W. Coventry's chamber (where I saw his father my
Lord Coventry's picture hung up, done by Stone, who then brought
it home. It is a good picture, drawn in his judge's robes, and
the great seal by him. And while it was hanging up, "This," says
Sir W. Coventry, merrily, "is the use we make of our fathers.")
But what I observed most from the discourse was this of Sir W.
Coventry, that he do look upon ourselves in a desperate
condition. The issue of all standing upon this one point, that
by the next fight, if we beat, the Dutch will certainly be
content to take eggs for their money, (that was his expression);
or if we be beaten, we must be contented to make peace, and glad
if we can have it without paying too dear for it. And withall we
do rely wholly upon the Parliament's giving us more money the
next sitting, or else we are undone. I did this afternoon visit
my Lord Bellasses, who professes all imaginable satisfaction in
me. My Lord is going down to his garrison to Hull, by the King's
command, to put it in order for fear of an invasion: which
course I perceive is taken upon the sea-coasts round; for we have
a real apprehension of the King of France's invading us.

28th. The Dutch are now known to be out, and we may expect them
every hour upon our coast. But our fleet is in pretty good
readiness for them.

29th. To the office; where I met with a letter from Dover, which
tells me (and it did come by express) that news is brought over
by a gentleman from Callice that the Dutch fleet, 130 sail, are
come upon the French coast; and that the country is bringing in
picke-axes, and shovells, and wheel-barrows into Callice; that
there are 6000 men armed with head, back, and breast, (Frenchmen)
ready to go on board the Dutch fleet, and will be followed by
1200 more. That they pretend they are to come to Dover; and that
thereupon the Governor of Dover Castle is getting the
victuallers' provision out of the town into the Castle to secure
it. But I do think this is a ridiculous conceit; but a little
time will show.

30th. Mightily troubled all this morning with going to my Lord
Mayor, (Sir Thomas Bludworth, a silly man I think, [As his
conduct during the Great Fire fully proved.]) and other places,
about getting shipped some men that they have these two last
nights pressed in the City out of houses: the persons wholly
unfit for sea, and many of them people of very good fashion,
which is a shame to think of, and carried to Bridewell they are,
yet without being impressed with money legally as they ought to
be. But to see how the King's business is done; my Lord Mayor
himself did scruple at this time of extremity to do this thing,
because he had not money to pay the pressed-money to the men. I
did out of my own purse disburse 15l. to pay for their pressing
and diet last night and this morning; which is a thing worth
record of my Lord Mayor. Busy about this all the morning, and
about the getting off men pressed by our officers of the fleet
into the service; even our own men that are at the office, and
the boats that carry us. So that it is now become impossible to
have so much as a letter carried from place to place, or any
message done for us: nay, out of Victualling ships full loaden
to go down to the fleet, and out of the vessels of the officers
of the Ordnance, they press men, so that for want of discipline
in this respect I do fear all will be undone.

July 1, 1666. Comes Sir W. Pen to town, which I little expected,
having invited my Lady and her daughter Pegg to dine with me to-
day; which at noon they did, and Sir W. Pen with them: and
pretty merry we were. And though I do not love him, yet I find
it necessary to keep in with him: his good service at Shearnesse
in getting out the fleet being much taken notice of; and reported
to the King and Duke, even from the Prince and Duke of Albemarle
themselves, and made the most of to me and them by Sir W.
Coventry; therefore I think it discretion, great and necessary
discretion, to keep in with him. To the Tower several times,
about the business of the pressed men, and late at it till twelve
at night shipping of them. But, Lord! how some poor women did
cry; and in my life I never did see such natural expression of
passion as I did here in some women's bewailing themselves, and
running to every parcel of men that were brought, one after
another, to look for their husbands, and wept over every vessel
that went off, thinking they might be there, and looking after
the ship as far as ever they could by moone-light, that it
grieved me to the heart to hear them. Besides, to see poor
patient labouring men and housekeepers leaving poor wives and
families, taken up on a sudden by strangers, was very hard, and
that without press-money, but forced against all law to be gone.
It is a great tyranny.

2nd. Up betimes, and forced to go to my Lord Mayor's, about the
business of the pressed men; and indeed I find him a mean man of
understanding and dispatch of any publick business. Thence out
of curiosity to Bridewell to see the pressed men, where there are
about 300; but so unruly that I durst not go among them: and
they have reason to be so, having been kept these three days
prisoners, with little or no victuals, and pressed out and
contrary to all course of law, without press-money, and men that
are not liable to it. Were I met with prating Colonel Cox, one
of the City collonells, heretofore a great presbyter: but to
hear how the fellow did commend himself, and the service he do
the King; and, like an asse, at Paul's did take me out of my way
on purpose to show me the gate, (the little north gate) where he
had two men shot close by him on each time, and his own hair
burnt by a bullet-shot in the insurrection of Venner, and himself
escaped. I found one of the vessels loaden with the Bridewell
birds in a great mutiny, and they would not sail, not they; but
with good words, and cajoling the ringleader into the Tower,
(where, when he was come, he was clapped up in the Hole) they
were got very quietly; but I think it is much if they do not run
the vessel on ground.

3rd. Mr. Finch, one of the Commissioners of Excise, and I fell
to discourse of the Parliament, and the great men there; and
among others, Mr. Vaughan, whom he reports as a man of excellent
judgement and learning, but most passionate and opiniastre. He
had done himself the most wrong (though he values it not), that
is, the displeasure of the King in his standing so long against
the breaking of the Act for a triennial parliament; but yet do
believe him to be a most loyall gentleman. He told me Mr. Prin's
character; that he is a man of mighty labour and reading, and
memory, but the worst judge of matters, or layer together of what
he hath read, in the world, (which I do not, however, believe him
in;) that he believes him very true to the King in his heart, but
can never be reconciled to episcopacy; that the House do not lay
much weight upon him, or any thing he says. News came yesterday
from Harwich, that the Dutch had appeared upon our coast with
their fleet, and we believe did go to the Gun-fleete, and they
are supposed to be there now, but I have heard nothing of them
to-day. Yesterday Dr. Whistler, at Sir W. Pen's, told me that
Alexander Broome, [Alexander Broome, an attorney in the Lord
Mayor's Court, author of "Loyal Songs and Madrigals," much sung
by the Cavaliers, and of a translation of Horace. He was
regretted as an agreeable companion.] the great song-maker, is
lately dead.

4th. Thanks be to God, the plague is, as I hear, encreased but
two this week; but in the country in several places it rages
mightily, and particularly in Colchester, where it hath, long
been, and is believed will quite depopulate the place. With the
Duke, all of us discoursing about the places where to build ten
great ships: the King and Council have resolved on none to be
under third-rates; but it is impossible to do it, unless we have
more money towards the doing it than yet we have in any view.
But, however, the show must be made to the world. In the evening
Sir W. Pen came to me, and we walked together, and talked of the
late fight. I find him very plain, that the whole conduct of the
late fight was ill; that two-thirds of the commanders of the
whole fleet have told him so: they all saying, that they durst
not oppose it at the Council of War, for fear of being called
cowards, though it was wholly against their judgement to fight
that day with the disproportion of force, and then we not being
able to use one gun of our lower tier, which was a greater
disproportion than the other. Besides, we might very well have
staid in the Downs without fighting, or any where else, till the
Prince could have come up to them; or at least till the weather
was fair, that we might have the benefit of our whole force in
the ships that we had. He says three things must be remedied, or
else we shall be undone by this fleet. 1. That we must fight in
a line, whereas we fight promiscuously, to our utter and
demonstrable ruine: the Dutch fighting otherwise; and we,
whenever we beat them,--2. We must not desert ships of our own in
distress, as we did, for that makes a captain desperate, and he
will fling away his ship, when there are no hopes left him of
succour.--3. That ships when they are a little shattered, must
not take the liberty to come in of themselves, but refit
themselves the best they can, and stay out--many of our ships
coming in with very small disableness. He told me that our very
commanders, nay, our very flag-officers, do stand in need of
exercising among themselves, and discoursing the business of
commanding a fleet: he telling me that even one of our flag-men
in the fleet, did not know which tacke lost the wind, or kept it,
in the last engagement. He says it was pure dismaying and fear
that made them all run upon the Galloper, not having their wits
about them: and that it was a miracle they were not all lost.
He much inveighs upon my discoursing of Sir John Lawson's saying
heretofore, that sixty sail would do as much as one hundred; and
says that he was a man of no counsel at all, but had got the
confidence to say as the gallants did, and did propose to himself
to make himself great by them, and saying as they did: but was
no man of judgement in his business, but hath been out in the
greatest points that have come before them. And then in the
business of fore-castles, which he did oppose, all the world sees
now the use of them for shelter of men. He did talk very
rationally to me, insomuch that I took more pleasure this night
in hearing him discourse, than I ever did in my life in any thing
that he said.

6th. I believe not less than one thousand people in the streets.
But it is a pretty thing to observe that both there and every
where else, a man shall see many women now-a-days of mean sort in
the streets, but no men; men being so afraid of the press. I
dined with Sir G. Carteret, and after dinner had much discourse
about; our public business; and he do seem to fear every day more
and more what I do; which is a general confusion in the State;
plainly answering me to the question, who is it that the weight
of the warr depends upon? that it is only Sir W. Coventry. He
tells me, too, the Duke of Albemarle is dissatisfied, and that
the Duchesse do curse Coventry as the man that betrayed her
husband to the sea: though I believe that it is not so. Thence
to Lumburd-streete, and received 2000l., and carried it home:
whereof 1000l. in gold. This I do for security sake, and
convenience of carriage; though it costs me above 70l. the change
of it, at 18 1/2d per peece. Creed tells me he finds all things
mighty dull at Court; and that they now begin to lie long in bed;
it being, as we suppose, not seemly for them to be found playing
and gaming as they used to be; nor that their minds are at ease
enough to follow those sports, and yet not knowing how to employ
themselves, (though there be work enough for their thoughts and
councils and pains,) they keep long in bed. But he thinks with
me, that there is nothing in the world can help us but the King's
personal looking after his business and his officers, and that
with that we may yet do well; but otherwise must be undone:
nobody at this day taking care of anything, nor hath any body to
call him to account for it.

10th. To the office; the yard being very full of women, (I
believe above three hundred) coming to get money for their
husbands and friends that are prisoners in Holland; and they lay
clamouring and swearing and cursing us, that my wife and I were
afraid to send a venison-pasty that we have for supper to-night,
to the cook's to be baked, for fear of their offering violence to
it: but it went, and no hurt done. To the Tower to speak with
Sir John Robinson about the bad condition of the pressed men for
want of clothes.

11th. I away by coach to St. James's, and there hear that the
Duchesse is lately brought to bed of a boy. By and by called to
wait on the Duke, the King being present; and there agreed, among
other things, of the places to build the ten new great ships
ordered to be built; and as to the relief of prisoners is
Holland. And then, about several stories of the basenesse of the
King of Spain's being served with officers: they in Flanders
having as good common men as any Prince in the world, but the
veriest cowards for the officers, nay for the general officers,
as the Generall and Lieutenant-generall, in the whole world.
But, above all things, the King did speak most in contempt of the
ceremoniousnesse of the King of Spain, that he do nothing but
under some ridiculous form or other. I shall get in near 2000l.
into my own hands, which is in the King's, upon tallies; which
will be a pleasure to me, and satisfaction to have a good sum in
my own hands, whatever evil disturbances should be in the State;
though it troubles me to lose so great a profit as the King's
interest of ten per cent. for that money.

12th. With Sir W. Coventry into London, to the office. And all
the way I observed him mightily to make mirth of the Duke of
Albemarle and his people about him, saying, that he was the
happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry
instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke, and Riggs,
and Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only
duality eminent in him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he
is a very drudge, and stands by the King's business.

14th. Up betimes to the office, to write fair a laborious letter
I wrote as from the Board to the Duke of York, laying out our
want of money again; and particularly the business of Captain
Cocke's tender of hemp, which my Lord Brouncker brought in under
an unknown hand without name. Wherein his Lordship will have no
great success, I doubt. That being done, I down to Thames-
streete, and there agreed for four or five tons of corke, to send
this day to the fleet, being a new device to make barricados
with, instead of junke. After a song in the garden, which is now
the greatest pleasure I take, and indeed do please me mightily,
to bed. This evening I had Davila brought home to me and find it
a most excellent history as ever I read.

16th. A wonderful dark sky, and shower of rain this morning. At
Harwich a shower of hail as big as walnuts.

18th. To St. James's after my fellows; and here, among other
things, before us all, the Duke of York did say, that now at
length is come to a sure knowledge that the Dutch did lose in the
late engagements twenty-nine captains and thirteen ships. Upon
which Sir W. Coventry did publickly move, that if his Royal
Highness had this of a certainty, it would be of use to send this
down to the fleet, and to cause it to be spread about the fleet,
for the recovering of the spirits of the officers and seamen; who
are under great dejectednes, for want of knowing that they did do
any thing against the enemy, notwithstanding all that they did to
us. Which, though it be true, yet methought was one of the most
dishonourable motions to our countrymen that ever was made; and
is worth remembering. Thence with Sir W. Pen home, calling at
Lilly's, to have a time appointed when to be drawn among the
other Commanders of Flags the last year's fight. And so full of
work Lilly is, that he was fain to take his table-book out to see
how his time is appointed, and appointed six days hence for him
to come between seven and eight in the morning. Thence with him
home; and there by appointment I find Dr. Fuller, now Bishop of
Limericke, in Ireland; whom I knew in his low condition at
Twittenham and find the Bishop the same good man that ever; and
in a word, kind to us, and, methinks, one of the comeliest and
most becoming prelates in all respects that ever I saw in my
life. During dinner comes an acquaintance of his, Sir Thomas
Littleton [Afterwards made Treasurer of the Navy in conjunction
with Sir Thomas Osborn.] whom I knew not while he was in my
house, but liked his discourse: and afterwards, by Sir W. Pen,
do come to know that he is one of the greatest speakers in the
House of Commons, and the usual second to the great Vaughan. So
was sorry I did observe him no more, and gain more of his
acquaintance. Walked to Woolwich, reading "the Rivall Ladys" [A
Tragi-comedy by Dryden.] all the way, and find it a most
pleasant and fine writ play.

19th. Full of wants of money, and much stores to buy, for to
replenish the stores, and no money to do it with. The fleet is
sailed this morning; God send us good news of them!

21st. At noon walked in the garden with Commissioner Pett,
(newly come to town) who tells me how infinite the disorders are
among the commanders and all officers of the fleet. No
discipline: nothing but swearing and cursing, and every body
doing what they please; and the Generalls, understanding no
better, suffer it, to the reproaching of this Board, or whoever
it will be. He himself hath been challenged twice to the field,
or something as good, by Sir Edward Spragge and Capt. Seamons
[QUERY Seymour?] He tells me that captains carry, for all the
late orders, what men they please. So that he fears, and I do no
less, that God Almighty can bless us while we keep in this
disorder that we are in: he observing to me too, that there is
no man of counsel or advice in the fleet; and the truth is, that
the gentlemen captains will undo us for they are not to be kept
in order, their friends about the King and Duke, and their own
houses are so free, that it is not for any person but the Duke
himself to have any command over them.

22nd. Walked to White Hall, where saw nobody almost, but walked
up and down with Hugh May, [An architect, and Comptroller of the
works at Windsor Castle. Ob 1684.] who is a very ingenious man.
Among other things, discoursing of the present fashion of gardens
to make them plain, that we have the best walks of gravell in the
world, France having none, nor Italy: and our green of our
bowling allies is better than any they have. So our business
here being ayre, this is the best way, only with a little mixture
of statues, or pots, which may be handsome, and so filled with
another pot of such or such a flower or greene as the season of
the year will bear. And then for flowers, they are best seen in
a little plat by themselves; besides, their borders spoil the
walks of another garden; and then for fruit, the best way is to
have walls built circularly one within another, to the South, on
purpose for fruit, and leave the walking garden only for that
use. Sir Richard Fanshaw is lately dead at Madrid. The fleet
cannot get clear of the River, but expect the first wind to be
out, and then to be sure to fight. The Queene and Maids of
Honour are at Tunbridge.

23rd. All full of expectation of the fleet's engagement, but it
is not yet. Sir W. Coventry says they are eighty-nine men-of-
war, but one fifth-rate; and that the Sweepstakes, which carries
forty guns. They are most infinitely manned. He tells me the
Loyal London, Sir J. Smith, (which, by the way, he commends to be
the best ship in the world, large and small) hath above eight
hundred men; and moreover takes notice, which is worth notice,
that the fleet hath lain now near fourteen days without any
demand for a farthing-worth of any thing of any kind, but only to
get men. He also observes, that with this excess of men,
nevertheless, they have thought fit to leave behind them sixteen
ships, which they have robbed of their men, which certainly might
have been manned, and they have been serviceable in the fight,
and yet the fleet well-manned, according to the excess of
supernumeraries, which we hear they have. At least two or three
of them might have been left manned, and sent away with the
Gottenburgh ships. They conclude this to be much the best fleet,
for force of guns, greatness and number of ships and men, that
ever England did see; being as Sir W. Coventry reckons, besides
those left behind, eighty-nine men-of-war, and twenty-five ships,
though we cannot hear that they have with them above eighteen.
The French are not yet joined with the Dutch, which do dissatisfy
the Hollanders, and if they should have a defeat, will undo De
Witt; the people generally of Holland do hate this league with

25th. At White Hall; we find the Court gone to Chapel, it being
St. James's-day. And by and by, while they are at chapel, and we
waiting chapel being done, come people out of the Park, telling
us that the guns are heard plainly. And so every body to the
Park, and by and by the chapel done, and the King and Duke into
the bowling green, and upon the leads, whither I went, and there
the guns were plain to be heard; though it was pretty to hear how
confident some would be in the lowdnesse of the guns, which it
was as much as ever I could do to hear them. By and by the King
to dinner, and I waited there his dining; but, Lord! how little
I should be pleased, I think, to have so many people crowding
about me; and among other things it astonished me to see my Lord
Barkeshire [Thomas Howard, second son of Thomas first Earl of
Suffolk created Earl of Berkshire 1625-6, K.G. Ob. 1669, aged
nearly 90.] waiting at table, and serving the King drink, in
that dirty pickle as I never saw man in my life. Here I met Mr.
Williams, who would have me to dine where he was invited to dine,
at the Backe-stayres. So after the King's meat was taken away,
we thither; but he could not stay, but left me there among two or
three of the King's servants, where we dined with the meat that
come from his table; which was most excellent, with most brave
drink cooled in ice, (which at this hot time was welcome,) and I
drinking no wine, had metheglin for the King's own drinking,
which did please me mightily.

27th. To Sir W. Coventry's lodging, and there he showed me
Captain Talbot's letter, wherein he says that the fight begun on
the 25th: that our White squadron begun with one of the Dutch
squadrons, and then the Red with another, so hot that we put them
both to giving way, and so they continued in pursuit all the day,
and as long as he stayed with them: that the blow fell to the
Zealand squadron; and after a long dispute, he against two or
three great ships, received eight or nine dangerous shots, and so
come away; and says, he saw the Resolution burned by one of their
fire-ships, and four or five of the enemy's. But says that two
or three of our great ships were in danger of being fired by our
fire-ships, which Sir W. Coventry nor I cannot understand. But
upon the whole, he and I walked two or three turns in the Park
under the great trees, and no doubt that this gallant is come
away a little too soon, having lost never a mast nor sail. And

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