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"Goo little Reed!
Aforn tha vawk, an vor me plead:
Thy wild nawtes, mAc-be, thAc ool hire
Zooner than zActer vrom a lAcre.
ZAc that thy Maester's pleas'd ta blaw 'em,
An haups in time thAc'll come ta knaw 'em
An nif za be thAc'll please ta hear,
A'll gee zum moor another year."--_The Farewell._
THE Dialect of the West of England
WITH A GLOSSARY OF WORDS NOW IN USE THERE; ALSO WITH POEMS AND
OTHER PIECES EXEMPLIFYING THE DIALECT.
BY JAMES JENNINGS,
HONORARY SECRETARY OF THE METROPOLITAN LITERARY INSTITUTION,
BASED ON THE _SECOND EDITION,_
THE WHOLE REVISED, CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED, WITH TWO DISSERTATIONS
ON THE ANGLO-SAXON PRONOUNS, AND OTHER PIECES,
BY JAMES KNIGHT JENNINGS, M.A.,
Late Scholar and Librarian, Queens' College, Cambridge; Vicar of
Hagbourn, Berkshire; and Minister of Calcott Donative,
TO THA DWELLERS O' THA WEST,
Tha Fruit o' longvul labour, years,
In theA¤ze veo leaves at last appears.
Ta you, tha dwellers o' tha West,
I'm pleas'd that thAc shood be addresst:
Vor thaw I now in Lunnan dwell,
I mine ye still--I love ye well;
And niver, niver sholl vorget
I vust drAcw'd breath in _Zummerzet_;
Amangst ye liv'd, and left ye zorry,
As you'll knaw when you hire my storry.
TheA¤ze little book than take o' me;
'Tis Acll I hAc just now ta gee
An when you rade o' _Tommy Gool_,
Or _Tommy Came_, or _Pal_ at school,
Or _Mr. Guy_, or _Fanny Fear_,--
I thenk you'll shod vor her a tear)
_Tha Rookery_, or _Mary's Crutch_,
Tha cap o' which I love ta touch,
You'll vine that I do not vorget
My naatal swile--dear Zummerzet.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
In preparing this second edition of my relative's work, I have
incorporated the results of observations made by me during several
years' residence in Somersetshire, in the centre of the district.
I have also availed myself by kind permission, of hints and
suggestions in two papers, entitled "Somersetshire Dialect," read
by T. S. Baynes in 1856, and reprinted from the Taunton Courier,
in London, in 1861.
During the forty years which have elapsed since the first edition,
very much light has been thrown on the subject of Provincial
Dialects, and after all much remains to be discovered. I consider
with Mr. Baynes that there is more of the pure Anglo-Saxon in the
west of England dialect, as this district was the seat of
classical Anglo-Saxon, which first rose here to a national tongue,
and lasted longer in a great measure owing to its distance from
the Metropolis, from which cause also it was less subject to
I shall be happy to receive any suggestions from Philological
scholars, which may increase the light thrown on the subject, and
by which a third edition may be improved.
_Hagbourn Vicarage, August,_ 1869.
The usefulness of works like the present is too generally admitted
to need any apology for their publication. There is,
notwithstanding, in their very nature a dryness, which requires
relief: the author trusts, therefore, that, in blending something
imaginative with the details of philological precision, his work
will afford amusement to the reader.
The Glossary contains the fruit of years of unwearied attention to
the subject; and it is hoped that the book will be of some use in
elucidating our old writers, in affording occasional help to the
etymology of the Anglo-Saxon portion of our language, and in
exhibiting a view of the present state of an important dialect of
the western provinces of England.
A late excursion through the West has, however, induced the Author
to believe that some valuable information may yet remain to be
gathered from our Anglo-Saxon dialect--more especially from that
part of it still used by the common people and the yeomanry. He
therefore respectfully solicits communications from those who feel
an interest in this department of our literature; by which a
second edition may be materially improved.
To a _native_ of the west of England this volume will be
found a vade-mecum of reference, and assist the reminiscence of
well-known, and too often unnoted peculiarities and words, which
are fast receding from, the polish of elegance, and the refinement
In regard to the _Poetical Pieces_, it may be mentioned that
most of them are founded on _West Country Stories_, the
incidents in which actually occurred. If some of the subjects
should be thought trifling, it must not be forgotten that the
primary object has been, to exemplify the Dialect, and that common
subjects offered the best means of effectuating such an object. Of
such Poems as _Good Bwye ta thee Cot_; _the Rookery_;
and _Mary Ramsey's Crutch_, it may be observed, that had the
Author _felt_ less he might, perhaps, have written better.
_Metropolitan Literary Institution, London, March 25, 1825._
- Preface to the Second Edition
- Preface to the First Edition
- OBSERVATIONS on some of the Dialects of the West of England,
- A GLOSSARY of Words commonly used in Somersetshire
- POEMS and OTHER PIECES, exemplifying the Dialect of the County
- Good Bwye ta Thee Cot
- Fanny Fear
- Jerry Nutty
- Legend of Glastonbury
- Mr. Guy
- The Rookery
- Tom Gool
- Teddy Band--a Zong--Hunting for Sport
- The Churchwarden
- The Fisherman and the Players
- Mary Ramsey's Crutch
- Hannah Verrior
- Doctor Cox
- The Farewell
- Farmer Bennet an Jan Lide, a Dialogue
- Thomas Came an Young Maester Jimmy, a Dialogue
- Mary Ramsay, a Monologue
- Soliloquy of Ben Bond
- Two Dissertations on Anglo-Saxon Pronouns
- Miss Ham on the Somerset Dialect
- Concluding Observations
The following Glossary includes the whole of Somerset, _East_
of the River Parret, as well as adjoining parts of Wiltshire and
Gloucestershire. West of the Parret many of the words are
pronounced very differently indeed, so as to mark strongly the
people who use them. [This may be seen more fully developed in two
papers, by T. Spencer Baynes, read before the Somersetshire
Archaeological Society, entitled the Somersetshire Dialect,
printed 1861, 18mo, to whom I here acknowledge my obligations for
several hints and suggestions, of which I avail myself in this
edition of my late relative's work].
The chief peculiarity West of the Parret, is the ending of the
third person singular, present tense of verbs, in _th_ or
_eth_: as, he _lov'th_, _zee'th_, &c., for he
loves, sees, &c.
In the pronouns, they have _Ise_ for _I_, and _er_
for _he_. In fact the peculiarities and contractions of the
Western District are puzzling to a stranger. Thus, _her_ is
frequently used for _she_. "_Har'th a doo'd it_," is,
"_she has done it_," (I shall occasionally in the Glossary
note such words as distinguishingly characterise that district).
Two of the most remarkable peculiarities of the dialect of the
West of England, and particularly of Somersetshire, are the sounds
given to the vowels A and E. A, is almost always sounded open, as
in _fA¤ther_, _rA¤ther_, or somewhat like the usual sound
of _a_ in _balloon_, _calico_, lengthened; it is so
pronounced in bA¤ll, cA¤ll. I shall use for this sound the
_circumflex over the a_, thus Ac_ or A¤_. E, has commonly
the same sound as the French gave it, which is, in fact, the
slender of A, as heard in _pane fane_, _cane_, &c. The
hard sound given in our polished dialect to the letters _th_,
in the majority of words containing those letters [as in
_through_, _three_, _thing_, think_], expressed
by the Anglo-Saxon _A _, is frequently changed in the Western
districts into the sound given in England to the letter _d_:
as for _three_, we have _dree_
for _thread_, _dread_, or _dird_,
_through_, _droo_, _throng_, _drong_, or
_thrush_, _dirsh_, &c. The consonant and vowel following
_d_, changing places. The slender or soft sound given to
_th_ in our polished dialect, is in the West, most commonly
converted into the thick or obtuse sound of the same letters as
heard in the words _this_, these &c., and this too, whether
the letters be at the beginning or end of words. I am much
disposed to believe that our Anglo-Saxon ancestors, used
indiscriminately the letters A and A for D only, and sounded them
as such, as we find now frequently in the West; although our
lexicographers usually have given the _two_ sounds of
_th_ to A and A respectively. The vowel O is used for
_a_, as _hond, dorke, lorke, hort,_ in hand, dark, lark,
heart, &c., and other syllables are lengthened, as _voote, bade,
dade,_ for foot, bed, dead. The letter O in _no, gold,_
&c., is sounded like _aw_ in _awful_; I have therefore
spelt it with this diphthong instead of _a_. Such word as
_jay_ for _joy_, and a few others, I have not noted.
Another remarkable fact is the disposition to invert the order of
some consonants in some words; as the _r_ in _thrush,
brush, rush, run,_ &c., pronouncing them dirsh, birsh, hirsh,
hirn; also transposition of _p_ and _s_ in such words as
clasp, hasp, asp, &c., sounded claps, haps, aps, &c. I have not
inserted all these words in the Glossary, as these general remarks
will enable the student to detect the words which are so inverted.
It is by no means improbable that the order in which such sounds
are now repeated in the West, is the original order in which they
existed in our language, and that our more polished mode of
expressing them is a new and perhaps a corrupt enunciation.
Another peculiarity is that of joining the letter _y_ at the
end of some verbs in the infinitive mood, as well as to parts of
different conjugations, thus, "I can't _sewy, nursy, reapy_,
to _sawy_, to _sewy_, to _nursy_, &c. A further
peculiarity is the _love of vowel_ sound, and opening out
monosyllables of our polished dialect into two or more syllables,
ay-er, for air;
boo-A¤th, for both;
fay-er, for fair;
vi-A"r for fire;
stay-ers for stairs;
show-er for sure;
vrAĥo-rst for post;
boo-ath for both;
bre-ash for brush;
chee-ase for cheese;
kee-ard for card;
gee-ate for gate;
mee-ade for mead;
mee-olk for milk; &c.
Chaucer gives many of them as dissyllables.
The verb _to be_ retains much of its primitive form: thus
_I be, thou,_ or _thee, beest,_ or _bist, we be, you
be, they be, thA¤ be_, are continually heard for _I am_,
&c., _he be_ is rarely used: but _he is_. In the past
tense, _war_ is used for _was_, and _were_: _I
war, thou_ or _thee wart_, he _war_, &c., we have
besides, _we'm, you'm, they'm_, for _we, you, they,
are_, there is a constant tendency to pleonasm in some cases,
as well as to contraction, and elision in others. Thus we have
_a lost, agone, abought_, &c., for _lost, gone, bought_,
&c., Chaucer has many of these prefixes; but he often uses
_y_ instead of _a_, as _ylost_. The frequent use of
Z and V, the softened musical sounds for S and F, together with
the frequent increase and multiplication of vowel sounds, give the
dialect a by no means inharmonious expression, certainly it would
not be difficult to select many words which may for their
modulation compete with others of French extraction, and, perhaps
be superior to many others which we have borrowed from other
languages, much less analogous to the polished dialect of our own.
I have added, in pursuance of these ideas, some poetical and prose
pieces in the dialect of Somersetshire, in which the idiom is
tolerably well preserved, and the pronunciation is conveyed in
letters, the nearest to the sound of the words, as there are in
truth many sounds for which we have neither letters, nor
combinations of letters to express them. [I might at some future
period, if thought advisable, go into a comparison between the
sound of all the letters of the alphabet pronounced in
Somersetshire, and in our polished dialect, but I doubt if the
subject is entitled to this degree of criticism]. The reader will
bear in mind that these poems are composed in the dialect of
Somerset, north east of the Parret, which is by far the most
In the Guardian, published about a century ago, is a paper No. 40,
concerning pastoral poetry, supposed to have been written by
_Pope_, to extol his own pastorals and degrade those of
Ambrose Phillips. In this essay there is a quotation from a
pretended _Somersetshire_ poem. But it is evident Pope knew
little or nothing about the Somersetshire dialect. Here are a few
lines from "this old West country bard of ours," as Pope calls
"_Cicely._ Ah Rager, Rager, cher was zore avraid,
When in yond vield you kiss'd the parson's maid:
Is this the love that once to me you zed,
When from tha wake thou broughtst me gingerbread?"
Now first, this is a strange admixture of dialects, but neither
east, west, north, nor south.
_Chez_ is nowhere used; but in the southern part _utche_
or _iche_, is sometimes spoken contractedly _che_. [See
_utchy_ in the Glossary].
_Vield_ for _field_, should be _veel_.
_Wake_ is not used in Somersetshire; but _revel_ is the
_Parson_, in Somersetshire, dealer, is _pAcson_.
In another line he calls the cows, _kee_, which is not
Somersetian; nor is, _be go_ for begone: it should, _be
gwon_; nor is _I've a be_; but _I've a bin_,
The idiomatic expressions in this dialect are numerous, many will
be found in the Glossary; the following may be mentioned. _I'd
'sley do it_, for _I would as lief do it_. I have
occasionally in the Glossary suggested the etymology of some
words; by far the greater part have an Anglo-Saxon, some perhaps a
Danish origin; [and when we recollect that _Alfred the
Great_, a good Anglo-Saxon scholar, was born at Wantage in
Berks, on the border of Wilts, had a palace at Chippenham, and was
for some time resident in Athelney, we may presume that
traditional remains of him may have influenced the language or
dialect of Somersetshire, and I am inclined to think that the
present language and pronunciation of Somersetshire were some
centuries past, general in the south portion of our island.]
In compiling this Glossary, I give the fruits of twenty-five
years' assiduity, and have defined words, not from books, but from
actual usage; I have however carefully consulted _Junius_,
_Skinner_, _Minshew_, and some other old lexicographers,
and find many of their definitions correspond with my own; but I
avoid _conjectural_ etymology. Few dictionaries of our
language are to be obtained, published from the invention of
printing to the end of the 16th century, a period of about 150
years. They throw much light on our provincial words, yet after
all, our _old writers_ are our chief resource, [and doubtless
many MSS. in various depositories, written at different periods,
and recently brought to light, from the Record and State Paper
Office, and historical societies, will throw much light on the
subject]; and an abundant harvest offers in examining them, by
which to make an amusing book, illustrative of our provincial
words and ancient manners. I think we cannot avoid arriving at the
conclusion, that the Anglo-Saxon dialect, of which I conceive the
Western dialect to be a striking portion, has been gradually
giving way to our polished idiom; and is considered a barbarism,
and yet many of the _sounds_ of that dialect are found in
Holland and Germany, as a part of the living language of these
countries. I am contented with having thus far elucidated the
language of my native county. I have omitted several words, which
I supposed provincial, and which are frequent to the west, as they
are found in the modern dictionaries, still I have allowed a few,
which are in Richardson's Johnson.
_Thee_ is used for the nominative _thou_; which latter
word is seldom used, diphthong sounds used in this dialect are:
uai, uoa, uoi, uoy, as
guain, (gwain), quoat, buoil, buoy;
such is the disposition to pleonasm in the use of the
demonstrative pronouns, that they are very often used with the
adverb _there_. _TheA¤ze here, thick there_, [_thicky
there_, west of the Parret] _theA¤sam_ here, _theazamy
here, them there, themmy there_. The substitution of V for F,
and Z (_Izzard_, _Shard_, for S, is one of the strongest
words of numerous dialects.)
In words ending with _p_ followed by _s_, the letters
change places as:
In a paper by General Vallancey in the second volume of the
_Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy_, read Dec. 27,
1788, it appears that a colony of English soldiers settled in the
_Baronies_ of _Forth Bargie_, in the county of Wexford,
in Ireland, in 1167, 1168, and 1169; and that colony preserved
their customs, manners, and language to 1788. There is added in
that paper a _vocabulary_ of their language, and a
_song_, handed down by tradition from the arrival of the
colony more than 600 years since. I think there can be no question
that these Irish colonists were from the West of England, from the
apparent admixture of dialects in the _vocabulary_ and
_song_, although the language is much altered from the Anglo-
Saxon of Somersetshire. [Footnote: This subject has been more
fully treated in the following work: A Glossary, with some pieces
of verse of the old dialect of the English colony in the Baronies
of Forth and Bargy, Co. Wexford, Ireland. Formerly collected by
Jacob Poole, of Growton, now edited with Notes and Introduction by
the Rev. W. Barnes, author of the Dorset Poems and Glossary, fcap.
8vo, 1867.] The words _nouth_, knoweth; _zin_, sin,
_vrast_, frost; _die_, day; _Zathardie_, Saturday;
_Zindii_, Sunday; and a few others, indicate an origin west
of the Parret. There are many words which with a trifling
alteration in spelling, would suit at the present time the north
eastern portion of the county: as _blauther_, bladder:
_crwest_, crust; _smill_, smell; _skir_, to rise in
the air [see _skeer_]; _vier_, fire; _vier_, a
weasel; _zar_, to serve; _zatch_, such, &c. From such
words as _ch'am_, and _ch'uh_, the southern part of the
county is clearly indicated. I think the disposition to elision
and contraction is as evident here as it is at present in
Somersetshire. In the song, there are marks of its having
undergone change since its first introduction.
_Lowthee_ is evidently derived from _lewth_ [see
Glossary] _lewthy_, will be, _abounding in lewth_, i. e.
"_As by mizluck wus I pit t' drive in._"
would in the present Somerset dialect stand thus:
"_That by misluck war a put ta dreav in."
That by mis-luck was placed to drive in.
In the line
"_Chote well ar aim wai t' yie ouz n'eer a blowe_."
the word _chete_ is, I suspect, compounded of _'ch'_
[_iche_] and _knew_, implying _I knew_, or rather
_I knew'd_, or _knewt_. [Footnote: The following is
from, an amatory poem, written, in or about the reign of Henry
II., during which the colony of the English was established in the
county of Wexford.
"Ichot from heune it is me sent."
In Johnson's _History of the English Language_, page liii. it
is thus translated--
"I wot (believe) it is sent me from heaven."
To an admirer of our Anglo-Saxon all the lines, twelve in number,
quoted by M. Todd with the above, will be found a rich treat: want
of space only prevents my giving them here.]
The modern English of the line will then be,
_I knew well their aim was to give us ne'r a blow_.
I suspect _zitckel_ is compounded of _zitch_, such, and
the auxiliary verb _will_. _I view ame_, is _a veo
o'm_; that is, _a few of them_. _Emethee_, is
_emmtey_, that is, abounding with ants. _Meulten away_,
is melting away.
_Th'ast ee pait it, thee'st a paid it_; thou hast paid it.
In the _English translation_ which accompanies the original
_song_ in _General Vallancey's_ paper, some of the words
are, I think, beyond controversy misinterpreted, but I have not
room to go critically through it. All I desire should be inferred
from these remarks is, that, although this _Anglo-Saxon_
curiosity is well worthy the attention of those who take an
interest in our early literature, we must be careful not to assume
that it is a pure specimen of the language of the period to which,
and of the people to whom, it is said to relate.
A GLOSSARY OF WORDS COMMONLY USED IN THE County of Somerset,
BUT WHICH ARE NOT ACCCEPTED AS LEGITIMATE WORDS OF THE ENGLISH
OR WORDS WHICH, ALTHOUGH ONCE USED GENERALLY, ARE NOW BECOME
A. _adv._ Yes; or _pron._ He: as _a zed a'd do it_;
he said he'd do it.
Aa'th. _s._ earth.
Ab'bey. _s._ The great white poplar: one of the varieties of
the _populus alba_.
Ab'bey-lubber. _s._ A lazy, idle fellow.
Abought. _part._ Bought. _See_ VAUGHT.
Abrood'. _adv._ When a hen is sitting on her eggs she is said
to be _abrood_.
Ad'dle. _s._ A swelling with matter in it.
Ad'dled. _a._ Having pus or corruption; hence
Ad'dled-egg. _s._ An egg in a state of putrefaction.
Affeard'. _a._ Afraid.
Afo're, Afo'rn. _prep_. and _adv._ Before; _afore,
Again. _prep_. Against.
Agon', Agoo'. _adv._ [these words literally mean
_gone_.] Ago; _agoo, Chaucer_; from the verb to
_goo_, _i.e._ to go; _he is up and agoo_; he is up
Alas-a-dAcy. _interj._ A-lack-a-day.
Ale. _s._ A liquor, brewed with a proportion of malt from
about four to six bushels to the hogshead of 63 gallons; if it
contain more malt it is called _beer_; if less, it is usually
called _small beer_.
Al'ler. _s._ The alder tree.
AllA"s. _adv._ Always.
All'once. _pron._ [all ones] or rather (all o'n's) All of us;
_Let's go allonce_; let us go all of us.
All o's. _pron._ All of us.
Alost'. _part._ Lost: _ylost, Chaucer_.
Amang. _prep._ Among.
Amawst', Amoo'A¤st _adv_. Almost.
Amper. _s_. A small red pimple.
Anby'. _adv_. Some time hence; in the evening.
Anear', Ane'ast, Aneoust'. _prep._ Nigh to; _aneast en_,
Aneen. On end, upright.
An'passy. _s._ The sign &, corrupted from _and per se_.
Anty. _adj._ Empty.
Apast'. _part._ and _prep._ Past; _apast. Chaucer._
A'pricock. _s._ An apricot.
Aps. _s._ The asp tree; _populus tremula_.
Aps'en. _a_. Made of the wood of the asp; belonging to the
To Arg. _v. n._ To argue.
To Ar'gufy. _v. n._ To hold an argument; to argue.
Ascri'de. _adv._ Across; astride.
Aslen'. _adv._ Aslope.
Assu'e. _adj._ When a cow is _let up_ in order that she
may calve, she is said to be _assue_--having no milk.
Ater. _prep._ After. _Goo ater'n_: go after him.
Athin. _adv._ Within.
Athout. _prep._ Without.
Auverdro. _v. a._ Overthrow.
Avaur', Avaur'en, Avaurn._prep._ Before.
Avoordin. _part._ Affording.
Avraur'. _adj._ Frozen; stiff with frost.
Awakid. _adj._ Awake; _awakid, Chaucer_.
To Ax. _v. a._ To ask; _ax, Chaucer_.
Ax'en. _s. pl._ Ashes.
Axing. _s._ and _part._ Asking; _axing, Chaucer_.
Ay'ir. _s._ Air.
Back'sid. _s._ A barton.
Back'y. _s._ Tobacco.
Bad. _adv._ Badly.
Bade. _s._ Bed.
Ba'ginet. _s._ Bayonet.
Bai'ly. _s._ A bailiff; a superintendent of an estate.
Ball. _adj._ Bald.
Bal'let. _s._ Ballad.
Ball'rib. _s._ A sparerib.
To Bal'lirag. _v. a._ To abuse with foul words; to scold.
To Ban. _v. a._ To shut out; to stop.
To Bane. _v. a._ To afflict with a mortal disease; applied to
sheep. _See_ to COATHE.
To Barenhond', To Banehond'. _v. n._ (used chiefly in the
third person singular) to signify intention; to intimate.
These words are in very common use in the West of England. It is
curious to note their gradation from Chaucer, whose expression is
_Beren hem on hond_, or _bare him on hand_; implying
always, it appears to me, the same meaning as I have given to the
words above. There is, I think, no doubt, that these expressions
of Chaucer, which he has used several times in his works, are
figurative; when Chaucer tells us he _beren hem, in hond,_
the literal meaning is, he carried it in, or on, his hand so that
it might be readily seen. "_To bear on hand_, to affirm, to
relate."--JAMIESON'S Etymological Scots Dictionary. But, whatever
be the meaning of these words in Chaucer, and at the present time
in Scotland, the above is the meaning of them in the west of
Banes. _s. pl._ The banns of matrimony.
Ban'nin. _s._ That which is used for shutting out or
Ban'nut. _s._ A walnut. [Only used in northern parts of
Barrow-pig. _s._ A gelt pig.
Baw'ker, Baw'ker-stone. _s._ A stone used for whetting
scythes; a kind of sand-stone.
To Becall'. _v. a._ To censure; to reprove; to chide.
Bee'A¤s, Bease. _s. pl. [Beasts]_ Cattle. Applied only to
_Oxen_ not Sheep.
Bee-but, Bee-lippen. _s._ A bee-hive
Bee'dy. _s._ A chick.
Beedy's-eyes. _s.pl._ Pansy, love-in-idleness.
Beer. _s. See_ ALE.
Befor'n. _prep._ Before.
To Begird'ge, To Begrud'ge. _v. a._ To grudge; to envy.
LORD BYRON has used the verb _begrudge_ in his notes to the
2nd canto of Childe Harold.
Begor'z, Begum'mers. _interj._
These words are, most probably, oaths of asseveration. The last
appears to be a corruption of _by godmothers_. Both are
thrown into discourse very frequently: _Begummers, I ont tell; I
cant do it begorz._
Begrumpled. _part._ Soured; offended.
To Belg. _v. n._ To cry aloud; to bellow.
Bell-flower. _s._ A daffodil.
To Belsh. _v. a._ To cut off dung, &c., from the tails of
BeneA¤pt. _part._ Left aground by the recess of the spring
To Benge. _v. n._ To remain long in drinking; to drink to
Ben'net. _v._ Long coarse grass.
Ben'nety. _adj._ Abounding in bennets.
Ber'rin. _s._ [burying] A funeral procession.
To Beskum'mer. _v. a._ To foul with a dirty liquid; to
To Bethink' _v. a._ To grudge.
Bettermost. _adj._ The best of the better; not quite
amounting to the best.
Betwat'tled. _part._ In a distressing and confused state of
To Betwit'. _v. a._ To upbraid; to repeat a past circumstance
To Bib'ble. _v. n._ To drink often; to tope.
Bib'bler. _s._ One who drinks often; a toper.
Bil'lid. _adj._ Distracted; mad.
Billy. _s._ A bundle of wheat straw.
Bi'meby. _adv._ By-and-by; some time hence.
Bin. _conj._ Because; probably corrupted from, being.
Bin'nick. _s._ A small fish; minnow; _Cyprinus
Bird-battin. _s._ The catching of birds with a net and lights
by night. FIELDING uses the expression.
Bird-battin-net. _s._ The net used in bird-battin.
Birch'en. _adj._ Made of birch; relating to birch.
Bis'gee. _s._ (g hard), A rooting axe.
Bisky. _s._ Biscuit. The pronunciation of this word
approximates nearer to the sound of the French _cuit_ ["twice
baked"] the t being omitted in this dialect.
To Bi'ver. _v. n._ To quiver; to shake.
Black-pot, _s._ Black-pudding.
Black'ymoor. _s._ A negro.
Blackymoor's-beauty. _s._ Sweet scabious; the musk-flower.
Blanker. _s._ A spark of fire.
Blans'cue. _s._ Misfortune; unexpected accident.
Blather. _s._ Bladder. To blather, _v. n._ To talk fast,
and nonsensically [_to talk so fast that bladders form at the
BleAcchy. _adj._ Brackish; saltish: applied to water.
Blind-buck-and-Davy. _s._ Blind-man's buff. _Blindbuck and
have ye_, is no doubt the origin of this appellation for a
Blis'som. _ad._ Blithesome.
Blood-sucker. _s._ A leech.
Bloody-warrior. _s._ The wall-flower.
Boar. _s._ The peculiar head or first flowing of water from
one to two feet high at spring tides, in the river Parret a few
miles below and at Bridgewater, and in some other rivers.
[In Johnson's Dictionary this is spelt _bore_; I prefer the
above spelling. I believe the word is derived from the animal
_Boar_, from the noise, rushing, and impetuosity of the
water, Todd gives it "a tide swelling above another tide." Writers
vary in their opinions on the causes of this phenomenon. St.
Pierre. Ouvres, tom vi., p. 234, Ed. Hamburgh, 1797, describes it
not exactly the same in the Seine as in the Parret:--"Cette
montagne d'eau est produite par les marA"es qui entrent, de la mer
dans la Seine, et la font refluer contre son cours. On l'appelle
la _Barre_, parce-qu'elle _barre_ le cours de la Seine.
Cette barre est suivA(e d'une seconde barre plus elevA"e, qui la
suit a cent toises de distance. Elles courent beaucoup plus vA(te
qu'un cheval au galop." He says it is called _Bar_, because
it _bars_ the current. In the Encyclop. Metropol., art.
_Bore_, the editor did not seem more fortunate in his
Bobbish. _adj._ In health, and spirits. [_Pirty
bobbish_, pretty well.] Bonk. _s._ Bank.
BooA¤t. _s._ Boat.
BooA¤th. _pron._ Both. "_Boo'A¤th o' ye_; both of you.
Bor'rid. _adj._ A sow is said to be borrid when she wants the
Bote. _part._ Bought.
Bow. _s._ A small arched bridge.
Boy's-love. _s._ Southernwood; a species of mugwort;
Brave. _adj._ Well; recovering.
Bran. _s._ A brand; a stump of a tree, or other irregular and
large piece of wood, fit only for burning.
Bran-viA"r. _s._ A fire made with brands.
Bran'dis. _s._ A semicircular implement of iron, made to be
suspended over the fire, on which various things may be prepared;
it is much used for warming milk.
Brash. _s._ Any sudden development; a crash.
Brick'le, Brick'ly. _adj._ Brittle; easily broken.
Brim'mle. _s._ A bramble.
To Bring gwain. _v. a._ [_To bring going._] To spend; to
accompany some distance on a journey.
To Brit. _v. a._ To indent; to make an impression: applied to
Brock. _s._ An irregular piece of peat dried for fuel; a
piece of turf. _See_ TURF.
Bruck'le, Bruck'ly. _adj._ Not coherent; easily separable:
applied to solid bodies. "My things are but in a bruckle state."
Waverley, v. 2, p. 328, edit. 1821. _See_ BRICKLE.
Bruck'leness. _s._ The state of being bruckle.
To Buck. _v. n._ To swell out.
To Bud'dle. _v._ To suffocate in mud.
To Bulge. _v. a._ To indent; to make an irregular impression
on a solid body; to bruise. It is also used in a neuter sense.
Bulge. _s._ An indentation; an irregular impression made on
some solid body; a swelling outwards or depression inwards.
Bul'len. _adj._ Wanting the bull.
Bul'lins. _s. pl._ Large black sloes; a variety of the wild
Bun'gee. _s._ (g hard), Any thing thick and squat.
Bunt, Bunting, _s._ Bolting cloth.
Bunt. _s._ A bolting-mill.
To Bunt. _v. a._ To separate flour from the bran.
Bur'cot. _s._ A load.
Buss. _s._ A half grown calf.
But. _s._ A conical and peculiar kind of basket or trap used
in large numbers for catching salmon in the river Parret. The term
_but_, would seem to be a generic one, the actual meaning of
which I do not know; it implies, however, some containing vessel
or utensil. _See_ BEE-BUT. _But_, applied to beef,
always means _buttock._
Butter-and-eggs. _s._ A variety of the daffodil.
Bwile. _v._ Boil.
Bwye. _interj._ Bye! adieu. This, as well as _good-bye_
and _good-bwye_, is evidently corrupted from _God be with
you_; God-be-wi' ye, equivalent to the French _A Dieu_, to
God. Bwye, and good-bwye, are, therefore, how vulgar soever they
may seem, more analogous than _bye_ and _good-bye_.
Callyvan'. _s._ A pyramidal trap for catching birds.
Car'riter. _s._ Character.
Cass'n, Cass'n't. Canst not: as, _Thee cass'n do it_, thou
canst not do it.
Catch corner. A game commonly called elsewhere puss in the corner.
Cat'terpillar. _s._ The cockchafer; _Scarabeus
_West_ of the Parret this insect is called _wock-web_,
oak-web, because it infests the _oak_, and spins its web on
it in great numbers.
ChaA-ty. _adj_. Careful; nice; delicate.
To Cham. _v. a._ To chew.
ChAimer. _s._ A chamber.
Change, _s._ A shift; the garment worn by females next the
Chay'er. _s._ A chair; chayer--_Chaucer_.
Chick-a-beedy. _s._ A chick.
'Chill. I will.
Chim'ley. _s._ A chimney.
Chine. _s._ The prominence of the staves beyond the head of a
cask. This word is well known to coopers throughout England, and
ought to be in our dictionaries.
To Chis'som. _v. n._ To bud; to shoot out.
Chis'som. _s._ a small shoot; a budding out.
Chit'terlins. _s. pl._ The frills around the bosom of shirt.
Choor. _s._ A job; any dirty household work; a troublesome
Choor'er, Choor'-woman. _s._ A woman who goes out to do any
kind of odd and dirty work; hence the term _char-woman_ in
our polished dialect; but it ought to be _choor-woman_.
To ChoA ry. _v._ To do any kind of dirty household work.
Chub'by. _adj._ Full, swelling; as _chubby-faced_.
Claps, _s._ A clasp.
To claps, _v. a._ To clasp.
ClAivy and ClAivy-piece. _s._ A mantel-piecce.
[_Clavy_ was probably given to that piece of wood or other
material laid over the front of the fireplace, because in many
houses the keys are often hung on nails or pins driven into it;
hence from _clavis_ (Latin) _a key_, comes _clavy_,
the place where the keys are hung.]
Clavy-tack. _s._ The shelf over [tacked on to] the mantel-
Clear-and-sheer. _adv._ Completely; totally.
Cleve-pink. _s._ A species of Carnation which grows wild in
the crannies of Cheddar-cliffs: a variety of the _Dianthus
deltoides_; it has an elegant smell.
To Clim, to Climmer. _v. a._ To climb; to clamber.
Clin'kers. _s.pl._ Bricks or other earthy matter run into
irregular shapes by action of heat.
Clinker-bell. _s._ An icicle.
Clint. _v.a._ To clench; to finish; to fasten firmly.
Cliver-and-Shiver. _adv._ Completely; totally.
Clit. _v. n._ To be imperfectly fermented: applied to bread.
Clit'ty. _adj._ Imperfectly fermented.
Clize. _s._ A place or drain for the discharge of water
regulated by a valve or door, which permits a free outlet, but no
inlet for return of water.
CoA¤se. _adj._ Coarse.
Coathe. _v. a._ To bane: applied to sheep.
Cob-wall, _s._ Mud-wall; a wall made of clay mixed with
Cockygee. _s._ Cockagee; a rough sour apple.
Cocklawt. _s._ A garret; cock-loft.
Originally, most probably, a place where the fowls roosted.
Cock-squailing. _s._ A barbarous game, consisting in tying a
cock to a stake, and throwing a stick at him from a distance till
he is killed.
Cock-and-Mwile. _s._ A jail.
Col'ley, _s._ A blackbird.
To Collogue, _v. n._ To associate in order to carry out some
improper purpose, as thieves. [Two such rascals _collogue_
together for mischief. Rob Roy, p. 319, ed. 1821.]
Collo'gin. _s._ (g _hard_). An association for some
[Johnson defines it _flattery; wheedling_; which does not
convey the correct meaning.]
Colt-ale, _s._ (Sometimes called _footing_ or foot-ale)
literally ale given, or money paid for ale, by a person entering
on a new employment, to those already in it.
Comforts (comfits.) _s. pl._ Sugared corianders, cinnamon,
Com'ical. _adj._ Odd; singular.
Contraption. _s._ Contrivance; management.
Coop. _interj._ Come up! a word of call to fowls to be fed.
To Cork. _v. a._ Cawk; calk; to set on a horse's shoes sharp
points of iron to prevent slipping on ice.
To Count, _v. n._ To think; to esteem.
Cow-baby, _s._ A coward; a timid person.
To Crap, to Crappy. _v. n._ to snap; to break with a sudden
sound; to crack.
Crap. _s._ A smart sudden sound.
Craup. _preterite_ of creep.
Creem. _s._ Sudden shivering.
CreA(my. _adj._ Affected with sudden shivering.
Creeplin. _part._ Creeping.
Crips. _adj._ Crisp.
Criss-cross-lain. _s._ The alphabet; so called in consequence
of its being formerly preceded in the _horn-book_ by a cross to
remind us of the cross of Christ; hence the term. _Christ-Cross-
line_ came at last to mean nothing more than the alphabet.
Crock, _s._ A bellied pot, of iron or other metal, for
Croom. _s._ A crumb; a small bit.
Crowd-string, _s._ A fiddle-string.
Crowdy-kit. _s._ A small fiddle.
Crow'ner. _s._ A coroner.
To be Crowned. _v. pass._ To have an inquest held over a dead
body by the coroner.
Crowst. _s._ Crust.
Crow'sty. _adj._ Crusty, snappish, surly.
Crub, Crubbin. _s._ Food: particularly bread and cheese.
Cubby-hole. _s_. A snug, confined place.
Cuckold _s._ The plant burdock.
To Cull. _v. n._ To take hold round the neck with the arms.
Cute. _adj._ [Acute] sharp; clever.
Cutty. _adj._ Small; diminutive.
Cutty, Cutty-wren._s._ A wren.
DA`. _s._ Day.
DA yze. Days.
Dad'dick. _s._ Rotten wood.
Dad'dicky. _adj._ Rotten, like daddick.
Dame. _s._ This word is originally French, and means in that
language, _lady_; but in this dialect it means a mistress; an
old woman; and never a lady; nor is it applied to persons in the
upper ranks of society, nor to the very lowest; when we say
_dame_ Hurman, or _dame_ Bennet, we mean the wife of
some farmer; a school-mistress is also sometimes called dame
Dang. _interj._ Generally followed by pronoun, as _dang
it_; _dang AŞm_; _od dang it_: [an imprecation, a
corruption of _God dang it_ (_God hang it_) or more
likely corruption of _damn_.]
Dap, _v. n._ To hop; to rebound.
Dap. _s._ A hop; a turn. _To know the daps of a person_
is, to know his disposition, his habits, his peculiarities.
Dap'ster. _s._ A proficient.
To Daver. _v. n._ To fade; to fall down; to droop.
Dav'ison. _s._ A species of wild plum, superior to the
Daw'zin. _s._ The passing over land with a bent hazel rod,
held in a certain direction, to discover whether veins of metal or
springs are below, is called _Dawzin_, which is still
practised in the mining districts of Somersetshire. There is an
impression among the vulgar, that certain persons only have the
gift of the _divining rod_, as it has been sometimes called;
by the French, _Baguette Devinatoire_.
_Ray_, in his _Catalogus Plantarum AngliA|, &c._, Art.
_Corylus_, speaks of the divining rod: " Vulgus metallicorum
ad virgulam divinum, ut vocant, quAc venas metallorum inquA-rit prA|
cA|teris furcam eligit colurnam." More may be seen in John Bauhin.
Des'perd. _adj._ [Corrupted from desperate.] Very, extremely;
used in a good as well as a bad sense: _desperd good_;
Dewberry, _s._ A species of blackberry.
Dibs. _s. pl._ Money.
Did'dlecome. _adj._ Half-mad; sorely vexed.
Dig'ence. _s._ [g hard, _diggunce_, Dickens] a vulgar
word for the _Devil_.
Dird. _s._ Thread.
Dirsh, _s._ A thrush.
Dirten. _adj._ Made of dirt.
Dock. _s._ A crupper.
Doe. _part._ Done.
To Doff. _v. a._ To put off.
To Don. _v. a._ To put on.
Donnins. _s. pl._ Dress; clothes.
Dough-fig. _s._ A fig; so called, most probably, from its
feeling like _dough_. JUNIUS has _dotefig_: I know not
where he found it. _See_ FIG.
To Dout. _v. a._ To extinguish; to put out.
To Downarg. _v. a._ [To _argue_ one _down_]; to
contradict; to contend with.
Dowst. _s._ Dust; money; _Down wi' tha dowst!_ Put down
Dowsty. _adj._ Dusty.
[_Dr_ used for _thr_ in many words:] as _droo_ for
Draffit. _s._ [I suppose from draught-vat.] A vessel to hold
pot-liquor and other refuse from the kitchen for pigs.
Drang. _s._ A narrow path.
To Drash. _v. a._ To thresh.
Dras'hel. _s._ The threshold; a flail.
Dras'her. _s._ A thresher.
Drauve. _s._ A drove, or road to fields.
Drawt. _s._ Throat.
To Drean. _v. n._ To drawl in reading or speaking.
Drean. _s._ A drawling in reading or speaking.
Dreaten. _v._ Threaten.
Dree. _a._ Three.
To Dring. _v. n._ To throng; to press, as in a crowd; to
Dring'et. _s._ A crowd; a throng.
To Droa. _v. a._ To throw.
Drob. _v._ Rob.
Drode (_throw'd_). _part._ Threw, thrown.
Droo. _prep._ Through.
To drool. _v. n._ To drivel.
To Drow. _v. n., v. a._ To dry.
_The hay do'nt drowy at all._ See the observations which
precede this vocabulary.
Drowth. _s._ Dryness; thirst.
Drow'thy. _adj._ Dry; thirsty.
Drove. _s._ A road leading to fields, and sometimes from one
village to another. Derived from its being a way along which
cattle are driven. RAY uses the word in his _Catalogus Plantorum
AngliA|, &c._, Art. _Chondrilla_.
To Drub. _v. n., v. a._ To throb; to beat.
Drubbin. _s._ A beating.
To Druck. _v. a._ To thrust down; to cram; to press.
Dub, Dub'bed, Dub'by. _adj._ Blunt; not pointed; squat.
Dub'bin. _s._ Suet.
Duck-an-Mallard. _s._ (Duck and Drake) a play of throwing
slates or flat stones horizontally along the water so as to skim
the surface and rise several times before they sink. _"Hen pen,
To Dud'der. _v. a._ To deafen with noise; to render the head
Duds. _s. pl._ Dirty cloaths.
Dum'bledore. _s._ A humble-bee; a stupid fellow.
Dunch, (Dunce?). _adj._ Deaf.
As a deaf person is very often, apparently at least, stupid; a
stupid, intractable person is, therefore, called a DUNCE: one who
is deaf and intractable. What now becomes of _Duns Scotus_,
and all the rest of the recondite observations bestowed upon
I have no doubt that _Dunch_ is Anglo-Saxon, although I
cannot find it in any of our old dictionaries, except Bailey's.
But it ought not to be forgotten, that many words are floating
about which are being arrested by our etymologists in the present
advancing age of investigation.
Durns. _s. pl._ A door-frame.
Dwon't, Dwon. _v._ (Don't) do not.
Eake. _adv._ Also.
Ear-wrig. _s._ Earwig.
This word ought to be spelled _Earwrig_, as it is derived,
doubtless, from wriggle. See WRIGGLE.
Eese. _adv._ Yes.
Eet. _adv._ Yet.
El'men. _adj._ Of or belonging to elm; made of elm.
El'ver. _s._ A young eel.
Em'mers. _s. pl._ Embers.
Emmet-batch, _s._ An ant-hill.
To Empt. _v.a._ To empty.
En. _pron._Him; _a zid en_; he saw him.
Er. _pron._ He. [Used West of the Parret.]
Eth. _s._ Earth.
To Eve. _v.n._ To become damp; to absorb moisture from the
Evet. _s._ A lizard.
Ex. _s._ An axle.
Fags! _interj._ Truly; indeed.
Fayer. _s._ and _adj._ Fair.
To Fell. _v.a._ To sew in a particular manner; to inseam.
This word is well known to the ladies, I believe, all over the
kingdom; it ought to be in our dictionaries.
Fes'ter. _s._ An inflammatory tumour.
Few, Veo. _adj._ More commonly pronounced _veo_. Little;
as a _few broth_.
Fig. _s._ A raisin.
Figged-pudding. _s._ a pudding with raisins in it; plum-
FildA"fare. _s._ A Fieldfare. "Farewell fieldA"fare."
_Chaucer_. Meaning that, as fieldfares disappear at a
particular season, _the season is over_, _the bird is
Fil'try. _s._ Filth; nastiness; rubbish.
Firnd. _v._ To find.
Firnd. _s._ Friend.
Fitch, Fitchet. _s._ A pole-cat. _As cross as a
Fit'ten, Vit'ten. _s._ A feint; a pretence.
Flap-jack. _s._ A fried cake made of batter, apples, &c.; a
To Flick. _v.a._ To pull out suddenly with some pointed
Flick-tooth-comb. _s._ A comb with coarse teeth for combing
Flick. _s._ The membrane loaded with fat, in the bellies of
animals: a term used by butchers.
Flook. _s._ An animal found in the liver of sheep, similar in
shape to a flook or flounder.
Flush. _adj._ Fledged; able to fly: (applied to young birds.)
FooA¤se. _s._ Force. See VooA¤se.
To FooA¤se. _v.a._ To force.
Foo'ter. _s._ [Fr. _foutre_] A scurvy fellow; a term of
Foo'ty. _adj._ Insignificant; paltry; of no account.
For'rel. _s._ the cover of a book.
Forweend'. _adj._ Humoursome; difficult to please: (applied
Fout. _preterite._ of to fight.
French-nut. _s._ A walnut.
To Frump. _v.a._ To trump up.
To Frunt. _v.a._ To affront.
To Fur. _v.a._ To throw.
Fur'cum. _s._ The bottom: the whole.
Fur'nis. _s._ A large vessel or boiler, used for brewing, and
other purposes; fixed with bricks and mortar, and surrounded with
flues, for the circulation of heat, and exit of smoke.
Gaern. _s._ A garden.
Gale. _s._ An old bull castrated.
Gal'libagger. _s._ [From _gally_ and _beggar_] A
Gal'lise. _s._ The gallows.
Gallid. _adj._ Frightened.
To Gal'ly. _v. a._ To frighten.
Gallant'ing, Galligant'ing. _part._ Wandering about in gaiety
and enjoyment: applied chiefly to associations of the sexes.
Gam'bril. _s._ A crooked piece of wood used by butchers to
spread, and by which to suspend the carcase.
Gan'ny-cock. _s._ A turkey-cock.
Ganny-cock's Snob. _s._ The long membranous appendage at the
beak, by which the cock-turkey is distinguished.
Gare. _s._ The iron work for wheels, waggons, &c., is called
Gate-shord. _s._ A gate-way; a place for a gate.
Gat'fer. _s._ An old man.
Gaw'cum. _s._ A simpleton; a gawkey.
Gawl-cup. _s._ Gold cup.
To Gee. _v.n._ [g soft] To agree; to go on well together.
To Gee. _v.n._ [g hard; part, and past tense, _gid_.] To
give. _Gee_ often includes the pronoun, thus, "I'll gee"
means I'll give you; the _gee_, and _ye_ for _you_,
combining into _gee_.
To G'auf. _v.n._ To go off.
To G'auver. _v.n._ To go over.
To G'in. _v.n._ To go in.
To G'on. _v.n._ To go on.
To G'out. _v.n._ To go out.
To G'under. _v.n._ To go under,
To G'up. _v.n._ To go up.
Gib'bol. _s._ [g soft] The sprout of an onion of the second
Gid. _pret. v._ Gave.
Gifts. _s.pl._ The white spots frequently seen on the finger
Gig'letin. _adj._ Wanton; trifling; applied to the female
Gil'awfer. _s._ A term applied to all the kinds of flowers
termed _stocks_; and also to a few others: as a
_Whitsuntide gilawfer_, a species of _Lychnidea_.
Gim'mace. _s._ A hinge.
Gim'maces. _s. pl._ When a criminal is gibbeted, or hung in
irons or chains, he is said to be hung in _Gimmaces_, most
probably because the apparatus swings about as if on hinges.
Ginnin. _s._ Beginning.
Girnin. _part._ Grinning.
Girt. _adj._ Great.
Gird'l. Contracted from _great deal_; as, gird'l o' work;
great deal of work.
To Glare. _v. a._ To glaze earthenware.
Glare. _s._ The glaze of earthenware.
G'lore. _adv._ In plenty.
This word, without the apostrophe, _Glore_, is to be found in
Todd's Johnson, and there defined _fat_. The true meaning is,
I doubt not, as above; _fat g'lore_, is _fat in plenty_.
Gold. _s._ The shrub called sweet-willow or wild myrtle;
This plant grows only in peat soils; it is abundant in the boggy
moors of Somersetshire; it has a powerful and fragrant smell.
Gold-cup. _s._ A species of crow-foot, or ranunculus, growing
plentifully in pastures; _ranunculus pratensis._
To Goo. _v. n._ [_Gwain_, going; _gwon_, gone.] To
Gookoo. _s._ Cookoo.
Goo'ner. _interj._ Goodnow!
Good'-Hussey. _s._ A thread-case.
Goose-cap. _s._ A silly person.
Graint'ed. _adj._ Fixed in the grain; difficult to be
Gram'fer. _s._ Grandfather.
Gram'mer. _s._ Grandmother.
To Gree. _v. n._ To agree.
Gribble. _s._ A young apple-tree raised from seed.
To Gripe, _v. a._ To cut into gripes. See GRIPE.
Gripe. _s._ [from Dutch, _groep_.] A small drain, or
ditch, about a foot deep, and six or eight inches wide.
In English Dictionaries spelled _grip_.
Griping-line. _s._ A line to direct the spade in cutting
Groan'in. _s._ Parturition; the time at which a woman is in
Ground, _s._ A field.
Gro'zens. _s. pl._ The green minute round-leaved plants
growing upon the surface of water in ditches; duck's-meat; the
_Lens palustris_ of Ray.
Gruff. _s._ A mine.
Gruf'fer. Gruf'fier. _s._ A miner.
To Gud'dle. _v. n._ To drink much and greedily.
Gud'dler. _s._ A greedy drinker; one who is fond of liquor.
To Gulch, _v. n._ To swallow greedily.
Gulch. _s._ A sudden swallowing.
Gump'tion. _s._ Contrivance; common sense.
Gum'py. _adj._ Abounding in protuberances.
Gurds. _s. pl._ Eructations. [By _Fits and gurds._]
Guss. _s._ A girth.
To Guss. _v. a._ To girth.
Gwain. _part._ Going.
Gwon. _part._ Gone.
Hack. _s._ The place whereon bricks newly made are arranged
To Hain. _v. a._ To exclude cattle from a field in order that
the grass may grow, so that it may be mowed.
Hal'lantide. _s._ All Saints' day.
Ham. _s._ A pasture generally rich, and also unsheltered,
applied only to level land.
Hame. _sing._, Hames. _pl._ _s._ Two moveable
pieces of wood or iron fastened upon the collar, with suitable
appendages for attaching a horse to the shafts. Called sometimes
_a pair of hames_.
Han'dy. _adv._ Near, adjoining.
Hang-gallise. _adj._ Deserving the gallows, felonious, vile;
as, _a hang-gallise fellow_.
Hange. _s._ The heart, liver, lungs, &c., of a pig, calf, or
Hang'kicher. _s._ Handkerchief.
Hangles. _s. pl._ A _pair of hangles_ is the iron crook,
&c., composed of teeth, and hung over the fire, to be moved up and
down at pleasure for the purpose of cookery, &c.
To Happer. _v. n._ To crackle; to make repeated smart noises.
To Haps. _v. a._ To Hasp.
Haps. _s._ A hasp.
Hard. _adj._ Full grown. _Hard people_, adults.
Harm. _s._ Any contagious or epidemic disease not
distinguished by a specific name.
Har'ras. _s._ Harvest.
Hart. _s._ A haft; a handle.
Applied to such instruments as knives, awls, etc.
Hathe. _s. To be in a hathe_, is to be set thick and close
like the pustules of the small-pox or other eruptive disease; to
be matted closely together.
To Have. _v. n._ To behave.
Haw. See _ho_.
Hay-maidens. _s. pl._ Ground ivy.
Hay'ty-tay'ty, Highty-tity. _interj._ What's here! _s._
[height and tite, weight]. A board or pole, balanced in the middle
on some prop, so that two persons, one sitting at each end, may
move up and down in turn by striking the ground with the feet.
Sometimes called _Tayty_ [See-saw].
In Hay'digees. [g soft] _adv._ To be in high spirits; to be
HeA¤t _s._ Pronounced He-at, dissyllable, heat.
Hea'ram-skearam. _adj._ Wild; romantic.
To Heel, _v. a._ To hide; to cover. Chaucer, "_hele_."
Hence, no doubt, the origin of _to heal_, to cure, as applied
to wounds; _to cover over_.
Heeler, _s._ One who hides or covers. Hence the very common
expression, _The healer is as bad as the stealer_; that is,
the receiver is as bad as the thief.
Heft. _s._ Weight.
To Hell. _v. a._ To pour.
Hel'lier. _s._ A person who lays on the tiles of a roof; a
tiler. A Devonshire word.
Helm. _s._ Wheat straw prepared for thatching.
To Hen. _v. a._ To throw.
To Hent. _v. n._ To wither; to become slightly dry.
Herd _s._ A keeper of cattle.
Hereawa, Hereaway. _adv._ Hereabout.
Herence. _adv._ From this place; hence.
Hereright. _adv._ Directly; in this place.
Het. _pron._ It. _Het o'nt_, it will not.
To Het. _v. a._ To hit, to strike; _part._ _het_
To Hick. _v.n._ To hop on one leg.
Hick. _s._ A hop on one leg.
_Hick-step and jump._ Hop-step and jump. A well known
To Hike of. _v. n._ To go away; to go off. Used generally in
a bad sense.
Hine. _adj._ (Hind) Posterior; relating to the back part.
Used only in composition, as, a _hine_ quarter.
To Hire tell. _v. n._ To hear tell; to learn by report; to be
Hip'pety-hoppety. _adv._ In a limping and hobbling manner.
Hirches. _s._ riches.
Hir'd. _v._ [i long] heard.
To Him. _v. n._ [_hirnd_, pret, and part.] To run.
To Hitch, _v. n._ To become entangled or hooked together; to
hitch up, to hang up or be suspended. _See the next word._
To Hitch up. _v. a._ To suspend or attach slightly or
The following will exemplify the active meaning of this verb:
Sir Strut, for so the witling throng
Oft called him when at school,
And _hitch'd_ him _up_ in many a song
To sport and ridicule.
Hiz'en. Used for _his_ when not followed by a substantive,
as, whose house is that? _Hiz'en._ [His own].
Hi'zy Pi'zy. A corruption of _Nisi Prius_, a well known law
To Ho for, To Haw vor. _v. a._ To provide for; to take care
of; to desire; to wish for.
Hob'blers. _s. pl._ Men employed in towing vessels by a rope
on the land.
Hod. _s._ A sheath or covering; perhaps from _hood_.
Hog. _s._ A sheep one year old.
To Hoke. _v. a._ To wound with horns; to gore.
Hod'medod. _adj._ Short; squat.
Hollar. _adj._ Hollow.
To Hollar. _v. a._ To halloo.
Hollar. _s._ A halloo.
Hol'lardy. _s._ A holiday.
Hollardy-day. _s._ Holy-rood day; the third of May.
Hollabeloo'. _s._ A noise; confusion; riot.
Hol'men. _adj._ Made of holm.
Holt. _interj._ Hold; stop. _Holt-a-blow_, give over
Ho'mescreech. _s._ A bird which builds chiefly in apple-
trees; I believe it is the _Turdus viscivorus,_ or missel.
Hon. _s._ hand.
Honey-suck, Honey-suckle. _s._ The wodbine.
Honey-suckle. _s._ Red Clover.
Hoo'say. _See_ WHOSAY.
Hoop. _s._ A bullfinch.
Hor'nen. _adj._ Made of horn.
Hornen-book. _s._ Hornbook.
Horse-stinger. _s_ The dragon-fly.
Hoss. _s._ horse.
Hoss-plAcs _s. pl._ Horse-plays; rough sports.
Houzen. _s. pl._ Houses.
Howsomiver. _adv._ However; howsoever.
Huck'muck. _s._ A strainer placed before the faucet in the
Hud. _s._ A hull, or husk.
Huf. _s_ A hoof.
Huf-cap _s._ A plant, or rather weed, found in fields, and
with difficulty eradicated.
I regret that I cannot identify this plant with any known
Graced with _huff-cap_ terms and thundering threats,
That his poor hearers' hair quite upright sets.
_Bp. Hall, Book_ I, _Sat._ iii.
Some editor of Hall has endeavoured to explain the term huff-cap
by _blustering, swaggering._ I think it simply means
Hug. _s._ The itch. _See_ SHAB (applied to brutes. )
Hug-water. _s._ Water to cure the hug. _See_ SHAB.
To Hul'der. _v. a._ To hide; conceal.
Hul'ly. _s._ A peculiarly shaped long wicker trap used for
To Hulve. _v. a._ To turn over; to turn upside down.
Hum'drum. _s._ A small low three-wheeled cart, drawn usually
by one horse: used occasionally in agriculture.
From the peculiarity of its construction, it makes a kind of
humming noise when it is drawn along; hence, the origin of the
Hunt-the-slipper. _s._ A well-known play.
I. _ad._ Yes; _I, I_, yes, yes; most probably a corrupt
pronunciation of _ay._
Inin. _s._ Onion.
Ire. _s._ Iron.
Ire-gare. _s. See_ GARE.
Ise. _pron._ I. _See_ UTCHY, [West of the Parret].
Ist. [i long]. _s._ East.
Istard. [i long]. _adv._ Eastward.
It. _adv._ Yet, [pronouced both _it_ and _eet>]. see
Jack-in-the-Lanthorn, Joan-in-the-Wad. _s._ The meteor
usually called a _Will with the Wisp_.
Ignis Fatuus.--Arising from ignition of phosphorus from rotten
leaves and decayed vegetable matters.
Jaunders. _s._ The jaundice.
To Jee. _v. n._ To go on well together; _see_ To GEE.
Jif'fey. _s._ A short time: an instant.
Jist. _adv._ Just.
Jitch, Jitchy. _adj._ Such.
Jod. _s._ The letter J.
Jorum. _s._ A large jug, bowl, &c., full of something to be
eaten or drank.
To Jot. _v. a._ To disturb in writing; to strike the elbow.
The sound K is often displaced by substituting _qu_, as for
coat, corn, corner, cost; _quoat_ or (_quA"t_) _quoin,
Keck'er. _s._ The windpipe; the trachea.
Keep. _s._ A basket, applied only to large baskets.
To Keeve. _v. a._ To put the wort in a keeve for some time to
Keeve. _s._ A large tub or vessel used in brewing. A mashing-
tub is sometimes called a _keeve_.
Kef'fel. _s._ A bad and worn out horse.
To Kern. _v. n._ To turn from blossom to fruit: the process
of turning from blossom to fruit is called _kerning_.
Kex, Kexy. _s._ The dry stalks of some plants, such as Cows-