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The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin

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Squilla, different colours of the sexes of a species of.

Squirrels, battles of male;
African, sexual differences in the colouring of;

Stag, long hairs of the throat of;
horns of the;
battles of;
horns of the, with numerous branches;
bellowing of the;
crest of the.

Stag-beetle, numerical proportion of sexes of;
use of jaws;
large size of male;
weapons of the male.

Stainton, H.T., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the smaller
habits of Elachista rufocinerea;
on the coloration of moths;
on the rejection of Spilosoma menthastri by turkeys;
on the sexes of Agrotis exclamationis.

Staley, Bishop, mortality of infant Maories.

Stallion, mane of the.

Stallions, two, attacking a third;
small canine teeth of.

Stansbury, Captain, observations on pelicans.

Staphylinidae, hornlike processes in male.

Starfishes, parental feeling in;
bright colours of some.

Stark, Dr., on the death-rate in towns and rural districts;
on the influence of marriage on mortality;
on the higher mortality of males in Scotland.

Starling, American field-, pugnacity of male.

Starling, red-winged, selection of a mate by the female.

Starlings, three, frequenting the same nest;
new mates found by.

Statues, Greek, Egyptian, Assyrian, etc., contrasted.

Stature, dependence of, upon local influences.

Staudinger, Dr., on breeding Lepidoptera;
his list of Lepidoptera.

Staunton, Sir G., hatred of indecency a modern virtue.

Stealing of bright objects by birds.

Stebbing, T.R., on the nakedness of the human body.


Stendhal, see Bombet.

Stenobothrus pratorum, stridulation.

Stephen, Mr. L., on the difference in the minds of men and animals;
on general concepts in animals;
distinction between material and formal morality.

Sterility, general, of sole daughters;
when crossed, a distinctive character of species;
under changed conditions.

Sterna, seasonal change of plumage in.

Stickleback, polygamous;
male, courtship of the;
male, brilliant colouring of, during the breeding season;
nidification of the.

Sticks used as implements and weapons by monkeys.

Sting in bees.

Stokes, Captain, on the habits of the great bower-bird.

Stoliczka, Dr., on colours in snakes.

Stoliczka, on the pre-anal pores of lizards.

Stonechat, young of the.

Stone implements, difficulty of making;
as traces of extinct tribes.

Stones, used by monkeys for breaking hard fruits and as missiles;
piles of.

Stork, black, sexual differences in the bronchi of the;
red beak of the.

Storks, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes of.

Strange, Mr., on the satin bowerbird.

Strepsiceros kudu, horns of;
markings of.

Stretch, Mr., on the numerical proportion in the sexes of chickens.

Stridulation, by males of Theridion;
of Hemiptera;
of the Orthoptera and Homoptera discussed;
of beetles.

Stripes, retained throughout groups of birds;
disappearance of, in adult mammals.

Strix flammea.

Structure, existence of unserviceable modifications of.

Struggle for existence, in man.

Struthers, Dr., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the
humerus of man.

Sturnella ludoviciana, pugnacity of the male.

Sturnus vulgaris.


Suffering, in strangers, indifference of savages to.

Suicide, formerly not regarded as a crime;
rarely practised among the lowest savages.

Suidae, stripes of the young.

Sulivan, Sir B.J., on speaking of parrots;
on two stallions attacking a third.

Sumatra, compression of the nose by the Malays of.

Sumner, Archb., man alone capable of progressive improvement.

Sun-birds, nidification of.

Superciliary ridge in man.

Supernumerary digits, more frequent in men than in women;
inheritance of;
early development of.

Superstitions, prevalence of.

Superstitious customs.

Supra-condyloid foramen in the early progenitors of man.

Suspicion, prevalence of, among animals.

Swallow-tail butterfly.

Swallows deserting their young.

Swan, black, wild, trachea of the;
white, young of;
red beak of the;

Swans, young.

Swaysland, Mr., on the arrival of migratory birds.

Swifts, migration of.

Swinhoe, R., on the common rat in Formosa and China;
behaviour of lizards when caught;
on the sounds produced by the male hoopoe;
on Dicrurus macrocercus and the spoonbill;
on the young of Ardeola;
on the habits of Turnix;
on the habits of Rhynchaea bengalensis;
on Orioles breeding in immature plumage.

Sylvia atricapilla, young of.

Sylvia cinerea, aerial love-dance of the male.

Sympathy, among animals;
its supposed basis.

Sympathies, gradual widening of.

Syngnathous fishes, abdominal pouch in male.

Sypheotides auritus, acuminated primaries of the male;
ear-tufts of.

Tabanidae, habits of.

Tadorna variegata, sexes and young of.

Tadorna vulpanser.

Tahitians, compression of the nose by the.

Tail, rudimentary, occurrence of, in man;
convoluted body in the extremity of the;
absence of, in man and the higher apes;
variability of, in species of Macacus and in baboons;
presence of, in the early progenitors of man;
length of, in pheasants;
difference of length of the, in the two sexes of birds.

Tait, Lawson, on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations.

Tanager, scarlet, variation in the male.

Tanagra aestiva, age of mature plumage in.

Tanagra rubra, young of.

Tanais, absence of mouth in the males of some species of;
relations of the sexes in;
dimorphic males of a species of.

Tankerville, Earl, on the battles of wild bulls.

Tanysiptera, races of, determined from adult males.

Tanysiptera sylvia, long tail-feathers of.

Taphroderes distortus, enlarged left mandible of the male.

Tapirs, longitudinal stripes of young.

Tarsi, dilatation of front, in male beetles.


Tasmania, half-castes killed by the natives of.

Tasmanians, extinction of.

Taste, in the Quadrumana.

Tattooing, universality of.

Taylor, G., on Quiscalus major.

Taylor, Rev. R., on tattooing in New Zealand.

Tea, fondness of monkeys for.

Teal, constancy of.

Tear-sacs, of Ruminants.

Teebay, Mr., on changes of plumage in spangled Hamburg fowls.

Teeth, rudimentary incisor, in Ruminants;
posterior molar, in man;
diversity of;
canine, in the early progenitors of man;
canine, of male mammals;
in man, reduced by correlation;
staining of the;
front, knocked out or filed by some savages.

Tegetmeier, Mr., on the transmission of colours in pigeons by one sex
numerical proportion of male and female births in dogs;
on the abundance of male pigeons;
on the wattles of game-cocks;
on the courtship of fowls;
on the loves of pigeons;
on dyed pigeons;
blue dragon pigeons.

Tembeta, S. American ornament.

Temper, in dogs and horses, inherited.

Tench, proportions of the sexes in the;
brightness of male, during breeding season.

Tenebrionidae, stridulation of.

Tennent, Sir J.E., on the tusks of the Ceylon Elephant;
on the frequent absence of beard in the natives of Ceylon;
on the Chinese opinion of the aspect of the Cingalese.

Tennyson, A., on the control of thought.

Tenthredinidae, proportions of the sexes in;
fighting habits of male;
difference of the sexes in.

Tephrodornis, young of.

Terai, in India.

Termites, habits of.

Terns, white;
and black.

Terns, seasonal change of plumage in.

Terror, common action of, upon the lower animals and man.

Testudo elegans.

Testudo nigra.

Tetrao cupido, battles of;
sexual difference in the vocal organs of.

Tetrao phasianellus, dances of;
duration of dances of.

Tetrao scoticus.

Tetrao tetrix, pugnacity of the male.

Tetrao umbellus, pairing of;
battles of;
drumming of the male.

Tetrao urogalloides, dances of.

Tetrao urogallus, pugnacity of the male.

Tetrao urophasianus, inflation of the oesophagus in the male.

Thamnobia, young of.

Thecla, sexual differences of colouring in species of.

Thecla rubi, protective colouring of.

Thecophora fovea.

Theognis, selection in mankind.

Theridion, stridulation of males of.

Theridion lineatum.

Thomisus citreus, and Thomisus floricolens, difference of colour in the
sexes of.

Thompson, J.H., on the battles of sperm-whales.

Thompson, W., on the colouring of the male char during the breeding season;
on the pugnacity of the males of Gallinula chloropus;
on the finding of new mates by magpies;
on the finding of new mates by Peregrine falcons.

Thorax, processes of, in male beetles.

Thorell, T., on the proportion of sexes in spiders.

Thornback, difference in the teeth of the two sexes of the.

Thoughts, control of.

Thrush, pairing with a blackbird;
colours and nidification of the.

Thrushes, characters of young.

Thug, remorse of a.

Thumb, absence of, in Ateles and Hylobates.

Thury, M., on the numerical proportion of male and female births among the

Thylacinus, possession of the marsupial sac by the male.


Tibia, dilated, of the male Crabro cribrarius.

Tibia and femur, proportions of, in the Aymara Indians.

Tierra del Fuego, marriage-customs of.

Tiger, colours and markings of the.

Tigers, depopulation of districts by, in India.

Tillus elongatus, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Timidity, variability of, in the same species.

Tinca vulgaris.

Tipula, pugnacity of male.

Tits, sexual difference of colour in.

Toads, male, treatment of ova by some;
male, ready to breed before the female.

Todas, infanticide and proportion of sexes;
practice polyandry;
choice of husbands amongst.

Toe, great, condition of, in the human embryo.

Tomicus villosus, proportion of the sexes in.

Tomtit, blue, sexual difference of colour in the.

Tonga Islands, beardlessness of the natives of.

Tooke, Horne, on language.

Tools, flint;
used by monkeys;
use of.

Topknots in birds.

Tortoise, voice of the male.

Tortures, submitted to by American savages.

Totanus, double moult in.

Toucans, colours and nidification of the;
beaks and ceres of the.

Towns, residence in, a cause of diminished stature.

Toynbee, J., on the external shell of the ear in man.

Trachea, convoluted and imbedded in the sternum, in some birds;
structure of the, in Rhynchaea.

Trades, affecting the form of the skull.

Tragelaphus, sexual differences of colour in.

Tragelaphus scriptus, dorsal crest of;
markings of.

Tragopan, swelling of the wattles of the male, during courtship;
display of plumage by the male;
marking of the sexes of the.

Tragops dispar, sexual difference in the colour of.

Training, effect of, on the mental difference between the sexes of man.

Transfer of male characters to female birds.

Transmission, equal, of ornamental characters, to both sexes in mammals.

Traps, avoidance of, by animals;
use of.

Treachery, to comrades, avoidance of, by savages.

Tremex columbae.

Tribes, extinct;
extinction of.

Trichius, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.


Trigonocephalus, noise made by tail of.

Trimen, R., on the proportion of the sexes in South African butterflies;
on the attraction of males by the female Lasiocampa quercus;
on Pneumora;
on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles;
on moths brilliantly coloured beneath;
on mimicry in butterflies;
on Gynanisa Isis, and on the ocellated spots of Lepidoptera;
on Cyllo Leda.

Tringa, sexes and young of.

Tringa cornuta.

Triphaena, coloration of the species of.

Tristram, H.B., on unhealthy districts in North Africa;
on the habits of the chaffinch in Palestine;
on the birds of the Sahara;
on the animals inhabiting the Sahara.

Triton cristatus.

Triton palmipes.

Triton punctatus.

Troglodyte skulls, greater than those of modern Frenchmen.

Troglodytes vulgaris.

Trogons, colours and nidification of the.

Tropic-birds, white only when mature.

Tropics, freshwater fishes of the.

Trout, proportion of the sexes in;
male, pugnacity of the.

Trox sabulosus, stridulation of.

Truth, not rare between members of the same tribe;
more highly appreciated by certain tribes.

Tulloch, Major, on the immunity of the negro from certain fevers.

Tumbler, almond, change of plumage in the.

Turdus merula, young of.

Turdus migratorius.

Turdus musicus.

Turdus polyglottus, young of.

Turdus torquatus.

Turkey, wild, pugnacity of young male;
wild, notes of the;
swelling of the wattles of the male;
variety of, with a top-knot;
recognition of a dog by a;
male, wild, acceptable to domesticated females;
wild, first advances made by older females;
wild, breast-tuft of bristles of the.

Turkey-cock, scraping of the wings of, upon the ground;
wild, display of plumage by;
fighting habits of.

Turner, Prof. W., on muscular fasciculi in man referable to the panniculus
on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the human humerus;
on muscles attached to the coccyx in man;
on the filum terminale in man;
on the variability of the muscles;
on abnormal conditions of the human uterus;
on the development of the mammary glands;
on male fishes hatching ova in their mouths;
on the external perpendicular fissure of the brain;
on the bridging convolutions in the brain of a chimpanzee.

Turnix, sexes of some species of.

Turtle-dove, cooing of the.

Tuttle, H., on the number of species of man.

Tylor, E.B., on emotional cries, gestures, etc., of man;
on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies;
remorse for violation of tribal usage in marrying;
on the primitive barbarism of civilised nations;
on the origin of counting;
inventions of savages;
on resemblances, of the mental characters in different races of man.

Type of structure, prevalence of.

Typhaeus, stridulating organs of;
stridulation of.

Twins, tendency to produce, hereditary.

Twite, proportion of the sexes in.

Ugliness, said to consist in an approach to the lower animals.


Umbrina, sounds produced by.

United States, rate of increase in;
influence of natural selection on the progress of;
change undergone by Europeans in the.

Upupa epops, sounds produced by the male.

Uraniidae, coloration of the.

Uria troile, variety of (=U. lacrymans).


Urosticte Benjamini, sexual differences in.

Use and disuse of parts, effects of;
influence of, on the races of man.

Uterus, reversion in the;
more or less divided, in the human subject;
double, in the early progenitors of man.

Vaccination, influence of.

Vancouver Island, Mr. Sproat on the savages of;
natives of, eradication of facial hair by the.

Vanellus cristatus, wing tubercles of the male.

Vanessae, resemblance of lower surface of, to bark of trees.

Variability, causes of;
in man, analogous to that in the lower animals;
of the races of man;
greater in men than in women;
period of, relation of the, to sexual selection;
of birds;
of secondary sexual characters in man.

Variation, laws of;
in man;
analogous, in plumage of birds.

Variations, spontaneous.

Varieties, absence of, between two species, evidence of their distinctness.

Variety, an object in nature.

Variola, communicable between man and the lower animals.

Vaureal, human bones from.

Veddahs, monogamous habits of.

Veitch, Mr., on the aversion of Japanese ladies to whiskers.

Vengeance, instinct of.

Venus Erycina, priestesses of.


Vermiform appendage.

Verreaux, M., on the attraction of numerous males by the female of an
Australian Bombyx.

Vertebrae, caudal, number of in macaques and baboons;
of monkeys, partly imbedded in the body.

Vertebrata, common origin of the;
most ancient progenitors of;
origin of the voice in air-breathing.

Vesicula prostatica, the homologue of the uterus.

Vibrissae, represented by long hairs in the eyebrows.


Vidua axillaris.

Villerme, M., on the influence of plenty upon stature.

Vinson, Aug., courtship of male spider;
on the male of Epeira nigra.

Viper, difference of the sexes in the.

Virey, on the number of species of man.

Virtues, originally social only;
gradual appreciation of.

Viscera, variability of, in man.

Vlacovich, Prof., on the ischio-pubic muscle.

Vocal music of birds.

Vocal organs of man;
of birds;
of frogs;
of the Insessores;
difference of, in the sexes of birds;
primarily used in relation to the propagation of the species.

Vogt, Karl, on the origin of species;
on the origin of man;
on the semilunar fold in man;
on microcephalous idiots;
on the imitative faculties of microcephalous idiots;
on skulls from Brazilian caves;
on the evolution of the races of man;
on the formation of the skull in women;
on the Ainos and negroes;
on the increased cranial difference of the sexes in man with race
on the obliquity of the eye in the Chinese and Japanese.

Voice in mammals;
in monkeys and man;
in man;
origin of, in air-breathing vertebrates.

Von Baer, see Baer.

Vulpian, Prof., on the resemblance between the brains of man and the higher

Vultures, selection of a mate by the female;
colours of.

Waders, young of.

Wagner, R., on the occurrence of the diastema in a Kaffir skull;
on the bronchi of the black stork.

Wagtail, Ray's, arrival of the male before the female.

Wagtails, Indian, young of.

Waist, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors.

Waitz, Prof., on the number of species of man;
on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold
on the colour of Australian infants;
on the beardlessness of negroes;
on the fondness of mankind for ornaments;
on negro ideas of female beauty;
on Javan and Cochin Chinese ideas of beauty.

Waldeyer, M., on the hermaphroditism of the vertebrate embryo.

Wales, North, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Walkenaer and Gervais, spider attracted by music;
on the Myriapoda.

Walker, Alex., on the large size of the hands of labourers' children.

Walker, F., on sexual differences in the diptera.

Wallace, Dr. A., on the prehensile use of the tarsi in male moths;
on the rearing of the Ailanthus silkmoth;
on breeding Lepidoptera;
proportion of sexes of Bombyx cynthia, B. yamamai, and B. Pernyi reared by;
on the development of Bombyx cynthia and B. yamamai;
on the pairing of Bombyx cynthia.

Wallace, A.R., on the origin of man;
on the power of imitation in man;
on the use of missiles by the orang;
on the varying appreciation of truth among different tribes;
on the limits of natural selection in man;
on the occurrence of remorse among savages;
on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations;
on the use of the convergence of the hair at the elbow in the orang;
on the contrast in the characters of the Malays and Papuans;
on the line of separation between the Papuans and Malays;
on the birds of paradise;
on the sexes of Ornithoptera Croesus;
on protective resemblances;
on the relative sizes of the sexes of insects;
on Elaphomyia;
on the pugnacity of the males of Leptorhynchus angustatus;
on sounds produced by Euchirus longimanus;
on the colours of Diadema;
on Kallima;
on the protective colouring of moths;
on bright coloration as protective in butterflies;
on variability in the Papilionidae;
on male and female butterflies, inhabiting different stations;
on the protective nature of the dull colouring of female butterflies;
on mimicry in butterflies;
on the bright colours of caterpillars;
on brightly-coloured fishes frequenting reefs;
on the coral snakes;
on Paradisea apoda;
on the display of plumage by male birds of paradise;
on assemblies of birds of paradise;
on the instability of the ocellated spots in Hipparchia Janira;
on sexually limited inheritance;
on the sexual coloration of birds;
on the relation between the colours and nidification of birds;
on the coloration of the Cotingidae;
on the females of Paradisea apoda and papuana;
on the incubation of the cassowary;
on protective coloration in birds;
on the Babirusa;
on the markings of the tiger;
on the beards of the Papuans;
on the hair of the Papuans;
on the distribution of hair on the human body.

Walrus, development of the nictitating membrane in the;
tusks of the;
use of the tusks by the.

Walsh, B.D., on the proportion of the sexes in Papilio Turnus;
on the Cynipidae and Cecidomyidae;
on the jaws of Ammophila;
on Corydalis cornutus;
on the prehensile organs of male insects;
on the antennae of Penthe;
on the caudal appendages of dragonflies;
on Platyphyllum concavum;
on the sexes of the Ephemeridae;
on the difference of colour in the sexes of Spectrum femoratum;
on sexes of dragon-flies;
on the difference of the sexes in the Ichneumonidae;
on the sexes of Orsodacna atra;
on the variation of the horns of the male Phanaeas carnifex;
on the coloration of the species of Anthocharis.

Wapiti, battles of;
traces of horns in the female;
attacking a man;
crest of the male;
sexual difference in the colour of the.

Warbler, hedge-;
young of the.

Warblers, superb, nidification of.

Wariness, acquired by animals.

Warington, R., on the habits of the stickleback;
on the brilliant colours of the male stickleback during the breeding

Wart-hog, tusks and pads of the.

Watchmakers, short-sighted.


Waterhouse, C.O., on blind beetles;
on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles.

Waterhouse, G.R., on the voice of Hylobates agilis.

Water-ouzel, autumn song of the.

Waterton, C., on the Bell-bird;
on the pairing of a Canada goose with a Bernicle gander;
on hares fighting.

Wattles, disadvantageous to male birds in fighting.

Weale, J., Mansel, on a South African caterpillar.

Wealth, influence of.

Weapons, used by man;
employed by monkeys;
offensive, of males;
of mammals.


Weaver-birds, rattling of the wings of;
assemblies of.

Webb, Dr., on the wisdom teeth.

Wedderburn, Mr., assembly of black game.

Wedgwood, Hensleigh, on the origin of language.

Weevils, sexual difference in length of snout in some.

Weir, Harrison, on the numerical proportion of the sexes in pigs and
on the sexes of young pigeons;
on the songs of birds;
on pigeons;
on the dislike of blue pigeons to other coloured varieties;
on the desertion of their mates by female pigeons.

Weir, J. Jenner, on the nightingale and blackcap;
on the relative sexual maturity of male birds;
on female pigeons deserting a feeble mate;
on three starlings frequenting the same nest;
on the proportion of the sexes in Machetes pugnax and other birds;
on the coloration of the Triphaenae;
on the rejection of certain caterpillars by birds;
on sexual differences of the beak in the goldfinch;
on a piping bullfinch;
on the object of the nightingale's song;
on song-birds;
on the pugnacity of male fine-plumaged birds;
on the courtship of birds;
on the finding of new mates by Peregrine falcons and Kestrels;
on the bullfinch and starling;
on the cause of birds remaining unpaired;
on starlings and parrots living in triplets;
on recognition of colour by birds;
on hybrid birds;
on the selection of a greenfinch by a female canary;
on a case of rivalry of female bullfinches;
on the maturity of the golden pheasant.

Weisbach, Dr., measurement of men of different races;
on the greater variability of men than of women;
on the relative proportions of the body in the sexes of different races of

Weismann, Prof., colours of Lycaenae.

Welcker, M., on brachycephaly and dolichocephaly;
on sexual differences in the skull in man.

Wells, Dr., on the immunity of coloured races from certain poisons.

Westring, on the stridulation of males of Theridion;
on the stridulation of Reduvius personatus;
on the stridulation of beetles;
on the stridulation of Omaloplia brunnea;
on the stridulating organs of the Coleoptera;
on sounds produced by Cychrus.

Westropp, H.M., on reason in a bear;
on the prevalence of certain forms of ornamentation.

Westwood, J.O., on the classification of the Hymenoptera;
on the Culicidae and Tabanidae;
on a Hymenopterous parasite with a sedentary male;
on the proportions of the sexes in Lucanus cervus and Siagonium;
on the absence of ocelli in female Mutillidae;
on the jaws of Ammophila;
on the copulation of insects of distinct species;
on the male of Crabro cribrarius;
on the pugnacity of the male Tipulae;
on the stridulation of Pirates stridulus;
on the Cicadae;
on the stridulating organs of the cricket;
on Ephippiger vitium;
on Pneumora;
on the pugnacity of the Mantides;
on Platyblemnus;
on difference in the sexes of the Agrionidae;
on the pugnacity of the males of a species of Tenthredinae;
on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle;
on Bledius taurus and Siagonium;
on lamellicorn beetles;
on the coloration of Lithosia.

Whale, Sperm-, battles of male.

Whales, nakedness of.

Whately, Arch., language not peculiar to man;
on the primitive civilisation of man.

Whewell, Prof., on maternal affection.

Whiskers, in monkeys.

White, F.B., noise produced by Hylophila.

White, Gilbert, on the proportion of the sexes in the partridge;
on the house-cricket;
on the object of the song of birds;
on the finding of new mates by white owls;
on spring coveys of male partridges.

Whiteness, a sexual ornament in some birds;
of mammals inhabiting snowy countries.

White-throat, aerial love-dance of the male.

Whitney, Prof., on the development of language;
language not indispensable for thought.

Widgeon, pairing with a pintail duck.

Widow-bird, polygamous;
breeding plumage of the male;
female, rejecting the unadorned male.

Widows and widowers, mortality of.

Wilckens, Dr., on the modification of domestic animals in mountainous
on a numerical relation between the hairs and excretory pores in sheep.

Wilder, Dr. Burt, on the greater frequency of supernumerary digits in men
than in women.

Williams, on the marriage-customs of the Fijians.

Wilson, Dr., on the conical heads of the natives of North-Western Africa;
on the Fijians;
on the persistence of the fashion of compressing the skull.


Wings, differences of, in the two sexes of butterflies and Hymenoptera;
play of, in the courtship of birds.

Winter, change of colour of mammals in.


Wives, traces of the forcible capture of.

Wolf, winter change of the.

Wolff, on the variability of the viscera in man.

Wollaston, T.V., on Eurygnathus;
on musical Curculionidae;
on the stridulation of Acalles.

Wolves, learning to bark from dogs;
hunting in packs.

Wolves, black.

Wombat, black varieties of the.

Women, distinguished from men by male monkeys;
preponderance of, in numbers;
selection of, for beauty;
effects of selection of, in accordance with different standards of beauty;
practice of capturing;
early betrothals and slavery of;
freedom of selection by, in savage tribes.

Wonder, manifestations of, by animals.

Wonfor, Mr., on sexual peculiarities, in the wings of butterflies.

Wood, J., on muscular variations in man;
on the greater variability of the muscles in men than in women.

Wood, T.W., on the colouring of the orange-tip butterfly;
on the habits of the Saturniidae;
quarrels of chamaeleons;
on the habits of Menura Alberti;
on Tetrao cupido;
on the display of plumage by male pheasants;
on the ocellated spots of the Argus pheasant;
on fighting of Menura superba;
on the habits of the female cassowary.

Woodcock, coloration of the.

Woodpecker, selection of a mate by the female.

Woodpeckers, tapping of;
colours and nidification of the;
characters of young.

Woolner, Mr., observations on the ear in man.

Wormald, Mr., on the coloration of Hypopyra.

Wounds, healing of.

Wren, young of the.

Wright, C.A., on the young of Orocetes and Petrocincla.

Wright, Chauncey, great brain-power requisite for language;
on correlative acquisition;
on the enlargement of the brain in man.

Wright, Mr., on the Scotch deer-hound;
on sexual preference in dogs;
on the rejection of a horse by a mare.

Wright, W. von, on the protective plumage of the Ptarmigan.


Wyman, Prof., on the prolongation of the coccyx in the human embryo;
on the condition of the great toe in the human embryo;
on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man;
on variation in the skulls of the natives of the Sandwich Islands;
on the hatching of the eggs in the mouths and branchial cavities of male

Xenarchus, on the Cicadae.

Xenophon, selection in mankind advocated by.

Xenorhynchus, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes in.

Xiphophorus Hellerii, peculiar anal fin of the male.

Xylocopa, difference of the sexes in.

Yarrel, W., on the habits of the Cyprinidae;
on Raia clavata;
on the characters of the male salmon during the breeding season;
on the characters of the rays;
on the gemmeous dragonet;
on colours of salmon;
on the spawning of the salmon;
on the incubation of the Lophobranchii;
on rivalry in song-birds;
on the trachea of the swan;
on the moulting of the Anatidae;
on the young of the waders.

Yellow fever, immunity of negroes and mulattoes from.

Youatt, Mr., on the development of the horns in cattle.

Yura-caras, their notions of beauty.

Zebra, rejection of an ass by a female;
stripes of the.

Zebus, humps of.

Zigzags, prevalence of, as ornaments.

Zincke, Mr., on European emigration to America.

Zootoca vivipara, sexual difference in the colour of.

Zouteveen, Dr., polydactylism;
proportion of sexes at Cape of Good Hope;
spiders attracted by music;
on sounds produced by fish.

Zygaenidae, coloration of the.


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